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VALUES EDUCATION

SELF DEVELOPMENT
THE PERCEIVED SELF

Is composed of a set of self-cognitions regarding ones traits,


competencies and values. It is reinforced through feedback. The type
of feedback, which an individual receives, determines the standard to
measure the ideal self.
THE IDEAL SELF

Represents the set of traits, competencies and values an individual


would like to possess. Internalized competencies and values have
been suggested as the basis of the ideal self and as an internal
standard for behavior. (Bandura, 1986)

SELF DEVELOPMENT

SOCIAL IDENTITIES

Are those aspects of the individuals self-concept that are derived from the
social categories to which he or she perceives him/herself as belonging to.
Social identities link individuals to reference groups, which establish a set of
role expectations and norms that guide the individuals behavior within each
of the social identities. For example: the identity of a Principal may be
associated with leadership and order (traits), analytical ability and
competence (competencies), service and commitment (values). These
aspired traits, competencies and values associated, serve as the basis for the
ideal self once established the attributes then reinforced the identity.
SELF-ESTEEM

Is the evaluative component of the self-concept (Rosenberg 1998). It is


the function of the distance between the ideal self perceived self. When
the perceived self matches the ideal self, self-esteem is relatively high.
Low self-esteem occurs when the perceived self is significantly lower
than the ideal self.

SELF DEVELOPMENT

So how does one achieve Self-Esteem?

You must be competent to live: which means, be rational. You must


deserve to live: which means, be virtuous. Which denies from
rationality? Thus, the key to self-esteem is a life of unbreached
rationality. Then you can trust your mind, because your use of
reason is uncompromised. Then you are virtuous, because all of
the virtues are expressions of rationality.
BECOMING MORE SELF-AWARE:
1. Understanding ones attitude and emotions.
2. Explaining and disclosing your feelings
3. Request for feedback from others.

SELF DEVELOPMENT

a. Values

Values are the beliefs, which we hold to be true - those noble


ideals we struggle to attain and implement in our daily lives.
Derived from the natural and moral laws and not from an
individuals opinions and feelings
They are based on objective, eternal and universal
truths (e.g., freedom, justice, peace, love family solidarity)
Also rooted in a personal view of what works and does not
work; they may be accepted practices and ways of acting of
a given people during a given period of time.
Are an integral part of human existence; as such they relate
to every aspect of life?
Values can be viewed as priorities that relate to a persons
behavior. Specifically, they are the priorities one is motivated
to act upon.

b. Values Education

1. Academic formation human intellect (to know the truth)


2. Personal formation - human will (to act, to choose good)
3. As part of the school curriculum is the process values are
formed in the learner under the guidance of the teacher.
4. As a subject values education has direct and immediate
relevance to the personal life of the learner
5. It is holistic because it involves all faculties of the learner.

c. DECS (DEPED) Values Education Program (1988)

This program was motivated by the 1986 EDSA Revolution. It was


also inspired by the 1987 Constitution that envisions a just and
humane society for the Filipinos. This vision calls for a shared culture
and commonly held values such as truth, justice, love, equality and
peace.

d. Philosophy of Values Education Program:

Values Education is based on a rational understanding of the


human person, specifically on understanding of the Filipino as a
human being in society and his/her role in the shaping of society
and the environment. The task of education is to help the Filipino
know themselves better, develop his/her potential, contribute to
the growth of the Philippine culture, and must be able to bind
together human and non-human resources for the attainment of a
just and humane society.

Forces that Shape Contemporary Values

A. Foundation of the Filipinos Oriental Nature


(Pre-colonial Filipino Values)

Aeta, Indonesian, Malayan, Hindu, Arabian, Chinese Interpersonal and


social relationships revolve around blood ties, marriage and ritual
kinship.

