Você está na página 1de 30

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 1 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

CHAPTER 19
WORKOVER PLANNING
TABLE OF CONTENTS

19.1

INTRODUCTION . 3
19.1.1
19.1.2

19.2

3
3

WELL PROBLEMS REQUIRING WORKOVERS .. 4


19.2.1
19.2.2
19.2.3
19.2.4
19.2.5
19.2.6
19.2.7
19.2.8
19.2.9
19.2.10
19.2.11

19.3

What Is A Workover?
.
Planning A Workover
.

Low Reservoir Pressure


4
..
6
Low Reservoir Permeability ... 6
Formation Damage
7
..
7
Wellbore Restrictions
7
..
8
High Viscosity Oil .. 9
Improper Equipment Sizing/Operation ... 10
Excessive Water Production
10

11
Excessive Gas Production
...
Mechanical Failures

Primary Cement Failures


Non-Problem Wells
.

WELL ASSESSMENT DETERMINING THE PROBLEM . 12


19.3.1
19.3.2

Well And Completion Characteristics . 12


Well History
13

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.3.3
19.3.4
19.3.5

19.4

Offset Well Performance


.
Cross Sections, Maps, Cores And Logs
..
Diagnostic Procedures
.

14
14
15

Types Of Workover Operations


..
Bullhead Technique
.
Wireline Workover Techniques ..
Concentric Workover Techniques
...
Conventional Workover Techniques ...
Auxiliary Equipment ...
Support
Services
Other Considerations
...

16
18
18
18
19
20
21
21

EVALUATING AND SELECTING A TECHNIQUE .... 23


19.5.1
19.5.2
19.5.3

19.6

January 1998

ALTERNATIVE OPERATIONS AND TECHNIQUES .. 16


19.4.1
19.4.2
19.4.3
19.4.4
19.4.5
19.4.6
19.4.7
19.4.8

19.5

Page 2 of 29

Economic Analysis
23
..
24
Capabilities/Limitations .. 24
Other Considerations
...

JOB EXECUTION AND FOLLOW-UP .... 25

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.6.1
19.6.2
19.6.3
19.6.4

19.7

19.1

January 1998

Workover Procedure

Field
Operations
Analysis of Results...
Record Keeping
...

25
26
26
26

WELL ANALYSIS CHECKLIST ...... 27


19.7.1
19.7.2
19.7.3
19.7.4
19.7.5

19.8

Page 3 of 29

Well Completion Characteristics


Well History

Offset Well Performance


.
Cross Sections, Maps, Cores and Logs
...
Diagnostic Procedures
.

27
27
27
28
28

REFERENCES....... 29

INTRODUCTION

This Chapter provides guidelines regarding assessment of well problems, choice of workover
operations for particular well problems, choice of workover techniques for particular
operations, evaluation of alternative techniques, and implementation of workover operations
in the field.
19.1.1

What Is Workover?
During the life of a well, problems such as decreased producing rate, increased water or gas
production, and mechanical failure may occur. After the initial completion, any work done

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 4 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

on the well that affects the mechanical integrity or flow performance of the well is called a
workover.
19.1.2

Planning A Workover
When planning a workover operation for a well, the engineer should :

19.2

Identify the cause of the well problem.

Determine which types of workover operations will solve the problem.

Determine which workover techniques and equipment are available to perform the
workover.

Evaluate the economics, advantages and limitations of alternative workover techniques.

Select the appropriate technique for the operation.

Implement a safe and efficient field operations.

Analyze, record, and file the workover procedures and results.

WELL PROBLEMS REQUIRING WORKOVERS


Workover operations are performed for many reasons. Workovers may be required in
problem wells to :

Increase a declining production or injection rate caused by low reservoir pressure, low
reservoir permeability, formation damage, wellbore restrictions, high viscosity oil,
improper equipment sizing, or inadequate artificial lift.

Reduce excessive water or gas production.

Repair mechanical failures.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

Page 5 of 29
January 1998

Repair primary cementing failures.

It may also be necessary to perform a workover on a non-problem well to :

Gain additional production by recompleting or stimulating a well.

Evaluate the well or reservoir.

Convert an existing well to an injection or disposal well.

