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Yarn breakage practically

found in warping and its

TOPIC
Yarn breakage
practically found in
warping and its remedy

PROJECT OBJECTIVE

Research.
Analysis various yarn Fault in Warping
process of weaving
Remedies of these faults.
Selection of raw materials.
Product testing.
Product Quality improvement
Reduce wastage
To improve warping efficiency
To improve yarn quality in spinning

INTRODUCTION
During
processing,
textile
materials
are subjected to
various stresses not only during the machine operation but
also during its stoppage. If these stresses exceeded a
given
limits
it
will adversely affect the quality of the
produced yarns, fabrics and the efficiency of the machines .
In weaving process, the strains on warp ends can lead to
thread breaks, loss of quality and shutdowns. Warp breaks still
represent major problem especially for today's high-speed
weaving machines .Generally, warp yarn break occurs due to
excessive tension greater than the strength of the yarn.

YARN FAULTS FOR WARP YARN


BREAKAGE
1

SLUBS

NEPS

SNARL

THICK AND THIN


PLACES

SOFT YARN

OIL STAINED
YARN

CRACKERS

BAD PIECING

9
1
0

OILY SLUB
KITTY YARN

1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1

HAIRINESS
FOREIGN
MATTERS

SPUN IN FLY
CORK SCREW
YARN
STITCHING ON
CONE
RIBBON WOUND
CONE

SOFT BUILD
CONES
BELL SHAPED
CONE

NOSE
BULGINGG

COLLAPSED
CONE
RING SHAPED
CONE

SLUBS

An abnormally thick place or lump in yarn showing less twist at that place.

EFFECT
1.
2.
3.

More end breaks in warping process.


Damaged fabric appearance.
Shade variation in dyed fabrics.

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Accumulation of fly and fluff on the machine parts.


Poor carding.
Defective rotor drafting and bad piecing

RECTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Machine surfaces to be maintained clean.


Rotors are properly maintained.
Better fiber individualization at cards to be achieved.
Optimum top roller pressure &back zone
Setting at rotor to be maintained.

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

NEPS

Yarn containing rolled fibre mass, which can be clearly seen on black
board at close distance; measurable on USTER imperfection Indicator

EFFECT
1.
2.
3.

Damaged fabric appearance


Shade variation in the dyed fabrics
An abnormally thick place or lump in yarn showing
less twist at that place is called slubs

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Accumulation of fly and fluff on the machine parts


Poor carding.
Defective rotor and bad piecing of robot

RECTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.

Machine surfaces to be maintained clean.


Damaged rotor to be avoided and proper maintained.
Better fiber individualization at cards to be achieved.

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

SNARL

Yarn with kinks (twisted onto itself) due to insufficient tension after twisting

EFFECT
1.
2.
3.
4.

Entanglement with adjacent ends causing a break


Damaged fabric appearance
Shade variation in dyed fabrics
Mixing of cottons varying widely in fiber lengths and
use of immature cottons

CAUSES

1. Higher than normal twist in the yarn


2. Presence of too many long thin places in the yarn

RECTIFICATION

1. Optimum twist to be used for the type of cotton


processed
2. Drafting parameters to minimize thin places in the
yarn to be adopted
3. Correct tension weights and slub catcher settings to
be employed at winding

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

THICK AND THIN


PLACES

Measurable by USTER Imperfection Indicator and observable on


appearance

EFFECT
1.
2.
3.

Damaged fabric appearance


Shade variation in dyed fabrics
Mixing of cottons varying widely in fiber lengths and
use of immature cottons
4. More breakage in warping

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Non-uniform sliver
Problem in mixing
Defect rotor surface
Mixing of cottons varying widely in fiber lengths and
use of immature cottons

RECTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.

