The Total Classical Guitar Method (tm

The guitar is a deceptively simple instrument. Andres Segovia, the great Spanish
classical guitarist, once described it as the easiest instrument in the world to play badly.
For many people, learning to play classical guitar is a frustrating and difficult
experience. Why is it that so many people never progress beyond those first simple
chords? After 30+ years of performing and teaching the guitar, I've concluded that too
often the building is built before the foundation is laid. The purpose of this Total
Classical Guitar Method is to offer an accurate, detailed, and complete course of study
that will lay the proper foundation for a lifelong study of this incredible instrument.
Although this method can be successfully learned without the assistance of a teacher, I
recommend strongly that you find a qualified teacher once you understand the basics of
the guitar. You would be appalled at how many self-proclaimed guitar teachers don't
have a clue about what it takes to really play the guitar. By the end of the first few
lessons in this method you'll be able to recognize when you've found a qualified teacher.
This method is called the Total Classical Guitar Method because it teaches each of the
fundamentals of playing the classical guitar sequentially, before allowing the student to
encounter the need to use any previously unlearned fundamental skill. Each new skill
builds only on previously learned skills. Because the foundation is built one step at a
time, the student is "totally" prepared for the next lesson before it is introduced.
I have designed this method to prevent bad habits from forming, therefore progress is
always forward. To some people this may be initially frustrating. Some people will
expect to be able to play the guitar after only a few lessons. I could teach you to strum a
few chords and pick a simple but intricate sounding "picking pattern" in a single lesson.
You'd come back and want to learn a few more chords and a few more picking patterns,
then a few more, and on and on, until one day you'd came back and tell me you wanted
to play music. At that point I'd have to undo everything you had already learned and
then, after ten times the effort you put into learning how to play badly, you would be
back at the starting point ready to begin again. What a waste of both of our time!
Chances are good that you would put the guitar away and never try playing it again.
Another big waste of talent and a loss of all the years of pleasure the guitar could have
brought you and others who could have enjoyed listening to you play. Please be patient.
You will learn a skill that will last a lifetime and it deserves a solid foundation.
The focus of this method will always be the art of making music. Although the details are
grounded in the physical interaction between you and your instrument, I will continually
stress the absolute necessity of mental focus on the music itself. Playing classical guitar
is not an athletic event. I've "been there and done that". Practicing scales while
watching Monday night football is not what this method is about. Fifteen minutes a day
of truly focused practice is infinitely better than two hours of mindless finger exercises. If
I can help you understand only one fact, that making music is the art of communicating,
my efforts in writing this method will have been generously rewarded. Think of the times
in your life when you have looked someone in the eye and focused your whole being on
that other person. Music has the power to hold entire groups of listeners in that same
intimate embrace. You can make that happen if you focus on communication as your

personal musical goal. I hope that this Classical Guitar method will help you achieve
that result in your own musical odyssey.

Book 1 -- Lesson 1 -- Basics
The goal of lesson 1 is to identify and explain general areas that need to be addressed
if you are to be successful at learning to play classical guitar. These areas include
mental attitude and physical control. The necessary mental attitude requires you to
open yourself to new ideas, let go of old habits, and free yourself to expand musically.
Proper physical control requires removing all tension from your body while playing,
learning to use only the motion of your body absolutely required to make music, and
making the instrument an extension of yourself.
Mental Attitude
Playing Classical Guitar is as much a mental effort as it is a physical effort, perhaps
even more so. Let's take a couple of steps to prepare our minds for this challenge.
Making room for new ideas
An old story relates an incident where a young man claiming to want to learn something
new about the art of Zen visited a famous Zen master. It was obvious to the master at
the outset that this young man had already thought he had reached an understanding
well beyond his years, but that he was coming to the master simply to be able to say to
others that he had indeed studied with the great teacher. The master invited the young
man to share a cup of tea with him and he proceeded to fill the young man's cup. When
the tea reached the top of the cup, the master continued to pour more tea from the pot.
After a short while, the tea began to run over the cup and onto the floor, and, finally, the
young man could not contain his anxiety and shouted "stop, the cup will hold no more."
"So it is with any idea," said the master, "you must first empty your cup before it can
again be filled."
This same concept is very true for the classical guitar. If you insist on holding on to your
old ideas about playing the guitar, save yourself some time and trouble and stop here.
You won't be able to learn classical guitar until you are willing to let go of what you think
you already know.
Forgetting old habits and pre-conceptions
The degree of success you will have in playing classical guitar is directly proportional to
your ability to do what is required, but ONLY what is required in order to accomplish
your musical goal. My experience has shown that the most difficult students of classical
guitar are those who have already reached a significant level of competence in some
other musical style on the guitar. I played the electric guitar for ten years before I started
studying classical guitar. I had developed such bad habits that it took two years just to
undo past mistakes. You will learn not only how to play properly, but you'll learn why this
way is the proper way. The fundamental approaches and methods in these lessons
have been proven by all of the most successful classical guitarists of our time. They
were taught to me by teachers from some of the world's most respected institutions,
including the Andres Segovia school of music in Spain, the University of Southern
California, the University of Texas in Austin, SMU in Dallas, and the University of North
Carolina. When you learn to play classical guitar using this method, you'll have the best
information available anywhere. What you do with that knowledge will then be up to you.
Opening the door to any possibilities
Classical music places a huge demand on a performer's ability to focus her mind on the
task at hand. Solo classical music challenges our ability to maintain conscious control
over several simultaneous musical events. You can get some sense of the magnitude of
the task by trying to simply listen and to understand two separate conversations at the

same time. The key word in the last sentence is "understand." Many people learn to
play very difficult pieces, but they accomplish that feat by simply learning to move their
fingers with great agility in complex patterns. These players are not great musicians.
They may be great guitar players but it's not the purpose of these lessons to just create
great players. Truly great musicians have developed the ability to view an entire piece of
music as a whole, yet be able to focus clearly on the details of each musical line as it
contributes to the overall musical idea.
One of the goals of this approach to studying classical guitar is to allow the student to
experience the full musical impact of each piece of music studied. As you progress from
simple to more complex music, you'll find that your understanding and appreciation of
classical music also progresses. Pieces suitable for classical guitar students at each
increasingly demanding level are chosen to expand their mental as well as their
physical capacity. You'll find that your musical and emotional pallettes are inextricably
linked. The goal of these lessons is always to teach you to make music, and that goal
can be achieved at any level of ability. Some people call this concept "musical sincerity."
If the mind's not there, the message will also be missing.
Physical Control
One of the most important abilities we need to master in order to play the classic guitar
is the ability to keep our entire bodies relaxed while playing. A student at a master class
at SMU in Dallas once asked the instructor "How do you know if you're relaxed
enough?" the instructor responded "If you fall off the chair you know you were too
relaxed". That got the appropriate chuckle from the audience, but the response was
dead on. Playing the classical guitar is not "hard." As a matter of fact, the easier YOU
MAKE IT, the quicker you will progress. It is all too often the case that most of the time
spent in beginning lessons is just having the student get rid of tension. Tension is the
enemy! Not only will it keep you from progressing, but its presence is brutal to any
audience. If you listen to a classical guitarist and you find yourself squirming in your
chair, you can bet you're feeling the tension he's creating. We'll talk later about how to
recognize tension and how to control it with relaxation - suffice to say that you'd be
really surprised at how this ugly demon finds it's way into our playing. Once you've
learned to identify tension, you will also be surprised at how easy it is to eliminate.
Minimum effort, minimum motion
We've all been raised in an era of electronic music where the electric guitar is king and
body contortions, twisted facial expressions, and all sorts of extraneous physical
motions are almost required if one is to be considered a great player. Forget it! Classical
guitar is a aural art form. There is no motion of any part of the body except those parts
which are directly involved in creating the music. There will be many references to this
important principal in future lessons, but, for the time being think about your own
personal experiences with this concept. The physical effort applied to anything should
always be consistant with the task at hand.
You are the extension of your instrument
What does it mean to "make the instrument an extension of your body?" The answer to
this question involves understanding 1) the motion of your body, 2) the response of your
instrument to that motion, and 3) the timing required to synchronize your motions and
the instrument's response. The required choreography of the fingers and hands rivals
the most intricate ballet production. These three elements will become an important part
of your "technique". Don't underestimate the importance of these concepts - they are
the essence of the physical requirements of playing classical guitar.
Review of Lesson 1

Tools of the Trade Classical Guitar Definition Classical Guitar is a combination of three elements: the instrument. Good luck. I assure you that once you learn to play Classical Guitar you will insist on having a Classic Guitar whenever you play in that style. the music. and to playing Classical Guitar." The Classic Guitar is constructed to allow the top of the instrument to vibrate but to suppress vibration in the neck. In the previous lesson I talked about the instrument being an extension of you and how the coordination between your motions and the response of the instrument were key factors in playing Classical Guitar. or sides. If you find that to be the case. Lesson 2 breaks from the theoretical to the practical and talks about the instrument and the other items you will need before we actually get into playing. and a guitar designed for nylon strings will probably break in half if you try to string it to pitch with steel strings. the center section moves to radiate the music. 3/4 and full size models. Don't expect that you fully understand or appreciate the importance of these concepts. This is not just my opinion. the casing must be rigid to support smooth motion of the center. back. The Instrument The Classic Guitar is a hollow bodied wooden instrument with six strings. These basic ideas will apply to every lesson that follows and they will be expanded upon and brought up many times as you progress in your efforts to learn to make music. I hope we can continue to work together until you reach your musical goals! Book 1 -. Properly made guitars of either type (steel string or nylon string) are designed to resonate most effectively at the "operating tension" of the instrument. it is because the entire technique of playing Classical Guitar depends on using a Classic Guitar. First of all. Someone familiar with another type of guitar might find a Classic Guitar bulky or not as sleek or easy to play. Classic Guitars are available in 1/2. The wrong type of instrument will not respond properly and this Total Classical Guitar Method will not work on anything but a true Classic Guitar. the higher sounding 3 strings are nylon.You should now understand the importance of mastering both the mental and physical aspects of playing Classical guitar. and the style of playing. A solid body guitar does not resonate and will not project any reasonable level of sound. They are ideas and revelations that take on more and more meaning as your own personal experience grows on the instrument. This is similar to how an electric speaker works. Do not try to play Classical Guitar on a steel string guitar or on any other type of guitar besides a true Classic Guitar. The type of string is critical to both the Classic Guitar itself. I'll point out some of the key features of the Classic Guitar and how those features are important to Classical Guitar playing. Playing Classical Guitar requires that you use a combination of contact with your finger nails and with the fleshy part of your finger tips for picking. This requires . the lower sounding strings have a nylon center with some type of metal winding. the neck of the Classic Guitar is wider than that of a steel string electric or acoustic guitar so that the strings may be further separated on the instrument to allow easier access to each string for "finger picking" as opposed to "strumming " or picking with a "pick.Lesson 2 -. please refer to the introduction of these lessons and drop your pre-conceived ideas about Classical Guitar. A guitar designed for steel strings will not respond properly with nylon strings. Each element is described below. Steel strings have a much higher tension than nylon strings when tuned to the correct pitch.

Fortunately. and a tuning crank." Price is often a good metric for determining the quality of a Classic Guitar. The Music Almost every type of music has been either transcribed or written for the Classical Guitar. When I discuss tuning in the lesson 5 I will explain how to check the strings to make sure they have not "gone bad. The Style of Playing The style of playing is much more objective than the definition of the music. most guitars manufactured today are pre-setup at the factory to have a usable Action and this is rarely a problem anymore." I'm not even going to try to expand or comment on this definition. Nylon has a tendency to stretch unevenly along the length of the string. You can apply the Classical Guitar style on a Classic Guitar to any music you choose once you have developed your own ability to play the instrument.. please send me email and I will try to locate a reliable source for those type of Classic Guitars in your area. however. a foot stool. you should get a good quality beginner's Classic Guitar with carrying cases. You should also purchase a good quality nail care kit which contains a coarse. The quality of the sound is also very dependent on the construction of the top of the guitar.. as distinguished from ephemeral works that quickly disappear from the programs. I recommend a foldable stand to begin with so that it can be easily transported or stored. Classical music is difficult to define but quoting from one of the definitions in the "Harvard Dictionary of Music": ".. a music stand. These items should be all you will need to progress to the intermediate level. If you decide that you want a concert quality instrument.the strings must not be too high or too low. steel strings will rip off your finger nails and make it impossible to control the sound. My definition of Classical Guitar style is: playing with simultaneous conscious and separate control of each individual voice present in the music by using all four fingers of the "fretting" hand and by using the thumb and the first three fingers of the "picking" hand.. Playing with a "pick" is not playing in the Classical Guitar style. . The height of the strings above the neck (Action) is also very important . a supplemental music book with some graded pieces. At the very least. a metronome. for our purposes we will use "standard" Classical Guitar repertoire as the music we will study together. Mass produced Classic Guitars often have plywood tops with a thin layer of cedar or spruce wood laminated (glued on) to the plywood to give the appearance of a quality top. and fine emory board to be used to correctly shape your fingernails.careful shaping and use of the finger nails of the picking hand. a tuning fork. This uneven stretching often causes the string to vibrate unevenly and to make the instrument appear to have intonation problems. Famous Classic Guitar makers usually have carefully selected pieces of wood which will eventually be made into the tops of Classic Guitars aging for years in their workshops. be warned that is not always the case. medium. Intonation and the ability of the instrument to be properly tuned and to stay in tune are critical elements of a Classic Guitar.the word 'classic' denotes music of established value and fame. it is wise to wait until you know how to select an instrument before spending too much money. you will be very disappointed with the sound. Unless you have a professional Classical Guitarist available to help you select an instrument. Once again. Other necessary equipment Music stand Music stands come in many shapes and sizes. modern construction techniques have eliminated those type of problems in all but the cheapest of instruments. The one area which remains a problem with the Classic Guitar today is in the strings themselves. at which point you might want to consider purchasing a better quality instrument. Never accept a Classic Guitar with a laminated top.