Physical phenomena leading to these well problems and the most commonly used workover
solutions are briefly summarized below. Specific topics are discussed in more detail in other
sections of the text.
19.2.1

Low Reservoir Pressure


In the life of a well, the producing rate will decline as reservoir pressure declines. To
maintain a constant producing rate as reservoir pressure declines, the flowing bottom-hole
pressure must be reduced. The amount of pressure reduction required depends on the
productivity index (PI) of the well.
For example, with a reservoir pressure of 2000 psi, withdrawal of 400 barrels of fluid per day
from a well with a PI of 2 will require a flowing bottom-hole pressure of 1800 psi. If the
reservoir pressure falls to 1000 psi, however, the flowing bottom-hole pressure must now be
drawn down to 800 psi to produce 400 barrels per day. This pressure may be too low to
allow the well to flow.
The reservoir drive mechanism has a direct bearing on how long reservoir pressure can
provide a high flowing bottom-hole pressure. As shown in Figure 1, water, gas-cap, and
dissolved-gas-drive producing mechanisms each exhibit distinct pressure behavior as the oil
in place is produced. Reservoir pressure in dissolved-gas-drive reservoirs drops rapidly and
continuously with withdrawals. Gas-cap and water-drive reservoirs are less of a problem
from a pressure maintenance standpoint.
From a workover standpoint, low reservoir pressure presents a difficult situation. Stimulation
is less effective than in a high-pressure reservoir because there is less pressure differential
to capitalize on the increased permeability. Perforating an additional interval is a temporary
measure, at best, and may complicate future workovers. Installation of artificial lift
equipment is often the only practical approach to increased production.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 6 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

Figure 1. Influence of producing mechanism on reservoir pressure

19.2.2

Low Reservoir Permeability


Once the fluids near the wellbore are produced, productivity in a reservoir of low natural
permeability declines rapidly. Wells completed in very low permeability formations are
usually stimulated to increase reservoir permeability away from the near-wellbore region.
Unless formation damage is also present, matrix acidizing is not applicable in this type of
stimulation. A large-volume hydraulic fracturing treatment, designed to yield high
conductivity and maximum drainage area, is usually the most effective approach.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 7 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

Figure 2. Effect of damaged zone on productivity

19.2.3

Formation Damage
Limited productivity-in reality, low flowing bottom-hole pressure-is in many instances caused
by reduction in permeability around the wellbore. This localized damage is commonly
referred to as formation damage. As shown in Figure 2, any damage in the near-wellbore
region magnifies productivity decline by increasing the pressure drop into wellbore for a fixed
flow rate.
Repair of formation damage requires eliminating or bypassing the damaged zone. Acidizing,
solvent and surfactant treatment, and fracturing are the principal means of damage repair.
Types of formation damage and their diagnosis are discussed in Chapter 12, Formation
Damage.

19.2.4

Wellbore Restrictions

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 8 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

Restrictions in the wellbore may be the result of sand, paraffin, scale, asphalt, or other
materials that inhibit flow in the tubing, casing, or perforations.
If the casing or tubing is blocked with debris, washout operations using mechanical or
chemical treatments will often restore the well to full capacity. Once tubing, casing or
perforation blocks are diagnosed and removed, an evaluation should be made to see if further
remedial steps are required.

19.2.5

High Viscosity Oil


In a reservoir which contains low-gravity crude, productivity may decrease as reservoir
pressure declines and liberates the gas dissolved in the oil. To facilitate production, oil
mobility near the wellbore and in the drainage area should be maximized.
Oil mobility can be increased by heating the reservoir with steam injection or other thermal
processes. Heat reduces oil viscosity and thus stimulates production.

19.2.6

Improper Equipment Sizing/Operation


The equipment installed in the well may be too small to handle production of the desired
amount of fluid. This can include tubulars, artificial lift, and surface equipment. Equipment
should be sized so that wells are not tubing, pumping, or facilities limited. The only limit
should be the reservoirs ability to produce.
For example, as water encroaches into a reservoir, production of larger volumes of fluid is
necessary to yield the same amount of oil. Reevaluation of pressure-drop calculations for
tubular goods or review of sucker-rod pump capacities may result in equipment replacements
more closely tailored to the desired rate of production.
Improper design or malfunction of artificial lift equipment can also curtail the producing rate.
If the sucker-rod pump is set too high or is experiencing gas locking, the installation will need
to be modified. Likewise, a gas-lift valve may be open or inoperative, prohibiting maximum
drawdown.

19.2.7

Excessive Water Production


Water production problems can originate from the reservoir itself or from other sources such
as casing leaks and primary cement failures. Water production is costly from both lifting and
disposal standpoints. However, recovery from water-drive reservoirs requires a large influx
of water into the reservoir, which may eventually necessitate producing considerable
quantities of water from the reservoir before the economic limit for oil recovery is reached.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 9 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

Water production problems arising from reservoir properties include :

Water Encroachment Water encroachment is the rise (decrease in depth) of the


water-oil contact as a reservoir is depleted. Water encroachment is a normal
occurrence in water-drive reservoirs as the aquifer moves into the oil zone to replace
withdrawals. Excessive water production in this instance can usually be controlled by
squeeze cementing or plug-back methods.