Defective rotor to be avoided


Right the card setting
Wide variation in the properties of cottons used in the
mixing to be avoided
4. Better fiber individualization at cards to be achieved.
Correct spacers to be utilized

4
4

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

SOFT YARN

Yarn which is weak indicating lesser twist

EFFECT

1. More end breaks in subsequent processes such as


warping, winding etc.
2. Shade variation in dyed fabrics

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Improper feed in rotor


Less twist in the yarn
Bad rotor

RECTIFICATION

1. Proper yarn clearing to be ensured


2. Periodic replacement of rotor to be effected

5
5

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

OIL STAINED
YARN

Yarn stained with oil

EFFECT

1. Damaged fabric appearance


2. Occurrence of black spot in fabric

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Careless oil in the moving parts, over head pulleys etc


Piecing made with oily or dirty fingers
Careless material handlings

RECTIFICATION

1. Appropriate material handling procedures to be


followed
2. Oilers to trained in proper method of lubrication
3. Clean containers to be utilized for material
transportation

6
6

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

CRACKERS

Very small snarl-like places in the yarn which disappear when pulled with
enough tension or Yarn with spring -likeshape

EFFECT

1. More breaks in winding


2. More noticable in polyester and cotton blended yarns

1. CAUSES
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mixing of cottons of widely differing staple length


Closer roller settings
Eccentric top feed roller
Non optimum temperature and relative humidity in
the spinning shed
6. Over spinning of cottons

RECTIFICATION

1. Feed roller to be maintained


2. Mixing of cottons varying widely in fiber length to be
avoided
3. Use of optimum roller settings
4. Use of properly buffed rollers free from eccentricity to
be ensured

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

BAD PIECING

Unduly thick piecing in yarn caused by over End piecing

EFFECT

1. More end breaks in subsequent process


2. Increase in hard waste

CAUSES

1. Wrong method of piecing and over end piecing of


robot.
2. Twisting the ends instead of knotting

RECTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.

Correctly robot setting and proper repier


Separators to be provided
Excessive end breaks in spinning to be avoided

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

OILY SLUB

Slub in the yarn stained with oil

EFFECT
1.
2.
3.

More end breaks in the warping process


Damaged fabric appearance
Shade variation in dyed fabrics

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Accumulation of oily fluff on machinery parts


Poor methods of lubrication in preparatory processes
Negligence in segregating the oily waste from process
waste

RECTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.

Yarn contact surfaces to be kept clean


Proper segregation of oily waste from process waste
Oilers to be trained in correct procedures of
lubrication

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
0

KITTY YARN

Presence of black specks of broken seeds, leaf bits and trash in yar

EFFECT
1.
2.
3.

Damaged fabric appearance


Production of specks during dyeing
Poor performance during winding

CAUSES

1. ineffective cleaning in Blow room and cards


2. Use of cottons with high trash and too many seed coat
fragments

RECTIFICATION

1. Cleaning efficiency of blow room and cards to be


improved
2. Optimum humidity in the departments to be ensured

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
1

HAIRINESS
HAIRINESS

Protrusion of fiber ends from the main yarn structure

EFFECT

1. More breaks in winding and warping


2. Formation of holes and stains in cloth

CAUSES

1. Use of cottons differing widely in the properties in the


same mixing
2. Improper mixing
3. Maintaining low relative humidity, closer roller settings
and very high spindle speeds

RECTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.
4.

Proper mixing or blending


Periodic maintenance of different parts
Roller settings to be maintained
Optimum relative humidity to be maintained in the
spinning room
5. Wide variation in the properties of cottons used in the
mixing to be avoided

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
2

FOREIGN MATTERS

Metallic parts, jute flannel and other similar foreign matters spun along
with yarn

EFFECT

1. reaks during winding and warping


2. Formation of holes and stains in cloth

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Damaged fabric appearance


Improper preparation of mixings
Improper setting of foreign material separator in blow
room.

RECTIFICATION

1. Improper setting of cleaning zone.


2. Removal of foreign matters(such as jute fibres, colour
cloth bits) to be ensured during preparation of mixing
3. Installation of permanent magnets at proper Places in
blow room lines to be ensured

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
3

SPUN IN FLY

Fly fluff either spun along with the yarn or loosely embedded on the yarn

EFFECT

1. More breaks in winding and warping

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Accumulation of fluff over machine parts


Fanning by workers
Failure of over head cleaners

RECTIFICATION

1. Malfunctioning of humidification plant


2. Machinery surfaces to be kept clean by using roller
pickers
3. Fanning by workers to be avoided
4. Performance of over head cleaners and humidification
plants to be closely monitored

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
4

CORK SCREW YARN

It is a double yarn which one yarn is straight and other is coiled over it

EFFECT

1. Breaks during winding and warping


2. Causes streaks in the fabric

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Bad piecing by robot


Improper mixing
Improper feeding

RECTIFICATION

1. proper maintenance of robot


2. proper mixing

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
5

STITCHING ON
CONE

Ends not laid properly on the cone at reversal of yarn path

EFFECT

1. More end breaks in the subsequent process


2. Excessive yarn waste

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Vibrating and wrongly set cone holder


Yarn coils wrapped round the base of cone holder
Traverse restrictors fixed at incorrect position
Improper alignment of tension brackets with the drum

RECTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.

