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Egg Cookery

Egg Cookery

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Egg Cookery
Egg Cookery

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Published by: Thefoodiesway on Apr 16, 2010
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01/19/2014

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Egg Cookery

EGG COOKERY 
     

Structure, composition, nutritive value, selection Storage Uses Methods of cooking eggs

Structure of the Egg   

The egg is a biological structure intended by nature for reproduction. It protects and provides a complete diet for the developing embryo, and serves as the principal source of food for the first few days of the chick's life. The egg is also one of the most nutritious and versatile of human foods.

Structure

Quality and Freshness 

When the egg is freshly laid, the shell is completely filled. The air cell is formed by contraction of the contents during cooling and by the loss of moisture. A high-quality egg has highonly a small air cell.

Quality and Freshness 

The yolk is well-centered in the albumen and is wellsurrounded by the vitelline membrane, which is colorless. The germinal disc, where fertilization takes place, is attached to the yolk. On opposite sides of the yolk are two, twisted, whitish cord-like objects cordknown as chalazae. Their function is to support the yolk in the center of the albumen. Chalazae may vary in size and density, but do not affect either cooking performance or nutritional value.

Quality and Freshness 

A large portion of the albumen is thick. Surrounding the albumen are two shell membranes and the shell itself. The shell contains several thousand pores that permit the egg to "breathe."

Composition  

An average-sized egg weighs approximately average57 grams . The shell constitutes 11 percent; the white, 58 percent; and the yolk, 31 percent. Normally, The percentage composition of the edible portions is:

Composition 


Percent Water Protein Fat Ash Whole egg 74 13 11 1 White Yolk 88 48 11 17 33 1  

Essential nutrients 

Eggs are especially valuable as a source of protein. In fact, egg protein is used as the standard against which the quality of other food proteins is measured. One egg contains about 6 to 7 grams of protein. People of all ages need adequate protein for building and repairing body tissues.

Essential nutrients    

The fat in the yolk is so finely emulsified that it is digested easily, even by infants. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fats is about 2 to 1. This is considered very desirable. Eggs contain vitamin A, B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin), and vitamin D. Eggs also contain an abundant supply of minerals, such as iron and phosphorus Eggs are low in calcium (it is in the shell), and contain little or no vitamin C.

freshness  

Eggs are perishable and it's easy to lose track of their expiration dates as they all look the same in there little white shells. Eggs will normally stay fresh for two weeks after they are purchased if refrigerated properly. Most refrigerators have egg holders, Here are some ways to tell if your eggs are fresh:

Freshness  

Place eggs in a bowl of water. If the egg is fresh, it will sink to the bottom and lie on its side. An older egg will stand up on one end and if the eggs are REALLY old, they may even float. An egg white that appears cloudy is a sign of a fresh egg and egg whites that are thick are also very fresh. Egg whites thin out as they age.

Freshness 

Blood spots are occasionally found on an egg yolk. Contrary to popular opinion, these tiny spots do not indicate a fertilized egg. Rather, they are caused by the rupture of a blood vessel on the yolk surface during formation of the egg. These eggs are fit to eat. The spot can be removed with the tip of a knife, if you wish. The stringy strands of material in the egg are called chalazae, which hold the yolk in place. chalazae,

Freshness Tests 

The Weight Test: In the supermarket, before you Test: purchase your eggs, put one in your hand and try to see how heavy it is. The heavier the egg, the fresher it is. 

The Light Test: Hold your egg up to a light and look Test: for a little air pocket. The air pocket starts to grow as the egg gets older. The fresher the egg the smaller the little air pocket.

storage 


Eggs should be stored in an egg carton. The carton protects the eggs and prevents them from absorbing strong odours and flavours of other foods through the thousands of tiny pores in the shell. Store away from strong smelling foods
Leftover raw egg whites and yolks should be put in airtight containers and stored in the refrigerator immediately. To prevent yolks from drying up, cover them with a little cold water. Drain the water before using.   

