Você está na página 1de 19

Initial Concerns

Artificial sweeteners introduced to food industry 1980s

brain cancer rates

1994 Study:

Observed cognitive behavioral effects


in preschool/school-aged children
Fed 3 diets: sucrose, aspartame, saccharin
Self-reported hyperactivity, attention, etc.
No effects noted

Image source: http://thedreamdepository.blogspot.


com/2013/08/every-time-i-go-to-grocery-store-i.html

(Wolraich, 1994)
19

Initial Concerns
1997 Study:

Compared subjects with and without brain tumors


Both groups consumed equal amounts of artificial
sugars

no correlation between consumption of artificial sugars


and tumor risk
(Gurney, et al., 1997)

So are artificial sweeteners harmful?


20

Taste Perception

Sucrose

image sources: https://especha.wordpress.com/, https://en.wikipedia.


org/wiki/Taste, http://chemistry.about.com/od/factsstructures/ig/ChemicalStructures---S/Sucrose.htm

21

Taste Pathway
Sensory Neural pathway activated while eating
Sensory Neurons Brain Regions
Includes:
- Gustatory cortex (taste perception)
- Caudate, Striatum (reward pathway)
Food quality, reward, and satisfaction

image source: http://wine4soul.com/2013/03/16/sense-oftaste-and-wine/

22

Sugar & the Brain


How does regular vs. artificial sugar
affect brain activity?
fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance
Imaging) Studies

Image from: http://mic.com/articles/88015/what-happens-to-your-brain-on-sugar-explained-by-science#.


vTnCfiCeH

23

Artificial Sugar & the Brain


Study 1 Methods
- 12 women given sucrose /
sucralose ( of equal
concentration) in separate
trials
- 1g sucralose = 20g sucrose
- fMRI to observe brain
activity
What would you expect?
image source:
http://www.chem.umass.

24

Artificial Sugar & the Brain


Study 1 Results
Sucrose

Reward Centers (Satisfaction)

Sucralose

(Frank, et al. 2008)


25

Artificial Sugar & the Brain


Study 2 Methods:
24 young adults aged 19-32
Split in half into diet vs non-diet soda drinkers
Went on 12-hour fast from sucrose
(Green, et al., 2012)

Saccharin

Sucrose
26

Image taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharin

Image taken from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Saccharose2.svg

Artificial Sugar & the Brain

(Green, et al, 2012)


27

Conclusions
These findings suggest altogether that regular consumption of artificial sugars may be
related to alterations in the reward experience
Long term effects?

Obesity

Type 2 Diabetes

San Antonio Heart Study


Worsens insulin sensitivity
Promotes weight gain

Gut microbiota

28

Nonnutritive Sweeteners and Gut microbiota

Study revealed NAS has a deleterious effect on gut microbiota


NAS induced metabolic pathways leading to glucose intolerance and susceptibility
to metabolic disease (e.g. diabetes)
Germ-free mice inoculated with microbiota from NAS-fed mice became more
glucose tolerant than mice inoculated with normal gut microbiota (Suez 2014).

Image taken from http://vignette2.wikia.nocookie.net/mmg-233-2013-geneticsgenomics/images/0/0c/4441009a-f1.2.jpg/revision/latest?cb=20131115224206

29

Image taken from http:


//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
gov/pmc/articles/PMC44
94042/figure/F1/

30

What does this mean?


Causal role of NAS in glucose intolerance leading to metabolic
effects
Specific microbial composition predisposed hosts to NAS
effects
More investigation needed to establish this susceptibility

NAS may select against certain microbes and inhibit them


NAS could be direct stimulants of certain organisms

More investigation is needed to uncover the mechanism


responsible
31

Conclusion

Non-nutritive sweeteners are one of the most widely used food additives
Many studies have been done that call for the reassessment of the safety of
artificial sweeteners
Great short-term alternative for use in high-calorie products
Long-term safety in question
Adverse effects on the brain and body (long-term)

Image taken from http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/files/2014/11/minions-microbes1.png

32

Position on Artificial Sweeteners


ADA and AND: fine to use in the diet.

Artificial sweeteners can curb sweet cravings (ADA, 2014)


Can safely be consumed with a balanced diet/eating plan (AND, 2012)

Image from: http://www.highlandhosp.


com/2015/10/highland-hospital-proud-to-support-americandiabetes-association/

Image from: eatright.org

33

Thoughts/Questions for the Future


With the new food labeling regulations requiring products to
state how much added sugar is in their food, will there be
pressure to label the amount of artificial sweeteners?
Is the newly approved artificial sweetener advantame safe?
Should there be more awareness surrounding the
neurological effects of artificial sweeteners?