however. too often devolved into acoustic nausea when I listened to the playback of the recording. Body chemistry is important because the oils from your skin cause the strings to lose their brilliance. Tuning crank This item makes it easier to change your strings and you will appreciate its importance once you change the strings on your guitar for the first time. It is only used to tune one string. You'll find a metronome to be a useful and welcome tool. It never lies about my playing and listens patiently no matter how long I demand its attention. Had I not personally experienced the benefits of this tool I would never have acknowledged how distorted my perception could have been of my own playing. Footstool or Cradle The Classic Guitar must be held in a very stable position while it is being played(explained in the next lesson). that it is sometimes almost impossible for an audience to focus on listening to the music. This is especially true if the player has a history of lower back pain. but be aware that the suction cups can damage the finish of the guitar. Strings go "dead" after a period of use or they develop cracks at the point where the string makes contact with the frets. especially if you plan on performing for an audience outside of your immediate loved ones. A footstool or guitar cradle allows you to position the guitar properly with respect to your body so that it will be easier to play and more comfortable to hold.Metronome I consider this a necessary piece of equipment because it is a totally objective constraint which forces a player to understand the rhythm which the composer intended for a piece of music. you might want to watch your fingers to see that they are "behaving themselves" and not flying around the air as you play. There are great players who move their bodies and fidget so noticeably while performing. the other strings are always tuned relative to that one string which was tuned to the tuning fork. it's mindless repetitive practicing in a mechanical way that causes a person to learn to play like a machine. If the cradle is more comfortable for you then you should use it. Tuning fork A tuning fork is necessary so that you can establish the correct reference pitch for tuning the instrument. It's not a metronome that creates a mechanical player. Guitar Stand . Rhythmic changes and expressive nuances that sounded so poetic while I heard myself playing them live. Optional Equipment Full Length Mirror It is often helpful to view yourself while playing so that you can see exactly how your body is moving while you play. depending on how often you play and on the chemistry of your own body. Tape Recorder The tape recorder has become my best friend when I practice." In the next lesson we will talk about how to tune the guitar. I highly recommend this tool and suggest that you use it faithfully. some people find the cradle more comfortable for long periods of playing. Strings should be changed at one to four month intervals. I could only listen to him if I kept my eyes closed during his performance. Some teachers feel that use of a metronome will create a "mechanical" player. The standard tuning fork reference pitch for a guitar (and classical music in general) is "A-440. In the case of one very famous (and here un-named) guitarist. I do not recommend the use of a cradle because it attaches to the instrument with rubber suction cups and it could damage the finish on some Classic Guitar. Even if your extraneous motion is not that exaggerated.

By beginning your practice sessions in this manner you will learn to become immediately relaxed as soon as you assume this position. even permanent damage to your tendons and ligaments. Lesson 4 will talk about the care and shaping of the fingernails and Lesson 5 will discuss the art of tuning the instrument so we can actually begin playing.This piece of equipment is convenient if you play frequently during the day and you want the guitar accessable near your practice chair. just flip to the other hand or leg and you'll be fine. arms. That type of deep relaxation is absolutely necessary for performance and it's best to begin now to learn how to reach that relaxed state quickly. Your legs should be kept at about the width of your shoulders. Your body will ultimately find its own best position. Your arms should be resting comfortably at your sides. let's learn the basic playing position. if you're not. "You must hold the instrument EXACTLY as shown or you will never progress as a player. there should not be a problem. and legs. peruse your local music store and flip through as many books on Classical Guitar as you can find. I'll explain how to modify the nominal position and how to recognize when you're moving toward your best playing position. If there are frequent or rapid changes in temperature or humidity. To begin with. back. Ok. The . shoulders. It's also useful if you frequently change music on your music stand and want to put the guitar down without having to return the instrument to its case. If you keep the instrument in a room that is fairly stable with regard to temperature and humidity.You and your Guitar This lesson describes exactly how you and your guitar work together to allow you to make music. For simplicity. or. You should be in the basic relaxed position (see above). Holding the Classic Guitar Many method books on Classical Guitar describe how to hold the instrument in almost pedantic terms. go into a quiet room and sit on a hard flat chair that is high enough so that your legs will be bent at 90 degree angles at the knees with your feet flat on the floor. I'm going to describe how to hold the guitar in several steps.Lesson 3-. neck.a modification of the "nominal" position that I will describe . The only drawback to using a guitar stand is that Classic Guitars are affected by changes in temperature and humidity in the air. When you have a few extra moments.which player has evolved in deference to his/her own body. how. Your back should be straight and your shoulders should be relaxed and level with each other. we need to discover how to relax in the proper sitting position. Concentrate on letting all the tension out of your body and forgetting about all the activities of the day. that is not true. The Basic Sitting Position Before picking up the guitar." Fortunately. Continue breathing in and out slowly in this position until you can feel all the tension fade in your head. It covers the "what. to force any other situation will most likely result in discomfort while playing. The first step involves the position of your legs and the rotation of the instrument on your left leg. and why" of the basic playing position and of the use and movement of the two hands. I'll assume everyone in the world is right handed. This time is for you. Pay attention to the pictures of famous players. Close your eyes and breath deeply in and out slowly two or three times. You'll notice that each player has a different playing position . Book 1 -. you should keep the instrument in a guitar case that shields it from these rapid changes.

.second step lifts your left leg by using a footstool. Step 3. first hold your right arm at about a 90 degree angle at the elbow. provided that you have correctly kept the guitar resting flat on your left thigh. Lifting the left leg will raise the guitar but it will also cause the angle of the top (face) of the instrument to point slightly upward instead of straight ahead. you don't want to lean over the guitar. Always keep the instrument flat on your left thigh and touching your right inner thigh. You can adjust the angle in which the guitar rests by executing two separate motions: 1) moving your right leg to the left or right while keeping your right foot flat on the floor. the center line of the guitar is now touching your right inner thigh at a point almost at the top of the right thigh. changing only the angle your leg makes with your hip joint. foot flat on the floor. It should . with the palm of your hand facing your body. the indentation between the upper and lower bouts of the instrument. Do not exaggerate the forward leaning motion.) Step 2. Your hand should be held so that a flat object (a ruler) which is laid on the arm is touching at all points along your upper forearm and your hand. you had to move your right leg to the left in order to maintain the same contact with your right inner thigh. Do not let the instrument rest only on an edge. and gently touches your chest. That's fine . The final support point will be the inner surface of your right forearm. Adjust your footstool so that it is about 6 inches high and place it under your left foot. As you move your right leg to the right. You can find a good starting angle for the guitar by adjusting the angle as described above until the center line of the instrument (an imaginary line that bisects the guitar and extends from the head of the instrument to the bottom of the instrument) is positioned at about the halfway point between the front and back of your right thigh. You'll notice that as you lifted your left leg.still making sure the guitar keeps contact with your right inner thigh and stays flat on your left upper thigh. the center of your chest. You should also lean forward SLIGHTLY toward the guitar. You'll notice that the bottom of the guitar is also touching your right leg. In order to correctly position your right arm. To do this. The head of the guitar should now be approximately at eye level. The left arm is not used to support the instrument. the guitar is positioned to optimize the motion required by the left arm while playing. and 2) rotating the instrument on your left leg while still keeping it resting flat on your thigh to raise or lower the neck of the guitar. Pick up the instrument and place it on your left leg so that the bottom side of the guitar. it must remain flat on your left thigh. left foot pointing straight ahead. Once again. is resting flat on your thigh. You are now supporting the instrument at three points: your two legs and your chest. the inner right thigh. you can raise the neck of the guitar . about midway between your knee and your hip. That lifting motion. this is good. Keep the bottom side of the guitar touching flat on the top of your left thigh. This will cause the neck of the instrument to be at about the "10:00 O'clock" position (where the hour hand of a watch would be at 10:00 O'clock. caused the back edge of the upper side of the instrument to move closer to your chest. causing the top of the instrument to move closer to your body and the height of the instrument to be more suitable to proper motion of your arms. Step 1. Do not move your left leg! That leg should still be in the original relaxed position. The final step is to correctly position the guitar so that it is supported by your body at exactly four points: the upper left thigh. your right wrist should not be bent. touching your inner're on the right track. and the inner portion of your right arm. Adjust your footstool to raise or lower your left leg so that the guitar moves toward. Notice that if you keep the angle of the neck the same as it was in Step 1. having moved upward from the point where it touched in Step 1.

Whenever you decide to practice the guitar. Your left arm and hand should be hanging at your side and totally relaxed. You are now holding the guitar correctly in playing position. Don't practice incorrectly! This isn't something you can force. Don't let that happen. You should not "stop" the other fingers from moving as you move any one finger. This skill is essential to good playing so please don't gloss over this section. until you get the motion to be smooth and natural. and you can see the crease in the palm just opposite the large knuckle of your left index finger. start with the relaxation procedure. When I had to "relearn" to play for the third time. Practice picking up the guitar and getting into playing position several times. Be content with a small movement at first. Assume the basic sitting position without the guitar in your hand. It should become a habit that feels natural and easy. Most people are used to moving all of their fingers at once so fine motor control of each finger muscle has never been developed. there should be an imaginary straight line (I love imaginary lines) extending from the large knuckle of your right index (pointer) finger along the left inner edge of your right forearm.) Each finger should be able to move independently. You will have to be very patient in order to learn this skill. Lift your left forearm and hand by bending the arm at the elbow while rotating your hand and forearm counterclockwise until you can look directly into the palm of your left hand. The idea is to gain control over your own finger muscles. and then pick up and hold the guitar in the correct playing position. Stay in that position without playing a note until you feel comfortable and relaxed. Lower your right hand toward the strings and suspend your relaxed right hand about an inch above the strings and close to the sound hole of the guitar. your four fingers should be relaxed and curled in a slight arch. sequentially move each finger by pivoting at the large knuckle. Fundamentals of the Left hand As usual. Quite humiliating for someone who believed himself to be an . your music will expose that inner state to your audience and it will be enjoyable to listen to you play. If you allow tension to exist. The motion is similar to that of a typewriter key as it is depressed (for those of you who have ever even seen typewriters. Your left hand is now in proper left hand playing position. practice. Motion of the fingers of the left hand With your hand in the correct left hand playing position. I spent an entire week just sitting in this position moving my fingers. this may take some practice. Practice the motion of bringing your hand from the basic sitting position to left hand playing position several times. While maintaining this orientation of your right arm and hand. until the inner portion of your right forearm contacts the outer edge of the lower bout of the guitar.also not be rotated left or right. between your thumb and the four fingers. A natural downward and inward pressure by the right arm will hold the instrument firmly against the other three contact points. rotate the entire right arm at the shoulder while NOT LIFITING THE SHOULDER. Some people get upset about their inability to control each finger independently and end up losing the necessary state of relaxation required for playing. if you practice wrong you will learn very well how to play wrong. you should simply only move the finger you choose to move. Once again. You will be able to learn to move your fingers properly . the outside edge of your thumb should create a smooth arch from your wrist to the tip of the just takes time. we'll begin to learn each new skill by isolating the activities associated with that skill. Remember. and patience. If you learn to play relaxed. the contact point at the guitar should be almost directly in line with the saddle (the place where the strings attach) of the guitar. you learn what you practice. If your hand is correctly positioned. The contact point on your forearm should be about 1/3 of the way between your elbow and your wrist. Admittedly. you will learn to play with tension and you will get very good at it over time.