SELF DEVELOPMENT

a. Spanish influence

Spanish influence is manifested in our religious, political,


economic, educational life, language, dress and diet. Most of
the population was converted to Hispanic Catholicism, and the
visible aspects of culture (e.g., personal names, vocabulary,
urban architecture, fine arts, dress, cuisine, and customs) were
profoundly influenced or modified. (Harper and Fullerton,
1994)
Centuries of Spanish rule also imposed a severe colonial
mentality and left Filipinos with a legacy of attitudes that are
firmly embedded in society such as, equating light skin with
beauty and high status, the identification of anything foreign
with superiority and indigenous with inferiority, and a
conception of officialdom as a system serving its own ends, not
those of the people (Gochenour, 1990, p. 6)

SELF DEVELOPMENT
b. Americanization of Filipinos

American influences manifested in our political and social outlook. With


the introduction of a democratic system of government we became aware of
our rights and privileges. The popularization of education gave us the
opportunity for social mobility. Americans in the presumed spirit of white
paternalism and benevolence saw themselves as best owners of education,
religion, public health, development , and democracy to their little brown
brothers (Gochenour, 1990). In fact, the American educational system was
adopted, and English (which children were required to speak in school) was
made the official language (Kang, 1996).

c. Japanese Occupation

Japanese influences manifested our love of work. Dignity of labor and


working hard were one of the values that Filipinos were widely known. This
is evident because many Filipinos nowadays are working abroad. Almost
everywhere Filipinos are at hand working hard to earn more to support their
family. Many countries choose Filipinos to work in their country because
they know of Filipinos perseverance and hard work.

Family Values

The typical Filipino individual exist first and foremost as a


member of a family and looks to the family as the only reliable
protection against the uncertainties of life. (Gochenour, 1990, p. 18)

Reliance on the family for love, support, and refuge has


historically been as much an economic necessity as it is a cultural
tradition. The family is the source of ones personal identity and of
emotional and material support. It also is the focus of ones primary
duty and commitment. Dependence on, loyalty to, and solidarity
with the family and kin group are of the highest priority (Okamura
and Agbayani, 1991). Family loyalty also might dictate that a young
parent temporarily leave his or her family and children in order to
pursue better educational, training, or employment opportunities in
other countries (Santos, 1983). This sense of family obligation
begins early on when children are conditioned to be grateful to
their parents for their birth. A lifelong debt of gratitude or utang na
loob (debt from within) thereby creates binding relationships of
love, respect, and obedience (PAPEP), 1982).

Alternative Concepts and Other Values

Critics of the 1960s values studies maintain that concepts such as


pakikisama, hiya, Amor propio, and utang na loob have been
inappropriately generalized from vernacular terms associated with
specific behaviors and situations into all pervading, organizing values
and trait complexes (Lawless, 1969). They have been perceived as a
central core of fundamental culture traits that create and define an
almost stereotypic Filipino character and have further been accepted as
valid by scholars, foreigners, and Filipino in general (Okamura and
Agbayani, 1991).
Studies of Filipino values have focused on significantly less abstract
concepts. A Philippine Senate commissioned task force in 1988
conducted one of the most comprehensive of the Filipino character:
pakikipagkapwa-tao (having a regard for the dignity and being
of others), family orientation, joy and humor, flexibility,
adaptability and creativity, hard work and industry, faith and
religiosity and ability to survive (Licuanan, 1988).

Each of these characteristic strengthens the Filipinos ability to


survive and endure despite difficult times and often little
resources. Moreover, these characteristic cluster around
distinctly religious beliefs and a deep faith in God. This
faith is evident in Filipinos ability to accept reality
(including failure and defeat) in terms of Gods will and
to adopt a philosophical/religious attitude that cushions
them from disappointments. Filipino faith is related to the
concept of bahala na (its up to God or Leave it to God),
which has tended to be incorrectly equated with an expression of
fatalism and a passive acceptance or resignation to fate. Bahala
na can instead be viewed more positively as determination in
the face of uncertainty or stressful, problematic conditions.
Although it is an indication of an acceptance of the nature of
things, including ones own inherent limitations, bahala na
operates psychologically to elevate ones courage and conviction
to persist in the face of adversity and to improve ones situation
(Enriquez, 1987; Okamura and Agbayani, 1991).

