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# Chapter 16

## Analysis of Variance and Covariance

True/False Questions
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

The null hypothesis for ANOVA is that all means are not equal.
(False, moderate, page 469)
A particular combination of factor levels, or categories, is called a treatment.
(True, moderate, 469)
ANOVA and ANCOVA can include more than one independent variable and at least
one of the independent variables must be categorical.
(True, moderate, page 470)
ANOVA and ANCOVA include one independent variable and t tests include more
than one independent variable.
(False, moderate, page 470)
The last step in the procedure for conducting one-way analysis of variance is to test
the significance.
(False, moderate, page 471)
Analysis of variance is so named because it examines the variability or variation in
the sample (dependent variable) and, based on the variability, determines whether
there is reason to believe that the population means differ.
(True, difficult, page 471)
SSbetween is the portion of the sum of squares in Y related to the independent variable or
factor X.
(True, difficult, page 472)
SSbetween is also denoted as SSy.
(False, difficult, page 472)
SSwithin is the variation in Y related to the variation within each category of X.
(True, difficult, page 472)
SSwithin is referred to as SSerror.
(True, difficult, page 472)
The logic of decomposing the total variation in Y, SSy, into SSbetween and SSwithin in order
to examine differences in group means hinges on whether or not the null hypothesis is
true.
(True, difficult, page 472)

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12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

In analysis of variance, it is assumed that all the groups have the same variation in the
population.
(True, difficult, page 473)
2 assumes a value of 0 when all the category means are equal, indicating that X has
no effect of X on Y.
(True, moderate, page 473)
In one-way analysis of variance, under the null hypothesis, SSx and SSerror come from
different sources of variation.
(False, difficult, page 473)
Modest departures from the assumptions in analysis of variance do not seriously
affect the validity of the analysis.
(True, moderate, page 478)
When using nway ANOVA the significance of the overall effect may be tested by a t
test.
(False, moderate, page 479)
he n-way ANOVA assumes that the design was orthogonal, or balanced (the number
of cases in each cell was the same).
(True, moderate, page 480)
The most common use of the covariate is to remove extraneous variation from the
dependent variable.
(True, easy, page 483)
Analysis of covariance is most useful when the covariate is not linearly related to the
dependent variable and is not related to the factors.
(False, moderate, page 483)
An interaction effect occurs when the effect of an independent variable on a
dependent variable is different for different categories or levels of another
independent variable.
(True, easy, page 484)
Ordinal interaction involves a change in the rank order of the effects of one factor
across the levels of another.
(False, moderate, page 484)
Omega squared, 2, indicates what proportion of the variation in the dependent
variable is related to a particular independent variable or factor.
(True, moderate, page 485)

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23.

24.

25.

Contrasts are used in ANOVA to determine which of the means are statistically
different.
(True, easy, page 486)
The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the k-sample median test have
the same null hypothesis medians of the k populations are equal.
(True, difficult, page 487)
Multivariate analysis of variance is appropriate when there are two or more dependent
variables that are correlated.
(True, moderate, page 487)

## Multiple Choice Questions

26. A statistical technique for examining the differences among means for two or more
populations is called _____.
a. chi-square
b. analysis of variance (ANOVA)
c. cross-tabulation
d. independent samples t test
(b, moderate, page 469)
27. Categorical independent variables are _____. The independent variables must all be
categorical (nonmetric) to use ANOVA.
a. factors
b. covariates
c. parameters
d. items
(a, moderate, page 469)
28. Which statement is correct concerning one-way ANOVA?
a. Only one categorical variable is involved.
b. A treatment is the same as a factor level.
c. The set of independent variables consists of both categorical and metric variables.
d. Both a and b are correct.
(d, moderate, page 469)
29. An advanced analysis of variance procedure in which the effects of one or more
metric-scaled extraneous variables are removed from the dependent variable before
conducting the ANOVA is called _____.
a. analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
b. one-way analysis of variance
c. n-way analysis of variance
d. decomposition of the total variation
(a, moderate, page 469)

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30. The null hypothesis for ANOVA typically is that all _____.
a. proportions are equal
b. means are unequal
c. proportions are unequal
d. means are equal
(d, moderate, page 469)
31. A covariate is a _____independent variable used in _____.
a. metric; ANOVA
b. categorical; ANCOVA
c. metric; ANCOVA
d. categorical; ANOVA
(c, difficult, page 470)
32. Which of the statistical techniques below does not involve a metric independent
variable (Figure 16.1)?
a. t test
b. ANOVA
c. regression
d. none of the above
(d, moderate, page 470)
33. How consumers intentions to buy the brand varies with different price levels is best
analyzed via _____.
a. t tests
b. one-way ANOVA
c. ANCOVA
d. regression
(b, difficult, page 470)
34. The strength of the effects of X (independent variable or factor) on Y (dependent
variable) is measured by:
a. eta2 (2)
SSx
b.
SSy
c.
SSwithin
d.
(a, difficult, page 471)
35. Also referred to as SSerror , _____ is the variation in Y due to the variation within each
of the categories of X. This variation is not accounted for by X.
SSx
a.
SSwithin
b.
SSbetween
c.
SSy
d.
(b, difficult, page 471)

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## 36. The total variation in y is _____.

