t
),
,(
'j
il pOWER ELECTRONICS i
PATlAld\147004
KHANNA PUBLISHE S
J IN BOO
DE POT
39'
Delhill0006,
'
.. '
Fourth
Reprint : 2007. .
'. ~
. ~
. .....
Printed at "
Moh an Lal Prfntars
Shahdara, Delh i32
'
..
; '
In
Loving Memory . .
. of M y Late Parents
PREFACE
Power electronics blend s the three m ajor areas of E lectr ical En gin eeringpower,
electronics and control. Under controlled power conciitions, loa d performs better. So ther e has
always been a popular demand to have power modula tors. It is power 'electronics th at has
made possible the availability of a wide variety of controlled power converters. Power
electronics has really r evlut;"(oniLed the art of power conversion and its control. The advent
of power semiconduct or device, 't hyristor', in 1957 has been the most exciting breakthrough,
because its launch gave a boost to the art of power conversion and its control, and t ook this
art to its forefront. As a result of technological evolution, many more semiconductor devices
such as triacs, asymm etrical thyristors, gate turn off thyristors, power MOSFETs, insulated
gate bipolar transistors, SITs, SITHs and MOScontrolled thyristors are n ow available. The
use of these semicon ductor devices has perva ded the industrial applications r elating to the
field of Electrical, Electr onics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering. In other words ,
powerelectronic components find their use in low as well as highpower applications .
The purpose of this book is to provide a good understanding of the powerelectronic
components and t he behaviour of powerelectronic converters by presenting systematically
all important aspects of semiconduct or devices amI the common type of electricpower
controller s. The book begins with the study of salient features of power diodes, power
transistors, MOScontrolled thyristor, silicon controlled rectifier an d other memb ers of
thyr ' stor f am ily. Th en their applications in the differ ent t yp es of powerconv ert er
configurations are presen t ed in a lucid det ail. In other w ords , this book fo llow s the
bottomdown approach (device characteristics first and t hen their applications). Maj or part
of the book is intended to serve as an intr odu ctory course in' pow er~el ectronics t o t he
undergradu at e students of Electrical, Electronics, Instrumen tation and Control disciplines.
It is presumed that the reader is familiar with the basics of elementary electronics and circuit
theory. The material presented here can be covered in one sem est e with the amiss ' on of some
topics . The instructor, after browsing through the b ook for some tim e, can plan t he course
contents and its sequence without loss of continuity.
The book contains thirteen chapt ers . Chapter 1 gives an overview of merits and demerits
of power electronic controllers and br' efly discusses the t opics covered in this book . This
chapter also touches upon the significance of power electr onics. Chapter 2 des cribes th e
characteristics of power diodes, powe transistors and MOScon tr olled thyristors. In C apter
3 are pr esented diode characteristics, rectifiers, performance par amet ers and fil ers. Chapter
4 explains the characteri tics of thyristors in detail and of Triacs, GTOs etc. Thyristor
commuta j on t echniques are given in Chapter 5. In C~pt er 6, the prin ciples of conve sian
from ac to de involving singl ephase as well as threephase converters are presented. Chapt ers
7 to 10 pertain to the treatment of de chopper s, inverters, ac voltage controllers an d
cycloconverter s res pectively. While Chapter 11 gives study of several applications of power
electronics, Chapter 12 discusses electric drives. P ower facto improvement an th e m eth ods
o reactive power compensation are detailed in Chapte 13. A large number of ilJu trative
diagrams and a wide variety of worked example add t o the clarity of th e subject matter. The
material given in this boo is classroom tested. In the appendices ; Fo rier analysis, Laplace
transform and a large numb er of objectivetype qu es tions r elating to C ap te s 2 t o 13 are
given.
(viii)
CONTENTS
1.
....... ..
INTRODUCTION .. . ..
18
1.1.
1.2 .
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
2.
2.4.
2. 5.
2.6.
2.7.
2.8 .
2.9.
2.10.
3..
C"tIFIERS. .
943
2.2.
2.3 .
0 '
10
.11
12
12
.13
14
14 .
1.5
15
15
15
16
.... .
'
.20
21
.26
.29
.30
.31
. 31
.31
.32
. 33
.33
. 34
.34
.35
.36
. . 36
. 37
. .39
III
~illa
. 44
(x)
3.2.
3. 3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9.
3. 10.
4.
3.1.3. RI Load ..
3.1.4. LC Load .
Freewheeling Diodes
Performance Parameters . . ~ .. . . . .
Threephase Rectifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : .
THYRI STORS . . . . .
4.1. Terminal Characteristics of Thyristnrs . . . . .
4.1.1. Static IV Characteristics of a Thyristor .
", . .
4.2. Thyristor Turnon Methods .. . . . . . . . . . . .
4. 3. Switching Characteristics of Thyristors . . . . . . . .
4.3 .1. ' Switching Characteristics During Turnon . .
4.3.2. Switching Characteristics During Turnoff ..
4.4. Thyristor Gate Characteristics . . .
4.5. Twotransistor Model of a Thyristor
..
4.6. Thyristor Ratings . . . . . . . .
4.6 .1. Anode Voltage Ratings
'.
4.6.2. Current Ratings . . ..
4. 7. Thyristor Protection . . . . . .
4.7.1. Design of Snubber Circuits .
4.7.2. Overvoltag Protection . . .
4.7.2.1. Suppression of Ovet"Voltages.
4.7.3. Overcurrent Protection .. . .. . ,
4.7.4. Gate Protection . . . . . . . . . .
4.8, Improvement of Thyristor Characteristics
4.8.1. Improvemetlt in dil dt Rating . .
4. 8.1.1. Highergate Curr~nt .. .
4. 8.1.2. StructuTal 'Modification of The Device..
I '
~ ..
. 46
47
.53
55
56
57
.57
.58
.73
' .75
.75
. 77
.79
.79
.80
.81
.85
.85
~ 89
.92
.94
. 97
101
106
107
111
113
".
. . ... .
.~ .
..
120227
121
122
123
127
128
130
132
139
142
142
144
153
154
157
158
159
161
163
163
163
163
(xi)
5.
.
5.2. Class B Commutation : Resonantpulse Commutation .
>
'
164
165
165
167
168
172
172
178
182
182
183
183
184
185
185
188
188
188
188
189
189
189
191
191
192
192
193
193
193
194
194
195
195
195
196
200
208
211
214
215
216
217
228247
228
230
233
235
237
238
(x i i)
6.
7.
248346
6.1.2. Singlephase Halfwave Cir cuit with RL Load and Freewheeling Diode
256
263
263
Continuous Conduction. . . . . . . . . . . . .
275
283
,.~."
34741. 3
348
349
349
351
355'
355.
356
356
358
359
(xiii)
8.
INVERTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
361
365
366
367
368
377
379
388
396
399
414503
415
415
417
424
430
431
436
437
441
442
442
447
452
452
453
454
454
455
456
459
461
464
464
465
467
468
468
470
474
482
482
483
487
487
492
49
97
(xiv)
9.
lO~
11.
j
I
AC VOLTAGE C ONT~OLLERS . . .
9.1. Principle of Phase Con trol . . . .
9.2 . Principle of Integral Cycle Control . . . .