Apart from the more fundamental Filipino personality


characteristics and values are those related to physical
appearance. Spanish and American colonial rule
reinforced the Filipino tendency to equate light
complexion with high social status. White meant
everything associated with the ruling classes: worth,
beauty, desirability, and power. The lighter skinned
Filipino usually has either Chinese or Spanish blood in
the family line, but having Spanish ancestors is likely to
be appoint of pride (Gochenour, 1990).
Status is further integrally linked to education. Filipinos
view education as a passport to good jobs, economic
security, social acceptance, and as a way out of cycle of
poverty and lower class status, not only for their
children, but also for the whole family (Santos, 1983,
p.146). Education, then, is not an individual but a family
concern and considered to be an economic investment
toward which family members must contribute
significant effort and often personal sacrifice. Once

VALUES EDUCATION

This practice reflects the value of utang na loob in


which the debt of gratitude incurred to the whole
family ensures the graduates contribution to the
family welfare, which takes precedence over
individual economic and social mobility (Santos,
1983). Thus, degree, diplomas, certificates, good
grades, and academic honor are much sought after
symbols.
Such
achievements
are
typically
recognized with great pride and significant
attention by extended family, friends, and the
larger community. Moreover, if one is well
educated, Filipinos expect that person to talk, act,

D. Theories of Values Formation

1. Psycho-Analytic Theory (Sigmund Freud) suggest that


unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior. To
Freud, the unconscious is that part of the personality about which
a person is unaware. It contains infantile wishes, desires, demands
and needs that are hidden, because of their disturbing nature,
from conscious awareness. Freud suggested that the unconscious
is responsible for a good part of our everyday behavior.

2. Behaviorist View (John B. Watson) The behavioral perspective


suggest that the keys to understanding developing are observable
behavior and outside stimuli in the environment. If we know the
stimuli, we can predict the behavior. Behavioral theories reject the
notion that individuals universally pass through a series of stages.
Instead, people are assumed to be affected by the environmental
stimuli to which they happen to be exposed. Developmental
patterns, then, are personal, reflecting a particular set of
environmental stimuli, and development is the result of continuing
exposure to specific factors in the environment.

3. Social-cognitive learning theorist Albert Bandura, when we


see the behavior of a model being rewarded, we are likely to imitate
that behavior. Behavior is learned through observation and imitation,
not conditioning through reinforcement or punishment.

4. Cognitive Theory. The cognitive perspective focuses on the


processes that allow people to know, understand and think about the
world. The cognitive perspective emphasizes how people internally
represent and think about the world. There are two major theories:

No single person has had a greater impact on the study of cognitive


development that Jean Piaget. He proposed that all people pass is a
fixed sequence through a series of universal stages of cognitive
development. In each stage, he suggested that not only did the
quantity of information increase, but so did the quality of knowledge
and understanding. Piaget suggests that the growth in childrens
understanding of the world can be explained by two basic principles.
Assimilation is the process in which people understand an experience
in terms of their current state of cognitive development and way of
thinking. In contrast, accommodation refers to changes in existing
ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.

5. Socio-cultural
theory
(Russian
psychologist
Lev
Vygotsky) proposes that a full understanding of
development is impossible without taking into account the
culture in which children develop. Socio-cultural theory
proposes that childrens understanding of the world is
acquired through their problem-solving interactions with
adults and other children. As children play and cooperate
with others, they learn what is important in their society,
and at the same time, advance cognitively in their
understanding of the world.

6. Ecological Theory. The Ecological model, the major


proponent of which is Urie Bronfenbrenner, seeks to explain
individual knowledge, development, and competencies in
terms of the guidance, support, and structure provided by
society and to explain social change over time in terms of
the cumulative effect of individual choices (Berger, 2000).

According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, each person is significantly


affected by interactions among a number of overlapping
ecosystems. At the center of the model is the individual.
Microsystems are the systems that intimately and immediately
shape human development.
The primary microsystems for children include the family, peer
group, classroom, neighborhood, and sometimes a church, temple,
or mosque as well.
Interactions among the microsystems, as when parents and teachers
coordinate their efforts to educate the child, take place through the
mesosystem.
Surrounding the microsystems is the exosystem, which includes all
the external networks, such as community structures and local
educational, medical, employment, and communications systems
that influence the microsystems. And influencing all other systems is
the macrosystem, which includes cultural values, political
philosophies, economic patterns, and social conditions. Together,
these systems are termed the social context of human development.

7. Humanism Theory. The humanistic perspective contends


that people have a natural tendency to make decisions about
their lives and control behavior. The humanistic perspective
emphasizes free will, the ability of humans to make choices
and come to decisions about their lives.