2) sliding the left hand up and down the neck of the guitar using a rotation at the shoulder. In this section I'll describe each of the various motions required by the Right hand and arm. you should be able to slide your hand up and down the neck of the guitar. Left-to-Right motion of the Right hand Just as you used a left arm rotation at the shoulder to move the left hand up and down the neck of the guitar. and 3) positioning the left hand fingers over the desired string by moving the left arm at the elbow. Controlled. Positioning your left fingers over the neck Move your four fingers so that all the finger tips are in line as if the tips were resting on a flat surface. Position the fingertips over each string by raising or lowering your entire left arm FROM THE ELBOW. Fundamentals of the Right hand The motions involved with correct right hand technique are fairly complex. however. be aware that the point on the string which you touch in order to produce a sound has profound effects on the quality of the sound produced. By rotating the entire left arm at the shoulder. Your left hand index finger should be lying perpendicular to the strings somewhere between the 5th and 9th frets. Your thumb should not squeeze the neck. The right hand controls the creation of the sound that is produced as you play the guitar. Now execute the motion from the previous paragraph but this time continue as the neck of the guitar slides between your four fingers and your thumb. Obviously. the quality I am referring to is the sound quality . your left hand should be held so that a flat object (a ruler) which is laid on the top side of the forearm is touching at all points along your upper forearm and your hand. ideally over the 7th fret. Classical Guitar music very often has several voices sounding simultaneously. you will eventually want to play different strings with different fingers. Although the left hand touch can greatly affect the sound. Let's try it with the guitar. even when all of the instruments are playing exactly the same pitch."advanced" player. . independent motion of each finger must be achieved if you are going to play classical music on the guitar. I won't get into the actual creation of the sound at this point. the motion to bring a finger to a string should be made with the entire left arm from the elbow. supported at the four support points. Assume the proper playing position with the guitar in your lap. Left hand summary We have covered the proper positioning of the left hand on the neck of the guitar and the three motions required of the left hand and arm: 1) pivoting the fingers at the large knuckle to raise and lower the fingers. that should stay relaxed and level with the other shoulder. it should follow the motion of the hand and remain just barely touching the center of the back of the neck. you must use that same motion with the right arm to position your hand over the section of the strings required to get the sound you desire. we'll save that discussion for later. or "tone color" of the sound. Quality is not meant here as a measure of "goodness" or "badness". that must be reserved for a later lesson.the "timbre". Do not raise the left shoulder. still keeping the index finger perpendicular to the strings while lightly touching all six strings. As described in the previous section which described the right hand. whenever possible. We're now ready to discuss the right hand. however. Each voice must be controlled separately and consciously. Tone color is what allows you to differentiate a flute from a french horn or violin. This motion from the elbow of the left arm is the basic motion that moves your fingers from string to string. Your wrist should once again not be bent.

There will be many times when you will need to play two or more notes simultaneously. but the fundamental motion of the fingers will not change. as in the left hand motion. Practice the motion of each finger without the guitar in your hands.(snooze). Motion of the thumb (p) of the Right hand . but we will not try to control this joint at this stage of playing the guitar.. but not tense. Playing single note scales which span several strings will require you to position your hand over each succeeding string by using the arm motion from the elbow. it is necessary the you slide your forearm across the upper edge of the lower bout of the guitar. while keeping the large joint at about the middle point of the limits of its range of motion. Many classical guitarists use an ordinary sock that has been cut off at the heal . each of the joints are at a point about midway between the limits of their possible extension and flexation. The basic starting position to play on any single string is reached by using the arm motion from the elbow to place the thumb and four fingers of the right hand directly over the desired string. There are three joints on each finger. We will talk later about the mechanics of an actual stroke and refer back to this description of finger motion at that time. then use the motion of the fingers as required to reach the correct strings..m.. The range of movement that occurs during playing will become smaller as your technique improves. but it works! Be careful that you don't lift or drop the right shoulder. The motion of each finger is limited to either a flexation or extension at any of those three joints. the motion of the finger continues from the middle joint until it is near its limit of flexation. and causing the entire hand to move along the strings either toward the nut (left) or the saddle (right). as that could introduce unwanted tension into your playing. the right hand should be positioned over each of the six strings by pivoting the right arm from the elbow.not the most elegant solution. The key consideration is that you would first move the arm from the elbow to accomplish the "gross" motion. or third knuckle. Remember. The joint at the tip of the finger should be kept firm. The fourth finger should always be made to follow the motion of the third finger.. Motion of the fingers (i. As your finger tip touches the string. Preparation for a stroke requires that you extend the finger at the middle joint. requiring you to extend or flex the fingers of your right hand to a position that is different than the basic starting position. If you are not wearing a long-sleaved shirt. you may want to place some type of soft cloth between your arm and the guitar. The middle joint is the main source of finger motion. When your hand is in a relaxed position. and watch carefully so that you are sure to practice the correct movements. It can move slightly during a stroke because of the pressure against the finger from the string. if you practice wrong. The motion is a simple rotation of the right shoulder. At that point the motion continues with a follow though of the stroke by flexing the finger at the large..In order to move your right hand along the strings.a) of the Right hand The Classical Guitar is played with the thumb and first three fingers of the right hand. It is not correct to "reach" for the next string by extending or flexing the fingers. Each of the fingers are identified in Classical Guitar literature by the following letter designations: "p" = Thumb or Pulgar "i" = Index or Indice "m" = Middle or medio "a" = Ring or anular. Top-to-bottom motion of the Right hand Once again. sliding the forearm along the guitar.

Summary At this point you should be comfortable sitting with the guitar in playing position and you should be able to move both hands to any playing position on the instrument. That will depend on the hardness of your nails. or. It's pretty easy to care for the nails on your left hand . The middle grit should have enough roughness so that if you file your fingernail it should produce a fine white powder but should not remove too much of the nail. You should also be able to properly move all four playing fingers of the right hand from the correct finger joint. Before starting this lesson. The decision you make will depend on your own body and on how you can best make the sound you want from your thumb. Book 1 -. The right hand requires a lot more attention. others disagree vehemently and say that the motion should be identical to that of the other fingers. Most teachers agree that the main motion should be from the joint where the thumb attaches to the wrist. My own personal approach is a hybrid motion which sometimes contains a slight rotation. Care and Shaping of the Finger Nails You can always tell that a person is either a classical guitarist. hired me for the programming simply trim them as close as possible with a nail clipper without drawing blood.Lesson 4--Preparing to play The finger nails of the right hand play an important role in shaping the sound you will get from the instrument. The edge required for a good sound is more absolutely determinable . When he noticed that my right hand fingernails were perfectly manicured and my left hand nails were very closely trimmed. The heaviest grit should be coarse enough to file the nail so that it can be shortened and shaped. shape. he smiled. We'll cover this more in depth when you try to use the thumb to play music. A grit that will easily cut through soft nails may not be nearly coarse enough for thicker. The next section in this lesson will get into a little more detail. Notice that I didn't specify any absolute must be smooth. and edge. but mostly moves in a fairly straight line. harder nails. make sure you have a good fingernail clipper and a set of sand paper or emery boards with a least 3 different grit surfaces.There is some disagreement in guitar pedagogy about exactly how the thumb should move. There are three attributes of the right hand fingernails that need attention: length. Congratulations! I hope it was easier to do than it was to explain in words! In the next lesson we'll discuss how the finger nails of the right hand play an important role in shaping the sound you will get from the instrument. I'll explain how to shape and use the finger nails of the Right hand so that you can get any sound which your instrument is capable of producing. I actually got my first job in Engineering when I was asked by the Engineering Manager who interviewed me to let him see my hands. has a bad fingernail biting habit on just one hand with a meticulous fetish for beautifully shaped nails on the other. I'll explain how to shape and use the finger nails of the Right hand so that you can get any sound which your instrument is capable of producing. spent 45 minutes of the next hour discussing classical guitar and. The finest grit should actually feel smooth to your touch. . Some very competent players insist that the motion should be a circular motion. Your ideal fingernail shape and length can only be achieved after much experimentation. Your fingernails play a very important role in producing a good sound on the instrument.

Harmonics are easier to hear because they are "purer" tones. the pitch of each string depends on the tension on the string which is created between the two points on the instrument which support the vibration. Beats . Once the nail is coarsely shaped you remove any jagged edges or cracks by using the middle grit. Read the supplement to this lesson: The Acoustics of Music for a complete explanation. If you look closely at the edge of your fingernail with your fingers pointing straight into your eyes. To create the required edge. the second method is more accurate but involves a little more understanding of the instrument. The edge of the nail should follow the shape of your finger tip and there should be no discontinuity at either side of the fingernail. Concert Classical Guitarists usually carry a fine emery paper with them when they perform so that they can smooth out any rough spots on their fingernails which might be caused by contact with the three metal wound strings of the guitar during a performance. You might at first think this fastidious attention to the fingernails is a little strange. the curve of the fingernail should extend smoothly to the point where your fingernail touches the cuticle. Once you are satisfied with the shape and length. the entire edge of the finger nail should be smoothly rounded with no breaks or rough spots. but you will quickly learn to feel and hear the difference it makes when you play. the first being the common method taught in most beginning method books. I have seen great Classical Guitarists with fingernails that look like claws and others who have no fingernails whatsoever. That length should be a good starting length for you but it is likely that you will decide to adjust it as you learn how the length of the fingernail affects the sound you want to produce. you polish the edge with the finest grit emery board. however. In other words.Lesson 5--Tuning the Guitar In this lesson I'll explain how to tune the guitar. the pitch increases to create a "higher" sounding note . I will discuss three methods. The length of the string is adjusted by using the fingers of the left hand to press a string down until it makes firm contact with a fret. My own experience has resulted in me having a fingernail length which causes the edge of the nail to extend about 1/8 inch above the tip of each finger when viewed from the palm of the hand with my fingers pointing straight up and held at about eye level. you should not be able to detect any roughness or breaks in the surface. Book 1 -. etc. and the length of the vibrating portion of the loosening the tension. Each of the strings of the guitar are tuned to a particular pitch or frequency of sound. If you slide the edge of the fingernail of your right thumb over the edge of each of the other three playing fingers of the right hand. the pitch decreases to create a "lower" sounding note. they require a little more skill to produce on the guitar. temperature of the tightening the tension on the string. An edge like that is absolutely necessary so that no extraneous noise is created by your fingernails as they slide over the strings while you're playing. Disregarding constants such as the string diameter. you first shape and adjust the length of the fingernail by using the coarsest grit emery board. This step also gives the nail it's final shape. The tuning keys control the tension on the string . they should be as smooth as the edge of a fine crystal wine glass. the third method is a variation of the second method which uses harmonics instead of normal pitches.Shaping your fingernails When your nails are ready to use for playing.

The larger the discrepancy between the two notes. you must create the proper sound on each string of the guitar. To do otherwise invites chaos and will result in limited or no control over the sound produced by each stroke. Your nails should be properly shaped and you should already know how to correctly move the fingers of both hands. It allows you to easily vary the intensity and timbre of the sound and it allows you to play several . To begin with. The following list identifies each string and its correct pitch relative to a piano. Most of the motion for this extension occurs in the middle joint of the finger. The actual physics of the phenomenon are very complex but recognizing the auditory effect is critical in order to know when two notes are in or out of tune. The notes are then "in tune. where string 1 is the thinnest string and string 6 is the thickest. If the pitch of one of the notes is very slightly raised or lowered. Preparation Lower i to the string so that the string is nestled between the underside of the fingernail and the fleshy part of the tip of the i finger. the "beat" slows and finally disappears." Conversely. assume the "playing position" with the guitar in your hands. The Free Stroke The free stroke is the most commonly used stroke when playing the guitar. as an out of tune note is brought closer to the reference pitch. You will not be using the left hand yet so keep it relaxed and don't let your fingers touch the strings. regardless of how well you learn to play or how fast you play. I'm referring to the phenomenon that occurs when two notes that are only slightly different from one another are played together. a "beat" begins to appear. the faster the "beat. If you want to. I'm not talking about the type of beat played by a percussion instrument. Extension Begin the stroke by causing the i finger to extend toward the string by straightening the finger while keeping the right hand motionless.Regardless of which method you use to tune the instrument. A "beat" is a distinct fluctuation in volume which has a "wobbling" sound. The Notes of the Open Guitar Strings The strings of the guitar are numbered 1 thru 6. The only difference will be the amount of time you spend in the preparatory position. this part of the stroke will always exist. This position is called the "preparatory position. If two identical notes are played together it is difficult to tell that there is not just one note being played. Your right hand should be held above the strings close to the sound hole. We will use the "i" finger to make a sound (I'll just call the fingers by their letter names). This first motion is fairly subtle and should not be exaggerated to where the finger is totally straight or stiff. with your fingers about a quarter to an eighth of an inch above the strings. In standard tuning (all that you will need to know about until you get fairly advanced on the guitar) each string is tuned to a specific pitch." We will tune each string on the guitar by first lowering the string relative to a reference pitch until a beat occurs and then raising the pitch of the string being tuned until the beat slows and finally stops. you can hold the guitar lightly with your left hand just below where the neck of the instrument meets the body of the instrument. it is important that you understand the meaning of "beats"." Despite what some people may tell you. String Number Pitch and String Name Location on the Piano 1 High "E" 1st "E" above middle "C" 2 "B" 1st "B" below middle "C" 3 "G" 1st "G" below middle "C" 4 "D" 1st "D" below middle "C" 5 "A" 2nd "A" below middle "C" 6 Low "E" 2nd "E" below middle "C" Making a sound on the Guitar Before you can begin to tune the instrument.