9.3. Singlephase Voltage Controllers . . . . .
9.3.1. SiilglePhase Voltage Controller with R Load
9.3.2. SinglePhase Voltage Controller with RL Load.
9.4. Sequence Control of ac Voltage Controllers . . . . .. . .
. 9.4.1. Twostage Sequence Control of Voltage Controllers .
9.4 .2. Multistage Sequence Control of Voltage Controllers .
9.4.3. Singlephase SinWloidal Vol~age Controller . . . . . .
504531
504
508
511
512
CYCLOCONVERTERS . . . . . . , . ~ . ,; . . . . . . . ; ..
10.1. Principle of Cycloconverter OperatioI:l' . .. . . . . . . . . . .
10:1.1. Singlephase to Singlephase. Cireuit'stepup Cycloconverter
10.1.1.1. Midpoint Cycloeonverter.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
532550
533
533
533 .
551:582
551
552
554
555
556
557
559
560
: 561
562
564
565
567
567
588
588 .
569.
570
.571
517
523 .
523
527
527
534
534
534
536
538
538
541
543
548
,' .
571
. 572
572
572
(xv )
575
578
581
12.
.'.
ELECTRIC DRIVES . . . . . .
12.1. Concept of Electric Drive
12.2. DC Drives . . . . . . . . .
12.2. 1. Basic Perfonnance Equations of dc Motors
12.3. Singlephase dc Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.1. Singlephase Halfwave Converter Drives
12.3.2. Singlephase Semiconverter Drives .
12.3.3. Singlephase Full Converter Drives .
12.3.4. Singlephase Dual Converter Drives
12.4. Threephase dc Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.1. Threeph~.se Ha1fwave Converter Drives.
12.4.2. Threephase Semiconverter Drives .
12.4.3. Threephase Fullconverter Drives .
12.4.4. Threephase Dual Converter Drives.
12.5. Chopper Drives . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5 .1. Power Control or Motoring Control
12.5.2. Regenerativebraking Control .
12.5.3. Twoquadrant Chopper Drives .
12.5.4. Fourquadrant Chopper Drives
12 .6. A.C. Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.7. Inductio .Motor Drives . . . . . . . . .
12.8. Speed Control of Threephase Induction Motors
12.8.1. Stator Voltage Control . . . . . . . . .
12.8.2 . Stator Frequency Control .. . . . . . .
12.8.3 . Sta tor Voltage and Frequency Control
12.8.4. Stator Current Control . . . . .
12.8.5. Static Rotorresistance Control
12.8.S. Sl'ppower Recovery Schemes .
12.8.S.1. Static Kramer Drive..
12.8.6.2. Static Scherbius Drive.
12.9. Synchronous Motor Drives . . ..
12.9.1. Cylindrical Rotor Motors
12.9.2. Sall ntpole Motors . . .
12.9.3. Reluctance Motors. . . .
12.9.4. PermanentMagnet Motors .
12.10. Some Wor ed Examples . . . . .
13.
POWE
FACTOR IMPROVEMENT
5 83~674
583
584
585
587
588
590
592
597
597
598
599
602
610
610
611
616
618
61 9
620
621
624
624
626
628
632
639
645
645
651
652
653
656
658
659
660
.....
675'890
675
676
677
678
678
680
.'".
684
(xvi)
. .. , . .. 691698
. . . . . 699
Thyristors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choppers . . . . . . . .
Inverters . . . . . . . . .
AC Voltage Controllers.
Cyc1oconverters ..
Some Applications .. .
E lectric Drives . . . . .
700170
700
703
711
723
726
741
749
757
762
766
767
769
REFERENCES
INDEX
771
" ,
773
Chapter 1
Introd ctO
... ....... ..........
~
In this Chapter
concept of Power Electronics
Applications of Power Electronics
Advantages and Disadvantages of Powerelectronic Con verters
Power Electronic Systems
Power Semiconductor Devices
"' . . . . . . . . .
_ _ .. .
...... .
.. .
. . . . . . ... .
1<' .. . . . . . . . .
... .
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . _ _ _ .
. . . . . . .. .
'. . ..... . . . . . . . .. .
.... .. .
......
The object of this chapter is to discuss briefly the concept of power electronics, applications
of power electronics and the types of power converter s desc:t ibed in this book.
1.1. CONCEPT OF POWER ELECTRONICS
Power electronics belon gs partly to power engineers and partly to electronics engineers [2] . Power
engineering is mainly concerned wi th gen eration, trans mission, eli tribution and utilization of electric
energy at high efficiency. Electronics engineering, on the oth er h and,. is guided by distortionless
production, transmission and reception of data and signals of very low power level, of th e order of a
few watts, or milliw atts, without m ch consideration to the efficiency.. ill addition, apparatus
associated with power engineering .s based mainly on electromagn etic principles wh ereas that in
electronics en gineering is based upon physical phenomen a in yaCUUID , gases/vapours and
semiconductors. .
Power electronics is a subject th at con cerns the appl" cation of electronicpriIlciples into situations
that are rated at power level rather than signal level. It may also be defined as a subject that deals
with the apparatus and equipmen t working on the principle of electronics but r ated at powe r level
r ather than signal level. F or e::Iample, semiconductor 'power swit ches such as thyri tors, GTOs etc.
work on the principle of electronics (movement of holes and electrons), but h ave the na.m e power
attached to them only as a description of their power ratings. Similarly, diodes, mercuryarc rectifiers
and thyratrons (gasfill ed triode), highpow er .level devices, fann a part of the s"Llbject power
electronics ; because their working is based on the physical phenomena in gases and vapours , an
electronic process. As the inclusion of all such powerrated electronic equipments would be a
voluminous task, the present book is devoted to the study of semicondu ctorbased powerelectronic
compon ents and systems only. It shocld be understood that the techniques used in the design of
highefficiency and highenergy level pow electronic circuits are quite different from those employed
in the design of loweffici
ency electronic circuits at signal levels.
.
Th e era of m odern power electron ics began with th e inv.en tion of silicon  controlledr ectifier
(S CR) by B ell Laboratories in 1956 . Its prototype was introduced by GEC in 1957 and
subsequent ly, GEC i n trod Llced SCRba ed system s commercially in 1958. Since then , there
have been eme:rgence of many new power semiconductor devices. Power el e ctron~:: sys .e . ~
today incorp ora te p ower semi :::onductor d 9vice ~ well as microelectronic inte.,.:3 ci ell cuit3 .
P owe Electronics
[Art. 1.2J
The term, 'converter system', in gener al, is used to denote a static device that converts ac to dc,
dc to ac, dc to dc or ac to ac. Conventional power controllers based on thyratr ons, mercuryarc
rectifiers, magnetic amplifiers, rheostatic controllers etc. have been replaced by power electronic
controllers using semiconductor devices in almost all applications. The development of new
powersemiconductor devices, new circuit topologies with their improved performance and their fall
in prices have opened up wide field fOT the new applications ofpower electronic converters. Ajudicious
use of powersemiconductor devices in conjunction with microprocessors or microcomputers has
further enhanced the control strategies and synthesizing capabilities of the power electronic
converters. It is said that power semiconductor devices can be regarded as the muscle and the
microelectronics as the intelligent brain in the modern power electronic systems.