Carl Rogers suggested that all people have a need for


positive regard that results from an underlying wish to be
loved and respected. Because it is other people who provide
this positive regard, we become dependent on them.
Consequently, our view of our self-worth and ourselves is a
reflection of how we think others view us.

8. Evolutionary Theory. The Evolutionary Theory stresses that


behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution,
and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods (Santrock,
1999).
Evolutionary
approaches
grow
out
of
the
groundbreaking work of Charles Darwin. The evolutionary
perspective is also referred to as Ethological or Biological.

Konrad Lorenz discovered that newborn geese are genetically


preprogrammed to become attached to the first moving object they
see after birth. His work, which demonstrated the importance of
biological determinants in influencing behavior patterns, ultimately
led mentalists to consider the ways in which human behavior might
reflect inborn genetic patterns.

The evolutionary perspective encompasses one of the fastest


growing areas within the field of lifespan development, behavioral
genetics. Behavioral genetics studies the effects of heredity and
genetics on behavior. As technology improves, and researchers
continue to map the human genome, there is an increasing
understanding of the role and function of the genetic codes and their
influence on development.

9. Moral Development (Lawrence Kohlberg)

There exist structural bases that determine the process of


perceiving value. This series of progression depends on the persons
interaction with the environment. Moral reasoning is related to moral
behavior.

III. Ethics and Moral Education

a. Ethics comes from the Greek word ethos, meaning character or custom.
According to Robert C. Solomon, the etymology of ethics suggest its basic
concern: (1) individual character, what is meant by good person, and (2) the
social rules that govern and limit our conduct, especially the ultimate rules
concerning right and wrong, which we call morality.

b. Morality

The term morality can be used either:

1. Descriptively to refer to a code of conduct put forward by a society and


that it is used as a guide to behavior by the members of that society ,

a. some other group, such as religion, or


b. accepted by an individual for her/his own behavior
2. Normatively to refer to a code of conduct that, given specified
conditions, would be put forward by alL rational persons for governing
the behavior of all moral agents.

Morality as a public system.


Public system refers to guide to conduct such that
(1) all persons to whom it applies all those whose
behavior is to be guided and judged by that
system, know what behavior the system prohibits,
requires, discourages, encourages, and allows; and
(2) it is not irrational for any of these persons to
accept being guided and judged by that system.
- refers to a code of conduct put forward by a
society or some other group, such as religion, or
accepted by an individual for his/her own behavior.
- also refers to a code of conduct that, given
specified conditions would be put forward by all
rational persons.
- refers to a doctrine or system of conduct relative
to principles of right and wrong. It encompasses

c. Nature of morality

1. Moral talk is normative meant to guide action


it is often manifested by words like should, ought, permitted, right and
wrong
when the action is prescribe and proscribe, exhort and discourage,
judge, praise and condemn actions.

2. Moral talk is evaluative it refers to moral value of things,


what matters morally and why. It is manifested by words like good,
valuable, important, fundamental, precious, sacred and meaningful.

Morality as it relates to our behavior is important on


three levels: (CS. Lewis)

1. To ensure fair play and harmony between individuals


2. To help make us good people in order to have a good society
3. To keep us in good relationship with the power that created
us.

Morality and our Conscience

Morality affects our daily choices, and those


decisions are guided by our conscience.
Many people believe that our conscience is matter
of the heart, and the basic concepts of right; wrong
and fairness are inherent in all of us.

The purpose of morality is to provide a frame work


of optimum human survival. The standard of
morality, however, is absolute and immutable
long-term optimum human survival.

Level of Morality

True Freedom
The way forward involves liberation from both false freedom and
moralism. Moral action is possible only for a being that is free.
Freedom let the will to choose gives space for creativity, and
implies release from determining factor. Nevertheless true freedom
implies not only the power of self-chosen action but also the proper
orientation power. The power to do whatever he/she wants to do is
not a true freedom because true freedom is oriented to goodness.
Freedom includes the power to choose evil, but freedom is fulfilled
and enhanced and sustained only by choosing the good abusing
liberty leads to losing it.
Moral Intuition

The more carefully you think through your great decision, the more
spontaneous you will be in the host of situations covered by those
decisions. Though few have an appetite for studying and
discussing difficult moral cases, the intellectual dimension to
morality is nonetheless essential. When actions are not governed
by our best thinking we are usually in the current of emotions
whose guidance is less reliable.