that will come shortly . You have tuned the "A" string and are ready to continue with the other 5 strings. . In our music culture. that note is called "A 440.. adjust the tuning until the "beat" disappears. Once you are confident that you are hearing the "beat". Starting to Tune To properly tune the guitar. A NOTE EXACTLY ONE OCTIVE LOWER IN PITCH THAN THE PIANO. IMPORTANT NOTE THE GUITAR IS TUNED ONE OCTAVE LOWER THAN THE PIANO FOR THE SAME PITCH NOTATED IN A MUSICAL SCORE. THE VALUE OF TUNING THE REFERENCE STRING TO THE HARMONIC AT THE 5TH FRET OF THE "A" STRING IS THAT THE ACTUAL PITCH IS THE EXACT "A 440" OF YOUR TUNING FORK." Your tuning fork should produce this tone when struck lightly against a hard surface.after the guitar is in tune.when you play the harmonic on the fifth fret of the "A" string by touching the string lightly with a finger of your left hand while performing a normal rest or free stroke (do not push the string down with the finger. THAT SAME NOTATION IN GUITAR MUSIC PRODUCES A PITCH OF "A 220". A rest stroke varies from a free stroke in that the initial movement begins with the large knuckle of the finger and the final position is where the soft tip of the finger rests lightly on the next string. THAT NOTE IS NOTATED BY THE SECOND SPACE FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE STANDARD G. especially when played in the high registers of the instrument. The free stroke is produced by moving the i finger from the preparatory position through an arc produced by flexing the middle joint of the finger. OR "TREBLE" CLEF. THE "A" STRING OF THE GUITAR IS ACTUALLY TUNED TO 110 CYCLES PER SECOND. This harmonic is the reference pitch I use when I tune my guitar to a tuning fork. Your finger nail should slide smoothly over the string producing a clear tone as the string is allowed to resonate. DO NOT RE-TUNE THE "A" STRING! It is your reference pitch and if it is adjusted you will have to re-tune all of the other notes as well. The Rest Stroke The rest stroke is used when you want to emphasize or put more weight into the sound. experiment with the effect by causing the "beat" to speed up or slow down as you adjust the tuning.. TWO OCTAVES LOWER THAN "A 440".NOT ALL TUNING FORKS ARE A440! Make sure your tuning fork is the correct pitch before continuing. Each of the following methods of tuning assume you have already tuned the "A" string. Raise or lower the tension on the "A" string by turning the tuning key while you play the harmonic on the 5th fret of the "A" string while listening at the same time to the reference pitch of the tuning fork.notes at the same time without having to significantly alter the right hand position. The tone "A 440" is the pitch that is sounded when the high "E" string is played while depressing the 5th fret. When you begin to notice a "beat".. Don't attempt to alternate the fingers yet. In order to prepare for a rest stroke. You should practice both of these strokes many times with the i. and a fingers.. Continue with the free stroke by flexing the large knuckle of the i finger until the finger almost touches the palm of your hand. Some players use the rest stroke extensively in scale passages. until it feels natural and relaxed. m. it is usually necessary to lower the right hand closer to the strings and to extend the fingers a little more than that which is required with a free stroke.or. This follow-through will vary in distance depending on the tempo of the music and the volume you want to get from the stroke. just touch it lightly). begin with a reference pitch that is a universally agreed upon note. THE "A" ABOVE MIDDLE "C" ON THE PIANO HAS A FREQUENCY OF 440 CYCLES PER SECOND. Be careful .

 Press the "D" or 4th string at the fifth fret. there actually are "E's" on every string). This first method of tuning is simple and easy to learn. The only problem with this method of tuning is that it is sometimes difficult to get each "E" to resonate well enough to be able to use it to tune the instrument. Play the open "G" or 3rd string and the "D" string while adjusting the "G" string until there are no beats between the two notes. .Sequential Tuning of Adjacent Strings.  Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring.  Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring. Adjust the "G" string until there are no beats between the two notes. it is not the best way to tune the instrument.  Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring. Play the "G" or 3rd string while pressing the string against the 9th fret.  Press the "B" or 2nd string at the fifth fret. This is especially problematic with inexpensive instruments which may not resonate evenly on all notes. It does require that you learn how to play a harmonic on the "A" string at the 7th fret (you may have already played your first harmonic on the 5th fret of the "A" string to tune the "A" string to the tuning fork)." This "E" harmonic which is played on the "A" string at the 7th fret will be your reference pitch. Adjust the "D" string until there are no beats between the two notes.  Press the low "E" or 6th string at the fifth fret. Once you get to the point where you are playing chords on the guitar this method of tuning will prove inadequate but it is fine for very early beginners on the guitar. Play the open "E" or 1st string and the "B" string while adjusting the "E" string until there are no beats between the two notes. Play the open "D" or 4th string and the "A" string while adjusting the "D" string until there are no beats between the two notes.Tuning Relative to One Fixed Pitch This method of tuning is more accurate than the previous method because it avoids cumulative errors by always tuning each sting to a single reference string. Play the "E" string and the open "A" string and adjust the "E" string until there are no beats between the two notes. Play the open high "E" or 1st string. Adjust the "E" string until there are no beats between the two notes. Adjust the "E" string until there are no beats between the two notes. Play the low "E" or 6th string while pressing the string against the 12th fret. Adjust the "B" string until there are no beats between the two notes. By the time you get to the high "E" string you may not even be close to correctly in tune.  Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring. Play the "B" or 2nd string while pressing the string against the 5th fret. All other strings will be tuned to this note by finding "E" notes on each other string (yes. and by comparing each "E" with the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string. Play the open "B" or 2nd string and the "G" string while adjusting the "B" string until there are no beats between the two notes. The actual note that will sound when you play the "A" string while touching the string lightly above the 7th fret will be an "E. Each time you progress from one string to the next any slight error in tuning is propagated to the next string.  Press the "G" or 3rd string at the fourth fret. Play the "D" or 4th string while pressing the string against the 2nd fret.Method 1 . Method 2 . however.  Press the "A" or 5th string at the fifth fret.  Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring.

It is very similar to Method 2 but uses harmonics on all strings except the 2nd instead of using normal notes. Play the "G" or 3rd string while pressing the string against the 9th fret. but for making music on the instrument ..) directly above a point on the string where a "node" exists for some harmonic frequency. Try the same thing on each of the other strings until you get a feel for how to sound each harmonic. you will discover that there are other harmonics just waiting to be heard. there will be other harmonics at many other points on the strings. Anyway. You should hear a bell-like tone.Harmonic Tuning Relative to One Fixed Pitch This final method is the best method for tuning the guitar. . a harmonic. You can continue experimenting with this technique by pressing any note on any string and counting 5. you must strike the string and touch it lightly at the same time with the fingers of the right hand. In order to produce the harmonic. you will be able to clearly hear the pitch of the harmonic. not only for tuning. Adjust the "G" string until there are no beats between the two notes. but are worth the effort to learn. enjoy!  Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring. If you press a string against any fret on the neck of the guitar. you will have seen how strings vibrate at many frequencies or pitches at the same time.. To practice this. we diverge. exactly the note you will need to continue this lesson on tuning. This leaves the left hand free to press down at any desired fret. This same technique can be used to get harmonics from each string at the 5th and 7th frets.  Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring. You should be able to look directly at your right hand and see the top of the thumbnail and the outside edge of the index finger. As soon as the thumb stroke is complete. 7.. Playing Artificial Harmonics If you have read the supplement to this lesson: The Acoustics of Music. If you experiment. A complete harmonic series will then be accessible relative to the new string length. Now try pressing the "D" string at the 2nd fret while producing an artificial harmonic by touching and playing the string at the 14th fret. Touch the "D" string lightly at the 12th fret with the soft tip of the index finger. The advantage of using harmonics is that they have fewer overtones to confuse the ear so it is easier to hear the beats when two strings are not correctly tuned. This method requires the use of "artificial harmonics. rather than the fundamental frequency of the string.  Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring. Align your right thumb so that it is parallel to the index finger. Play the "E" artificial harmonic on the 14th fret of the "D" or 4th string while pressing the string against the 2nd fret. rather than to the original string length. That note happens to be an "E".Method 3 . you effectively shorten the string length. choose a string. move the index finger away from the string so that the note will continue to sound. but let it go for now.more on that later. while striking the same string with a lateral movement of the thumb." They are a little tricky to produce. This opens up some very interesting possibilities. etc.say.. Play the harmonic at the 12th fret of the low "E" or 6th string. If you excite the string (pluck it. move it. Adjust the "E" string until there are no beats between the two notes. strike it. the "D" string. You will adjust this string later to an "A" harmonic. Lower this entire assembly down to the "D" string.. or 12 frets up from that note to pluck the artificial harmonic. Fully extend the index finger of the right hand (like you're pointing at something) with your other 3 fingers rolled into your palm. Adjust the "D" string until there are no beats between the two notes. some of them at points on the string that don't even correspond to fret positions. that is actually the octave of the open "D" string. Once again..

of each element of music. the harmonic and the natural tone should be identical. You learned quite a few other things as well. A bad string will be in tune on some points on the neck but way out of tune at other points due to uneven stretching of the string when it is tuned up to pitch. Rhythm. My principal source of information on this subject on other all material presented in these lessons is the "Harvard Dictionary of Music" Second Edition. and it's important to be conscious of. If you are a beginner and play mostly on the 1st five frets of the guitar you probably won't be affected too badly by a bad string. Conclusion Almost all vibrating objects produce harmonics above the fundamental frequency. This should be done for all 6 strings. Adjust the "G" string until there are no beats between the two notes. I guess it's on to lesson 6! Book 1 -. Dynamics. I will discuss its more common notational elements. but I believe they were necessary in order to truly understand not only how. This is the only string where harmonics aren't used in tuning. Adjust the "B" string until there are no beats between the two notes. These various symbols allow a composer to indicate many aspects . Play the "B" or 2nd string while pressing the string against the 5th fret. Adjust the "E" string until there are no beats between the two notes.  Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring. Another consideration before you replace strings on the instrument is your own level of playing.The Elements of Music The Four Basic Elements of Music --In this lesson I'll explain the four basic elements of music: Pitch. and to control all four elements of music AT ALL TIMES during your playing. If you get too picky about the correctness of the pitch you might go through many strings before you finally find one that is perfect.  Recheck the "G" string by playing the harmonic at the 12th fret of the "A" string while pressing the 2nd fret of the "G" string and playing the artificial harmonic at the 14th fret. This concludes the lesson on tuning the guitar. Music always contains its four basic elements. buy why. This is a very important fact with implications that are especially important to the guitar and we will explore this in later lessons. Because the 12th fret is the half-way point of the string length. Play the "E" harmonic on the 7th fret of the "A" string and let it ring.Lesson 6-. it is not uncommon that the two pitches will differ slightly so I usually continue to use a string that has only a slight error at the 12th fret. Music notation has evolved over the years to include a very rich repertoire of symbols. In practice. and Timbre. On the other hand. In later lessons I'll explain and demonstrate how these basic elements interact to allow infinite possibilities to exist for musical expression. The quickest way to check a string is to play a harmonic at the 12th fret and than compare the pitch to the pitch you get when you actually press the string down on the 12th fret. As a matter of fact the ONLY thing that differentiates the timbre of one instrument from another is the relative mix of harmonic frequencies present in the tone. Checking the strings The final step in tuning the guitar is to check that the strings have not "gone bad". if you use the entire neck of the instrument in your playing you will most likely find a bad string to be unacceptable.BUT NOT ALL . As I introduce each basic element. This lesson should NOT to be interpreted as an attempt to be a complete dictionary of musical notation. by Willi . Play the harmonic at the 12th fret of the open high "E" or 1st string.

