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SECONDARY AIR

DAMPER CONTROL

TEAM
C&I

INTRODUCTION

The total combustion air flow supplied in the boiler consists of two parts
1

The primary air, which is used for drying and transporting the coal
from the pulveriser through the coal piping into the furnace and is
supplied by the primary air fans

The secondary air sent through the four corners of the wind box and
is supplied by the FD fans.
The total secondary air flow is controlled by forced draft fan, in
proportion to the fuel being fired. Total air secondary flow is measured
by a flow metering devices called aero-foil meter.
The measured air flow is compared against the fuel flow, with the
resultant signal positioning the FD fan inlet guide. This inlet guide is
positioned to maintain the required air flow regardless and
Independent of secondary air damper position
The secondary air dampers located in wind box apportions the total

3
4

secondary air between various elevations.How this air is proportioned,


depends on which fuel is being burnt, the number of elevations in
service and the firing rate at each elevation

The function of Secondary Air Damper Control System (SADC) is to


proportion the total secondary air around the firing elevation as per the
amount of fuel fired and the no. of firing elevations decide the damper
position
BASIC DESCRIPTION & TERMINIOLOGY
In total, each wind box assembly is divided into 13
compartments. Each compartment is designated
either by single or double alphabet constituting 13
elevations. An elevation designates all the four
corner compartments.There are 6 elevations
which houses coal nozzles for firing the main fuel.
These are designated with single English letter
A through F.

There are 4 elevations which houses oil burner


assembly for firing start up/ stabilizing fuel viz..
Light Fuel Oil/ Heavy fuel oil (LFO). These
are designated as AB, CD EF. &GH Each oil
compartment is interposed between two coal
Compartments.

There are two nos. of over fire air compartment at


the top of the windbox. They are designated as OFAL (Over fire air - Lower) and OFA-U ( Over fire air Upper) respectively.

At the inlet of each compartment there are control dampers. Each damper is operated by a damper
drive unit.
All damper drives in any one elevation receive the same signal from the secondary air control
system.
If secondary air is admitted to a fuel compartment in service, it is referred as fuel air.
Secondary air is admitted to the furnace through air compartments and fuel compartments not in
service, is termed as auxiliary air.
The auxiliary air damper control is separate from the fuel air damper control

CONTROL PHILOSOPHY
The auxiliary air damper control system positions the auxiliary air dampers to maintain a
wind box to furnace differential pressure . The auxiliary air dampers are positioned to maintain the
required wind box to furnace differential pressure according to the boiler load.
The fuel
firing
rate

air damper control system positions the fuel air damper in proportion to the fuel

This unit is equipped with oil elevation for warm up and stabilisation (designed for 1030% MCR). In this case the oil elevation dampers are positioned to a fixed % opening
during oil firing. When oil is not fired, these dampers are controlled to maintain the
wind box to furnace differential pressure in line with other auxiliary dampers.

Auxiliary air dampers :


All elevations of the aux. air dampers
will be automatically switched to
Manual control and then commanded

open 100%,

to
if any one
of the following conditions exist.
1 Both FD fans are OFF.
2 Both ID fans are OFF.
3 Master fuel trip occurs.
4 Loss of unit critical power . (+24V DC)
Also the auxiliary air control loop is tripped
to manual if any of the following conditions
exist.
1 DP transmitter deviation high.
2 Failure of selected DP transmitter
3 Furnace to Windbox DP very high
(> 240mm WCL).

When an elevation of main fuel is started, the associated fuel (coal ) air dampers open and
modulate as a function of feed rate . A fuel (coal) elevation is selected to be closed when the associated
feeder is tripped.

The auxiliary elevation dampers act as fuel (oil) air dampers when oil firing is taking place and is open
to a preset position 60 % .The fuel (oil) elevation dampers are selected to be closed if there is a back up
trip in that elevation and adjacent pulverisers are off and No Boiler Trip signal is present.When a HFO
Elevation is started (i.e. when the associated elevation back-up trip is removed) the associated
auxiliary air dampers in that elevation are set to preset position for HFO firing.