Water Coning and Fingering High withdrawal rates from individual wells tend to
create abnormally low-pressure areas around the wells. If such wells are located low
on the structure and near the water level, water will tend to be drawn up across the
bedding planes and into the well as a water cone (Figure 3) or be drawn up along the
bedding planes of a stratified sand as a water finger (Figure 4).

Figure 3. Representation of water coning

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 10 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

Figure 4. Representation of water fingering

19.2.8

Excessive Gas Production


Gas production form an oil well result from a gas originally dissolved in the reservoir oil or
from free gas that has segregated and become trapped above the oil as a gas cap. Free gas
may also enter the wellbore from a gas zone separate from the oil reservoir through channels
in the primary cement or as a result of casing leaks.

Solution Gas In the dissolved-gas-drive reservoir, gas originally in the oil is liberated
from solution as oil production begins and reservoir pressure declines. Further liberation
and expansion of solution gas is requirement for primary oil recovery from a reservoir
of this type. As oil withdrawals continue, the increase in gas saturation permits gas to
be produced along with the oil. As production proceeds, the relative permeability of the
rock to oil diminishes rapidly, and gas becomes the predominant mobile fluid. High-ratio
gas production in this instance is usually not a well problem but a problem of the
reservoir as a whole. Workovers are not generally successful at reducing the gas-oilratio for these wells.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.2.9

Page 11 of 29
January 1998

Gas Encroachment If the reservoir is being produced by a gas-cap drive, gas


production may increase as the gas-oil contact advances into the oil column. Excessive
gas production in this instance may be remedied temporarily by lowering the perforated
interval, or by reducing the production rate.

Mechanical Failures
Mechanical failures requiring workovers include :

Casing leaks Casing leaks result in both influx of undesirable gas or water into the
wellbore and the uncontrolled loss of reservoir fluids to other zones. Since casing leaks
are usually associated with corrosion, the permeability of their development increases
with lengthening well life.

Tubing collapse Collapse of tubulars may result in stuck tools down-hole, as well as
leaks and subsequent influx of undesirable fluids into the wellbore.

Surface and downhole equipment failures Mechanical failures are often


associated with installed well equipment such as tubing, packers, and artificial-lift. The
first indication of this type of failure is often an observation of unexpected pressures at
the surface.

When performing a workover to repair a mechanical failure, the engineer should study the
well files to determine if other problems exist, which can be repaired at the same time.
19.2.10

Primary Cement Failures


A poor primary cement job resulting in channels between the formation and the casing can
lead to :

Unwanted fluid production from water or gas in the zone of interest.

Unwanted production of water or gas from an adjacent zone.

Collapsed casing during operations in which high pressures are applied through the
perforations below a packer (squeeze cementing, hydraulic fracturing).

Repair of primary cementing failures is discussed in Chapter 21, Remedial Cementing.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.2.11

Page 12 of 29
January 1998

Non-Problem Wells
Although correction of problem wells constitutes a large part of any workover program,
there are other reasons for conducting workovers, including :

Recompletions Recompletions are performed to gain additional production in new


zones or to more effectively drain a developed reservoir. The usual procedure for this
type of workover is to squeeze cement and reperforate into a new zone or reservoir.
However, in other instances, the well could be abandoned either totally or partially then
whipstocked / sidetracked into a new zone from the existing wellbore. It may also be
necessary to deepen or plug back the well or to add additional tubulars and downhole
equipment. Selection of the producing interval for the recompletions should be carefully
considered to prevent premature gas or water production and to minimize future
workovers. This subject is discussed further in Chapter 2, Types of Well
Completions.

Well Assessment During a workover, it may be necessary to assess the condition


of the well or to evaluate the reservoir. Operations to assess the well include
production logging and well testing. Production logging is discussed in Chapter 20.

Service Well Installation When producing wells are converted to water or gas
injection or to water disposal service, a workover must be performed to install the new
equipment such as pumps and filters. When wells are converted from production to
injection, tubing design calculations should be performed. The temperatures and
pressures experienced during injection may differ from those during production,
necessitating redesign of the completion.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.3

Page 13 of 29
January 1998

WELL ASSESSMENT DETERMINING THE PROBLEM

Prior to performing a workover, the well problem be analyzed to determine the cause of the
problem. It is important important to determine whether the problem is associated with
properties of the reservoir or with the well itself. A through pre-workover evaluation can
increase the cost effectiveness of the entire operation.

Well and Completion Characteristics

Well History

Offset Well Performance

Geological Data, Maps and Cross Sections

Open-hole Logs and Core Data

Well Tests

Production Logs

Special Surveys

Each of these areas is discussed briefly below. A checklist, summarizing the factors to
consider in each area is included at the end of this Chapter (Subject 19.7).
19.3.1

Well and Completion Characteristics


The current condition of the well may limit the types operations that can be performed during
a workover. Factors to consider include :

The completion type and down-hole equipment in place may preclude the use of
certain workover operations or require additional procedures, such as pulling the tubing,
prior to performing the workover.