For controlling the power flow to load, all power semiconductor devices, used in a power electronic
converter, are either fullyon or fullyoff. In other words, all semiconductor devices in powerelectronic
converter operate as switches. Wilen the switch is fullyon, power semiconductor device handles large
current (divided by the load impedance) and negligible voltage drop across it. When the switch is off,
the device handles negligible current vrith full voltage across it. Therefore, a power semiconductor
device, during on and off periods, has very low power loss in it as compared to the power delivered
by the source to load. This results in higher energy efficiency of the power electronic converter system.
At the same time, low energy loss in the semiconductor device can easily be removed by its efficient
cooling. This all has contributed to the widespread use of power electronic converters in the power
conversion and control systems.
Table 1.1 lists various applications of power electronics. Tills list is however not exhaustive.
No boundaries can be earmarked for the applications of power electronics, especially with the
present trend of integrated design of powersemiconductor devices, microprocessors and the
controlled equipment. The power ratings of powerelectronic systems Tfu.J.ge from a few watts
in lamps to several hundred megawatts in HVDC transmission systems. It is believed that in
the early twentyfirst cent ury, 60 t o 80% of the electric power consumed in utility systems .vill
pass through powerelectronics and this figure will event ually reach 100% in the future.
Tab le 1 .1. Some Applica tion3 of Power El ec tronics
1. Ae rosp a ce:
Space shutt le power supplies, satellit e power supplies, aircraft power systems.
2. Commercial :
Advertising, heating, air conditi oning, central refrigerlltion, comput er and office equipment,
uninterruptible power supplies, elevators, light dimmers and fl ashers .
3. Industrial:
Arc and industrial furn aces, blowers and fans, pumps and compr essors , industrial lasers,
transformertap changers, r olling mills, textile mills, excavat ors, cement mills, welding.
4. Residential :
Airconditioning, cooking, lighting, spa ce heating, refrigera tors , electricdooT openers, dryers, fans,
personal co mputer s , oth er entert ainment equipmen t, v cu um cleaners , was hing an d sewi n g
machines, light dimmers, foo d mixers, electric blankets, foodvvarm ar trays.
5. Telecommuni ca t::i.on :
Battery charger s, power supplies ( dc an d UPS ).
6. Tra nsp ortation;
B ttery chargez:s, traction ont 01 of electri c vehicles , electri c locomoti ves) street cars, t rolley buses,
subways, automotive electronics.
7. Utility systems :
High voltage dc transmission (HVDC), exdtation systSID3, VAR compensation, stati c circuH
bTeak ers , fans and boilerfe d pump.s, Buppl amentaJ'l] ene gy sys elD.3 ( solar, ;vind ).
In traduction
l\ rt.
.4]
operat ing conditions. In order to avoid a low pf, some special measures have t o be adopted.
(c) Powerel ectronic con trollers h av e low ov erload capa city, Th ese conv erters must ,
ther efore, be r ated fO T taking m omentary over loads . As such, cost of power electr onic controller
m ay mcrease.
The advantages posses ed. by power electronic converters far outiiveigh their disadvantages
mentioned above. As a consequence, semiconductorbased converters are being extensively employed
in systems where power flow is to be regulated. As already stated, conventional p ower controllers
used in many inst allations have already been replaced by semiconductorbased power electronic
controllers.
The m ajor compon en ts of a powe eledronic' syst em are shown in the form of a block
di gram in Fig. 1. 1. M ain power s ou ce may be an a c supply syst e _ or a de supply ys tem.
The outp t fr om the power electronic circui t may be variabb~ dc, 0 ac voltage, or it may be
a var iable voltage and fre quency. In gen er al, the ou tput of a pow er electronic conver tor ci cu 't
depends u pon the r equirements ofth e lo ad. F or example) iftb e load is a de m ot or, the converter
output must be adju stable dir ect voltage. In case the load is 3vhase induction m otor, the
converter may ha v ~ adju st able voltage and fr equ ency at its outp ut terminals.
The feedb ack component in Fig. 1.1 me asures a param eter f he 10 ' d, say sp eed in case of
a r ota ting machin e, and comp ares it with th command . The diff:: ence of the two, throug the
digital circuit components , controls f e i stant oftu..rnon of semicondu.:toT d evices forming the
Power Electronks
[Art. 1.5J
Ma in Power
Sou re e
Command
..
Control
Unit
p
Digital
Circuit
Power Electronic
Circuit
.j
Load
.j
Feedback Signal
I
solidstate power converter system. In this manner, behaviour of the load circuit can be
controlled, as desired, over a wide range with the adjustment of the command.

Device
Circuit symbol
,
1.
Diod e
2.
Thyri.stors
AC
OK
Ao
~G
oK
(a) SCR
(6) L'SCE
Ao
I
I
(e) AS CRIRCT
~o
(d)
GTO
~\
~G
~G
K,A
Upper operating
(req. (kHz)
5000 V/5000 A
1.0
7000 V/5000 A
1.0
6000 V/3000 A
1.0
2500 V/400 A
2.0
5000 V/3000 A
2.0
oK
0;<
~ or~~~:
Voltage I current
ratings
[Art. 1.5J
In trod uc tion
Device
S.No.
Circuit symbol
Voltage I curren t
ratings
Upper operating
freq. (kHz)
(e) S1TH
2500 Vl500 A
100 .0
1200 V/40 A
20.0
1200 VIIOOO A
0.50
1400 V/400 A
10.0
1000 Vl50A
100.0
1200 Vl300 A
100 .0
1200 Vl500 A
50.0
(j) MeT
M~f2itr ~1
(g) Triac
1G
3.
Transistors
(a)
8
npn
onp
(b)
BJT
MOSFET
(nchannel)
(c)
SIT
G
s
(d)
IGBT
In the above table, the various abbreviations are; SeR (silicon controlled rectifier), LASeR
(lightactivated SCR), ASCR (asymmetric al SeR), RCT (revers e conducting thyristor), GTO
(gatetUIIl off thyristo~) , SITH (static induction thyrist or), MeT (MOS controlle thyTis or),
BJT (bipolar junction transisto ), MOSFET (metaloxide semicon ductor fiel d effect transistor),
81 (static indudi on transistor) and IGBT (insulated gate bipolar tnms stor).
(
Power Electronics
[Ar t. 1.6]
Based on (i ) t urno n and turnoff characteristics, (ii) gate signal requirements and (iii)
degree of controllability, the power semiconductor devices can be classified as under:
(a ) Di od es . Thes e ar e uncontrolled rectifying devices. Their on and off states are controlled
by power supply.
(b) Thyri st ors. These have controlled turnon by a gate signal. After thyristors are on,
they remain latchedin onstate due to internal regenerative action and gate loses control.
These can be turnedoff by the power circuit.
Controllable swit ches. These devices are turnedon and turnedoff by the application
of control signals. The devices which behave as controllable switches are BJT, MOSFET, GTO,
SITH, IGBT, SIT and MCT.
(c)
Triac and RCT possess bidirectional current capability whereas all other remaining
devices (diode, SCR, GTO, BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, SIT, SITH and MeT) are unidirectional
current devices.