Human Acts are actions performed by an agent with conscious


knowledge and are subject to the control of the will.

Acts of Man are actions that are instinctive and involuntary


and are not within the control of the will.

Classification of Human Acts

Moral actions are those actions that are in conformity with the
norm of morality. They are good actions and are permissible.
Immoral Actions are those actions that are not in conformity
with the norm of morality. They are bad or evil actions and are
not permissible.
Amoral Actions are actions, which stand neutral in relation to
the norms of morality. They are either good or bad in
themselves. But certain amoral actions may become good or
bad because of the circumstances intended to them.
Normal of Morality are the standards that indicate the
rightfulness or wrongfulness, the goodness or evilness, the
value or disvalue of a thing (R. Agapay, 1991)

Kinds of Law

Natural Law is a moral obligation that arises from human nature,


compelling an individual to be true to his nature as tao (R. Agapay,
1991)
Eternal Law reveals the will of God. It contains the divine blueprints
which bring order into the universe because they direct all of creation
and creatures to their respective end-goals (St. Augustine)
Moral Law contains universal truths and ethical principles that ought
to guide the individual conduct of man in matters of right and wrong (E.
Esteban).

The determinants of morality in any given action

1. The morality of any given action is determined by three elements,

a. The end in view


b. The means taken
c. The Circumstances

Whoever knows this principle, does not thereby know the right and
wrong of every action, but he/she knows how to go about the enquiry. It
is a rule of diagnosis.

The end of view may be either single, as when you forgive


an injury solely for the love of Christ; or multiple coordinate, as when you forgive both for the love of Christ
and for the mediation of a friend, and are disposed to
forgive on either ground separately; or multiple
subordinate, as when you would not have forgiven on the
latter ground alone, but forgive the more easily for its
addition, having been ready, however, to forgive on the
former alone: or cumulative, as when you forgive on a
number of grounds collectively, on no one of which would
you have forgiven apart from the rest.

Where there are no outward action, but only an internal


act, and the object of that act is some good that is willed
for its own sake, there can be no question of means taken,
as the end in view is immediately attained.

HUMAN RIGHTS
Traditionally, human rights are defined as titles or claims to certain material and spiritual
goods, or to have access to such goods in order or human person to live a dignified life.
Kinds of Rights

A. Personal Rights
1. Right to life- primary condition of all human rights or the obvious reason
that only person who are alive that they can exercise their rights and thereby
accomplish their mission in life.
2. Right to Ones Person- right over our own bodies and bodily faculties and
energies. St. Paul emphasized that our body is the temple of the Holy Spirit.
3. Right to Ones Personality- persons have the right to develop their own
individual character.

B. Religious and Moral Rights


1. Right to Education- it is our right to
avail of all possible means and
opportunities to help us develop
physically, intellectually, spiritually
and socially.
2. Right to Conscience- when it come
to moral decisions, all human
persons have the right to act in
accordance to their moral
conscience.

3. Right to Religion- in so far as


person are bound to seek the truth
and accordingly worship the Creator,
they have the natural right to relate to
God and to freely express and develop
this relationship within the teachings
and practices of their chosen religion.
SOCIAL RIGHTS
1. Right to Honor/Respect- it refers
to the credibility and esteem persons
enjoy in the society.

2. Right to Free expression- refers to


right to speak and right of assembly.
3.Right to organize- we have the right to
organize like organizations, that makes
up an essential ingredient of a free
society.

VALUES EDUCATION

CHRISTIAN ETHICS
Ethics has something to do with the
nourishment of right doings and the
rejection of wrong doings.
instinct
instinct

emotion
s

morality

emotions

Christian Ethics
Man is motivated to survive and to be
good always because of mortality and
the promise of everlasting happiness
after death.
It is a Humanistic Ethics in the sense
that it requires a unique ethical
obligations or unique ethical source.
Obligation in the sense that we need
and we must do good always for us to
reach heaven.