Maintenance cone winders to be good


Cone holder settings and alignment of tension
Brackets with drum to be carried out as frequently as
possible

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
6

RIBBON WOUND
CONE

Formation of ribbon like structure on the circumference of the cone

EFFECT

1. Overall density of package is lower


2. Soft packing either at the base or at the nose of cones

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Winding spindle not revolving freely


Cone holders incorrectly set
Defective settings of cam switch
Improper traverse motion
Vibration of cone and traverse

RECTIFICATION

1. Over hauling of cone winders to be periodically


carried out
2. Anti ribboning mechanism to be checked at frequent
interval
3. Free movement of the cone holders to be ensured by
proper lubrication

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
7

SOFT BUILD CONES

Unduly soft structure of cone

EFFECT

1. Overall density of package is lower


2. Soft packing either at the base or at the nose of cones

CAUSES

1. Improper alignment of cone holder and traverse


2. Insufficient unwinding tension

RECTIFICATION

1. Unwinding tension to be maintained at 6 to 8% of


single yarn strength

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
8

BELL SHAPED
CONE

Cones which are tightly built at centre, presents a shape of bell

EFFECT
1.

Excessive breaks during warping and winding


processes

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

High yarn tension during winding


Cone holders incorrectly set to the winding drum
Damages in paper cone centre

RECTIFICATION

1. Quality of cones to be checked at that time of


procurement
2. Optimum unwinding tension to be maintained

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

1
9

NOSE BULGING

Bulging of bunches of the yarn at the nose of the cones

EFFECT

1. Slough during warping/unwinding


2. Excessive yarn waste in next process

CAUSES

1. Improper setting of cone holders to the winding drum


2. Damaged nose of the paper cones

RECTIFICATION

1. Periodical inspection of settings in winding machines


2. Tenters to be instructed to adopt correct work
practices
3. Avoiding usage of damaged paper cones

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

2
0

COLLAPSED CONE

Collapse of the structure of the cone(paper cone)itself

EFFECT

1. Yarn breaks in warping process


2. Wastage increase in yarn preparation

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Use of poor quality/damaged paper cones


Poor system of material handling
Maintaining non optimum unwinding tension

RECTIFICATION

1. Using of poor quality/damaged paper cones should be


avoided
2. Winding tenters should be trained by proper work
methods
3. Proper material handling devices such as cone
transport trolleys to be used
4. Cone inserts to be used for paper cones

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

2
1

RING SHAPED
CONE

Formation of ring shaped bulge across the cross section of the cone

EFFECT
1.
2.

More end breaks in the subsequent processes


Slough off during unwinding

CAUSES
1.
2.
3.

Incorrect setting of the cone holder


Wrong placement tensioners in the tensioning assembly
Traverse of yarn affected due to defects in the grooves of the
drum

RECTIFICATION
1.

Due to replacement of defective drums and stop motion


wires to be ensured ,
2. Periodic inspection of cone holder settings and tension
assembly to be carried out ,