1.6. TYPES
~!. POWER
ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS
A power electronic system consists 0: one or more power electronic copverters. A power
electronic convert er is made up of some power semiconductor devices controlled by integrated
circuits. The switching characteristics of power semiconductor devices permit a power
electronic converter to shape the input power of one form to output power of some other form .
St atic pow er converters perform these functions of power conversion very efficiently. Broadly
speaking, power electronic converters (or circuits) can be classified into six types as under:
1. Di ode Rectifi ers. A diode rect ifier circuit converts ac input voltage into a fix ed dc
voltage. The input volt age may be singlephase or three phase . Diode rectifiers find wide use
in el ectric t rac tion , batt ery charging, electroplating, electrochemical pr ocessing) power
supplies, 'vveldin g an d uninterruptible power supply (UPS ) systems.
[Axt. 1.7]
Intro uction
5. AC t o ac convert ers. These convert fixed ac input voltage into va_iable ac output
voltage. These are of two types as under:
(a) AC' voltage controllers (AC voltage regulators). These converter circuits convert fL ed
ac volt age dir ectly to a variable ac voltage at the same fre quency. AC volt age controller employ
two thyristors in antiparallel or a triac. Turnoff of both the devices is obtained by ine
commutation . Output voltage is controlled by varying the firing angle delay. AC voltage
controllers are widely us ed for lighting control, speed control of fans , pumps et c.
(b ) Cyclocon verters. These cir cuits convert input power at one frequency to output power
at a differen t frequ ency through onestage conversion. Line commutation is more common in
these converters, though forced and load commutated cycloconverters are also employed. These
ar e prim arily used for slowspeed large ac drives like rotary kiln etc .
6. Static switch s. The power semiconductor devices can operate as static switches or
contact ors . Static swit ches possess many advantages over mechanical and electromechanical
circuit breaker s. Depending upon the input supply, the static switches are called ac static
switches or dc static switches.
'
,':
A power electroni c converter m ay require two, four or more semicon ductor devices
depending upon the circuit configuration. For example, a singlephase halfbridge inverter
requires a power module consisting of two power semiconductor devices; a fullconverter (or
H bridge converter) r equires a power module having four semiconductor devices; a three phase
full converter n eeds a power module having six semiconductor devices. Thus, a power electronic
converter can be ass embled from power modules instead of from individual semiconductor
devices. A power module h as better performance characteristics as compared t o conventional
devices so far as thei.r switching characteristics, operating speed and losses are concerned.
Gate drive circuits for individual devices or power modules are also commer cially available.
As a r esult of these developments, now inte ligent m odules h ave come in the mar 'et .
Inte lligent m odule, also caned smartpower; is stateoftheart power electronics and it
consists of power module and a periph eral circuit. The peripheral circuit compris es of
interfacing of power module with the inputJoutput through pr oper isolation from lowvoltage
signal and from highvoltage power circuit, a dri.ve circuit, protection and diagnostic circuitry
against maloperation like excess current, over volt age etc, microcomputer control and
controlled power supply. The user has merely to connect the existing supply and the load
terminals to the smartpower. At pr esent, int elligent modules are being u sed extensively in
power electr on ics. It is r eported that there are more than twenty manufacturers of int elligent
modules.
Po wer semiconductOi d evices form the heart o f modern power electronics, A p o wer
electronics engineer must understand the device thoroughly fo r e fficient, reHabl and
costeffective d esign of power c onverters. For this p urpose, ch a pter 2 Is devoted 'to the
study of pO'll/e r semiconductor d iodes, 'transistors a nd MeT. C hapte r 3 deals with diode
c ircuits a nd recti ners . In ch a pter 4, are discussed in detail t he thyristor characteristics and
its control strat gles . Thyristor c ommut ation t echniques are describ ed In c hapter 5. O t' er
power elec tro nic converte rs mentioned in this c hapte are d escribed in d etail in c hapter
6 o nward.
L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
[Prob .5]
PROBLEMS:
. .
1.1.
Chapt er 2
ower Se ic nductor
..... .. ...... .. ... .............. ... .. ... ... ... . . ............. . ... .. .. ... ..
 ~
In this Chapter
. ..... ....... .. ...... .. .. .. ... ....... ..... ... ........ .. . ... ....... .. ... .... ... ..
~
. ~
.. ...
A lowpower diode, called signal diode, is a pnjunction device. A highpower diode, called
power diode, is als o a pnjunction device but with constructional fe at ures somewhat different
from a si gn al diode. Lifewise, power t r ansistors also differ in construction fro m signal
transisto s .
The voltag e, current and power ratings of power diodes and transistors ar e much high er
than the corresponding ratings fo r signal devices. In addition, power devices operate at lower
switchin g speeds whereas signal diodes and transist ors operate at higher switching speeds.
Power s emi conductor devices are u s ed ext ensiv ely in powerelectronic circuits . Some
applications of power diodes in clude their use as freewheeling diodes, for ac to dc conversion,
for rec overy of t rapp ed en e gy etc. Power t r ansi stors, used as a switch i ng device 'n
powerelectron ic cir cuit s, must operate in the saturation region in or der that their onstate
voltage drop is low. Thei r applications as switching elements 'n elude dc choppers and inverters.
Th e obj ect of t hi s chapte r is t o desc r ib e pow er diodes, pow er t r an sis t ors a nd
MO S con tr oll ed t hy be or (MC T). A th yris to r is mOTp. im port ant compo n ent of pow er
sem" condu ctor devices;it is, therefore, discussed in detail in Chapter 4.
2:.1
_ ...<vI.IP
' ~~~
06
n1N~~lION!.'
~~~ _
~~,'
.. .:
;I '
 r.:~?
r
I
,.~I:.
....
~.
; ~r
A n junction for ms t he basic buil ding block of all pow er semicondu ctor devLes. It is ,
th er efor e, worth while h er e to r eview this junction at an introductory l ev el.
A pn junc bon ' s form ed when p type semi con ductor is br otlgh t in me tallur gi cal , or
physical, comac wi th n type sem icondu ctor. A p r egion h as great "f can en tra tion of holes
whereas nregion has more electronconcent r lltion . In pregion, free h oles are called m aj or ity
10
Power Electronics
[Art. 2.1]
carriers anci. fr ee electrons min ority carriers. In nregion, fre e electrons'are called maj ority
carriers where as free holes are called minority carriers.
Doping densities in p and n type semiconductors may be different. As such, ptype material
m ay be design at ed p+,p or p; similarly ntype mater ial as n\n etc. Rough guidelines for
labelling of p as p + , p  etc and n as n , n + etc are a s under:
(a ) If doping (or acceptor) density in ptype semiconductor = doping (or donor ) density in
ntype semicondu ctor, then it is called pen junction. For example, if doping density in both p
. a bou tl0 16 cm 3 t10
 3 JunctIon
. .IS terme d
and n 1ayers IS
0 17 cm,
pen'Junc t'IOn.
(b) If doping density in pregion is much greater than that in nregion, it is called p+n
junction. For example, if doping densities are 10 19 cm 3 in p layer and 1017 cm 3 in n layer,.
then it is termed p + n junction.
(c) If doping density in ntype is less than that given in part (b ), the junction is called
13
p"'n junction. For example, if doping densities are 10 19 cm 3 and 10 cm 3 for p and n types
respectively, then p + n junction is formed .