Because the actual pitch of the guitar is an octave lower than that which is indicated by the standard G-clef. The Clef The clef is a symbol that is placed at the left edge of each staff which defines a reference pitch from which all other notes on that staff are computed.. These elements include: the staff. and decrease by one letter name for each progressively lower line or space. That line is defined as g' ("g-one-line" is the first g above middle-c on the piano). after you have a working knowledge of the basic four musical elements. I chose to bring the instrument to a violin repair person because there were no guitar repair shops in my town. The Staff A notation of pitch has been developed which uses a set of parallel horizontal lines and spaces on which "notes" are drawn to represent distinct pitches. flat. Pitch Lesson 5 discussed pitch and its physical basis in the frequency of vibration of some material object. When I came to pick up the instrument. That small 8 tells the reader that the actual pitches which follow are to sound an octave lower than indicated. including the subscript. it is very uncommon to see the 8 subscript in Classical Guitar music. Massachusetts. It was about . Since the repair of that part of the guitar is pretty straightforward. Cambridge. including sharp. or voices. This is in contrast to music such as that which is composed for a synthesizer which can produce arbitrary pitches which may have no relationship to our 12 tone even-tempered scales. and C-clef. the reader is expected to know that the pitches are an octave lower than written. notes increase by one letter name for each progressively higher space or line on the staff. which are pre-defined ordered groups of pitches which are played sequentially. I was told that the instrument had "just cracked as I tried to tune it". and Harmonics. Unfortunately.. which are two or more notes played simultaneously. This lesson will introduce the elements of notating pitch in printed music. the Glissando and Portamento. such as scales. Most modern publications use only the G-clef and the F-clef with the older C-clef being replaced by the use of a G-clef with an "subscript 8" to indicate that pitches on the staff are to be played an octave lower than those with the usual G-clef. The lower oval is drawn as an open loop where the loop encircles the second line from the bottom of the staff.Apel. the G-clef. there was a huge crack in the top of the guitar. which are independent melody lines within a piece of music that require a separate focus on each of the four basic elements. This lesson will not deal with more advanced aspects of music. tonality and harmony. the clefs. the bottom oval being about 3 or 4 times larger than the upper oval. Key Signature. the F-clef. A grouping of five lines with the four spaces between each line is referred to as a "staff". Those topics will wait until later lessons. The G-clef resembles a large number eight with each circle in the 8 shaped as a vertically oriented oval. The music we will be discussing is composed of pitches which are discrete in nature. From any starting pitch. I HAD a wonderful guitar that had developed a small crack in the back of the instrument. "Ledger lines" are small line segments which are used to place notes above or below a staff to indicate pitches higher or lower than can be represented on the staff itself. The G-clef is the clef which is used in Classical Guitar music. the correct method for notating Classical Guitar music is to place a small numeral 8 below the G-clef symbol. published by The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. There are three types of clefs. chords. the "note". which uses the natural psychological tensions and resolutions created by various pitches to drive the music in the direction intended by the composer. and natural signs (accidentals).

a note is drawn on a staff as a circular mark with a diameter that is approximately equal to the distance between the lines of the staff." written above the connecting line(s)....each succeeding tone of the scale exactly one half step from the last preceding tone . but modern publishers are tending to avoid its use altogether and to opt instead to use the aforementioned subscript 8.similar to a lower case b. or the second line from the top of the staff (tenor clef). Historically. this clef was used as a "moveable clef" to reduce the need for "ledger lines". In modern music notation. The C-clef resembles the numeral 3 with a heavy vertical line drawn close to the left edge and is used to define the pitch c' (c-one-line. I HAD a wonderful guitar. The sharps. or middle c on the piano). Notes that are drawn on a line are centered on the line. or "naturals". but suffice to say here that the key signature has a big effect on the pitch of notes placed on the staff. Sharps.Ouch! As I said. These symbols can occur. The position of any note drawn on a staff determines its "lettered tone".a year later when it dawned on me that the violin repair person probably didn't know that the guitar should sound an octave lower than its music would indicate. This is sometimes confused with the term Portamento which is where the pitch is raised or lowered from one note to another with a continuous movement. Classical music is notated with the key signature placed at the start of each staff for every line of music. resembles a backward C with a full colon close to the outside right edge of the symbol. Later lessons will deal with scales and the theory behind the creation of key signatures. The Glissando on the guitar is a chromatic scale . notes drawn in spaces almost touch the lines above and below the note. Natural signs are similar to sharp signs with the upper right and lower left line segments removed and the two horizontal lines terminating exactly at the vertical lines they touch. and Naturals -> the "Accidentals" Pitches which exist between any of the lettered tones are notated by the use of symbols called "sharps(#)". Glissando and Portamento The Harvard Music Dictionary defines Glissando as "the execution of rapid scales by a sliding movement".from the starting pitch to the ending pitch. at the start of each line of music to define a key signature. The F-clef. Key Signature A key signature is a method whereby all of the pitches within a line of music can be assigned a set of "sharps" or "flats" in order to reduce the number of individual sharp or flat symbols that would otherwise be required. It is not possible to execute a Portamento on a Classical Guitar because the pitch will always change in discreet increments when the fingers cross a fret as they slide from one note to another. often called the "Bass clef". flats and naturals are referred to collectively as "accidentals". ranging from A to G. or just before any note in the music to indicate that its pitch is to be altered. This clef can be placed in either of two positions on the staff. The full colon of the F-clef straddles the second line from the top of the staff and defines the placement of the pitch f (f below middle c on the piano). Harmonics . The Notes A "note" is the smallest unit of music that can be represented in our system of notation.. at any point in the music where a change in key signature is to occur.. It is notated by connecting the note or notes which are to be slid by a straight line. "flats(b)" . The C-clef is placed on the staff so that the intersection of the top and bottom curves in the symbol (essentially the "center" of the 3) touches either the middle line of the staff (alto or viola clef). Flats. usually with the abbreviation "gliss.

Rhythm Rhythm can be defined as the quality of music which determines its motion through time. most of the music you will probably see as a classical guitarist (except for some very modern pieces) will use measures in the notation. Tempo Markings.explains how to interpret the notation of harmonics in a preface to the music in that publication. Accidentals which occur within a measure (not key signatures) apply only to the note where the accidental appears and to subsequent identical notes within that same measure. Dots. the main accent is usually on the first beat of the measure and there is a weaker accent on the third beat. i. The sad truth is that there is no true standard for notating guitar harmonics in printed music. the beat in order to give life to the music. These include: the Beat. and sometimes notates the pitch on the staff one octave below the desired pitch with the standard diamond harmonic shape. The guitar can produce natural and artificial harmonics (see lesson 5).e. the first beat is strong and the third beat also contains a weaker accent. the "Rest". One common aspect of almost all harmonic notation is to draw a hollow note in a diamond shape instead of in the shape of a circle. it is very often the case that classical composers deliberately write music to de-emphasize the primary beat in order to create rhythmic "flows" which can extend through many measures.The last element of pitch notation that I will discuss is the use of the harmonic pitch indicator.usually . Legato(slur). A measure of music is defined as the musical notation contained within a vertical line which extends from the upper line of the staff to the lower line of the staff and the next vertical line encountered on the staff. There are too many common variations in the notation of harmonics. As a matter of fact. Stems. recurring accents. the beat is usually very obvious. Measures. Flags. In this lesson I will introduce the most common notational elements used in printed music to express rhythm. It is important in your playing to always be aware of "where the beat is" so that you can work within. Be aware that not all music written uses measures. The justification for the use of measures is that most music has regular. The form of the signature is an upper number and a lower number. Classical music does not usually exaggerate the beat to that extent. a skill too few guitarists ever master. and Fermata. or. In measures with four beats. They are an invaluable aid to sight reading. If the composer wants the same accidental in the next measure it must be notated again. and Stuccato. similar to a mathematical fraction. the unit of measure used for each beat. A measure MUST contain the exact number of beats of music as defined in the current time signature. just use your best guess based on how it sounds to you. In measures with three beats. The lower number indicates the base unit of measurement. Time Signature. Confusion arises because sometimes the composer indicates the actual pitch. sometimes indicates just the position of the fingers above the fret and string where the harmonic is to be created. however. Measure The basic rhythmic "container" used in musical notation is the "Measure". Time Signature A time signature is comprised of two numbers written on the staff immediately following the key signature of the first line of the music and at any point in the music where the composer wants to change the time signature. The Beat The beat of the music is the primary recurring pulse which moves the music forward. but music from a reputable publisher . If that is not the case you should either listen to a recording of the piece. but not necessarily on. It's the feeling that makes you want to "tap your foot". Portato. In popular music. and . and Ties. and that also adds to the notational confusion.

It can be argued that the rest should be considered as a pitch . The most abused and misunderstood marking is the "Rubato".and is commonly called "cut time". . a "Ritenuto" indicates an immediate slow down is required. It is most commonly used to indicate to the player that rhythmic freedom should be taken by slowing or speeding the tempo slightly. one half note and one quarter note (sums to 3/4). While that technique of playing results in a more full sound on the guitar.two beats per measure with each beat equal to a half note . or any of an infinite combination of notes and note duration's as long as the sum is 3/4. it can often result in harmonies that take away from the direction which the music should be going. The most common time signature used in our music is 4/4. especially more romantic or music with its roots in "folk" culture. Most printed music uses words or phrases to indicate the tempo. They represent absolute speeds ranging from about 40 beats per minute to about 200 beats per minute. A rest is a period of time within the music where a "voice" is silenced. the number of base units can be any combination of fractional sub-divisions or multiples of the base unit that sum EXACTLY to (in this case) three beats where each beat is a quarter note. Other tempo markings are used to specify the composer's desire for the player to slow down or speed up at certain points in the music. It is so common that it has earned the moniker "common time". Moderato. and Prestissimo. Adagio. or "rit" or "ritard". Tempo Markings Tempo markings give the player an indication of the tempo or speed at which to play each beat. It's then up to the player to figure out haw fast to play the piece so that it ends at the right time. Rests can be loosely interpreted in other music.the upper number indicates how many of the base units. the following tempo markings are commonly used but are by no means the only possible markings: Largo. means to gradually slow the tempo. The Rest The figure above shows the notational symbols for "rests". Some types of music require a very strict adherence to the rests within the music in order to realize the total musical effect of the piece. Andante. Allegro. That result rarely occurs in actual performance so a rubato effectively results in the player ignoring the beat and just being expressive at that point in the music. In an manner exactly analogous to fractions. Presto. It is important to carefully consider how to play any rests within the music you are studying.which must be "played" just like any other pitch. means to speed up the music. a time signature of 3/4 means that the base unit is the 4th note (the "quarter note"). Larghetto. From slowest to fastest. The term "ritardando". Regardless of how it is viewed. An "Accelerando". they simply allow the note to fade away or it just stops when the player moves his fingers to go to another note. For example. Modern music is often marked with symbolic declarations where a basic unit (half note.) is explicitly set equal to some number of beats per minute. etc. or "Accel". being careful that the first note played at the conclusion of the rubato occurs at exactly the same time it would have occurred had no rubato been played. You might also see a large C with a short vertical line "cutting it in half". and that there are three of those base units contained in each measure.the "no pitch" . A measure of 3/4 can contain six 8th notes (sums to 3/4). Common time is notated by either 4/4 or by a large C. quarter note. Some players never "stop" notes after they are played. That symbol is a shortcut for 2/2 . or beats. This is especially true in music from the "classical" period (about 1770 to 1830. should appear in each measure. Some composers have begun using tempo markings which state the composers desire for the time duration of the entire piece. eighth note. rests are an important part of any piece of music.

It is used to indicate that each note should be played as "connected" to the previous note as possible. or by any other method that you can devise that is convenient to the musical passage being played. and extends to the last note of the legato. The note can be stopped by slightly lifting the finger of the left hand. To play a note "stuccato". by placing a finger of the right hand on the string to dampen the sound. as a performer. Dynamics Musical Dynamics are defined here to be the intensity or volume of the sound and the changes in that intensity through time. Dots can be appended to any type of note or rest. Finally. Be careful to make sure that the note is actually sounded . Fermata A fermata is indicated by a symbol which consists of a small dot with an arch over the dot. Legato (slur). but you can be comforted in knowing that you will rarely see any more than one dot used on any one note in most musical scores. The word "dynamic" implies motion or change. It functions to extend the duration of the first note by the value of the note to which it is is easy to make the duration so short that it sounds more like a tambora than a stuccato. the note becomes a "half-note. three flags for a "32nd-note". and Portato Another important aspect of rhythm is the question of what happens between each note. When the head of the note is drawn as an open circle with no stem. All notes are written with a "head" . Dots. for a practical limit of 5 flags. should decide upon. Dynamics are both static and dynamic in that a constant volume at . For example. Leggiero. In terms of quarter notes. The portato is played by sounding the note for about half of the note's duration. it becomes a "quarter-note". Those limitations make it easier to quickly understand the duration of the note when the music is read. In the context of music.the circular part of the note to which a "stem" can be attached. Stems. If you "dot" it again (double dot). that would be 4 (the whole note) plus 2 (the first dot) plus 1 (the second dot) = 7 quarter notes. each dot adds one half the duration of the value to the immediate left of the dot. A portato is notated by placing a slur above the desired notes which themselves are written with "staccato" markings. Staccato. If the circle is filled in. Dats a lot a dots. Flags. the head-stem-flag group may have one or two "dots" following the symbol. If a stem is attached to the note head. The legato connects notes of differing pitches. Do not confuse the legato with the "tie". A tie is a short arched line that connects two adjacent notes of the same pitch.Heads. if you have a whole note (open circle) and you "dot" it. If the circle has a stem attached. Ties are often used to extend a note past a single measure. The duration of the fermata will depend on the musical context to which it is applied. you must stop the tone quickly after sounding it. add two flags a "sixteenth-note". the tie connects notes of the same pitch. the other half of the duration is to be treated as a rest. you have a note with the duration of a whole-note plus a half-note. etc. Add one flag and you've got an "eighth-note". The staccato is notated by placing a small dot directly above each note to which the effect is to be used. it is a "whole note". The "legato" is notated by an arching curve which starts above the first note of the passage to which the legato is to be applied. it may have one or more "flags". you add another half of the half-note. and Ties One of the principal aspects of rhythm is the expression of the duration of each note. It means that you should stop the rhythmic flow and suspend the music for the period of time that you. You cannot have a filled in head with no stem or an open circle head with a flag. The leggiero is written with a short horizontal line above the note and indicates that there should be a clear separation between the sound of the each succeeding note.

