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PHYSIOLOGY

1.

Partial contraction following low rate of nerve impulses


a. twitch
b. tetanus
c. treppe
d. tone
Answer: D

2.

(pp 81 82)

The mechanism for the perception of sound localization is


a. higher frequency sound waves are heard louder in the ear .near the
source of sound
b. lower frequency sound waves are heard are heard farther equally
by both ears
c. higher amplitude sound waves arrive in the ear near the
source of sound
d. faster time of arrival at the ear farther from the source of sound
Answer: C

3.

(pp 656 657)

The flow of endolymph postrotatory from a counterclockwise direction is


a.
b.
c.
d.

stopped immediately as one stops rotating


in opposite direction of rotation in both ears
continuous in the same direction of rotation
to the right in right ear but to the left in left ear

Answer: C (p 695)
4.

Which of the following is true of the conducting system?


a.
b.
c.
d.

it contains 550 ml of air


it actively participates with gas exchange
It is also known as the anatomic dead space
it is the area of the respiratory system which is perfused but not
ventilated

Answer: C
5.

(pp 477-478)

Which is true about intraalveolar pressure?

a.
b.
c.
d.

it is higher than atmospheric pressure during expiration


it is the same as atmospheric pressure during inspiration
it is the same as intrathoracic pressure during inspiration
does not change during inspiration and expiration

Answer: A
6.

Which of the following is true of SURFACTANT?


a.
b.
c.
d.

its presence decreases the work of breathing


it is a secretion of the Clara cells of the alveoli
it is responsible for the elasticity of the respiratory system
synthesis is only observed perinatally within 48-72 hrs.

Answer: A
7.

simple diffusion
facilitated diffusion
endocytosis
filtration

Answer: A

(pp 506-507)

The following have direct effects on the respiratory center in the medulla
a. Carbon Dioxide
b. Oxygen
c. Hydrogen ions
d. A and C
Answer: D

9.

(pp 479-480)

The process of gas exchange in the lungs is by


a.
b.
c.
d.

8.

(pp 478 479)

(p 516)

True about the Frank-Starling mechanism


a. once the heart rate increases above a critical level, heart strength
decreases
b. strong vagal stimulation decreases heart contraction by 20 to 30%
c. cardiac output can be increased by sympathetic stimulation
d. greater muscle stretch will result to greater force of
contraction
Answer: D

10.

(p 111-112)

What does NOT INCREASE gastric acid secretion?

a.
b.
c.
d.

High protein meals


Histamine secretion
Cholinergic stimulation
Starchy food

Answer: D
11.

What increases the absorptive surface of the small intestines by 20X


compared to the surface of a smooth tube?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Plicae circulares
Brush borders
Villi
Valvulae conniventes

Answer: B
12.

(pp. 797-798)

(pp. 812-813)

What is TRUE regarding the defecation reflex?


a. It is normally initiated by chemical irritation of the rectal mucosa
b. The enteric nervous system in the rectum mediates intrinsic
defecation reflexes
c. This reflex is permanently inhibited by keeping the external
sphincter contracted
d. Distension of the anus initiates contractions of the rectum
Answer: B

13.

A patient with impaired cardiac function with ejection fraction 40% is


expected to have
a.
b.
c.
d.

normal renal blood flow


increased effective renal blood flow
increased renal plasma flow
decreased GFR

Answer: D
14.

(pp. 789-790)

(pp 309 316)

How does the kidney handle bicarbonate?


a. the titrable acidity is equal to the total amount of HCO-3 that is
reabsorbed
b. most of filtered HCO-3 is reabsorbed through Na+H+ exchanger in
the proximal convoluted tubule
c. reabsorption of filtered HCO-3 in the proximal convoluted tubule
contributes to net secreted H+

d. formation of urinary NH+4 from glutamine leads to conservation of


filtered HCO-3
Answer: A
15.

Tubular fluid is isosmotic in which segment of the tubule?


a.
b.
c.
d.

distal convoluted tubule


descending limb of Henles loop
proximal convoluted tubule
ascending Henles loop

Answer: C
16.

total amount of albumin


total reabsorbed sodium
total amount of extracellular protein
total reabsorbed potassium

Answer: A

the GFR is increased


increased HCO3- excretion
renin is secreted
increased new HCO3 production

Answer: D

(pp 396 397)

A patient with bronchial asthma in acute exacerbation will have which of


the
following acid base problems
a.
b.
c.
d.

increased respiratory rate leading to decreased pCO2


increased respiratory rate leading to increased pO2 arterial
relatively decreased renal excretion of [H+]
relatively increased renal excretion of [HCO3]

Answer: A
19.