(d) If both p and nlayers are heavily doped, it is called p'" n+ junction an d if very lightly
doped, a pn junction is formed. For example, if drensity is 10 19 cm 3 in both p and n layers,
p'" n'" junction is formed.
In general, p + indicates highly doped p r egion, ' n lightly doped n region and so on.
2.1. 1. Depletion Layer
'When physical cont act between p and n regions is made, fr ee electrons in 11, material diffuse
across th e junction into p m aterial, Fig. 2.1 (a ). Diffusion of each electron from n t o p , leaves
a positive ch arge behind in the nregion near the junction . Similarly, diffusion of each hole
from p t o n , leaves a negative charge behind in the p r egion near the jun ction. As a result of
this diffusion , n region near the junction becom es positively charged ~dp region in the vicinity
of junc tion becomes negatively ch arged, Fig. 2. 1 (b). These charges establish an electric field
across the junction . When this field. ,grows str on g enough, it stops furth er diffu sion. Some
electr ons , as these diffuse from n t o jI ie~ine '~h h oles in pregion and disappear. Similar
recombin ation occurs in nregion . .
Immob ile
ions
Holes
( diffuse
Electrons
diffuse
p~
Ii I\!I
Junct:o n
(a l
( b)
t
+
 +
 +
r
t "I
  ++
  ++
   ++ ++
( l
/
11/
I:
f
d)
. (b )
[. r t. 2.2J
. 11
When electric field s tops fur ther diffusion, charge carriers (h o es and electr ons) don't move .
As a consequence , opposite charges on each side of the junction produce immobile ions , Fig. 2.1
(b). The region extending in to both p and n semiconductor layers called depletion region or
spacecharge region . The wid h of deple tion r egion, or depletion layer , is of th e orde r of
5 x 10 4 mm . In equilibrium, there is a potential differenc of 0.7 V acros the depletion region
in silicon and 0.3 V across the depletion r.egion in germa.!lium.. This potential differen ce across
the depletion layer is called barrier potential.
is
When positive terminal of a battery is connected to ptype material and negative terminal
to ntype material, Fig. 2.1 (c), th~ pn junction is forward biased. Positive terminal of the
battery sucks electrons from p material leaving holes there. These holes travel through p
material towards the n egative charge at pn junction al'.d thus neutralize partly this negative
charge. Similarly, negative t erminal of the battery injects electrons into n layer. These electrons
move through n material , reach the p n junction thereby neutralizing partly the positive
charge. As a res' It, width of depletion region gets r educed . .
In case p material is connected to negative terminal of the battery and n material to positive
t erminal of battery, then it can be deduced th at width of depl etion layer in.creases, Fig. 2. 1 (d) .
A rise in jun c60n temperature also decre ases width of depletion layer. As the barri er
potential depends on width of the depletion layer, the barrier potential decreases with rise in
junction temperature.
For p('lwer semiconductor devices, it should be kept in mind that (i) a junction with light ly
doped layer on its on e side requires large breakdown voltage and (ii) a juncti0:l with highly
doped layers on its both sides r equires low breakdown voltage.
2.2. BASIC S,TRUC'tURE: OF_POWER DIODES .
Power diodes differ in st ructure from signal diod es. A signal diode. constitutes a simple pn ..
junction as shown in Fig. 2.1. The in tricacles in constructing powe diodes arise 'from the need
to make them suit able for highvoltage and h ighcurrent applicat ions.
The practical realizat' on and th resulting structur e of a power diode is shown in Fig. 2.2
(a). It consists of heav'ly dop8d n" substrate". On this substrate, a lightly doped n layer is
epi texially grown . Now a heavily doped p "'layer
... y Anode
is diffused into n layer to form th e anode of
powe r diode , Fig. '2.2 (a ). This shows that n
layer i the basic structural feature not found in
signal di odes. Th e fu ch on of n  lay er is to
:Dri1 !
absorb the depl etion layer of th e rev ers e biased
I region
..l
p"'n j u nc tion J 1 . The br eakd own volt age
n '"
Sub strut '
needed in a power d' ode governs the thi kness
of n layer; greater t he br eakdown voltaD'e,
more the n layer thickness. The drawback of
Co hod !?
K. cothodi'
nlayer is to add signi lcant ohmic resistance to
(a)
( b)
th e dio d e wh en it is cond u cti g a forward
current. This leads to large p ower dissipation in Fig. 2.2. (a) Structura fea tures of power diode
the diode ; so proper cooling arrangements in
and (b) i 3 cir uit symbol.
large diode ra tings are es ential.
12
Power Electroni s
[Art. 2.3]
The circuit symbol of a power diode, shown in Fig. 2.2 (b), is t he same as that for a signal
diode.
The modifications in the context of diode, presented above, makes them appropriate for
highpower applications. As diode, or pn junction, is the basic building block of all other power
semiconductor devices; same basic modifications should be implemented in all lowpower
semiconductor devices in order to raise their powerhandling capabilities.
2.3. CHARACTERISTICS OF POWER DIODES
As stated before, power diode is a twoterminal, pn semiconductor device. The two
terminals of diode are called anode and cathode, Fig. 2.2 (b) and Fig. 2.3 (a). Two important
characteristics of power diodes are now described.
l)D
+
J
'I"""
Cathode
Anode
i.
Vs
:'1
,
(a)
F ig. 2.3.
(b)
(a)
(c)
(d)
When cathode is positive with respect to anode, the diode is said to be re verse biased. In the
reverse biase d condition , a small reverse curren t called leakage current, of t he ord er of
microam pel"es or m ill iamperes (for large diodes) flows. The leak age current is almost
independent of the magnitude of reverse voltage l..m til this voltage reaches breakdown voltage.
At th is r everse breakdown, voltage remains almost constant but rever e current becomes quite
highlimited only by the ext ernal c'rcui t r esist ance, A l arge r everse br eak down voltage ,
as ociated with h igh r evers e current, leads to excessive power loss that may destroy the diode.
This shows that reverse b eakdown of a power diode must be avoided by _ope a ting it below the
specific peak reverse r epetitive voltage VRRM . Fig. 2.3 (c ) illustrates th.e iu charac teristi cs of
;, Som e
[Art. 2.3]
ransistors
13
power diode and V RRm . For an ideal diode, the iv characteristics are shown in Fig. 2.3 (d). Here,
volt age drop across conducting diode, VD = 0, revers e leakage current = 0, cutin voltage = 0 and
r everse breakdown voltage V RRM is infinite.
Diode manufacturers also indicate the value of neak inverse voltage (PlV) of a diode . This
is the largest reverse voltage to which a diode m ay be subjected dur ing its working. PlV is the
same as V RRM'
The power diodes are now available wi th forwar d curren t ratings of 1A t o several thousand
amperes and with reverse voltage ratings of 50 V to 5000 V or mo e.
v,
called the softness factor or Sfactor.
o ~~~==~~~~L:
t
T h is factor i s a measure of t h e
,
voltage transients that occur dt1 ring
Power
I
the time diode r ecover . Ita usu al
loss in
:
I
i
~ !
value is unity an d this indicates low (c) dio de ssssssss<ss<ssssJ,,~
, ~
oscillatory reverse recovery process.