The pressure ratings of casing, tubing and wellhead equipment are critical to
operations that require application of pressure e.g., stimulation treatments, squeeze

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 14 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

cementing, and sand control. Pressure ratings are also important if the well is being
recompleted to a higher-pressure interval.

19.3.2

Reservoir characteristics such as pressure, sand consolidation, and susceptibility to


damage can influence the success of workover operations or at least dictate the use of
special procedures.

Properties of the fluid currently being produced, as well as any new fluids to be
produced as a result of the workover, must be known. These properties are important
because of the potential for hazards, such as H2S, which may require protective
equipment for personnel. In addition, the corrosivity of the fluid is critical in establishing
the quality and cost of equipment to be used in the workover.

Reservoir considerations such as recovery desired, type of drive mechanism,


relative structure position, current and allowable productivity, forecasted behavior, and
possible recovery by offset wells must be considered when planning the type of
workover operation to perform. These factors must be considered both for the current
producing zone(s) and for alternate or future producing zones.

Well History
The previous history of the well is important because it provides information regarding past
problems and can indicate operational limitations. Records should be researched sufficiently
to indicate whether a problem has existed before, and whether new, less expensive
techniques are available to correct the problem.
The field superintendent and other operations personnel should be consulted to determine if
any well behavior characteristics exist that have not been reported.
Factors to consider when evaluating the well history include :

Drilling Procedures What procedures were used to drill the well? Did the fluids
used cause or have the potential to cause formation damage? Were there indications of
lost returns?

Initial Completion When was the well completed? The age of the well gives
information regarding the likelihood of corroded casing, weak tubulars, or damaged
down-hole equipment.
What procedures were used to cement the well? Knowledge of cementing procedures,
problems encountered during cementing operations, and post-job cement evaluation will

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 15 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

indicate non-cemented areas or channels in the cement sheath. If the integrity of the
cement sheath is in question, a precautionary squeeze cement job may be advisable to
ensure that workover fluids are selectively placed in the zones to be treated.
Other questions to be answered include : How was the well completed initially? What
fluids were used during well completion procedures? How was the well perforated?

19.3.3

Production History The nature and reservoir pressure of produced fluids (both
current and past0 should be determined. The rates and ratios of gas-oil and water-oil
production, the dates water or gas production first appeared, changes in oil production
capability and trends in surface pressures should also be considered.

Mechanical History A good mechanical review may preclude the successful


application of some workover techniques. Factors to consider include wellbore
restrictions, pipe made weak from corrosion, known poor cement jobs, and perforations
sealed by squeeze cement jobs. The corrosion history, including tubular caliper records,
should be consulted if applicable.

Workover History The results of past well servicing and workover operations
should be studied, including procedures used. Reasons for, and results of, past
workover operations may give indications of the source of the current problem.

Offset Well Performance


The history, workover experience, and performance of offset wells can be compared to that
of the well in question. These data can give insite into the behavior of the well being
considered. However, it is necessary to be sure that the offset wells being compared reflect
conditions and reservoir properties of the well under considerations.

19.3.4

Cross Sections, Maps, Cores And Logs


Cross sections, maps, cores, and open-hole logs all provide information about the producing
zones of a well and the relationship of the well to the rest of the reservoir. For the most part,
this information is analyzed by the reservoir engineer who then relays the resulting decisions
to the completion or subsurface engineer.

Geological data, such as stratigraphic cross sections and structure maps, show the
position of the well in the current reservoir or in a potential recompletion zone.

Open-hole logs and core data can be used, in conjunction with geological data, to

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 16 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

define the current gas-oil or water-oil contact, to determine if the well is needed for
reservoir depletion in a particular zone, and to evaluate the quality of the pay zone.

Reservoir characteristics such as permeability, porosity, water saturation, relative


permeability, and down-hole pressures can be determined from open-hole logs and core
data. Log and core data also show lithology changes, including continuity of barriers to
vertical permeability and the character of the reservoir rock.

19.3.5

Reservoir maps such as isopachous, isobaric, water percentage, and gas-oil ratio maps
are also useful in determining reservoir characteristics to be expected.

Diagnostic Procedures
Diagnostic may be performed to evaluate the well performance.

Well tests such as pressure buildup, pressure falloff, and injectivity tests should be run
where applicable. Review the decline curves for an indication of formation damage.
The current static subsurface pressure and temperature should be determined.
For a dead well that has been shut in for some time, a new production test may be
justified. For example, gas or water fingering or coning may have dissipated, or the
reservoir pressure may have increased.