(pp 348 349)

When a patient suffers from metabolic acidosis, which of the following will
happen in the kidneys
a.
b.
c.
d.

18.

(pp 332 338; 349)

The amount of total body water depends on


a.
b.
c.
d.

17.

(pp 396 397)

(pp 796 797)

A transport system that is carrier-mediated, energy requiring

a.
b.
c.
d.

Falicitated diffusion
Active transport
Endocytasis
Simple diffusion

Chapter 4 page 52
20.

During the start of skeletal muscle contraction, energy source for ATP
production comes from which of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Muscle glycogen
Liver glycogen
Free fatty acids
Creatine phosphate

Chapter 6 page 72
21.

In skeletal muscle contraction, one of the following shortens


a. Actin
b. Myosin
c. Sarcomere
d. tubule
Chapter 6 page 72

22.

In a skelatel muscle contraction and relaxation, the only event that is nonenergy requiring is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Generation of muscle action potential


Release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum
Shortening of sarcometric length
Relaxation of the muscle

Chapter 6 page 80
23.

The amount of blood leaving the ventricles is 80 ml, cardiac rate is 80/ min
arterial pressure is 100 mmHg. The cardiac output is
a.
b.
c.
d.

6.4 L
0.80 L
8.0 L
0.64 L

Chapter 36 page 457


24.

How long can a sperm survive in the female genital tract?

a.
b.
c.
d.

1-2 hours
24-48 hours
12-24 hours
48-72 hours

Chapter page

25.

Which of the following terms best describe the interaction of insulin and
glucagons?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Synergistic
Permissive
Antogonistic
Cooperative

Chapter 78 page 961


26.

The increased intestinal absorption of a Ca is stimulated directly by:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Parathormone
1.25 dihydroxy vitamin D3
Calcitonin
T3

Chapter 79 page 978


27.

Ketoacidosis in untreated diabetes mellitus is due to:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Excessive fluid loss


Hypoventilation
Excessive eating and obesity
Excessive fat catabolism

Chapter 78 page 972


28.

Which of the following statements regarding distribution of ventilation in an


upright (standing) position is CORRECT?
a.
b.
c.
d.

It is greater in the lung apices than in the base


It is greater in the base than in the apices
It is equal in the apices and the bases
Its rate of increase towards the best is faster than that of perfusion

Chapter 37 page 471

29.

The factor that will shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the left:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Increased pH
Increased PCO2
Increased 2,3-DPG
Increased temperature

Chapter 40 page 502


30.

The most potent stimulus to the central chemorespiratory center is:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Hypixia
Hypercapnea
Acidosis
Hypoventilation

Chapter 41 page 518


31.

What is the hallmark of a restrictive ventilatory impairment?


a.
b.
c.
d.

VC
RV
TLC
ERV

Chapter 37 page 471


32.

Which of the following is NOT true regarding an individual with


emphysema?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Decreased pulmonary compliance


Increased airway resistance
Hyperinflation
Decreased elastanse

Chapter 42 page 526


33.

The amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end-expiratory level is


called the
a.
b.
c.
d.

ERV
FRC
RV
Vt

Chapter 42 page 526

34.

Muscle of inspiration do not include the following


a.
b.
c.
d.

Diaphragm
External intercostal muscle
Sternocleidomastoid muscle
Abdominal muscle

Chapter 9 page 103


35.

Given this data, what is the net filtration pressure at the glomerulus?
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure = 44 mmHg
Bowmans space hydrostatic pressure = 9 mmHg
Osmotic / Oncotic pressure of glomerular capillary = 28 mmHg
Osmotic/ Oncotic pressure of tubular fluid or Bowmans space = 0
a.
b.
c.
d.

5mmHg
7mmHg
25mmHg
62mmHg

Chapter 26 page 307


36.

Which of the following solutions, will most likely yeild the highest amount
of urine volume?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Isotonic
Hypotonic
Hypertonic
Osmotic diuretic

Chapter 25 page 299


37.

Which of the following circumtance would lead to an increase in GFR?


a.
b.
c.
d.

colloid osmotic pressure


ultrafiltration coefficient
bowmans capsular pressure
sympathetic tone

Chapter 26 page 307


38.