Nutrition 

There are no nutritional differences between brown eggs and white eggs. Eggs contain all nine essential amino acids, making them a complete protein food. Eggs are one of the few foods that naturally contain vitamin D. The egg yolk is the major source of the egg's vitamins and minerals.    

Nutrition 

Protein is composed of 20 different amino acids. There are 9 essential amino acids that the body cannot make, and so they must come from foods. Eggs are one of the few foods considered to be a complete protein because they provide all nine essential amino acids.

Cooking 

Serve eggs and egg-rich foods immediately eggafter cooking
If a recipe calls for eggs at room temperature, immerse them in warm water for a few minutes.  

To prevent toughness, always use moderate heat and controlled cooking times for eggs.

Methods of cooking 

BASIC FRIED EGGS: Heat a non-stick nonskillet until just hot enough to sizzle a drop of water. Or use a regular skillet and add a small amount of butter or oil. Break eggs into the skillet. Immediately reduce heat to low. Season as desired and cook slowly to preferred firmness, covering with lid, or turn eggs gently to cook both sides.

Methods of cooking 

STEAM-FRIED EGGS: Reduce butter to just STEAMenough to grease pan or use light coating of cooking spary and/or nonstick pan. In a frying pan over mediummedium-high heat, heat butter until just hot enough to sizzle a drop of water. Break and slip eggs into pan. Immediately reduce heat to low. Cook until edges turn white, about 1 minutes. Add 1 teaspoon water . Cover pan tightly with lid to hold in steam. Cook until whites are completely set and yolks begin to thicken but are not hard. Remove from pan and season as desired.

Care while cooking 

Sometimes a large batch of scrambled eggs may turn green. the colour change is harmless. It is due to a chemical change brought on by heat and occurs when eggs are cooked at too high a temperature, held for too long or both. Using stainless steel equipment and low cooking temperature, cooking in small batches and serving as soon as possible after cooking will help to prevent this. 

Care while cooking 

The egg yolk and white separate best when they are cold.
Egg whites will beat to a better volume if they're allowed to stand at room temperature for 20 to 30 minutes before beating. 

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS 

The functional properties of eggs have been utilized by cooks, chefs, and food manufacturers. The role eggs play in food preparation are numerous. 

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS  

One of the most common functions of liquid egg is its ability to coagulate or solidify when heated. This ability is of importance in the preparation of cakes, frostings, sauces, hard-cooked eggs, hardquiche, scrambled eggs, and fried eggs.

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS 

Aeration and structural improvement of the egg when whipped creates foam in products resulting in lighter and airier products like meringues, mousses, and cakes such as sponge

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS   

The emulsifying capacity of the egg yolk is utilized in the preparation of salad dressings and sauces. The phospholipids and lipoproteins serve as surface active agents allowing emulsions such as oil and water.

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS 
 

Adhesive properties used to stick ingredients such as seeds and grains to food products such as health bars, variety breads, and snacks. Keeping breads and frozen doughs from turning soggy is another function

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS   



Eggs improve on the texture and acceptability of products Binding by eggs holds food products together as in snack foods and prepared entrees, and eggs are often used in meat loaves. The binding is really the result of the coagulation of the egg. Clarification of soups, wines and juices

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS 

Commercial application for the desired brown color of baked products such as rolls, buns, and variety breads is Eggs are used to contribute color to baked goods, noodles, and custards. 

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS  

Eggs are used as egg white wash, either sprayed or brushed on sweet breads, cookies, and frostings, to give the surface a shine after baking.

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS 

Eggs improve and impart a desirable egg flavor to custards and confections. The ability of eggs to lock in flavor and aroma by coating of baked goods and snacks 



FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS 

Egg is often an ingredient in batters for deep fat frying of chicken to get the same effect. Eggs improve on texture and acceptability Eggs holds moisture in variety of breads and rolls  

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS  

Eggs provide substantial body to a variety of breads, sweet goods, and puddings A consumer wants a soft bread that is attained in breads and rolls by including eggs in the formulation

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS   

Eggs act as a pH buffer and to maintain a stable pH so that food product formulations won¶t be disrupted. Shelf life extension is an important factor in all food distribution. In commercial bread formulations, eggs keep starch molecules moist and fresh

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS   

Texture: improvement in rolls and light foods is possible by using eggs in the product formulation. Eggs tend to firm up the texture of food products and provide crumb improvement. The final roles attributed to eggs are the thickening of sauces and gravies

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS 

The adding of body to achieve product improvement in sauces, toppings, and some prepared foods.