I
i
t
I
In case S factor is small, diode as
'
: : :
.1
I
I '
I
'
.. (2 .1 )
ll
Power Electro ks
[Art. 2.4]
where ddi is the rate of change of reverse current. The reverse recovery characteristics of Fig.
t
. .
2.4 (a) can be taken to be triangular. Under this assumption, storage charge QR. from Fig.
2 .4 (a ), is given by
1
."ut rr:
QR =I
:2 R
... (2.2)
or
If tiT == t a , then fr om Eq. (2.1),
di
IRM
... (2.3)
= t rr dt
t .
'. . [2
t
or
From Eq. (2.1), with ta == trr>
'
]1/2
rr  (di / dt )
we get
di
:[ . 2 QR
I RM
. _[2Q R .(diJ~1I2
dt
]112
di
dt
...(2.5)
It is seen fr'om E qs. (2.4) arid (2.5) that reverse recovery time trr and peak inverse current
di
are dependen t on storage charge and rate of change of current dt" The storage charge
depends upon the forward diode current IF. This shows that reverse recovery time and peak
inverse current depend on forward field, or diode, current.
A powerelectronics engineer must know peak reverse current IRM stored charge QR'
Sfactor, PN etc in order to be able to design the circuitry employing power diodes . These
parameters are u sually specified in the catalogue supplied by the diode manufacturers.
Th es e diode have rel atively high r everse r ecovery time, of the order of about 25 ~lS . Their
current r atings vary from 1 A t o several t hous and amperes and the r ange of voltage rating is
fr om 50 V to ab ou t 5 kV. Applic ation3 0 power diodes of th is type inclu de battery ch arging,
electr ic a action, electroplating, welding and unin terTUp tible power supplies (UPS).
(Art. 2.5]
P ower d iodes ar e uncontrolled devi ces. In oth er words, their t u rnon an d turn off
ch aracteristics ar e n ot under con trol. Power t ransistors, however, possess co n t rolle d
charac teristics. These are turned on when a current signal is given to base, or control, terminal.
The tran ist or reonains in the onstate so long as cont r ol signal is present . When this control
si gnal is r em oved, a power transistor is turned off.
Power transist ors are of our types as under :
Bip olar junction transis ors (BJ Ts)
Metaloxidesemicondu ctoT fi e deffect transistors (M OSFET s )
(i ii ) Insulated gate bipolar transistors (I GBTs ) an d
(iv ) Static in duction t r ansistors (SITs ).
(i )
(i i)
16
Power Electronics
[Art. 2.5]
denotes that the current flow in the device is due to the movement of both h oles and electrons .
A BJT h as three terminals named collector (e), emitter (E) and base (B). An emitter is indicated
by an arrowhead indicating the direction of emitter current. No arrow is associated! with base
.or collector . Power transistors of npn type are easy to manufacture and are cheaper also.
Therefore, use of power npn transistors is very wide in highvoltage and highcurrent
applications. Hereafter, npn transistors would only be considered.
Collector
Collector
Ie
P
IB
8ase
8 ase
iB
()
IE
(
Emitt.'1
Emitter
(a)
(b)
Fig. 2.5. Bipolar junction transistors (a) npn type and (b) pnp type.
2.5.1.1. Steadystate Characteristics. Out of the three possible circuit configurations for
a transistor, commonemitter arrangement is more common in switching applications. So, a common
emitter npn circuit for obtaining its characteristics is considered as shown in Fig. 2.6 (a).
Inp ut characteristics. A graph between 'base current IB and base~emitter voltage VBE
gives input ch ar acteristics. As the baseemitter junction of a transistor is like a diode, IB vers us
V BE graph resembles a diode curve. When collectoremitter voltage V CE~ is more th an V CEl'
base curr en t, for the same VEE' decreases as shown in Fig. 2.6 (b).
18
Ic
VCE 2>'1CE !
VCEI
Ic
las
Rc ~Ic
7!:,
 1+
+
B
I/
f lVaE
t )
Fig. 2.6.
(a) non
VC
Re
1S4
ISJ
,I
Satu
ration
region
VCC
I
I82
I al
IE
1e=0
VSE
Leako ge
current
(b )
VCE
Cu tol1
r~gion
(c )
(c)
output characteristics.
(Art. 2.5]
17
Fig. 2.7 (a) shows two ofthe output characteristic curves, 1 for 1B = 0 and 2 for 1B ;f. O. The
initial part of curv'e 2 , characterised by low VeE, is called the saturation region. In this region,
the transistor acts like a switch. The flat part of curve 2, indicated by increasing VeE and almost
constant Ie is the active region. In this region, transistor acts like an amplifier. Almost
vertically rising curve is the breakdown region wh,ich must be avoided at all costs.
Ie
Breakdown
Collector
Saturation pOint
vee
Rc 
.(
Active
If.

Is
Brea!<over
voltage
Electron
flow
p .
Base .'"
Load line
Saturation
region
, ( 1,"0
I E~
B :=;) eEO
B ."",
. Vee
CE
Emitter
(b)
(a)
Fig. 2 .7. (a) Output characteristics and load line for npn transistoF and
(b) electron flow in an npn transistor.
For load resistor R e , Fig. 2.6 (a), the collector current Ie is given by
V ee  VeE
Re
Ie=~=~
. ~
This is the equation of load line. It is shown as line AB in Fig. 2.7 (a). A load line is the locus
of al1 possible oper ating points. Ideally, when tTansistor is on, VeE is zero and Ie =V eelRe This
collector current is shown by point A on the vertical axis . When th e transistor is off, or in the '
cutoff region, Vee appears across collectorem itter terminals and there is no collector current.
This value is indicated by point B on the horizontal axis. For the resistive load, the line joining
points A and B is the load line.
Relation bet wee n a and ~. Most of the electrons, pr oportional to IE given out by emitter,
reach t h e collector as shown in Fig. 2 .7 (b). In other words, collector current I e, though less than
emi tter current IE, is almost equal to IE. A symbol a is used to indicate how close in value these
t wo currents are. Her e a, called forward current gain, is defmed as
_
Ie
a= [
...(2.6)
18
Powe r Electronics
[Art. 2.5J
As IB is much smaller, ~ is much more than unity; its value varies from 50 ~o 300. In
an other system of analysis, called h parameters, hFE is used in place oJ~.
... (2.7)
(a )
gives
... (2.8)
IE=Ie+IB
Remember that emitter current is the largest of the three currents, collector current is
almost equal to, but less than, emitter current. Base current has the least value. Dividing both
sides of Eq. (2 .8) by Ie, we get
IE
IB
=1+
Ie
Ie
or
and
1=1+1:.
u
~
a
~=la
...(2.9)
u=L
...(2.10)
~+1
Transistor S'\yitch. Transistor operation as a switch means that transistor operates either
in the saturation region or in the cutoff region and nowhere else on the load line. As an ideal
switch, the transistor operates at point A in the saturated state as closed switch with
VCE = 0 and at point B in the cutoff state as an open s"vitch with Ic = 0, Fig. 2.7 (a). In practice,
the large base current will cause the transistor to work in the saturation region at point A'
with sm all saturation voltage VCES ' Here subscript S is used to denote saturated valu e. Voltage
V eEs represents onstate voltage drop of the transistor which is of the order of abou t 1 V. When
the control, or base, signal is reduced to zero, the transistor is turned off and its operation
shifts to B' in the cutoff region, Fig. 2.7 (a) . A sman leakage current ICED flows in th e collector
circuit when the transistor is off.
