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Sampleination of DO in water

Rationale
For my Internal Assessment I have to investigate the concentration of
dissolved oxygen (DO) in Diljan water, I have taken samples from the river,
mountain water, school tap water and local tap water. I am going to compare
the concentration of mountain water, school tap water and local tap water. I
am investigating the concentration of DO in river, as DO is one of the most
important indicators of natural water quality. The lack of clean natural water
sources is a huge problem in Sample and especially in its rural parts.
Introduction
One of the most important environmental indicators of water quality is the
content of dissolved oxygen. It provides a sufficient number of conditions for
water organisms. Oxygen is also required for the self-cleaning ponds, as it
participates in the oxidation of organic compounds and other impurities
generated due to decomposition of dead organisms. Reducing the
concentration of the DO indicates a change in the normal course of biological
processes in the water. Oxygen is always present in dissolved form in the
surface waters. Dissolved oxygen in the water characterises the oxygen
concentration of water body and is essential for the assessment of its
environmental and sanitary conditions. The oxygen flow in a reservoir takes
place by dissolving it in contact with the air (absorption) and also as a result
of photosynthesis of water plants. Oxygen is also applied to water with rain

and snow waters. Therefore, there are many causes of increase or decrease
in the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water.
Dissolved oxygen is in the form of hydrated molecules of O2. Contents DO
dependent on temperature, atmospheric pressure, the degree of mixing
water, rainfall, salinity, etc.

A high DO level in a community water supply is good because it makes


drinking water taste better. However, high DO levels speed up corrosion in
water pipes. For this reason, industries use water with the least possible
amount of dissolved oxygen.
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Water Quality
Control Division (CDPHE-WQCD) regulations (5 CCR 1002-31) state that
waters to be used for domestic water supply should not have DO
concentrations below 3 milligrams per liter (mg/l) ( Reg. 31 - Basic Standards
and Methodologies for Surface Water ).
Dissolved oxygen prevents the chemical reaction and leaching of iron and
manganese from the sediments in source water, which otherwise would stain
plumbing fixtures and cause taste problems. It facilitates the biochemical
oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, reduces the chlorine demand of waters and
increases the disinfection efficiency of chlorination. Also, a high level of
dissolved oxygen is generally considered more palatable in water, as
opposed to there being a 'flat' taste.

Inventory of items included with the Dissolved Oxygen Probe


Dissolved Oxygen Probe (dissolved oxygen electrode with membrane cap)
Replacement membrane cap

Sodium Sulphite Calibration Standard (2.0 M Na3SO3) and MSDS sheet


D.O Electrode Filling Solution, MSDS sheet, and filling pipet.
Calibration bottle (empty, lid with hole).
D.O Polishing Strips(1pkg)
Vernier Go! Link

Determination of DO
1. Probe preparation

Remove blue protective cap from the tip of the probe. This protective cap
can be discarded once the probe is unpacked.
Unscrew the membrane cap from the tip of the probe.
Use a pipet to fill the membrane cap with 1ml of DO Electrode Filling Solution
carefully thread the membrane cap back onto the electrode.
Placate probe into a beaker filled with about 100 ml of distilled waters.

2. Probe warm-up

Connect the Dissolved Oxygen Probe to the interface. To warm up the probe,
leave it in the water and connected to the interface with the data collection
program running for 10 minutes.

3. Collecting data

Place the tip of the probe into the water being tested (submerge 4-6 cm). Do
not completely submerge.

Gently stir the probe in the water sample. Monitor the dissolved oxygen
concentration in the live readouts.

Water samples
Water from . 10 degrees Celsius
Domestik water. 10 degrees Celsius
Domestic school water. 16 degrees Celsius
Mountain water. 13 degrees Celsius.

Analysing results

1.School domestic water.

River water

2. Mountain water.

4.Diljan domestic water.

Evaluation.

The procedure of determination of DO has been carried out several times. But, as the results
were identical each time, when the probe was used, the data was taken from only one try.
However, it is not possible to determine the exact DO concentration, because of the human
factor. Stirring the water increases the DO, a slow movement of the probe tip would lead to
inaccuracy in collecting the data.
Accuracy: 2 , the reading of the data has been held for a minute, whereas 45 seconds is
needed for 98% of reading. ( Vernier )

Conclusion.
In this work, I have been determining the concentration of DO in different domestic waters in
Sample and the local river. The work show the effects of DO on water. The water in Sample is
commonly known as the best water in Sample, it has been mentioned in movies as the second
best water in the world. This work shows the DO concentration result, it shows why it is so
tasty and fresh.

Bibliography:
http://www.vernier.com/products/sensors/dissolved-oxygen-probes/do-bta/
http://www2.vernier.com/sample_labs/WQV-05-COMP-dissolved_oxygen.pdf
http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-education2/710-oxygen-water.htm
http://www.waterontheweb.org/under/waterquality/oxygen.html