Methods of cooking 

In France, this basic methods of baked eggs is called "oeufs en cocotte." For individual servings of baked eggs, in ramekins, custard cups, individual soufflé dishes, or small oval bakers .
Bake in a preheated 325° F oven approximately 12 to 14 325° minutes, Check the eggs after about 10 minutes baking time. When done, the whites should be completely set and the yolks beginning to thicken but not hard.  

Methods of cooking: Meringues 

Meringue recipes work better with eggs that are at least 3 or 4 days old. old. Cold eggs separate more easily than those at room temperature because the whites hold together better. To separate an egg: Crack the egg and hold the shell halves over a bowl. Transfer the yolk back and forth between the halves, letting the white drop into the bowl. Do not cut the yolk (whites containing any yolk will not beat properly). Transfer the yolk to another bowl.  

The tiniest bit of fat or egg yolk will wreck a meringue. meringue. When separating eggs, if a speck of egg yolk falls into the egg whites, lift it out with an empty eggshell half. Do not try to fish it out with your fingers; the oil on your skin will prevent fingers; the egg whites from expanding.

Meringues 

After separating, bring egg whites to room temperature to ensure volume when beating, as warmer eggs whip faster than cold eggs. Usually 30 minutes is adequate to obtain room temperature. Copper, stainless-steel, or glass bowls work best for making stainlessmeringues. Avoid using plastic bowls for whipping egg whites as they can often harbor traces of grease, which prevents the whites from getting stiff. Make sure that all your utensils are immaculately clean, completely grease-free, and completely dry. Avoid letting greasedry. your fingers touch the areas that will come in contact with the egg whites. whites.  

Meringues  

Place the egg whites into a large, tall bowl and set your mixer to its highest speed and start making bubbles! Beating or whisking causes the protein in the egg whites to unfold, forming films that trap the air bubbles, and the sugar stiffens the foam. As the mixing time increases, the bubbles become smaller and more numerous; this increases the volume and makes a more-stable structure. (A beaten egg white morecan increase six to eight times its original volume

Methods of cooking: Poaching  

The best eggs for poaching are the freshest eggs you can find. If eggs are more than a week old, the whites thin out. Whites of fresh eggs will gather compactly around the yolk, making a rounder, neater shape. Use cold eggs right out of the refrigerator. Use a pan that is at least 3 inches deep so there is enough water to cover the eggs and they do not stick to the bottom of the pan. To prevent sticking, grease the pan with a little oil before filling with water. Bring the poaching liquid to a boil and then reduce to a simmer before adding the eggs (bubbles should not break the surface).

Poached Eggs  

 

Break each egg onto a saucer or into small cups or bowls. Slip eggs carefully into simmering water by lowering the lip of each egg cup 1/2-inch below the 1/2surface of the water. Let the eggs flow out. Immediately cover with a lid and turn off the heat. Cook 3 to 5 minutes, depending on firmness desired. Remove from water with slotted spoon. Lift each perfectly poached egg from the water with a slotted spoon, but hold it over the skillet briefly to let any water clinging to the egg drain off. Drain well before serving.

Methods of cooking 

The secret to successfully scrambling eggs is slow cooking. A rubber spatula does a good job of moving the eggs. Don't worry about melting the rubber - the heat is (or should be) too low to damage it.

Scrambled eggs 

Always remove scrambled eggs from the heat when they are almost set but still appear shiny and a bit underdone. If it is necessary to hold scrambled eggs for a short time before serving, it helps to avoid direct heat. Place a pan of hot water between the pan of eggs and the heat source.