Production logs should be consulted to check for indications of wellbore


communication and mechanical failures. Additional logging surveys should be run to
detect the source of wellbore communication, as necessary. For pumping wells, check
the fluid level with sonic devices and make dynamometer surveys. For gas lift wells,
consider checking valve operation with flowing subsurface pressure and temperature
surveys.

Special surveys or analyses, which can be run, include wireline gauge surveys to
check for plugging or sanding. Water samples may be analyzed and compared to
samples taken after the initial completion. Bottom-hole sludge samples may be
analyzed for scale, paraffin, or asphaltenes. Scale can also be analyzed from pumps,
tubing, and other down-hole equipment.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.4

Page 17 of 29
January 1998

ALTERNATIVE OPERATIONS AND TECHNIQUES


After assessing the well condition and determining the cause of the problem behavior, the
subsurface engineer must choose the workover operation best suited to return the well to
production. The choice of workover operation will influence the workover technique,
equipment, and support services necessary to perform the workover. Other factors which
must be considered include personnel, safety, and contingency planning.

19.4.1

Types Of Workover Operation


Types of workover operations performed to remedy or repair well problems include :

Stimulation Hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, matrix acidizing, ball-outs, solvent


and surfactant treatments, thermal stimulation.

Well Clean-out or Blockage Removal washing with water, acids, solvents or


other chemicals.

Sand Control Gravel packing, chemical sand consolidation, resin coated sands.

Perforating

Remedial Cementing Setting plugs, squeeze cementing perforations or channels,


casing repair.

Equipment Replacement and Repair

Production Logging While not a workover itself, production logging is often


included as part of a workover procedure to provide additional well data.

These operations are discussed in more detail in other sections of the next. The operations
most commonly used to treat the well problems previously discussed in this Chapter (Subject

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 18 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

19.2) are summarized in Table 1.


Implementation of various workover operations involves many techniques and procedures.
However, all workover techniques can be classified into four major categories.

Bullhead Technique

Wireline Workover Techniques

Concentric Workover Techniques

Conventional Workover Techniques

Each of these techniques is briefly discussed below. More detailed information on these
techniques is included in Chapter 22, Wireline Operations, and Chapter 23, Rig Workover
Operations.
Table 1
Workover Operations Used to Remedy Well Problems

PROBLEM

WORKOVER OPERATION

Low Reservoir Pressure

Installation of Artificial Lift


Perforation of Additional Interval
Stimulation

Low Reservoir Permeability

Hydraulic or Acid Fracturing

Formation Damage

Acidizing
Fracturing
Solvent or Surfactant Treatment

Wellbore Restriction

Washing Operations
Chemical Treatment
Sand Control

High Viscosity Oil

Thermal Stimulation

Improper Equipment Sizing/Operation

Replace/Modify Equipment

Excessive Water/Gas Production

Remedial Cementing/Reperforate
Decrease Production Rate

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.4.2

Page 19 of 29

Mechanical Failure

Replace Equipment
Remedial Cementing

Primary Cement Failure

Remedial Cementing
Recompletion/Perforating

Non-Problem Wells

Recompletion/Perforating
Production Logging
Equipment Installation

January 1998

Bullhead Technique
The bullhead technique is also referred to as a pump-down or pump equipment technique.
The pump lines are usually connected directly to the Christmas tree at the crown valve. The
treatment fluid is pumped through the tree, down the tubing, and into the formation.
Advantages of using this technique are low cost (compared to other techniques) and the
ability to perform the workover without removing the tree or tubulars from the well.
Limitations of this technique are the potential for formation damage, lack of control over
placement of the fluid down-hole, and necessity for good casing and tubing integrity.

19.4.3

Wireline Workover Techniques


Workover operations may also be performed using a wireline. The wireline is run from a
reel on the wireline unit into the well through a lubricator on the christmas tree. Three types
of wireline are available.

Slick Line The wireline is solid, single strand of wire diameter up to 0.092 in.

Braided Line The wireline is a stranded wire, stronger than the slick line.
Commonly used diameters are 3/16 in. and 9/16 in.

Conductor (Electric) Line The wireline is a stranded wire capable of transmitting a


signal to the surface.

Advantages of using wireline units are low cost, ability to perform the workover without
removing tree and tubulars, and, since the lubricator allows the operations to be performed
under pressure, the ability to perform the workover without killing the well. Limitations of
using wireline techniques include limitations on the size of tools which can be run and risk of
breaking the wirelline.
Wireline techniques are used for operations such as well completion, well clean-out, down-

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 20 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

hole equipment installation and retrieval, mechanical repairs, logging, fishing, swabbing, and
depth measurement.
19.4.4

Concentric Workover Techniques


A concentric workover is one in which small diameter tubing used as a workostring is run
inside production tubing to perform down-hole operations. Concentric workover techniques
are performed by three types of units.