meaning mezzo piano. If you play each note so that it rings clearly on the instrument. It is drawn above the notes where it is to be applied and it indicates that a sudden strong accent is required at that point. such as "Forte (from the Italian word meaning strong) would have the static dynamic marking "f". The modifier Mezzo (m). I have never seen absolute markings such as "90db". meaning "half" is also often applied to dynamic markings. You can practice dynamics by just playing a single note. As in the rhythmic indicators. the words cresendo or decresendo are written in the musical score with a single line drawn which extends beneath the musical passage to which the effect is to be played. mezzo (m). Tension tends to mute the sound and prevent the guitar from amplifying each note so that is projects to the audience. There is frequently a dynamic letter symbol at the start and end of a cresendo marking (i. The symbol is drawn with its origin at the starting point of the cresendo and it extends to the where the composer wants the effect to stop. The biggest threat to effective dynamics on the guitar is tension in the hands. words such as pianissimo (pp) and fortissimo (ff) are also commonly used. f. and Sforzando. but I haven't yet reached the point where I have can personally verify that effect. A dynamic marking of "f" in Lute music can not be realized with the same level of intensity as the same marking on music for a baritone saxophone. The use of dynamics in music is very subjective and depends very much on the instrument and the context of the music. fff) to indicate degrees of piano or forte. more "p's" mean make the music quieter. Timbre is a quality of sound that is caused by the harmonic content of that sound. This is more fully explained in the supplement to Lesson 5: The Acoustics of Music. I think you can rest fairly confidently that it won't happen in classical guitar music. who knows. A cresendo marking is drawn as two lines of equal length which intersect at their origin on the left end of the symbol.e. Dynamics on the classic guitar It is not that difficult to create very effective dynamics on the classic guitar. I will often use . decresendo. A decresendo has its open end on the left and converges as the symbol extends to the right.a certain intensity. p. many professional classical guitarists under-utilize the potential of that technique. mp. and open gradually as the symbol extends to the right. Some guitarists claim they can actually cause the sound of the note to increase in volume AFTER it is played! That seems illogical at first until you consider that other strings and the top of the instrument can begin to resonant along with the note you first sound. even a triple piano can be heard at quite a distance from the source. Timbre is used on the Classic Guitar to add "color" to the music. cresendo. Timbre Technically. ff) or tripled (ppp. It may be possible. which would be equivalent to the absolute rhythmic markings of "d=60". With modern electronic music that might become common practice. ppp>fff) If the cresendo or decresendo must last for too long a time for it to be practically drawn. more "f's" mean make it louder. but. and m There are only two dynamic markings in common use: piano (p) and forte (f). For example. cresendo and decresendo The cresendo and decresendo are common markings which indicate increasing or decreasing volume respectively. however. Sforzando Another common dynamic marking is the Sforzando (sf or sfz). These marks are often doubled (pp. forte (f). We will cover the symbols for piano (p). Obviously. there is a lot of subjectivity with this type of notation. could also be written as pp.

Timbre . This in turn causes the guitar to vibrate. First of all.the word color instead of Timbre because music is painted with the harmonic palette of Timbre in much the same way an artist uses color to give life to his paintings. The next lesson will talk about how to control the timbre of the sound on the guitar. Let's look at each component separately: Where you touch the string If you've done any experimenting on the guitar. you again affect how that motion is allowed to continue or "sustain" and to propagate into the guitar so that it can be projected to your audience. Various effects can be achieved by varying the amount of pressure used when damping the string. you directly determine the mix of harmonic components in each vibration by where and how you touch the string. Modern guitar music has expanded the notation to indicate how to make sounds that can be produced with a guitar but are not part of the traditional technique of the instrument. Pizzicato as applied to the violin and other orchestral string instruments that use a bow just means to pluck the strings as one would pluck a guitar or a harp. the effect is difficult to control. but played by striking the string with the outside edge of the right thumb as you would strike a drum or "Tambora". It depends on several things. Once the string is in motion. Notation of Timbre There are only a few notational elements that hve been used traditionally to denote timbre in printed guitar music. you have probably already noticed that if you strike the string close to the bridge of the guitar it has a more metallic. or "thin" sound. Lesson 6 also briefly touched on the various notational elements used to indicate color changes in printed music.Lesson 7-. This lesson will explain how to evoke different colors from the classic guitar and will try to give you an introduction to the more esoteric. the note should be fingered with the left hand as per the location of the note on the staff. Since the strings of a guitar are normally plucked. but much more important concept of how color can be used to give life to your playing. the sound gets progressively . because it is not possible to drum on only one string without also striking adjacent strings. the technique as applied to a guitar is achieved by damping the string with the fleshy part of the right hand as the strings are plucked by the thumb or fingers. As you move your hand further from the bridge. When you set a string into motion. the string has to vibrate. Tambora If the head of a note is written in the shape of an X instead of the usual shape. The pitch of the note can be heard. and how to apply it to your playing. I won't attempt to address these modern notational elements because they are not standardized and won't generally be used by players just beginning their study of the instrument.the Color of Music As I stated in Lesson 6: Timbre is the quality of sound that is caused by the harmonic content of that sound (see supplement to Lesson 5: The Acoustics of Music ). but. The Basics The harmonic content of each sound you produce IS the timbre of that sound. Book 1 -. Pizzicato The meaning of Pizzicato on the guitar is slightly different than how it is interpreted on other stringed instruments.

How you touch the string I have been playing the "Tango" by Isaac Albeniz for over 25 years. Don't just sit there varying the sound while you allow your mind to drift to the latest exciting event that you've either done or have planned. If your fingernails are shaped properly you should be able to contact the string with the left or right edge of your fingernail. never mixing a palette that contains colors which are not adjacent to each other.. Perhaps the most significant limitation is that you will eventually want to independently control the timbre of each voice in the music. and be able to rotate through to any possible angle of contact. 2) the amount of weight transmitted to the string via your finger  The concept of weight is often difficult to grasp. To properly do that. If you had ever watched Andres Segovia play the guitar you would have been surprised at the range of color he got without moving his hand far from its starting position. the much more important tool to control timbre involves how you touch the string. Don't be surprised if you can't discern very many steps. When doing this type of practice you should try to vary only one variable in turn at a time. to as much weight as you can without "splatting" the string. it forces you to constantly alter your right hand position.your ability to create these variations and your ability to hear subtle variations will grow together. It took me about 2 or 3 months to learn the notes. You have to try to channel the weight of your entire arm into the finger tip and not try to get strength from the finger itself. Eventually you will naturally and subconsciously control all of these variables simultaneously. Each of the variables provides its own component of the overall timbre that will result from the stroke. Be patient and practice with a goal. not just the voice you may be shaping. There is definitely a place for this technique and it is especially useful when you want to change the timbre of some extended passage within a piece or when you want modify the entire palette of colors. It's like an artist using only base colors in his paintings.. to me . where the string barely flexes before it is released. Vary the amount of weight you put into the string from very light. However. or discreet changes in the timbres . but until that time you must train your ear to hear the color changes that each variable produces. keeping the others constant. Almost like real life relationships. and. Your playing will improve only to the degree that you give the guitar your undivided attention. making it more difficult to accurately control each note. you must control the touch of each finger independently. You will notice that the sound is smoothest at the two edges and is most metallic when the fingernail is directly in line with the string. When you move your whole hand the entire palette of color changes. Unfortunately. but I am still learning how to bring out the shadings in color which I hear in my mind. This motion of the right hand is the most coarse aspect of control of timbre. more importantly. there are only a few physical variables involved in controlling the "touch". Variables in the touch 1) the angle of contact between your finger and the string  Very subtle movements of the right hand at the wrist result in major changes in the angle your finger makes with the string. It also violates the basic principal of "minimum motion". Besides the actual shape of your finger nail (see lesson 4).smoother or "thicker". As you read about each of these variables you should experiment on the guitar to learn how to produce a sound through the entire range of each variable. Problems with using only this method are that it severely limits the range of colors you can produce. that technique is often the only technique many classical guitarists ever develop. (I don't know exactly what splatting means. causing you to move much more than is actually required to produce any desired change in timbre.

The motion of the finger can be imagined by thinking of how your fingers move as you clench your fist. Is it just to get a different sound? That certainly is what happens. not straight down against the fingerboard. The transfer of the motion of the string to the wood of the guitar is not instantaneous. You need to learn to control each aspect separately. You should try to direct the pressure of the finger toward the fret. Experiment by applying the lightest pressure possible against the string that will cause the string to touch the fret but not buzz the string when you play a's sort of a ragged tearing sound that defies an appropriate adjective. If your finger is too far from the fret it will take too much pressure to keep the string from buzzing. Sustaining the vibration Once a string is set in motion. the fingernail becomes less perpendicular to the string as you make a stroke. the finger tip touches the fleshy part of the hand. The application of weight and the motion of the finger are independent of each other. When you press down on a string to cause it to contact with a fret. Be careful not to place your fingers or rest your arm on the top of the guitar. but the important question is why? . try to place the finger tip as close as possible to the fret without having the finger extend beyond the fret.From the physical to the spiritual realm Now that you understand how to get different colors from the instrument. Projecting sound from the guitar Finally. 4) the ratio of fingernail to flesh which touches the string at release time  If your fingernails are too long you will diminish your ability to adjust this variable while you are playing. 3) the degree of firmness in the first joint of your finger  The first joint (just above the fingernail) can be used to soften or tighten the sound. the sound it produces causes the wood of the guitar to resonate and to project that sound. If you add firmness to the joint you can create a more metallic sound without having to move your right hand closer to the bridge. Finally. The sound actually increases as the string vibrates longer and the wood of the guitar responds to the vibration. Mixing the Palette . If your finger extends beyond the pressed fret. Practice holding the pressure constant. or. It is also very important to hold the string against the fret with the right amount of pressure and to keep that pressure constant so that it allows the string to continue vibrating at the same pitch. We'll talk more about vibrato later but it's not a bad idea that you start thinking about it now. It is important to direct the pressure from your fretting finger correctly so that the least possible pressure will hold the string in place while it vibrates. the sound must be allowed to project from the guitar. I want you to start thinking about why you want to alter the timbre. The flesh of the finger doesn't excite the higher harmonics as much as the fingernail but the combination of both the flesh and the fingernail can produce a very full sound with a wide range of harmonic overtones. vary the pressure to begin experimenting with vibrato. The top should be unobstructed and free to resonate. it will dampen the sound before it has a chance to cause the guitar to resonate properly. The initial motion begins at the large knuckle and the middle joint begins to flex as the large knuckle reaches its limit of motion. Imagine that the pressure vector is directed at a 45 degree angle to both the inside wall of the fret and the fingerboard. As you loosen the firmness of the joint.) When you use a lot of weight you'll have to move the finger more quickly through its stroke to avoid having the string hit your finger after the stroke. The fret and the fingerboard create a 90 degree angle where they meet.

You will see that there is no absolute "correct place". the place it takes the listener will change according to your mood of the moment.Scales This lesson begins the study of scales. your audience will know the difference. Life feeds back onto my music and my music feeds back onto my life. There was a sound which we heard from an adjoining studio that we both concluded must have been someone using an electric drill. This lesson will deal with the physical aspects of moving the hands properly and the musical elements of creating the sound you want with the scale passages you play. Have you ever heard Lincoln's Gettysburg address recited in such an environment? Hear the monotone presentation and the total lack of understanding of the meaning behind the lets "your fingers do the walking". when I was much younger. you will learn very well how to say nothing with a lot of well-positioned notes. This same effect occurs in music. Imagine a great orator or poet speaking publicly. It is my hope that you will avoid the all-to-tempting "dark side" of playing.Lesson 8-.In my experience. Each time I play a piece of music it reflects the "me" I am at that moment." That definition covers an enormous amount of variety and I won't attempt to provide a complete theoretical study of scales. Here how she uses sudden accents or softness in her presentation to color the text." As you travel over that path you will be creating the fabric of your personal musical interpretation. The path of true communication requires that you take the time to figure out what you want to say before you start talking. Believe me. All the notes are correct. Imagine the tone of her voice and the inflection between each word and phrase. If you practice scales without considering the musical aspect of the journey. The official definition of a scale from the Harvard Dictionary of Music is "The tonal material of music arranged in an order of rising pitches. They can be long extended journeys. It's less demanding . I waited to start scales because scales must be played musically from the start. that is a lifetime task which can never end because I am always growing and changing. When you see a scale written on the printed page you should always understand the musical purpose before you try to play the notes. It is actually easier to play fast and evenly when your mind is somewhere else. To me. Too many "great" guitarists of our time sound like 3rd graders reading from the dictionary. or short trips which define or enhance some new harmony or tonal movement.the only problem is that you walk away feeling like you just spoke to your insurance agent instead of your therapist. You can shape a phrase of music so that each voice has its own character. After listening for a minute or two. the best way to communicate this idea is by an analogy. Now imagine that same speech or poem given by a 3rd grader at his first experience in public speaking. all the dynamics are followed to perfection . Timbre is the musical element that allows you to add that inexplicable part of yourself to the music. The next lesson begins the study of scales. It must be shaped so that the listener arrives at the correct place after all the notes are played. Things become less black and white and feelings mix and flow together in an ever-changing swirl. Book 1 -. we realized that we were hearing a guitarist practicing . A scale is a path from somewhere in the music to somewhere else. sitting in my music studio where I was giving a lesson to a beginning guitarist. Scales provide the means to transition from one musical idea to another. As I mature I understand more about color. The definition of a scale that we will use in these lessons is that "a scale is a path from somewhere in the music to somewhere else. all the rhythms are accurate. I remember once.

