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SCIENCE FORM 1 - CHAPTER

1
- INTRODUCTION TO
SCIENCE
BY KELVIN

CONTENTS
TITLE

DATE

PG

1.1 WHAT IS SCIENCE

10/1/2016

1.2 A SCIENCE LABORATY

12/1/2016 11

1.3 THE STEPS IN A


SCIENTIFIC

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1.1 WHAT IS SCIENCE


Science is the systematic study of nature
and how it affects us and our environment.
Natural phenomena that happen nature in
our environment can be explained through
Science.
1. lightning, rainbow, melting of ice, growth
of a baby into an adult and the fall of ball to
the ground are a few examples of natural
phenomena.
2. We want to know why and how all these
things happen. We search for answers. The
study of science gives us the answers.
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IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE
Science plays important roles in our daily
life. Here are some examples:
Science helps us to understand ourselves.
Knowing how our body works, we can
better take care of our health and safety.
Science also helps to understand our
environment. This helps us to improve the
quality of our environment and conserve it
for our future generation

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CAREERS IN SCIENCE
Science offers various career opportunities
according to ones area interest. Listed
below are few examples:
1. Doctor
2. Engineer
3. Veterinarian
4. Pharmacist
5. Architect
6. Chemist
7. Computer programmer
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AREAS OF SCIENCE
Science is divided into a number of areas of
study, namely
1. Biology - the study of living things.
2. Physics - the study of matter, energy, force and
motion.
3. Chemistry - the study of the composition and
chemical properties of substances.
4. Astronomy - the study of planet and stars in the
Earth.
5. Geology - the study of rocks, minerals and the
structure of the universe.
6. Meteorology - the study of weather and climate.
7. Biochemistry - the study of chemical process inPG
living organisms.
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Note of (1.1 WHAT IS SCIENCE )


Definition

Science is the systematic


study of nature and how it
affects us and the
environment.
Science covers broad
field of knowledge that
deals with
observed facts and the
relationship among those
facts.

Importance of
Science

Improve our standard of


living.
Improve quality of
environment.
Understand the world
around us.
Prevention and
treatment of diseases.
Increase food supply

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Areas of science

a) Biology Study of living


things.
b) Physics Study of matter,
energy, force and motion and
the way they relate to each
other.
c) Chemistry Study of
composition, properties,
reactions and uses of
substances.
d) Geology Study of rocks and
minerals.
e) Astronomy Study of universe.
f) Meteorology Study of
weather.

Career in science

a) Doctors
b) Engineers
c) Pharmacists
d) Teachers
e) Chemists
f) Architects
g) Physicists

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Exercise of (1.1 WHAT IS SCIENCE )

1. What is science ?
___________________________________________________
2. Name three natural phenomena that bring about bad
effects to living things.
(a) __________________________________________________
(b) __________________________________________________
(c) __________________________________________________
3. List three benefits of science to our lives
(a) __________________________________________________
(b) __________________________________________________
(c) __________________________________________________

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4. State three main branches of study in science.


(a) __________________________________________________
(b) __________________________________________________
(c) __________________________________________________
5. Give five examples of career that related to science.
(a) __________________________________________________
(b) __________________________________________________
(c) __________________________________________________
(d) __________________________________________________
(e) __________________________________________________

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1.2 A SCIENCE LABORATY


Laboratory Safety Rules
Do not enter the laboratory without teachers
permission.
Do not take anything out of the laboratory.
Read all the instruction before start any work
Read the label on a reagent bottle before using
its content
Do not taste or smell any chemical
Do not eat or drink in the laboratory
Do not run and play at the laboratory
Do not throw solid waste into the sink.
Do not pour any unused chemical into its bottle.
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Clean apparatus that you have used.
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Everylaboratory apparatushas its precise use and the people should have the
knowledge about the proper use oflaboratory apparatusor
laboratory glassware.
The most commonlaboratory apparatus and their usesare listed below:
Beaker= A container used for measuring the liquid.
Barrette= Used for measuring the volume of the solution.
Wire gauze= used for spreading the heat of a burner(flame).
Test tube brush= It is used to clean the test tube.
Dropper= It is used for adding the solution drop by drop.
Magnifying glass= It is used for viewing the minute objects.
Filter paper= It is used for separating the liquid and the precipitate.
Stirring rod= It is used for mixing the liquids or distribution of heat in a liquid
by stirring.
Spring balance= used for measuring the mass of the materials.

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Forceps= It is used for holding or picking up small objects.


Watch glass= It is used for holding small samples of the substances on which the
experiment is performed.
Wash bottle= It is used for dispensing small quantities of distilled water.
Test-tube holders= It is used for holding the test tubes.
Test tubes= it is used for holding small samples or performing small-scale reactions
Pipette- It is used for transferring one substance into another by measuring.
Centrifuge- It is used for separating the materials of varying densities from a colloid.
Thermometer- It is used for measuring the temperature.
PH Scale- It is used for measuring the acidity or basicity of the solution.
Crucible- it is used for heating a small amount of a solid substance at a very high
temperature.
Tripod= It is a three-legged stand that supports the wire gauze while heating.
Microscope= It is used for viewing the ultra minute objects by the process of magnification.
Multimeter= It is used for measuring the current, voltage and resistance.

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Using a Bunsen burner


Bunsen burner are used on the
containers of hazardous chemical
substances to show their
characteristics.

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Hazard
Warning
Symbols

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Common
Laboratory
Apparatus

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Exercise

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1.3 The Step in Scientific


Investigation
a) Identifying the problem
b) Forming a hypothesis
c) Planning the experiment
d) Controlling the variable
e) Collecting data
f) Analyzing and interpreting data
g) Drawing a conclusion
h) Writing a report
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Step in Scientific Investigation


1. A scientific investigation is a series
of steps done systematically to study
a problem or an event.
2. Each step involves the use of one or
more science process skills.
3. The following shows the sequence of
steps involved in a scientific
investigation.
4. Figure below shows some common
laboratory apparatus and their uses.
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Note of (1.3
The Step in
Scientific
Investigation)

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SCIENTIFIC
METHOD

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Step of
Scientific
Method

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Exercise of 1.3 The Step in Scientific


Investigation

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a) __________ the problem


b) Forming a hypothesis
c) _______________________
d) Controlling the __________
e) _______________ data
f) ________________________
g) Drawing a conclusion
h) Writing a _________

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