Concentric Rig Concentric rigs use small diameter tubing for the workostring.
These rigs are smaller than convrntional workover rigs and thus can be operated at
lower cost.

Coiled-Tubing Unit Coiled-tubing units use a reel of thin-walled tubing for the
workstring. This tubing is fed into the well through an injector head mounted on the
tree.

Snubbing Unit Snubbing units are self-contained, portable systems that are mounted
on the christmas tree and used to push or pull tubing through the rig well control
equipment.

For many operations, concentric workovers techniques are more efficient than the bullhead
or wireline techniques and more cost effective than conventional workover techniques. In
addition, both coiled-tubing and snubbing units will perform workover operations under
pressure, so it is not necessary to kill the well. Concentric workovers are limited with
respect to the diameter of down-hole tools which can be run. In addition, since higher
pressures are required to pump through the small tubing diameter, higher surface pressures
are encountered than when performing conventional workover operations.
There are few workover or servicing needs that cannot be accomplished using concentric
techniques. Typical workovers include well clean out, remedial cementing, recompletion,
sand control, fishing, and stimulation.
19.4.5

Conventional Workover Techniques


Conventional workover techniques are performed with a heavy-duty rig. In some cases, a
drilling rig may be used. For conventional workovers, the christmas tree is removed, and the
production tubing and down-hole equipment are removed from the well.
The main advantage of using a conventional workover rather than one of the other

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 21 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

techniques is flexibility. The main disadvantage is cost.


Conventional workovers can be used to perform any of the operations performed by the
other techniques described above. However, some operations can only be performed by a
conventional rig. These include tubing repair or replacement, down-hole tool repair or
replacement (unless the tool can be run or retrieved on wireline), production casing repair
above a packer, recompletion to a higher zone above a packer, and side track drilling.

19.4.6

Auxiliary Equipment
A detailed cost survey will usually reveal that auxiliary rig tools and equipment cost
approximately as much as the rental rate of the basic workover rig. Thus, as much attention
should be given to the choice of auxiliary equipment as is given to the choice of workover
technique and rig rate.
Contractors vary widely with respect to the tools and equipment furnished with the rig. An
inventory of the equipment provided with a rig will make comparisons of hourly rig rates
more meaningful. In addition, use of an inventory will ensure that all necessary equipment is
on-hand and extra equipment is not ordered.
Some of the more commonly used auxiliary equipment include :

Workstrings and Handling Tools These are high-cost items. If in poor condition,
they can be responsible for many failures and delays because of fishing or well
problems.

Blowout Preventers Contractors usually furnish some type of blowout preventer.


However, the equipment provided may not be rate to handle a potential problem on the
well to be reworked. In addition, the age and testing history of these preventers should
be established to ensure that the preventers are adequate to handle any hazardous
situations which might occur during the workover.

Swab Line Some rigs include a swab line, which can reduce the cost of completion
operations, if the rig is intentionally kept in place until the zone is evaluated. However,
using a rig-provided swab line can be a disadvantage if using it means that the rig is
kept in place at workover-rig rates when it could be replaced by a lower-cost swabbing
unit. In addition, keep in mind that swabbing is a specialized operation. The workover
rig supervisor may not have expertise in swabbing operations comparable to that of a

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 22 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

regular swabbing unit operator.

19.4.7

Circulation Pumps Use of the rig pumps for workover operations can eliminate the
cost of units rented from service companies. However, in some cases, the rig pumps
may not have sufficient capacity and pressure rating to perform the necessary
operations.

Tankage Workover rigs sometimes include tankage. The amount of tankage needed
depends on the quantity of circulating and treating fluids needed for workover
operations. The quantity of fluid which must be premixed and on-hand for well control
must also be considered.

Air Slips and Tongs Use of air slips, air tongs and speed equipment allows rig
crews to operate for longer periods of time without fatigue. Proper utilization of this
equipment can double the speed of tripping operations and thus save rig time.

Electrical Equipment Good lighting and generator equipment is fundamental if night


operations are to be conducted.

Support Services
Support services on a workover operation may cost as much as, more than, the basic rig
rental. Control over support services is often the key to keeping costs within projected goals.
It is false economy, however, to settle for lower cost services if this means sacrificing the
quality of the services provided.
Support services used for workovers include :

Wellsite preparation and rig transportation

Cementing and well treating

Stimulation

Removal of paraffin, sand etc.

Fishing tools and service

Equipment rental (Accessory equipment, packers, tubing, artificial lift equipment)

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.4.8

Page 23 of 29
January 1998

Wireline operations

Other Considerations
Other factors which should be considered when selecting workover techniques and
equipment include safety, personnel and contingency planning.