SSx
a.
SSwithin
b.
SSbetween
c.
SSy
d.
(d, difficult, page 471)
37. In one-way ANOVA, separation of the variation observed in the dependent variable
into the variation due to the independent variables plus the variation due to error is
called _____.
a. analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
b. one-way analysis of variance
c. n-way analysis of variance
d. decomposition of the total variation
(d, moderate, page 471)
38. The total variation in Y, denoted by SSy, can be decomposed into which two
components?
SSy = SSx -SSerror
a.
SSy = SSbetween + SSwithin
b.
SSy = SSx+ SSerror
c.
b and c are correct
d.
(d, difficult, page 472)
39. Which statement is correct concerning the decomposition of the total variation?
a. Because it is not known that all the groups have the same mean, we cannot
calculate the variance of all the observations together.
b. If the population mean is the same in all the groups, then the variation in the
sample means and the sizes of the sample groups can be used to estimate the
variance of Y.
c. By comparing the Y variance estimates based on between-group and within group
variation, we can test the null hypothesis.
d. All statements are correct.
(d, difficult, page 473)
40. _____ is a measure of variation in Y that is explained by the independent variable X.
a. eta2 (2)
SSx
b.
SSy
c.
SSwithin
d.
(a, moderate, page 473)

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## 41. In one-way ANOVA, the null hypothesis may be tested by _____.

a.
the t statistic
b.
F statistic
c.
chi-square
d.
eta2
(b, moderate, page 474)
42. Which statement is correct if the null hypothesis for a one-way ANOVA is rejected?
a. The effect of the independent variable is significant.
b. The mean value of the dependent variable will be the same for different categories
of the independent variable.
c. The independent variable does not have a significant effect on the dependent
variable.
d. Both b and c are correct.
(a, difficult, page 474)
43. The _____ refers to the assumption in analysis of variance that the categories of the
independent variable are fixed.
a. fixed-effects model
b. random-effects model
c. mixed-effects model
d. standard-effects model
(a, easy, pages 477-478)
44. How consumers intentions to buy a brand vary with different levels of price and
different levels of distribution is best analyzed via _____.
a. n-way ANOVA
b. one-way ANOVA
c. ANCOVA
d. regression
(a, difficult, page 478)
45. A major advantage of _____ is that it enables the researcher to examine interactions
between the factors.
a. one-way ANOVA
b. n-way ANOVA
c. t tests
d. F tests
(b, moderate, page 478)
46. The strength of the joint effect of two (or more) factors, or the overall effect is known
as _____.
a.
significance of the overall effect
b.
significance of the main effect
c.
multiple 2
d.
significance of the interaction effect
(c, moderate, page 479)
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47. A test finding that some differences exist between some of the treatment groups is a
test of the _____.
a.
significance of the overall effect
b.
significance of the main effect
c.
multiple 2
d.
significance of the interaction effect
(a, moderate, page 479)
48. A test of the significance of the interaction between two or more independent
variables is a test of the _____.
a.
significance of the overall effect
b.
significance of the main effect
c.
multiple 2
d.
significance of the interaction effect
(d, easy, page 479)
49. A test of the significance of the main effect for each individual factor is a test of the
_____.
a.
significance of the overall effect
b.
significance of the main effect
c.
multiple 2
d.
significance of the interaction effect
(b, easy, page 479)
50. In determining how different price levels will affect a households cereal
consumption, it may be essential to take household size into account. This is best
analyzed by _____.
a. n-way ANOVA
b. one-way ANOVA
c. ANCOVA
d. regression
(c, difficult, page 483)
51. Analysis of covariance includes at least one _____ independent variable and at least
one _____ independent variable.
a. categorical; interval
b. ordinal; categorical
c. metric; interval
d. parametric; interval
(a, difficult, page 483)