The over fire air dampers are positioned as a function of the boiler load. The lower OFA dampers start
opening at 50 % boiler load and are fully open when the boiler load reaches 75 %. The upper OFA
dampers start opening at 75 % boiler load and are fully open when the boiler load reaches 100 %

When the unit load exceeds 30% of MCR, the following


events occurs :

When the Unit Load is increased above 30% MCR, the Auxiliary air
dampers on
elevation AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FG, GH & HH are closed in a timed
sequence (10
seconds interval) provided the associated coal elevations are not in
service and the
associated oil elevations are not in service. The auxiliary air dampers
are closed,
starting
from
topiselevation,
lowest air
When the
Unitthe
Load
increasedprogressing
above 30% towards
MCR, thethe
Auxiliary
elevation.
dampers on
elevation AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FG, GH & HH are closed in a timed
sequence (10
seconds interval) provided the associated coal elevations are not in
service and the
associated oil elevations are not in service. The auxiliary air dampers
are closed,
starting from the top elevation, progressing towards the lowest
elevation.

When the unit load is reduced below 30% of MCR, the following
events occur:
The wind-box to furnace differential
pressure set point reverts to
its original
value.
The auxiliary air dampers associated with the coal and LO
elevations not in
service are opened in a timed sequence (10 second interval)
starting at the lowest
elevation, progressing towards the top.
When a LO Elevation is started (i.e. when the associated elevation
back-up trip is
removed) the associated auxiliary air dampers in that elevation are
set to preset
position for LO firing.
When the Post Trip Purge Time Expired command is established
and all FD / ID
fans are not off and a Master fuel trip command doesnt exist, then
a 35 seconds
counting period is started. After it expires, the Open All Auxiliary
Air Dampers

All elevations of fuel air dampers are commanded to


(COAL)
AIR of
DAMPERS
CONTROL
open 100%FUEL
when
any one
the
following conditions exist.
All FD fans are off
All ID fans are off
Master fuel trip exists (for more than 2 seconds PULSE)
Loss of Unit +24V DC power
When a coal elevation is in service, the associated fuel
air dampers modulate as a function of feeder speed as
indicated by the associated coal elevation
MODULATING light coming on.
When the coal elevation is shut down, the associated
fuel air dampers are closed, as indicated by a CLOSED
light .
When the Post Trip Purge Time Expired command is
established and all FD and ID fans are not off and a
Master fuel trip command does not exist, the Open
upper fuel air dampers (Elevation H, G, F & E)
command is removed from memory.

ELEVATION BACKUP
TRIP

LOGIC FOR CLOSING OF


DAMPERS

0 % COMMAND = 20 mamps =
cylinder is full open = full close of
damper
ELEVATION AB BACKUP TRIP

MFT

LOTVTRIP

SET

OR

LOSSOF24VDC

HOTVTRIP

RESE
T

GATE
T ON
6MIN

STOP COMMAND FOR BOTH


1&3 AND 2&4

START COMMAND FOR


ANY PAIR (1&3 OR 2&4 )

SADC POSITIONING

Modulation of Auxiliary Air


Dampers

POST PURGE TRIP


POST

PURGE EXCURSION PROTECTION : Post purge excursion protection circuit has been
designed in the Furnace Safeguard
Supervisory System. It operates as described below:
When all the following conditions are satisfied, a 5minute counting period is started.
Light oil trip valve closed.
All elevation all LO nozzle valves closed.
All Feeders off.
Air flow > 30 % MCR and <40 % MCR.
All scanners show no flame.
All Hot air gates closed.

POST PURGE TRIP

All aux. air dampers modulating


All PA fans off.

After 5 minute counting period


expires, the Post Purge Fan Trip
memory is set, if
very high or very low furnace
pressure exists, the post purge fan
trip command is
issued (for tripping FD&ID fans).
When any LO valve is open, this is
reset.

Modulation of Fuel Air


Dampers

Modulation of Over Firing Air


Dampers

The two elevations of the over fire air dampers will


be automatically switched to Manual control and
then commanded to open 100%, if any one of the
following conditions exist

Master fuel trip occurs.


Loss of unit critical power .(+24 VDC)
Both FD fans are OFF.
Both ID fans are OFF.
WB To Furnace DP exceeds 240mm WCL.

OFA

20

SA inlet to the Wind Box

Wind Box
Spindles of Pneumatic
Cylinders,
which
Regulate Secondary Air
Dampers