Safety In any operation, safety of the personnel is the most important factor. Every
employee has the responsibility to properly use equipment, to maintain it in good
condition, to observe the established working rules at all times, and to practice the
principles taught in safety training.

In addition, company personnel at the rig site should be sure that the rig and service
company personnel are aware of and observe the established safety rules. This can be
facilitated by holding pre-job meetings to inform all on-site personnel of safety hazards,
safety equipment location and use, and established safety rules.

Personnel Rigs are often chosen on the strength and capability of the equipment. In
practice, personnel and supervision on a particular rig are often of equal importance to
the equipment brought to the rig site. The number of men in the rig crew often dictates
the efficiency of operations. The quality of contractor supervision is extremely
important on a workover rig.
The relief schedule of a contractor is also important. Contractors who work men for
longer periods of time without providing relief penalize the operator with lower
efficiency during the latter part of the tour of duty.
Associated with this concept are the employment practices of a contractor during slack
periods. Some contractors maintain key supervisors on a full-time basis but pay rig
crews only when work is available. This can result in rig crews with low experience
levels.

Contingency Planning Although extra, non-used equipment on-site may represent


additional cost to the workover operation, enough back-up equipment should be on hand
to plan for contingencies. When planning the workover, consider what could go wrong
with the operations and plan accordingly. Pre-planning and availability of critical backup equipment can save time and money in the long run.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.5

Page 24 of 29
January 1998

EVALUATING AND SELECTING A TECHNIQUE


After assessing the problem and reviewing alternative techniques, the engineer should
evaluate the best alternative techniques with respect to economics, limitations and
capabilities of the technique, and other factors such as safety, expedience, and reliability.
Often, the least expensive workover is not the best workover when factors other than cost
are considered.

19.5.1

Economic Analysis
When evaluating the economics of a single proposal or comparing economics of competitive
proposal, the following questions should be considered :

Cost What is the relative cost of alternative workover techniques, including rig time,
auxiliary equipment rentals, and support services.

Current Income What will be the effect of performing the proposed workover, or
possible alternative workovers, on current income?

Increased Recovery Is the well needed for optimum ultimate recovery in the
present completion interval or in possible new completion intervals? If well stimulation
is contemplated, would successful stimulation increase recovery?

Payout What is the direct payout, i.e., the length of time required for the total cash
outlay to be recovered through the new cash inflow generated by the project?

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.5.2

Page 25 of 29
January 1998

Rate of Return How much additional income is expected to result from the
workover after the payout period? How soon can this be realized?

Loss in Deferring Workover If the workover is postponed, what would the cost
be? Would impending additional recovery programs render workover of this well more
attractive in the future?

Risk What is the risk factor? The degree of risk should be weighed against
anticipated gain from a successful job. The degree of risk should be assessed through
past experiences in areas with similar type of work or in the same or comparable
reservoirs and wells, plus individual judgement based on available data concerning the
well and reservoir.

Capabilities/Limitations
As discussed earlier in this Chapter (Subject 19.4), the choice of workover technique is
sometimes limited by the capabilities and limitations of the workover rig units. For example,
treatment operations, such as remedial cementing, matrix acidizing, and corrosion treatments,
sometimes require that the treatment fluid selectively placed into a single zone or portion of a
zone. While wireline and concentric techniques have some flexibility in this respect, use of a
conventional workover rig allows use of the full casing ID and thus a wider range of downhole tools and packers can be used.
On offshore locations, the compactness of wireline and concentric units is a premium. In
addition, wireline units are the quickest and most efficient, thus reducing rig time, a major
expense on offshore locations.
Conventional rigs are slow and cumbersome; however, they are not as limited by factors
such as operating depth, high bottom-hole temperatures and pressures, and severe ID
restrictions. All of these factors must be considered before selecting a particular workover
technique to perform the desired workover operation.

19.5.3

Other Considerations
Well or reservoir safety, lease obligations, government regulations, reliability of a particular
workover operation in the area, and the ease with which a particular operation can be
performed may justify a decision to perform a workover even when economics do not.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.6

Page 26 of 29
January 1998

JOB EXECUTION AND FOLLOW-UP


In addition to selecting the best technique and equipment to perform the workover, a
successful workover operation depends on correct and efficient implementation of the
workover procedure in the field. Successful field operations can be facilitated by a well
written workover procedure and sufficiently supervised field operations. In addition, future
operations can be improved by the experience of past operations if workover results are
analyzed and proper records maintained.

19.6.1

Workover Procedure
A well written workover procedure will communicate all details of the procedures planned
for the workover operation, especially when non-routine procedures are being used. It
should not be assumed that the field personnel will automatically perform a certain step in a
procedure because the procedure has always been done that way. Lack of details can
lead to costly mistakes such as stuck tubing, lost tools, and misplaced treating fluids.
Essential components of a well written workover procedure include :

Well Sketch A sketch of the wellbore before and after the workover.

