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GROUP

MEMBERS:
FARZEEna v l
Aparna v k

CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Acknowledgement
Aim
Introduction
Requirements
Theory
Procedure
Observation
Result
Conclusion

THEORY

Diamagnetic material
In the absence of
applied magnetic field,
each atom has net zero
magnetic dipole
moment.
These induced
magnetic dipole
moments align
themselves opposite to
the applied field.

Thus, m < 0 and r


< 1.

Paramagnetic
Materials
In the absence of applied
magnetic field, each atom
has net non-zero (but
weak) magnetic dipole
moment.
These magnetic dipoles
moments are randomly

oriented so that the net


macroscopic
magnetization is zero.
In the presence of an
applied magnetic field,
the magnetic dipoles align
themselves with the
applied field so that m >
0 and r > 1.
Paramagnetic materials
are (weakly) attracted to
either pole of a magnet.

Ferromagnetic
Materials

Ferromagnetic materials
include iron, nickel and
cobalt
In the absence of applied
magnetic field, the domains
are randomly oriented so
that the net macroscopic
magnetization is zero.
In the presence of an applied
magnetic field, the domains
align themselves with the
applied field.
The effect is a very strong
one with m >> 0 and r >>
1.
Ferromagnetic materials are
strongly attracted to either
pole of a magnet.

About the apparatus...


Variable Gap Magnet.
This apparatus consists of two 20mm
diameter neodymium magnets fitted on
two adjustable iron holders on metallic
base. One can easily adjust the field
strength in between the two magnets by
just rotating knobs provided on the
extreme ends. Two flat pole pieces are
also included to provide a uniform
magnetic field when needed.

Aim

PROCEDURE
1.
Adjust the gap between the pole
pieces to about 12 mm and suspend
the sample of metal under
invigilation between these.
2. Tie pieces of thread around the
sample and secure the thread with a
small piece of tape to prevent the
sample from slipping out of the
thread loop.
3.
Hang the sample from a stand so
it is at the same level as the Variable
Gap Magnet when the magnet is
placed on its side .
4.
Carefully adjust the position of
the sample such that it makes an
angle of 45 with field direction.
5.
Gradually increase the current
through the coil by tuning voltage
adjustment knob in the clockwise
direction.

6.
Observe the behaviour of the
sample under observation.

REQUIREMEN
TS

OBSERVATION
SAMPLE

BEHAVIOUR OF
THE SAMPLE
BISMUTH
Shifts perpendicular
(Diamagneti to the field
c)
direction.
ALUMINIUM Shifts from 45
(Paramagnet degree position into
ic)
the direction of
field.
IRON
Shifts from 45
(Ferromagne degree position into
tic)
the direction of field
strongly at 1-2A.

conclusion
This project was
completed successfully
due to the extreme help
provided by our physics
teacher Mrs. KV Sudha