About 65% of the filtered load of sodium and water is reabsorbed by the
a. Proximal tubule
b. Thin descending limb of the Loop of Henle

c. Thick ascending limb of the Loop of Henle


d. Distal tubule
Chapter 31 page 402
39.

Because of the decreased renal blood flow resulting from decreased


cardiac output, which one of the following hormone will the kidneys
release?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Angiotensin
Bradykinin
Renin
Aldosterone

Chapter 26 page 307


40.

Which of the following factors will NOT AFFECT sodium regulation by the
kidneys?
a.
b.
c.
d.

ADH
Aldosterone
ANF
GFR

Chapter 29 page 377


41.

The following statement is true of defecation:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Immediate relaxation of the external anal sphincter


Relaxation of the rectum
Initiated by sudden distention of rectal walls
The sigmoid colon becomes quiescent

Chapter 63 page 789


42.

Because of the overproduction of ketone bodies (-hydroxybutrate &


acetoacetate) blood gases is consistent with
a.
b.
c.
d.

Respiratory Acidosis
Repiratory Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalodis

Chapter 42 page 524


43.

The main stimulus for aldosterone secretion is:

a.
b.
c.
d.

increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system


hyponatremia
hypokalemia
ACTH

Page: 950

44.

Rate of diffusion is NOT determined by:


a.
b.
c.
d.

amount of substance
velocity of kinetic motion
number and sizes of openings in cell membrane
energy availability

page: 57-58
45.

This adaptation will NOT occur in trained athletes:


a.
b.
c.
d.

hypertrophy of skeletal muscles


enlargement of heart chambers
increase in heart mass
increase in resting cardiac output

page: 1063
46.

NOT TRUE about the respiratory system in exercise:


a.
b.
c.
d.

perfusion of all pulmonary capillaries occur


pulmonary ventilation increases
respiratory system is normally the most limiting factor
blood gases remain nearly normal

page: 1061
47.

This is NOT normally found in the urine:


a.
b.
c.
d.

urea
sodium
glucose
potassium

page: 334
48.

This factor decreases potassium excretion:

a.
b.
c.
d.

aldosterone secretion
decreased extracellular fluid potassium concentration
slow tubular flow rate
increased hydrogen ion concentration

pages: 336-337
49.

The inherent rhythm for respiration appears to be located within the:


a.
b.
c.
d.

upper pons
lower pons
apneustic center
medulla

pages: 514-514
50.

When the ventilation-perfusion ratio of a lung unit decreases, the alveoli in


that unit develop a:
a.
b.
c.
d.

lower pO2 and higher pCO2


higher pO2 and lower pCO2
lower pN2
higher pN2 and higher pO2

pages: 500-501
51.

Electrolyte ion responsible for depolarizing the hair cells in the organ of
Corti:
a.
b.
c.
d.

calcium
sodium
potassium
chloride

Textbook of Medical Physiology by Guyton, 11th ed., p. 656


52.

Vascular smooth muscle relaxation is observed in the following conditions,


EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.

acidosis
excess carbon dioxide
decreased body temperature
hypoxemia

Ref: Guyton p 98

53.

In which of the following type of training should the goal is to increase the
glycolytic activity of the motor units
a.
b.
c.
d.

typing
marathon running
weight lifting
100-meter breaststroke

Ref: Guyton, p 79
54.

Addition of hypertonic solution to the ECF causes the following except:


a.
b.
c.
d.

increased plasma osmolality


increased intracellular volume
increased extracellular volume
Diffusion of fluid from the cells to the extracellular space

Ref: Guyton 10th edition page 299


55.

A state of alkalosis will lead to:


a.
b.
c.
d.

increased renal excretion of ammonium


increased renal raebsorption of bicarbonate
increased renal excretion of titratable acid
decreased rate of ventilation

Ref: Guyton 10th edition page 397

56.

Exercise prolongs life because it


a.
b.
c.
d.

Reduces HDL
Increase LDL
Increases the cardiac reserve
Decrease the pulmonary reserve

Ref: Guyton 10th Edition page 977


57.

This is a form of blood flow that flows in a steady state wherein the central
portionof blood stays at the center of the blood vessel
a.
b.
c.
d.

laminar flow
turbulent flow
straight flow
curvilinear flow

Ref: Guyton page 165


58.

The most important means by which substances are transferred between


plasma and interstitial fluid is
a.
b.
c.
d.

diffusion
osmosis
active transport
exchange transport

Ref: Guyton page 183


59.