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52. Important issues involved in the interpretation of ANOVA results include all of the
following except:
a. interactions
b. determining the appropriateness of the test
c. relative importance of factors
d. multiple comparisons
(b, moderate, page 484)
53. Which statement is not true concerning interactions resulting from ANOVA?
a. In disordinal interactions of a crossover type, the relative effect of the levels of
one factor changes with the levels of the other.
b. Because it involves a change in rank order, disordinal interaction is stronger than
ordinal interaction.
c. Disordinal interactions of a crossover type represent the weakest interactions.
d. In ordinal interaction, the rank order of the effects related to one factor does not
change across the levels of the second factor.
(c, moderate, page 484)
54. At what point does 2 begin to represent a larger experimental effect?
a. .25
b. .15
c. .10
d. .06
(b, moderate, page 486)
55. _____ are used to examine differences among two or more means of the treatment
groups.
a. Nonmetric ANOVA
b. Contrasts
c. Repeated measures ANOVA
d. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)
(b, difficult, page 486)
56. _____ are determined before conducting the analysis, based on the researchers
theoretical framework.
a. Single comparison contrasts
b. Multiple comparison contrasts
c. A priori contrasts
d. A posteriori contrasts
(c, easy, page 486)
57. _____ are contrasts made after the analysis.
a. Single comparison contrasts
b. Multiple comparison contrasts
c. A priori contrasts
d. A posteriori contrasts
(d, easy, page 486)
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58. _____ are contrasts that enable the researcher to construct generalized confidence
intervals that can be used to make pairwise comparisons of all treatment means.
a. Single comparison contrasts
b. Multiple comparison contrasts
c. A priori contrasts
d. A posteriori contrasts
(b, moderate, page 486)
59. _____ is an ANOVA technique used when respondents are exposed to more than one
treatment condition and repeated measurements are obtained.
a. Nonmetric ANOVA
b. Contrasts
c. Repeated measures ANOVA
d. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)
(c, easy, page 486)
60. Repeated measures analysis of variance may be thought of as an extension of the
_____ to the case of more than two related samples.
a. z test
b. F test
c. t test
d. paired samples t test
(d, moderate, page 486)
61. _____ is an ANOVA technique for examining the difference in the central tendencies
of more than two groups when the dependent variable is measured on an ordinal
scale.
a. Nonmetric ANOVA
b. Contrasts
c. Repeated measures ANOVA
d. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)
(a, difficult, page 487)
62. Considering the k-sample median test and the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of
variance, which of the following statements is not true?
a. In both tests all cases from the k groups are ordered in a single ranking.
b. The Kruskal-Wallis test is more powerful than the k-sample median test.
c. If there are a large number of tied rankings in the data, the k-sample median test
may be a better choice.
d. The null hypothesis is the same for both tests.
(a, difficult, page 487)

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63. _____ is an ANOVA technique using two or more metric dependent variables.
a. Nonmetric ANOVA
b. Contrasts
c. Repeated measures ANOVA
d. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)
(d, moderate, page 487)
64. Which statement about MANOVA is not true?
a. MANOVA examines group differences across multiple dependent variables
simultaneously.
b. In MANOVA, the null hypothesis is that the vectors of means on multiple
dependent variables are equal across groups.
c. MANOVA is most appropriate if there are multiple dependent variables that are
uncorrelated or orthogonal.
d. Multivariate analysis of variance is appropriate when there are two or more
dependent variables that are correlated.
(c, moderate, page 487)
Essay Questions
65. Explain SSbetween, SSwithin, and SSy and their relationship.
Answer
SSbetween. Also denoted as SSx, this is the variation in Y related to the variation in
the means of the categories of X. This represents variation between the categories
of X, or the portion of the sum of squares in Y related to X.
SSwithin. Also referred to as SSerror, this is the variation in Y due to the variation
within each of the categories of X. This variation is not accounted for by X.
SSy. The total variation in Y is SSy. SSy = SSbetween + SSwithin.
(moderate, pages 471-472)
66. What are the general steps involved in performing an ANCOVA?
Answer
1. Remove variation in the dependent variable due to covariates by adjusting the
dependents variables mean value within each treatment condition.
2. Perform analysis of variance on adjusted scores from step one.
3. Use appropriate F tests to test the significance of each covariate and the combined
effects of the covariates.
(difficult, page 483)

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67. Draw the ANOVA interactive cases listed below (Figure 16.4). Name your dependent
variable Y and assume that there are two factors, X1 with three levels (X11, X12, and
X13), and X2 with two levels (X21 and X22). Briefly discuss/describe the interaction
shown in each of your drawings.
1. no interaction
2. ordinal interaction
3. disordinal interaction (noncrossover)
4. disordinal interaction (crossover)
Answer
Refer to Figure 16.4 for a picture of what the students should draw in response to this
question and to follow the illustrative discussion given.
Case 1 depicts no interaction. The effects of X1 on Y are parallel over the two levels of
X2. Although there is some departure from parallelism, this is not beyond what might
be expected from chance. Parallelism implies that the net effect of X22 over X21 is the
same across the three levels of X1. In the absence of interaction, the joint effect of X1
and X2 is simply the sum of their individual main effects.
Case 2 depicts an ordinal interaction. The line segments depicting the effects of X1
and X2 are not parallel. The difference between X22 and X21 increases as we move from
X11 to X12 and from X12 to X13, but the rank order of the effects of X1 is the same over
the two levels of X2.
Case 3 depicts disordinal interaction of a noncrossover type. The lowest effect of X1 at
level X21 occurs at X11, and the rank order of effects is X11, X12, and X13. However, at
level X22, the lowest effect of X1 occurs at X12, and the rank order is changed to X12,
X11, X13. Because it involves a change in rank order, disordinal interaction is stronger
than ordinal interaction.
Case 4 depicts disordinal interactions of a crossover type-the line segments cross each
other. In this case, the relative effect of the levels of one factor changes with the
levels of the other. Note that X22 has a greater effect than X21 when the levels of X1 are
X11 and X12. When the level of X1 is X13, the situation is reversed, and X21 has a greater
effect than X22. (Note that in cases 1, 2, and 3, X22 had a greater impact than X21 across
all three levels of X1.) Hence, disordinal interactions of a crossover type represent the
strongest interactions.
(difficult, page 485)

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