9 1
0

1
1

1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

2
0

2
1

EXPERIMANTAL
DATA

Table-1: Data for 20/1 Ne Yarn breakage in


Warping
SL #

BEAM
LENGTH

WEAK
YARN

SLOUGHING
OFF

OVER
LAPPING

KNOTS/BAD
SPLICE

SLUB
S

LOOSE
YARN

PIGTA
IL

CUT
YARN

BAD TIP
CONE

12400

12400

12400

12400

12400

6500

6500

12400

6550

10

6550

11

6550

12

5150

13

6550

14

6550

15

12400

16

12400

17

12400

18

12400

19

12400

20

12400

199700

84

12

25

46

Tota
l

EXPERIMANTAL
DATA
ble-2: Data for 10/1 Ne Yarn breakages in Warping
SL #

Total

BEAM
LENGTH

WEAK YARN

SLOUGHING
OFF

OVER
LAPPING

KNOTS/BAD
SPLICE

SLUBS

LOOSE
YARN

PIGTAIL

CUT YARN

BAD TIP
CONE

12400

12400

12400

12400

12400

6500

6500

12400

6550

10

6550

11

6550

12

6550

13

6550

14

6550

15

6550

16

6550

17

6550

18

6550

19

6550

20

6550

166000

44

15

20

32

13

EXPERIMANTAL
DATA
Table-3: Data for 16/1 Ne Yarn breakages in Warping
SL #

BEAM
LENGTH

WEAK YARN

SLOUGHING
OFF

OVER
LAPPING

KNOTS/BAD
SPLICE

SLUBS

LOOSE
YARN

PIGTAIL

CUT YARN

BAD TIP
CONE

12400

12400

12400

12400

12400

12400

12400

12400

12400

10

12400

11

12400

12

12400

13

12400

14

12400

15

12400

16

12400

17

12400

18

12400

19

12400

20

12400

248000

58

20

36

10

DATA ANALYSIS
From Table-1: Data for 20 Ne
90
80
70

No of
breakage

60
50
40
30

BAD TIP CONE; 4%


CUT YARN; 4%
PIGTAIL; 24%
WEAK YARN ; 44%
LOOSE YARN; 2%
SLUBS; 13%
KNOTS/BAD SPLICE; 3% OVER LAPPING; 6%

20
10
0

Fig: Effect of different types of yarn


faults in warping for 20/1 count
carded yarn

DATA ANALYSIS
From Table-2: Data for 10 Ne
50
45
40
35

No of
breakage

30
25
20

BAD TIP CONE; 4%


CUT YARN; 9%

WEAK YARN ; 31%

PIGTAIL; 23%
OVER LAPPING; 11%
LOOSE YARN; 3%
SLUBS; 14% KNOTS/BAD SPLICE; 6%

15
10
5
0

Fig: Effect of different types of


yarn faults in warping for 10/1
count carded yarn

DATA ANALYSIS
From Table-2: Data for 16 Ne

70
BAD TIP CONE; 7%

60
50

No of
breakage

40
30
20

CUT YARN; 5%

WEAK YARN ; 39%

PIGTAIL; 24%
LOOSE YARN; 3%

OVER LAPPING; 5%

SLUBS; 14% KNOTS/BAD SPLICE; 3%

10
0

Fig: Effect of different types of yarn faults in


warping for 16/1 count carded yarn

KEY FINDINGS
1. Found different types of yarn and package faults
from warping. the main cases of warp yarn
breakage is improper raw material mixing and
cleaning in spinning because majority percentage
of yarn faults is weak yarn.
2. The number of breaks varied directly with the yarn
count.
3. Improper maintenance of spinning.

LIMITATION
1. We had a very limited time. In spite of my
willing to study more details it was not possible
to do so.
2. This while process is not possible to bind such a
small frame as this report, hence our effort
spent on summarizing them
3. We cannot manage data perfectly. Some fault
cannot recovery such as parallel winding which
is occur from robotic miss action in rotor
spinning ,mixing ratio is not perfectly, large
amount of wastage uses as for the rate of
beating action is high and create more amount
of neps which neps carding cannot remove
perfectly. If Feed material is quality full then
produce goods also be good.

CONCLUSION
Considering the objective of the work, a systematic
investigation on Yarn Faults in warping and its Remedies
were performed in the training period. All the activities had
been done maintaining in sequence of the machinery of the
production. From the thorough investigation it is seen that the
following faults are yarn faults, yarn package faults,
mechanical faults in spinning. Reducing warp breaks on
warping machines
uplift the efficiency of this process and the efficiency of
weaving machines, and finally enhances the quality of
yarns and produced fabrics.
Yarn faults tend to not fulfill the target of production of a
industry. As a result the production capacity of these
industries falls significantly. These are the common faults
which I have tried to find out the causes & their Remedies
against them.

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