Christian Ethics
Ethical courses in the sense that Scripture and
church teaching make things right or
wrong(legalism)
It has two- fold sense:
a. Christian meaning -we are gifted with a profound
Christian vision of the meaning of the world,
deeper understanding of the human persons
dignity as Gods image, and a clearer sense of
their final destiny.
b. Christian motivation -it focuses on behaviour
motivated by natural law, usually the law of Christ.
(suffered , died, arose out of love to mankind)

Filipino Ethics
Filipinos have moral
obligations motivated by a
must principle". if I do that
what are the consequences.
If I dont, again what are the
possible consequences.

Moral obligation

Value protected

Consequences

To respect my parents The value of honour


and being caring.

I do afraid of the
golden rule.

To be honest in the
examination

The value of fairness


and justice.

Hurt ones self worth


and violates the
community's justice
system.

To go to mass on
Sunday

The intrinsic nature of Diminishes ones


man as related to God basic relationship
and others.
with God and others.

To avoid going to sex


parlors

Value of chastity of
being true to ones
sexual integrity as a
person.

Abuse of the God


given gift of sexuality.

To protect the secrets


of a friend

The value of
confidentiality

Destroys the
reputation of another
and violates the core
of friendship.

Filipino Ethics
1. We share on Universal Ethics and

Morality but with a distinct Filipino


flavor.
Idea of moderation such as in Greek;
meden agan, and in Roman in
medio stat virtus with Filipino
equivalent ; Hindi labis, hindi kulang,
katamtaman lamang.
The golden rule of Confucious is
categorically imperative with Emilio
Jacintos, Ang di mo ibig na gawin sa
asawa mo, anak at kapatid, ay huwag
mong gagawin sa asawa, anak at
kapatid ng iba.

Filipino Ethics
Another, is the eastern concept of
Harmony in Opposites
e.g. Ang buhay ng taoy gulong
ang kahambing:sa ibabaw
ngayon, bukas sa ilalim or
malapit mat di lakarin,ay hindi
mo mararating
2. When we speak of Filipino
values it does not mean it
cannot be found to other cultures
and people. It is with a rank or
priority depending on the culture.

Filipino Ethics
a) China and Japan- great value in
propriety and beauty
b) America in promptness and
efficiency
c) Filipinos- pakikisama and pagkatao
3. Due to different contexts, filipino
values like Family centeredness,
authoritarianism, smooth
interpersonal relations, hiya, kinship
system, utang na loob, awa,

Filipino Ethics
With five principles on:
i. Pagsasarili
ii. Pagkakaisa
iii. Pakikisama
iv. Pakikipagkapwa-tao
v. Pagkabayani
4. Historical consciousness- on which
moral values has evolved among
our people
e.g. moral value of justice is universal
and fundamental.

Personhood and the Conception


Event

1
The Person
-whole individual being that has
the natural potential to know,
love , desire, and relate to self
and others in a reflective way.

Personhood and the Conception Event

A person is a natural being and not a


functional being. Natural in the sense
that he has the functional ability to
know and love in a trans-sensible or
immaterial way. So abortion is the
destruction of an important and
valuable form of human life.

Personhood and the Conception


Event

Person is not an individual


With a developed capacity for
reasoning, willing, desiring and
relating to others. But he/she is an
individual with a natural capacity
for these activities and
relationships.

Personhood and the Conception


Event

2. Conception
Is the moment when the so called
fertilization process is complete.
The sperm and ovum are not
potential life. They are the
potential causes of individual
human life.

BEHAVIOURS OF MAN

Human behavior -is the


population of behaviors
exhibited by humans and
influenced by culture,
attitudes, emotions, values,
ethics, authority, rapport,
hypnosis, persuasion,
coercion and/or genetics.

BEHAVIOURS OF MAN

BEHAVIOURS OF MAN
The behavior of people (and other organisms or
even mechanisms) falls within a range with some
behavior being common, some unusual, some
acceptable, and some outside acceptable limits. In
sociology, behavior is considered as having social
behavior, which is more advanced action, as social
behavior is behavior specifically directed at other
people. The acceptability of behavior is evaluated
relative to social norms and regulated by various
means of social control.
The behavior of people is studied by the academic
disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, social work,
sociology, economics, and anthropology.