Scrambled eggs 

Tip: After removing the pan with the scrambled eggs from the heat, add a teaspoon of cold light cream of milk for each four eggs and stir fast for a second. This is to stop the cooking, which would otherwise continue for a few minutes by the internal heat retained by the eggs. Without this last step, the eggs would be overcooked and dry.

Scrambled eggs 

Microwave: In a custard cup, beat together eggs, milk, and salt and pepper (if desired). Cook on full power, stirring one or twice, 1 to 1 1/2 minutes or until almost set.

Scrambled Eggs Turning Green 

: Sometimes a large batch of scrambled eggs may turn green. Although not pretty, the color change is harmless. It is due to a chemical change, the formation of ferrous sulfide from iron in the yolks and sulfur in the whites, brought on by heat and occurs when eggs are cooked in an iron skillet, cooked at too high a temperature, or held for too long. Using stainless steel equipment, using a low cooking temperature, cooking in small batches, and serving as soon as possible after cooking will help to prevent this.

Methods of cooking 


Making Omelets The proper pan is important for successful omelet making. For a 2 or 3 egg omelet, an 88inch (20 cm) skillet is the best size. It should be shallow with slopping sides to make it easy to slide the finished omelet out. If too large a pan is used, the high heat necessary cannot be maintained and cooking will be prolonged, resulting in a tough omelet.

Omelettes 

Individual omelet¶s can be quickly made in succession and held on serving plates in a warm oven. A good quality non-stick coating on the pan nonsimplifies omelet making. Give an uncoated pan an almost stick free surface by treating with salt: Heat pan, and then remove from heat. Add 1 tsp (5 ml) or more of salt and dry-scrub thoroughly with paper drytowel. Empty salt from pan and repeat until salt remains white. The salt acts as an abrasive, leaving a satiny smooth surface Wipe pan clean

Omelettes 
 

The pan is hot enough when a drop of water will roll around instead of bursting into steam immediately. Water, not milk, is recommended for omelet egg mixtures. The water turns to steam, producing a light, airy omelet. Milk is great for creamy scrambled eggs but omelets require water to give them their lightness. Omelets, like scrambled eggs, cook very quickly. Always have your filling ingredients chopped, cooked, and ready before you begin cooking the eggs.

Coddled eggs  

Coddled eggs are made by very briefly immersing an egg in the shell in boiling water (to cook in water just below the boiling point) to slightly cook or coddle them. The best eggs for coddling are the freshest eggs you can find. If eggs are more than a week old, the whites thin out. whites of fresh eggs will gather compactly around the yolk, making a rounder, neater shape.

Micro wave cooking  

EGGS MICRO-COOKED IN THEIR MICROSHELLS WILL EXPLODE! Even out of the shell eggs may explode in the microwave because rapid heating causes a buildup of steam. Always use a wooden pick or tip of a knife to break the yolk membrane of an unbeaten egg before micro-cooking to allow microthe steam to escape.

Methods of cooking 
 

Egg Custard It is a baked sweet or dessert made by pouring sweetened hot milk over beaten egg and cooked over a double boiler till it attains a coating consistency Temp: 160 degrees C

Other products   

Eggnog: It is a nourishing drink made by mixing beaten eggs with sugar, hot milk and rum or brandy Egg Sauce: Boiled, diced egg mixed with butter , bechamel and lemon juice Egg threads: Beaten eggs mixed with water dropped in boiling water through a strainer. Cooked, drained and used as a garnish

Cooking Eggs 

Why does the yolk turn green in boiled eggs? The greengreen-gray color (and the whiff of sulfur smell that often accompanies it) comes from the reaction of iron in the egg yolk and sulfur in the egg white. When heated, the two can combine to make green-gray greenferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide gas. To avoid getting a green yolk, cook eggs just long enough to reach the desired doneness²no more. And quickly doneness² plunge the boiled cooked eggs into cold water to stop the cooking process and minimize the iron-sulfur ironreaction.

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