For Fig. 2.6
(a ),
VB or
Also , from Fig. 2.6 (a),
or
VBE = 0
VB  VBE
I B == RB
Vec = VCE +Ic Rc
VCE =Vec  Ic.Rc =Vee  ~ IB Re
RBIB 
~ Rc
== Vec  RB (VB 
Also
or
VCE = V eB + V EE
VCB = VCE  VBE
VBE )
... (2.11)
...(2:12)
.. (2. 13)
If V CES is the collectoremitter saturation vol tage, then collector current l cs is given by
Vcc  V eEs
Rc
1cs ==  ::::,.
... (2.14) .
[Art. 2.5]
19
and the corresponding value of minimum base cur r ent, that produces saturation, is
Ies
IBs=T
Ifbase current is less than I BS , the transistor operates in the active region, i.e. somewhere
between the saturation and cutoff points. Ifbase current is more than I Bs , V eEs is almost zero
and collector current from Eq. (2 .14) is given by Ies = Vee/Re . This shows that collector cunent
at saturation remains substantially constant even if base current is increased.
With base current more than I BS ' hard drive of transistor is obtained. With hard saturation,
onstate losses of transistor increase. Normally, the practical circuit is designed for harddrive
of transistor and therefore, base current IB is greater than I BS given by Eq. (2.15 ). The ratio of
IB and I Bs is defined as the overdriv~factor (ODF) .
.~ I
.. .(2.16)
=.!!...
ODF
I BS
~r where
Ies
... (2.17)
... (2.18)
= VBE I B + VeE Ie
Under sat urated state, V BES is gre.ater than V CES , t his means BEJ is fo rward biased .
Further Eq. (2.13 ) shows that V eB is ne~ative under sat u.rated conditions , therefore, CBJ is also
forward biased. In oth er wor ds, under saturated conditio ns, both ju nct ions i.n a power
transistor are forwar d biased.
Example 2.1. A bipolar transistor show n in Fig. 2.6 (a) h as current gain ~ =40. The load
resistance Rc = 10 .0, d c supply voltage Vec = 130 V an d i npu t voltage t o base circu it,
VB = 10 V. For V CES = 1.0 Vand V BES = 1.5 V, calculate.
(a) the value of RB for operation in the saturated state,
(b) the value of RB for an over drive factor 5,
(c ) forced current gain and
(d) power loss in the transistor for both parts (a) a nd (b) .
= V cc ~ V CES'=
Re
13 0  L 0
10
= 1 2 qo A
From Eq. (2. 15), base current that produ ces saturaGion ,
I
BS
= 1cs
=12.90
= 0 322  A
~.
40
.
;)
(A r t. 2.5]
..
(c)
RB
10  1.5
1.6125 = 5.27
~f= Ies =
IB
12.90
1.6125
= 8, which is less
~ = 40.
PT
l 
1) B
t ___. .
t B
i" "
" BE
I
resistive load.
to rise from zero (actually a small leakage current I CEO
exists as shown in Fig. 2.7 (a)) and collector emitter voltage VeE starts falling from its initial
valu e Vee. After some time delay t d , called delay time, the collector current rises to 0.1
I es , veE falls from Vee to 0.9 Vee and vBe reaches VBES = 0.7 V. This delay time is required to
charge the baseemitter capacitance to V BES = 0.7 V. Thus, dp.lay time td is defined as the time
during which the collector current rises from zero to 0.1 Ies an d collectoremitter voltage falls
from Vee to 0.9 Vec.
. After delay time td , collector current rises from 0.1 Ies to 0.9 Ics and veE falls from 0.9
Vee to 0.1 Vee in tim e t r . This time t,. is known as r ise time which depends upo n transistor
junction capa citances. Rise time t,. i defined as the time during which collector curr en t ris es
from O.lIes t o 0.9 Vee and collectoremitter voltage falls fro m 0.9 Vee to 0.1 Vce. This shows
that total turnon time ton = t d + t r . Value of t on is of the order of 30 to 300 nano seconds. The
transistor remains in the on, or saturated, state so long as input voltage stays at Vl' Fig. 2.9
(a).
In case transistor is to be turned off, then input voltage vB and inpu t base urrent iB are
r eversed . At time t 2, inpu t voltage v B to bas e circuit is reversed from VI to  V 2. t th e same
tim e, base cu rren t changes from I Bl to IB2 as shown in Fig. 2.9 (b). Negative base current 13 '2
rem oves excess carri ers from the base . The time ts r e quir ~ d to r emove these exc ess carri r is
[Art. 2 ..5]
ransistors
Ivl
 1/2
(a)
['12

T =1
tS f
(b)
IF
~
o ~~~r_IB~~~~
I
. _IB2~.~!~~
~;L_B~I~t~
I
[[57'
,
tl
t2
+3 :
' i
( c)
(d)
(e)
'
o I 'Ice
~ ~ tn l~
ton
tl
t3
F ig. 2.9. Switching waveforms for npn power transistor of Fig, 2.8.
called storage time and only after t s , base curr en t IB2 begins to decrease towards zero .
Transistor comes out of saturation only after ts' Storage time ts is usually defined as th e time
during which collector current falls from Ies to 0.9 Ies and collectoremitter voltage VeE rises
from V eEs to 0.1 Vee, Fig. 2.9 (d) and (e). Negative input voltage enhances the process of
removal of excess carriers from base and hence reduces the storage time and therefore, the
turnoff time.
After t S ) collector current b egins to fall and collectoremitter volt age st rts building c p.
Time tr, called fall time, is defined as th e time during which collector current drops from
0.9 Ies to 0.1 Ies and collectoremitter voltage rises from 0.1 Vee to 0.9 Vee, Fig. 2.9 (d) and (e) ,
Sum of storage time and fall time gives the transistor turnoff time torr i.e . t ofr ;=' s + tr The
vari ous waveforms during transistor swi tching a e shown in Fig. 2 .9. In t h is figu 8; tn =
conduction period of ttans 'stor, to = off period, T = 11f is the periodic time andfis t he switc ing
fr equency.
2 .Ll .1.3. Sale Oper ating Are a. The safe operating ar ea (SOA or SOAR) of a power tran
sis tor specifies the sa e operating limits of coll ect or current l r. versus collectoremitte voltage
V Cg For _eli able op er ation of the transistor, the collector current and v oltage m ust always lie
within this a. ea. Actually, two types of safe operating areas are specifie d by the m anufacturers ,
F BS OA 3. d RBSOA.
22
Power El ectronics
[Art. 2.5]
The forwardbase safe operating area (FBSOA) pertains to the transistor operation when
baseemitter jun ction is forward biased to turnon the transistor. For a power transistor, Fig.