BEHAVIOURS OF MAN

Factors affecting human behavior


Genetics study of the function and behavior of
genes.
Attitude the degree to which the person has a
favorable or unfavorable evaluation of the
behavior in question.
Social norms the influence of social pressure
that is perceived by the individual (normative
beliefs) to perform or not perform a certain
behavior.
Perceived behavioral control the individuals
belief concerning how easy or difficult performing
the behavior will be.

Masculine psychology
Masculine psychology is a term sometimes
used to describe and categorize issues
concerning the gender related psychology
of male human identity, as well as the
issues that men confront during their lives.
One stream emphasises gender differences
and has a scientific and empirical approach,
while the other, more therapeutic in
orientation, is more closely aligned to the
psychoanalytic tradition. It also relates to
concepts such as masculinity and
machismo.

Born of the female body


Jungian analysts Guy Corneau and Eugene Monickargue that the establishment and maintenance of
the male identity is more delicate and fraught with
complication than that of the establishment and
maintenance of the female identity. Such
psychologists suggest that this may be because
men are born of the female body, and thus are
born from a body that is a different gender from
themselves. Women, on the other hand, are born
from a body that is the same gender as their own.
A woman simply is, but a man must become.
Masculinity is risky and elusive. It is achieved by a
revolt from woman, and it is confirmed only by
other men.

Camille Paglia

has commented that she believes that


women are born, but men must
"become."
In
other
words,
masculinity is not something that is
granted by birth but is something
that must be earned in adult life.

Role of the father


Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung argued that a father is very
important to a boy's development of identity. In his book
Absent Fathers, Lost Sons [2] Canadian Jungian analyst Guy
Corneau writes that the presence of the father's body during
the son's developmental phases is integral in the son
developing a positive sense of self as masculine. Corneau also
argues that if the son does not develop positively towards the
father's male body, then the son runs the risk of developing
negatively towards all bodies. Jacques Lacan argued that in the
son's mind, the father's body represents the law, and that the
role of the father's body is to break the attachment the son
feels to the mother and by extension his own.
Freudian analysts claim that all sons feel they are in
competition with their father and often feel in a battle against
the father. (Sigmund Freud referred to this as Oedipus
Complex.) Freudian psychologists claim that the risk the son
runs is that in some cases it is more difficult to win the battle
against the father than to loose the battle against the father.
This is because a common result of winning the battle against
the father is that the son suffers tremendous guilt.

ETHICS IN
ADVERTISING

Our reason for addressing these matters is simple. In


todays society, advertising has a profound impact
on how people understand life, the world and
themselves, especially in regard to their values and
their ways of choosing and behaving. These are
matters about which the Church is and must be
deeply and sincerely concerned.
2. The field of advertising is extremely broad and
diverse. In general terms, of course, an
advertisement is simply a public notice meant to
convey information and invite patronage or some
other response. As that suggests, advertising has
two basic purposes: to inform and to persuade,
and -- while these purposes are distinguishable -both very often are simultaneously present.

ETHICS IN
ADVERTISING

Advertising can be very simple -- a local,


even neighborhood, phenomenon -- or
it can be very complex, involving
sophisticated research and multimedia
campaigns that span the globe. It differs
according to its intended audience, so
that, for example, advertising aimed at
children raises some technical and
moral issues significantly different from
those raised by advertising aimed at
competent adults.

ETHICS IN
ADVERTISING

We disagree with the assertion that advertising simply mirrors


the attitudes and values of the surrounding culture. No doubt
advertising, like the media of social communications in
general, does act as a mirror. But, also like media in general, it
is a mirror that helps shape the reality it reflects, and
sometimes it presents a distorted image of reality.
Advertisers are selective about the values and attitudes to be
fostered and encouraged, promoting some while ignoring
others. This selectivity gives the lie to the notion that
advertising does no more than reflect the surrounding culture.
For example, the absence from advertising of certain racial
and ethnic groups in some multi-racial or multi-ethnic societies
can help to create problems of image and identity, especially
among those neglected, and the almost inevitable impression
in commercial advertising that an abundance of possessions
leads to happiness and fulfilment can be both misleading and
frustrating.