Procedure Steps A step-by-step description of the workover procedure, pointing out


steps at which problems may arise.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 27 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

Alternative Procedures Alternatives for procedures where problems are


anticipated.

Calculated Values Values of parameters such as treatment depths, displacement


volumes, treatment volumes, maximum treating pressures and rate are essential to the
proper implementation of the workover. Including values for parameters such as casing
and tubing capacities, fracture and fluid gradients, and other parameters used in the prejob calculations can be helpful if last minute checks or changes are needed in the field.

Safety Hazards/Rules Any safety hazards, rules, or regulations should be clearly


described and emphasized.

Contingency Plans Contingency plans in case of unexpected events such as


encountering H2S, lost circulation, or well control problems should be included as
attachments to the procedure.

19.6.2

Contracts A list of person to contact, with phone numbers, in case of problems or


emergencies should also be attached.
Field Operations
Field operations should be supervised by competent personnel. For routine workovers,
adequate supervision can often by provided by the rig supervisor. However, for non-routine,
hazardous or critical well operations, a company representative should be on hand.
The importance of good communication between engineering and field personnel cannot be
overemphasized. Even the best planned workover procedure will not be successful if the
importance of critical steps and procedures are not communicated to, and understood by, the
field personnel.
Safety rules, precautions, and emergency procedures should be explained to all personnel onsite during the workover operation. This is best achieved by pre-job meetings of all persons
involved. It should not be assumed that personnel will follow safety precautions just because
they have been informed. It is necessary to observe operations and enforce rules.

19.6.3

Analysis of Results
The success or failure of operations used on a workover are often valuable information to
help plan future workovers. The procedures used in the field should be noted and compared
with the planned procedure. Results should be recorded along with unexpected problems or
behavior. If the workover fails, or is unexpectedly successful, the procedures used should be
analyzed to determine the cause, if possible.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Page 28 of 29
Issue 1

PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

January 1998

If the results are to be useful for future workovers, as many details as possible regarding the
actual procedures used should be recorded.
19.6.4

Record Keeping
The workover results, field procedures (both planned and actual), logs, and service lab
records are all valuable components of the history of the well. These records should be
placed in the well file and stored in the company office. As mentioned above, these records
are a valuable source of information for planning future workover operations.
When available, records should be entered into a computer database to facilitate comparison
of results from a large number of wells. However, the information which can be obtained
from a computer database is only as useful as the data entered. When establishing a
database management system, keep in mind the types of data which will be used for future
workover planning.

19.7

WELL ANALYSIS CHECKLIST

19.7.1

Well Completion Characteristics


1.

19.7.2

a.

Completion type

b.

Pressure ratings of casing and tubulars and wellhead equipment

c.

Producing zone characteristics permeability, porosity, consolidation

d.

Producing zone fluid properties density, salinity

e.

Reservoir considerations reservoir pressure, drive mechanism, structure


position, current and allowable productivity, ultimate recovery desired,
forecasted behavior, recovery from offset wells.

Well History
2.

a.

Drilling procedures fluids, problems, lost circulation

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.7.3

b.

Initial completion when, how, cement job data, problems during completion,
initial fluids, perforation pattern

c.

Production history pressure, fluids, rates, gas-oil ratio, water-oil ratio, dates of
initial gas or water production, trends

d.

Mechanical history corroded pipe, poor cement jobs, squeezed perforations

e.

Workover history

a.

Relative structural position

b.

Comparison of behavior

Cross Sections, Maps, Cores and Logs


4.

19.7.5

January 1998

Offset Well Performance


3.

19.7.4

Page 29 of 29

a.

Stratigraphic cross sections

b.

Structure, isopachous, isobaric, water percentage and gas-oil ration maps

c.

Open-hole logs

d.

Core data

Diagnostic Procedures
5.

a.

Well tests pressure buildup, pressure decline, injectivity, production test

b.

Production logs noise, temperature, sonic, flow-meters, pressure bombs,


tubing calipers

c.

Water analyses

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD

CM 19

COMPLETION
MANUAL

WORKOVER PLANNING

Issue 1
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION -For Authorised Company Use Only

19.8

Page 30 of 29

d.

Wireline depth or gauge surveys

e.

Bottom-hole sludge samples

f.

Scale samples

January 1998

REFERENCES
1.

T.O. Allen and A. P. Roberts, Production Operations, Vol.2, Chapters 1 and 12,
Oil & Gas Consultants International, Inc., Tulsa, 1978.

DRILLING DEPARTMENT
PETRONAS CARIGALI SDN BHD