The blood viscosity of a chronic pulmonary patient with a hematocrit level


of 70 vol%
a.
b.
c.
d.

Will remain normal


Will be higher than normal
Will be lower than normal
Will be lower than normal in circulatory segments with slow blood
flow rates but higher than normal in segments with fast blood flow
rates
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p.169

60.

The following pulmonary function test are decreased in COPD, EXCEPT:


a.
b.
c.
d.

timed expiratory volume, FEV1


maximum expiratory flow rate
FEV1/FVC
FVC
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 526

61.

Which of the following phases of swallowing is voluntary:


a.
b.
c.
d.

oral phase
pharyngeal phase
esophageal phase
All of the above
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 782

62.

The function of the gastric mucosal mucosal barrier is to:

a.
b.
c.
d.

It prevents absorption to occur in the stomach


It protects autodigestion of the gastric mucosa
It retards desquamation of gastric epithelium
It ensures integrity of absorption of Vitamin B12
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall pp. 820-21

63.

Gastric contents are propelled up to the esophagus during vomiting by:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Forceful contraction of abdominal muscles


Sucked up by deep inspiratory movement
Spastic contraction of gastric walls
Forceful expansion of the thorax
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 824

64.

In paraplegics, defecation is mediated by centers located in the:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Enteric walls
Sacral spinal cord
Medulla and pons
Cerebral cortex
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 790

65.

In endocrine systems, the specificity of communication is determined by:


a.
b.
c.
d.

hormone chemical structure


distance between endocrine gland and target cell
presence of receptors in target cells
anatomic connections between endocrine gland and target cells
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 910

66.

The kidney enzyme 1-hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of


a. cholecalciferol to dehydrocholesterol
b. Vitamin D3 to Vitamin D2
c. 25-(OH) vitamin D to 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D

d. calcium to hydroxyapatite
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 984
67.

An inhibitor of vasopressin secretion:


a.
b.
c.
d.

decreased extracellular fluid volume, ECF


decreased plasma oncotic pressure
exercise
stress
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 928

68.

Which of the following is true of diabetes insipidus:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Can only be treated by surgical removal of the tumor


Urine of patients with low osmolality and high specific gravity
Cardinal symptoms include polyuria and polydipsia
Associated with excessive oxytocin secretion
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall pp. 928-29

69.

The following hormones are hyperglycemic, EXCEPT:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Insulin
Glucagon
Cortisol
Epinephrine
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall pp. 971-72

70.

The enlargement of the thyroid gland in iodine-deficiency goiter is due to:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Thyroid Releasing Hormone, TRH


Thryroid Stimulating Hormone, TSH
Thryoxine
Thyronine
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 938

71.

The following effects of hypothyroidism in infants and children are


reversible, EXCEPT:
a.
b.
c.
d.

mental retardation
stunting of growth
failure of endochondral ossification
sluggish metabolism
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 942

72.

If a substance has a urinary excretion rate that is less than its filtration
rate, that means that
a.
b.
c.
d.

There was net reabsorprtion


There was net secretion
The amount filtered equaled the amount reabsorbed
The amount filtered equaled the amount secreted
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p.314

73.

The rise in body temperature during the secretory phase of the menstrual
cycle is caused by the effect of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Estrogen on the anterior pituitary


Follicle stimulating hormone on the ovary
Luteinizing hormone on the anterior pituitary
Progesterone on the hypothalamus
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 1025

74.

Post-menopausal women are prone to develop bone fractures because


lack of estrogen increases
a.
b.
c.
d.

osteoclastic activity in bone


bone matrix
parathyroid homone synthesis
calcitonin synthesis
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 1017

75.

Which of the following laboratory findings on analysis of semen is the most


probably cause of a patients infertility?
Sperm count of 120 million per ml
pH of 7.35
4 ml of ejaculate per emission
Only three-fourths of the sperms are morphologically normal
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 1001

76.

The appropriate stimulus for erythropoiesis is:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Increased population of old red cells in circulation


Tissue hypoxia
Infection
Stress
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 922

77.

The clinical problem posed by polycythemia is:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Decreased oxygenation of peripheral tissues


Increased viscosity of blood
Immaturity of red cells in the circulation
Shortened lifespan of red cells
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 428

78.

In ABO blood group, the agglutinins are present in the


a.
b.
c.
d.

serum
red blood cells
pluripotent stem cells
interstitial fluid
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11e (Int'l Ed) by
Guyton and Hall p. 452