34

References
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. (2012). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Use of Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(5).
American Diabetes Association. Low-Calorie Sweeteners, 2014. URL http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/understanding-carbohydrates/artificialsweeteners/ .Accessed 15.10.30.
Ajinomoto North America, Inc. Advantame, 2015. URL http://www.ajiusafood.com/products/sweeteners/advantame.aspx. Accessed 15.11.22
Baran, Enrique J., and Veysel T. Yilmaz. "Metal Complexes of Saccharin." Coordination Chemistry Reviews 250.15-16 (2006): 1980-1999. Print.
Bokulich NA, Blaser MJ. A bitter aftertaste: unintended effects of artificial sweeteners on the gut microbiome. Cell metabolism. 2014;20(5):701-703. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.
2014.10.012.
Damodaran, S., Parkin, K.L., & Fennema, O.R. (2008). Fennema's Food Chemistry. 4th Ed., Food Additives (pp. 689-741). CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
De Koning, L., Malik, V. S., Rimm, E. B., Willett, W. C., & Hu, F. B. (2011). Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes
in men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93(6), 1321-1327. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.007922
EAS Academy. Facts and Myths about Artificial Sweeteners, 2015. URL http://easacademy.org/trainer-resources/article/artificial-sweeteners-facts-and-myths .Accessed
15.10.30.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). Additional Information about High-Intensity Sweeteners Permitted for use in Food in the United States, 2015. URL http://www.
fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients/ucm397725.htm#Aspartame .Accessed 15.10.30.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). FDA Approves New High-Intensity Sweetener Advantame, 2014. URL http://www.fda.
gov/Food/NewsEvents/ConstituentUpdates/ucm397740.htm .Accessed 15.10.30.

35

References
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). High-Intensity Sweeteners, 2014. URL http://www.fda.
gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/FoodAdditivesIngredients/ucm397716.htm .Accessed 15.10.30.
Fowler, S. P., Williams, K., Resendez, R. G., Hunt, K. J., Hazuda, H. P., & Stern, M. P. (2008). Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and
Long-term Weight Gain. Obesity, 16(8), 1894-1900. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.284
Franka, G.K.W., Oberndorferb, T.A., Simmonsb, A.N., Paulusb, M.PFudgec, J.L., Yangb, T.T., & Kaye, W.H. (2008). Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently
from artificial sweetener. NeuroImage, 39(4), 1559-1569.
Green, E., & Murphy, C. (2012). Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers. Physiology & Behavior, 107(4), 560-567. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.
2012.05.006
Gurney, J. G., Pogoda, J. M., Holly, E. A., Hecht, S. S., & Preston-Martin, S. (1997). Aspartame Consumption in Relation to Childhood Brain Tumor Risk: Results From a
Case-Control Study. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 89(14), 1072-1074. doi:10.1093/jnci/89.14.1072
Lim, U., Subar, A.F., Mouw, T., Hartge, P. Morton, L.M., Stolzenberg-Solomon, R., Campbell, D., Hollenbeck, A.R., & Scatzkin, A. (2006). Consumption of AspartameContaining Beverages and Incidence of Hematopoietic and Brain Malignancies . Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention ,15(9), 16541-659.
Mathlouthi, M. & Hutteau, F (1999). Sweetbitter interactions and the solution properties of chlorinated sugars. Food Chemistry, 64(1), 7782.
Mercola. (2014, June 26). Supporting Evidence for Aspartame-Alzheimer's Link Emerges. Retrieved from http://articles.mercola.
com/sites/articles/archive/2014/06/26/aspartame-methanol-alzheimers.aspx
NIH (National Cancer Institute). Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer, 2009. URL http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/artificial-sweeteners-factsheet .Accessed 15.10.30.

36

References

Otabe, A., Fujieda, T., Masuyama, T., Ubukata, K., & Lee, C. (2011). Dietary Maillard reaction products: implication for human health and disease. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49
(1), S2-S7.
Palmns , M.S.A., Cowan, T.E., Bomhof, M.R., Su, JReimer, R.A., Vogel, H.J., Hittel, D.S., Hollenbeck, A.R., & Shearer, J. (2014). Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption
Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat. PLOS One, 9(10), e109841 -e109841 .
Purcell. What's the Deal with Maltodextrin?, 2011. URL http://askdrpurcell.blogspot.com/2011/12/whats-deal-with-maltodextrin.html .Accessed 15.10.30.
RSC (Royal Society of Chemistry). Chemistry in its element: compounds, 2015. URL http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/podcast/CIIEcompounds/transcripts/saccharin.asp .Accessed
15.10.30.
Suez , J., Korem, T., Zeevi, D., Zilberman-Schapira, G., Thaiss, C.A., Maza, O., Israeli, D., Zmora, N., Gilad, S., Weinberger, A., Kuperman, Y., Harmelin, A., Kolodkin-Gal, I.,
Shapiro, H., Halpern, Z., Segal, E., & Elinav, E., (2014). Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature, 514(7521), 181-186.

Temussi, P. (2007). The Sweet Taste Receptor: A Single Receptor with Multiple Sites and Modes of Interaction. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 53, 199239.
Walpole, S.C., Prieto-Merino, P., Edwards, P., Cleland, J. Stevens, G., & Roberts, I. (2012). The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass. BMC Public Health, 12, 439.

Wang, G., Volkow, N.D., Thanos, P.K., & Fowler, J.S (2009). Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways: Implications for Understanding Obesity. PubMed Central, 3(1), 8-18.
Weihrauch, M. R. (2004). Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk? Annals of Oncology, 15(10), 1460-1465. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdh256
Wolraich, M. L., Lindgren, S. D., Stumbo, P. J., Stegink, L. D., Appelbaum, M. I., & Kiritsy, M. C. (1994). Effects of Diets High in Sucrose or Aspartame on The Behavior and
Cognitive Performance of Children. New England Journal of Medicine, 330(5), 301-307. doi:10.1056/nejm199402033300501

37
Yang, Q. (2010). Gain weight by going diet? Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 82(2), 101-108.