then the first.. the fingers have to move properly in order to have the guitar respond to your ideas. Finally. Notice that when you lift each finger and then place the next finger there is a noticeable discontinuity in the sound.. then the fourth. The second time you do the exercise. let's talk about the how-to's of scales. The place on the neck will vary according to how big your hand happens to be.First the left hand. Keep your right hand touch as even as possible and ONLY use the rest stroke. but. the note being sounded is the note defined by where your 4th finger is pressed. We are now going to play permutations of the left hand fingers to get you used to moving all four fingers independently AND. Next. We will approach each case separately so that all of the required motions can be understood before trying to combine the cases to face the most common situation where all three cases must be seamlessly interwoven. Let's go right to the guitar to demonstrate how this can be applied to a scale. Back to reality Ok. leave the first finger down the entire time .it is a very important case to use when learning more subtle motions of the fingers which allow you to paint your music with more than a few basic colors. play the note slowly as you adjust the weight of your left hand until the string just begins to "buzz".one string. then the fourth. That person has since become quite renowned in "guitar circles".his scales. lift each finger after you play each note and only touch the string with the left hand finger that is actually creating the tone. enough with the esoteric sojourns. I can't listen to a minute of it before I find myself screaming in panic and running to a Segovia CD to clear my let you start to understand how you can create a much more connected sound between notes by preparing the next lower finger while a prior note is still being sounded by a higher numbered finger of the left hand. In previous lessons. As always. not surprisingly to me. First. Get into "playing position" and move your left hand up the neck of the guitar until the frets are close enough together so that each of the four fingers of your left hand are just above four sequential frets. The second case is where your left hand fingers remain on one string but you must move the left arm during the scale so that you can reach all of the notes.. There are three distinct physical motions that must be addressed in order to handle the general case of playing a scale. etc. let's play just two different notes and repeat those notes several times. Unfortunately. The first time you do this exercise. lift all four fingers off of the neck. play the note below the fourth finger. I will never understand how anyone can sit for hours listening to a mindless stream of notes..however . It's like listening to a computer recite Shakespeare. The string . Segovia could have done this at the first fret . Using rest strokes with the right hand which alternate between the i and m fingers. we've talked about minimizing extraneous motion. no left arm motion .only lift the fourth finger up to play the first finger note. All four fingers of the left hand should be touching the same string. has never been recognized in the much wider realm of "classical musicians. and then add slightly more weight. and lower the fourth finger to play the fourth finger note while you keep the first finger firmly planted on the string.I'm not so lucky :-( Lower all four fingers using just enough weight in your left arm to cause the string to make firm contact with the frets. the last case is where you must switch strings as you play the scale but you don't move the left arm up or down the neck of the guitar. followed by the note below the first finger.. Case 1 . The simplest case is where all the notes of the scale are on one string and can all be reached without moving the left hand up or down the neck. To begin. this is by far the least common case ." Why? Because although he had learned to play scales faster and more evenly than I had ever heard anyone else play. he did so at the expense of making music.

continue practicing this until the motion becomes automatic in response to your intention to create the sound you want. Intentionally lift both fingers to make the sound stop between notes and then carefully work to make the transition between notes as smooth as possible by preparing the lower finger. This technique will also be very important later on when we talk about slurs and ornaments such as trills. You may ask "what does this have to do with scales?" The answer is simple. If you focus on playing fast and clear then you might achieve those goals. Vary the angle of the fingernail across the string by turning the right wrist left or right. Before you start exploring the sound you can get from your instrument you need to clear your mind of expectations. or "connected" sound between notes of a scale. Don't expect the fingers to "feel" the same as they go over the string. Everything. If it's flat and boring . play with the sound. You will not use the left hand at all for this first step.. We did the previous exercises with a rest stroke because I didn't want to inject any variation of sound into the mix that may be caused by the right hand.itself must move a longer distance vertically between each note if the first finger is not planted before the fourth finger is lowered. not the end itself. lets explore how variations in the right hand can alter the sound of each note you play. Many people get totally hung up on shaping or sizing the fingernail of the right hand in order to control the sound produced on the guitar. The goal is to control the sound. Now that you can hear how variation in left hand touch can alter the sound between each note. then by keeping the lowest finger planted. We are going to use the free stroke with alternating i and m fingers of the right hand. Practice this until it becomes easy to lift the finger or keep it down . If your fingernail gets stuck on the string as it crosses the string then you probably need to change the shape of the edge. This simple case of scales is also an excellent place to start to open up to the possibilities of color within the right hand. As your ability to understand the music grows. Continue this exercise until you can hear the difference in the right hand. however. While I don't want to understate the importance of having properly shaped fingernails.that is actually the most common usage of this technique in "real life" playing. the rapid lifting and lowering of a finger to sound the string without even playing the note with the right hand. Let's experiment with the sound. try combinations of three and then four fingers. if you focus on understanding and controlling the music than you will become a musician. Focus on the sound. The sound you create as you move through a scale is exactly what will drive your music forward. The important thing to know is that the technique is not limited to just ornaments and slurs.explore. and then control. Once you can hear the difference in sound. you have to be aware of the possibilities of the sound before you can control it. It is an integral part of playing "legato". first by lifting both fingers. Most guitarists change the color of the sound by gross movements of the right arm. Then we are going to go through a range of movements of the right hand by only moving the hand at the wrist.that's how an audience will perceive your playing. . That's why I stressed ONLY using the rest stoke. Vary the angle that the . your ability to play fast and clear will also grow. Don't try to control the sound yet .guess what? . Once you feel you understand this. We are going to explore the range of sounds you can get from your right hand without moving the right arm. lowering ALL of the fingers which lie below the note being played to give you the smoothest transition between notes. that is a means to an end. understand. bringing the right hand closer to or further from the sound hole. Vary this technique by using only the very lowest finger to act as a pivot point for the benefit of all of the notes above that finger . Repeat both exercises for every combination of two left hand fingers..

This motion was discussed in an earlier lesson. Now that you know what to listen for you can use your ear to direct you when you change positions by moving the left hand up or down the neck. The motions and their correlation into controlled sound have got to be automatic before you try to tackle this next step.. and then with a short move of the left arm." What is properly? It is defined as "the way you want it to be!" That is the essence of control and the reason we took so much time to learn to control the sound. no left arm motion . left arm moves up or down the neck I hope at least a month has gone by before you started studying Case 2.First the left hand. This technique will be applied later on to control the duration of notes which must be held or . Initially these actions will be purely physical. Surprisingly. You must begin to "own" the sounds and be able to find a desired sound at will. Explore. Finally. quiet. if string. it must also be there to make the sound appear connected. vary the speed of the stroke from quick and short to long and slow.apply your own adjectives . and then control the sound. and then move back down to the lower string again. Be patient and listen V E R Y closely. When playing a scale requires you to change strings.these sounds must start to develop a character. Prepare the move mentally before you actually move your arm.finger makes with the string by lifting or lowering the right forearm and adjusting the up and down angle at the wrist. Practice by not lifting any finger until you must do so in order to play the next note. Place your finger onto the next note and don't slap it down. Use the same type of exercise patterns you used earlier but continue each repetition of the pattern by moving from the lowest sting to the next higher string until you reach the highest string. You have to be able to think of a sound and automatically do what's necessary to make it happen.brittle. thin . The sound should only change IF YOU WANT IT TO. Gradually expand the length of the move until you can easily move up and down the neck of the guitar without diminishing the sound. Don't expect to control the sound in one sitting. Remember when we talked about the moment of preparation between notes? That minute moment of silent preparation must be there. We now have to define the word "properly. you must time the move so that your fingers are prepared on the next note with exactly the same amount of time between notes as you allowed when you didn't move the left arm. it should be very deliberate and not sloppy. Case 3 . Physically. go back to Case 1 and practice some more. A good way to verify your ability to move correctly between positions is to move only a couple of frets so that you can play the short scale first with no left arm motion. Work to accentuate a particular aspect of the sound . soft. The fingers of the left hand must prepare in the same way they prepared for the case of the single string . the left hand must move across the strings by a motion of the left arm. but as you listen to the sound of each stroke try to correlate the various motions of the finger and wrist with variations in the sound. understand. You should strive to make it sound the same . The next step is to start playing the Case 1 scales again. so please don't try to rush the process. rich. The motion should be smooth and not jerky. The most critical physical factor in this next step is timing. That fraction of a second of preparation fixes. or anchors the string so that the next note will resonate properly. Case 2 .change strings. loud.. but this time color the sound as you move from one note to the other. keeping the angle of the hand constant with respect to the fingerboard. The guitar will sustain the music when the note is played properly. A person can only focus on one new thing at a time.your ear can now be your guide. smooth.except that you can now also prepare ahead of time for ascending notes.

He asked . You will notice the right hand will require more thought. Repeat the same exercise you did at the beginning of this lesson where you first lifted all fingers between each note and then repeated the scale while keeping the fingers down where possible. but it is good for the purpose of this lesson to ignore any harmonic disonances that might be created by holding two notes together. Finally. He would also change strings even if the next note of the scale could be played without even moving his hand. Don't worry about it. we are focusing on the sound of the notes in transition. Your earlier training from the single string case will be very important because you must trust your the right hand. General Case .. The final part of this lesson will discuss how to use the variety of sounds which exist in the instrument to help you color the sound so it brings out your own musical ideas. You will be able to hear the changes caused by the right hand by repeating the scales with different fixed right hand positions. but by changing the string he was forced to move far up the neck of the guitar. You will hear the difference in sound caused by the action of the left hand finger. you probably are realizing that this general case can be mastered by simply combining the things you learned in each previous case. As you practice to control the sound of each note you'll once again find that the variation in sound caused by changing strings will be much more obvious than the changes caused by the actions of the right hand. practice until you are again in control of the sound. I heard a story about a friend of Segovia's who listened to the Maestro play a new piece of music he was working on. Most notes on the guitar can be played in several different positions on the fingerboard. The right hand must also move from the arm so that the angle of the hand at the wrist doesn't change unless you want it to.released to support the harmony. He would very often choose to remain on a single string even though it would be physically simpler to continue a scale on an adjacent string. . Segovia used the characteristics of the guitar itself to highlight his musical ideas. but it will most likely be occluded by the overwhelming difference in sound caused by the fact that each string has its own characteristic timbre. Learning the notes to a piece of music was only the first task involved in learning to play a piece of music. so that is the most important consideration for this lesson. When you practiced the previous sections you strove to control the sound by experimenting and then understanding the possible sounds. This same technique will apply when going up or down in pitch. Be careful not to tighten up your shoulder as you move your right arm. Did you ever wonder why the suggested fingerings on some Segovia publications seem a little more difficult than they need to be? Segovia understood how to use the guitar to produce exactly the sound he wanted. We will discuss how to work with the natural timbre differences between strings in the next part of this lesson. planning and control in order to move smoothly between strings. You must experiment again to discover what sounds the guitar is capable of producing. Try to mentally filter out those timber changes and listen to the differences caused by the left hand motion. The motion should come from the elbow. The pitches aren't that important yet. Learn to appreciate the different timbres of each string and to understand the different sounds you can get by altering your touch. It is impossible to change strings without also changing the timbre of the sound because each string has its own characteristic timbre. Learn to control the sound as you did before. You will find that you will be holding a note on one string while you are preparing to play a note on an adjacent string. What you probably don't yet realize is that one of the most beautiful and interesting aspects of the guitar is a result of conscious use of the variety of sound built into the instrument.string changes and left arm motion as needed By now.

It will demonstrate the application of the general rules for each of the two scales. The second half of the lesson will show how to derive any major and natural minor scale. or even of the musical "key .A. and how to find any note on the guitar. and how to get the sound you want when you want it. This lesson will give you the information you need to create any other scales.Segovia if the piece was to be played at Segovia's next concert. I personally hate practicing "standalone" scales! They are boring and I lose interest really quickly. It isn't too important what pieces you choose to play. You also know what sounds are available. It may be beautiful even in it's raw form. that topic is beyond the scope of these lessons. The Basic Music Alphabet By convention.A. each of the pitches represented by the seven letters are qualified by their placement on the musical staff.F.Lesson 9 -.G . It will then show you how to locate any note on the guitar by using those fundamental relationships and the physical construction of the guitar. It's sort of like a diamond in the rough. This lesson will explain the fundamental relationships that exist between the letter names of each of the notes in the basic music alphabet.F. There is a fixed relationship between all of the letter pitches in the musical alphabet. but there is still one more set of fundamental elements of music that we need to cover. we use seven letters . I recommend that you find some interesting pieces of music that contain scales. will not be discussed here. once you learn the defining rules for the scales you desire to build.C. "flat". Segovia laughed and said that it would be at least two years before he performed the piece in public. At this point you should begin to study some real pieces of music.C.B. or "natural" (see lesson 6) modifiers.or tonal center" that we chose to identify all of the discreet pitches in our musical alphabet. Lesson 9 will expand on this lesson. Try changing the fingerings so that you get exactly the sound you want. only that you are moved by the piece. how the notes in that alphabet map to several common scales used in our music. by the use of some number of "sharp". Note that continuous pitches. and are ALWAYS as follows: The Natural Music Alphabet .B. but it is dazzling after it is polished.G The distance in half steps between succeeding letter names in the natural music alphabet: A to B -> two half steps B to C -> one half step C to D -> two half steps D to E -> two half steps E to F -> one half step . possibly. such as those created with a music synthesizer. and. and practice the scale passages using the principles you learned in this lesson. You will learn about the music alphabet we use. Be creative and have fun. I had originally planned for the next lesson to examine some more advanced techniques using simple pieces of music.E. taking into account the intervals that exist naturally in the music alphabet. Those relationships are independent of the scale.Scales Part II. In order to notate the entire range of pitches we require. Book 1 -. The relationship between letter names are based on the distance in half steps between each succeeding letter.E. You now have the skills to play any scale in any position on the guitar.D.

to produce each note in its own musical range. G. Let's assume for this discussion that we are using standard guitar tuning. For example. one half step at a time: . The space immediately below the "F" would be one letter name before "F". >-. The distance between B and C. under certain circumstances. i. continuing one fret. by definition of standard tuning . all subsequent letters and spaces on that staff are automatically defined relative to the reference letter. and the distance between E and F. (D# or Eb). A note in that same position on the staff using the "C" clef is "A".F to G -> two half steps G to A -> Two half steps COMMIT THESE RELATIONSHIPS TO MEMORY!!! Notice that the transition between letter names varies between either one or two half steps. to the next space. The letter name of the note on the staff has no bearing on the number of half steps that exist naturally between subsequent letters of the musical alphabet. The guitar is fairly simple. the letter name of the note on the top line of the staff.2nd fret -> 1 half step above "F" = (F# or Gb) -> there are 2 halfs steps between letter "F" and "G" . with some number of sharps or flats. E. the letter note "B".. Locating notes on the guitar." This is usually done when it is necessary to use altered forms of the same letter note in a single measure of music. "E". All other transitions require two half steps.. If you refer to the first example in the paragraph. depending on whether you label the note relative to the preceeding. The thickest string is usually tuned to an "E".1st fret -> 1 half step above "E" = "F" (there is only one half step between "E" and "F") . A If you examine the twelve notes given above.3rd fret -> 1 half step above "F#"= G . B.. Let's clarify this by writing the twelve notes that take us from A to the next A: A.e. you will see that five of the notes can have two names. A letter name changes each time you move up or down from a line to a space or from a space to a line.e. It has "frets" on the neck of the guitar. (G# or Ab). etc. (C# or Db). By the time you're playing advanced music. For example.4th fret -> 1 half step above "G" = (G# or Ab) . Written music is placed on either a line or a space on the staff. F. That means that there are two letter transitions between adjacent lines or between adjacent spaces of the staff. The important thing to remember here is that the staff always has a transition of one letter name as you move from a space. (F# or Gb).e. to a line. the letter name of the note one line below the "F" note on the top line of the staff would be two letters before "F" in the music alphabet: i. this will all be second nature to you. and the musical distance between each fret is exactly one half step.Open String-> "E". even pure letter notes. using the "G" clef. D. and the clef defines the actual letter name of each note's position on that staff. Review lesson 6 if you don't remember some of the following terminology.the second half step between letters "F" and "G" . could. Once a reference letter name is defined by the clef. Refer to the natural music alphabet given above to see the number of half steps between letter transitions.The notes on both the Low and high "E" Strings -. C. is "F". "D". For completeness. are the ONLY letter names that have one half step. you should know that it is possible to label any of the notes. and lets identify every note on the low "E" string. Every musical instrument we use to play classical music has a well defined technique. (A# or Bb). i. Also note that there are a total of 12 half steps before we start again at the initial letter name. be labeled "A##". or proceeding letter. to the next line. or A "double sharp. or method. Let's examine the guitar to discover how to locate any note... We will ignore this notational technique for the time being because it is encountered infrequently in beginning and intermediate music.

9th fret -> "(F# or Bb)" .5th fret -> "G" . -.1st fret -> "(D# or Eb)" .12th fret -> "D" -.1st fret -> 1 half step above "A" = (A# or Bb) ..4th fret -> "(F# or Gb) .10th fret -> "D" .1st fret -> "(G# or Ab)" .(only one half step beteen letter names "E" and "F") .Open String-> "D". you will see that we have reached the Octave .6th fret -> "(D# or Eb)" . and does so because it is produced by a string that is half the length of the original string.9th fret -> "B" .Open String-> "G".10th fret -> "G" . by definition of standard tuning .6th fret -> "(G# or Ab)" .11th fret -> "(G# or Ab)" .4th fret -> "B" .3rd fret -> 1 half step above "B"= C .4th fret -> 1 half step above "C" = (C# or Db) .11th fret -> "(C# or Db)" .8th fret -> "F" .(only one half step beteen letter names "B" and "C") . Let's continue this process for the rest of the strings on the guitar.The notes on the "D" String -.The notes on the "A" String -.5th fret -> "A" .the note that vibrates at twice the frequency of the original note.2nd fret -> "E" .Open String-> "A".8th fret -> "C" .8th fret -> "(A# or Bb)" .2nd fret -> "A" .(only one half step beteen letter names "B" and "C") .The notes on the "G" String -.5th fret -> "C" .5th fret -> "D" .6th fret -> "(A# or Bb)" . by definition of standard tuning .12th fret -> "E" We see that the name of the note on the 12th fret is identical to the name of the open string! If you measure the length of the string with a tape measure.7th fret -> "A" .3rd fret -> "F" .3rd fret -> "(A# or Bb)" .10th fret -> "C" .7th fret -> "B" .9th fret -> "(C# or Db)" . by definition of standard tuning . Referring to "The Acoustics of Music". you will find that the 12th fret is positioned below the point in the string that is exactly one half of the string length.2nd fret -> 1 half step above "A#" = "B" .11th fret -> "(D# or Eb)" .12th fret -> "A" -.7th fret -> "E" .

that task is already handled very well by numerous texts on the subject. You should take some time to discover interesting and useful patterns of notes on the neck. Learn how to take advantage of the symetry of the layout of all the notes on the guitar.4th fret -> "(D# or Eb)" . It really doesn't take much effort to become comfortably familiar with all of the notes on the guitar neck . The rules for creation of any scale are very similar to the rules that define the natural music alphabet.9th fret -> "E" . The process we use here can be applied to any other scale once the rule for the creation of any particular scale is understood.8th fret -> "(D# or Eb)" . Discover how many places on the neck you can find each note.Open String-> "B". the information you learn here will be a good background for your future study. Each rule. Common Scales Used in Classical Music --General rules used in the definition of scales-We will discuss two basic scales in this lesson: the Major scale and the natural minor scale. will result in the pitch definitions for the scale in question. and. Each scale has a predefined order of whole and half steps required to .6th fret -> "(C# or Db)" . For example.7th fret -> "D" . even more importantly. Just apply the basic rules of the music alphabet to the physical layout of the notes on the guitar. see how the 5th fret of each string (except the "G" string) has the identical pitch as that of the next higher string. You now know all of the notes on the guitar. This lesson will make you aware of the "rules" we've invented to define these two common scales.. The intention here is not to provide a definitive text on all of the scales used in our music.10th fret -> "F" .11th fret -> "(A# or Bb)" .2nd fret -> "(C# or Db)" .don't let it overwhelm you! The relationship between notes on adjacent string or on strings separated by only one other string will give you reference points that will allow you to quickly find any note you need.11th fret -> "(F# or Gb)" . If you are interested in continuing your study of this topic. You'll see that the notes on them first 4 frets of the low "E" string only exist in one place.1st fret -> "C" .7th fret -> "(F# or Gb)" .3rd fret -> "D" . by definition of standard tuning .9th fret -> "(G# or Ab)" . but the pattern repeats itself from the 12th fret all the way up the neck of the guitar to the last fret. how to identify any note without rote memorization. when applied in conjunction with the natural music alphabet.12th fret -> "B" I have only identified the notes between the open strings and the 12th fret.The notes on the "B" String -.6th fret -> "F" .8th fret -> "G .5th fret -> "E" . You'll see more of what I mean once we start talking about some of the common scales and about the harmonic relationships between the notes of each scale. but that every other note (until you reach the highest 4 frets of the high "E" string) exists in at least one other location on the neck.12th fret -> "G" -.10th fret -> "A .

so the "C" must be modified by raising it one half step in order for the proper major scale pitch to be created. so we need to raise the "F" to an "F#" in order to satisfy the major scale rule.the major scale rule requires one half step between the 3rd and 4th scale tones. and "E" is the 5th note in the A major scale.the major scale rule requires two half steps .the major scale rule requires two half steps between the 5th and the 6th scale tones. Checking with the natural music alphabet shows that there are two half steps existing naturally between "D" and "E". They are basic to the music we will study !!! Application of the Major Scale rules to the creation of major scales: -. F# to G . We start with the pitch upon which we want to build a scale. so the rule is satisfied without having to modify the "D". D is therefore the 4th note of the A major scale. The natural music alphabet shows there is only one half step between "E" and "F".C.checking with music alphabet shows there is only one half step existing naturally between B and C.D.A. C# to D .checking with music alphabet shows it has two half steps .E. E to F . There is only one half step between a "C#" and a "D". There is only one half step between "F#" and "G". the "E" does not need to be modified.B. and then we apply the rules for that scale to define each subsequent note until we reach the octave. Rules to create the tones of a Major Scale: 1st letter interval (steps between 1st and 2nd scale tones) = two half steps (whole step) 2nd letter interval (steps between 2nd and 3rd scale tones) = two half steps 3rd letter interval (steps between 3rd and 4th scale tones) = one half step 4th letter interval (steps between 4th and 5th scale tones) = two half steps 5th letter interval (steps between 5th and 6th scale tones) = two half steps 6th letter interval (steps between 6th and 7th scale tones) = two half steps 7th letter interval (steps between 7th and 8th scale tones) = one half step Rules to create the tones for a Natural Minor Scale: 1st letter interval (steps between 1st and 2nd scale tones) = two half steps 2nd letter interval (steps between 2nd and 3rd scale tones) = one half step 3rd letter interval (steps between 3rd and 4th scale tones) = two half steps 4th letter interval (steps between 4th and 5th scale tones) = two half steps 5th letter interval (steps between 5th and 6th scale tones) = one half step 6th letter interval (steps between 6th and 7th scale tones) = two half steps 7th letter interval (steps between 7th and 8th scale tones) = two half steps COMMIT THESE RULES TO MEMORY. "G#" is therefore the 7th scale tone of the A major scale.the "B" is therefore not modified by any sharp or flat. and it becomes the 2nd tone of the A major scale.the major scale rule requires two half steps between the 6th and 7th scale tones. "C#" is therefor the third pitch in the A major scale.the major scale rule requires two half steps between the 4th and 5th scale tones. . so we need to raise the "G" to a "G#" in order to satisfy the major scale rule.the major scale rule requires two half steps .A 2) apply the major scale rules to each succeeding note and find the appropriate modifier to the letter pitch based on the major scale rule and the natural music alphabet: A to B . D to E .G.identify each pitch. including the octave to duplicate the starting pitch because it will allow us to verify that application of the last rule (the steps between the 7th and 8th scale tones) results in the correct octave note: . B to C . "F#" is therefore the 6th tone of the A major scale.Creation of the A major scale -1) write out all the letters of the music alphabet starting with the desired starting pitch. therefore.F.

You now have enough background knowledge to begin working on pieces of music.B. verify that the A natural minor scale has no sharp or flat modifiers by going through the procedure I just went through for the A major scale. If you look at the letter notes written above for the A natural minor scale. the last lesson of Book I. A -. and that the required one half step interval between the 5th and the 6th notes of the scale is satisfied by the natural half step that exists between the letters "E" and "F". E.E.F. but apply the rules for the natural minor scale instead. C#. D. so the check we put in to make sure we reach the octave after following all the scale rules shows that we do. The "A" major scale is shown to have three sharps. you will see that the required one half step interval between the 2nd and 3rd notes is satisfied by the "B" and the "C". and the notes are as follows: A. The A natural minor scale is: A. This concludes lesson 9. Book II of this series will present a detailed study of actual pieces of music from the Classical guitar reportoire. and between the 5th and 6th notes of the scale.A Note that the rules for the natural minor scale require one half step between the 2nd and 3rd notes. .D. There is one half step between a "G#" and an "A". F#.C.G.Creation of the A natural minor scale -As an exercise. G#. reach the correct octave "A". indeed.the major scale rule requires one half step between the 7th scale tone and the 8th tone ( octave). B.G# to A .