2.10 shows typical FBSOA for its dc as well as singlepulse operation. The scale for
Ic and VCE are log~thmic. Boundary AB is the maximum limit for dc and continuous current
for Vc~ less than abouf S0 V.For VeE for more than 80 V, collector current has to be reduced
to boundary BC so as to limit the junction temperature to safe values. For still higher V CE,
current should further be reduced so as to avoid secondary breakdown limit. Boundary CD
defines this secondary breakdown limit. Boundary DE gives the maximum voltage capability
for this particular transistor.
For pulsed operation, power transistor can dissipate more peak power so long as average
power loss is within safe limits of junction temperature. In Fig. 2.10 ; 5 ms, 500 ~s etc. indicate
pulse widths for which transistor is on. It is seen that FBSOA increases as pulsewidth is
decreased.
It should be noted that FBSOA curves, as given by the manufacturers, are for a case
temperature of 25C and for dc and singlepulse operation. In order to take into consideration
the actual working temperature and repetitive nature of the pulses, these curves must be
modified with the help of thermal impedance of the device . .
120
100 I:A~B'
100
80 .
I B =5A
Ic(A)
60
40
0
1~,0JO~0~~ E
1000
VCE('1)
20
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
VCE(V)
During turnoff, a tr ansistor is subjected to high current and high voltage with baseemitter
junction reverse biased. Safe operating area for transistor during turnoffis specified as reverse
blocking safe operating area (RBSOA). This RBSOA is a plot of collector current versus
collectoremitter voltage as shown in Fig. 2.11. RBSOA specifies the limits of transistor
operation at turnoff when the base current is zero or when the baseemitter junction is reverse
biased (i.e. with base current negative). With increased reverse bias, area RBSOA decreases
in siz e as shown in Fig. 2.11.
Example 2.2. For a power trans istor, typical s witch ing waveforms are shown in Fig.
2. 12(a). The various parameters of the transistor circuit are as under:
\lce =220 v~ V CES ::::: 2 V, lcs = 80 A , td::::: 0.4 1lS, tr::::: 1 ~s, t,.. = 50 ~s,
ts '=.= 3 ~l S, t f ::::: 2 ,us, to = 40 ,us, f = 5 kHz. Collector to emitter le akage curre nt itlaic= 2 mA.
De termine a verage p ower loss due to collector current during t on and t n . Find
also the peak
.
instantaneo us po wer loss due to collector current du ring turn on time.
[Art. 2.5]
23
Solution. During delay t ime , the tim e limits are 0 S t Std. Fig. 2.12 (a ) shows that in this
time, ic (t) = ICEO and vCE (t) = VCC.
:. Instantaneous power loss during delay time is
P d (t) = ic VCE = IcEO VCC = 2 x 10 3 x 220 = 0.44 W
Average power loss during delay time with 0 ~ t S td is given by
1
Pd = T
ftd .
1
=T
ftd0 I
0 LcC t )
VCE (t) dt
CEO Vcc dt
=f I CEO . Vcc . td
= 0.88 mW
where
o ~ t S tn
ic
= tCS.
.
(t)
and
VCE
=[ Vcc
(t)
Vcc  VCES ]
tr
.t
=lft
ICS.t[v _ VCCVCES . t]dt
r
T Ot
cc
t
r
= f . I cs . tr [2 =5
10 3 X 80 x 1 X 10 6 [2~0 
ioBl.~~I]IBS
  T ='/1
t..
I
l:f _
Ic s
t
vee
lu~~~~~~~~~
. 0 (... t on..l t n  
Fig. 2.12.
(a)
I
an
2.3 .
24
Power Electronics
[Art. 2.5]
.. .(i)
d PI'
. '.tm at whi ch mstantaneous
.
'
.
dt (t) == O
gIves bme
power 1oss d
urmg
tr wou Id b e maXlmum.
VCCt r
220xlxlO 6
tm = 2 [Vcc  VCES] = 2 [220 _ 2] = 0.5.046 Ils
Peak instantaneous power loss P rm during rise time is obtained by substituting the value of
t == tm in Eq. (i ).
P
lcs
Y1:c ' tr
Ics (Vcc ' tr)2 [Vcc  VcEsl
I'm tr 2 [Vcc  VcEsl  ~t;
4 [Vcc V cEs12
== .
Ics . Y1:c
== 80 X 220 = 4440 4 W
Pn=T
ft
Lc,vcE dt=flcs,VCEStn
= 5 x 103 X
80 x 2 x 50 x 10 6 == 40 W.
Example 2.3. Repeat Example 2.2 for obtaining average power loss during turnoff time
and offperiod, and also peak instantaneous power loss during fall tim e due to collector current.
~ t ~ t s
'
Ps (t)
)<
[A rt. 2.5]
25
..
iclt)=Ies [lil
vCE(t)=
and
vCCCE
V s t
tf
tr
=1..
f T
Ics [ l 
i J'[VCC  VCES . t] dt
tf
tf
Ics Ics]
:::::f(Vcc  V CES ) , tf [ 23
Ics
:::::f' tf ' s
Wcc 
'
VcEsl
1
::::: 5
PP) =Ies
dPN)
~::::: 0
[lifee ~fVeES
t]
'
gives time tm at which instantaneous power loss dur ing tr would be maximum ,
Here tm = tf l 2.
:. Peak instantaneous power dissipation during tf is
=1
cs
fm
(1_11(VCCVCESJ:::::Ics(VcC~VCES)
2)
,'
4
Total average power loss during turnoff proces is
Pof{ = P s + P =2 .4 + 43.6 : : : 46 W
f
n
Durin g offperiod, 0
ic(t)
=ICEO
1 flO
Po = T
::::: Q
0
X
26
P ower E.lectronics
[A r t. 2.6]
P (t)
4440.4 W
160W
, \   
0.44 W
t.
td
 
,L~+
~
+ tn + ts
_     _.....I ....tf
.....41 .... to
~~T=~
~
f
. Fig. 2.12.
(b)
Sketch of instantaneous power loss in a transistor for Examples 2.2 and 2.3 .
Total average power loss in powertransistor due to collector current over a period T is
PT = Pon + Pn + Poff + Po = 14.9339 + 40 + 46 + 0.088 = 10l.022 W.
From the data obtained in Examples 2.2 and 2.3 , the power loss variation as a function of
time, over a period T, is sketched in Fig. 2.12(b).
Example 2.4 . Apower transistor has its switching waveforms as shown in; Fig. 2.13. If the
a uerage power loss in the transistor is limited to 300 W, find the switching frequency at which
this transistor can be operated.
Solution.
200 V
~~..~
t Oil
=J
iC'
VeE
dt
I.
Ics=100A
!'
:
VCC=200V
t)dl
'
= J (2 x 10 6t ) (200  5 x 10 6t ) dt
o
= 0.1067 wattsec
= 0.1603 wattsec
300
f= 0.267 = 1123.6 Hz
2.6.: PO~1'I~~Ts l
','. '.::' ~:
...
, .:
A metaloxides emiconductor fi eldeffect tran ~ ist o ( IOSFET) is a recent device dev elop ed.
by com bin ing t h e areas offieldeffect con cept an d MOS technolo gy,
[Art. 2.61
21
A power MOSFET has three terminals called drain (D), source (8) and gate (G) in place of
the corresponding three terminals collector, emitter and base for BJT. The circuit symbol of
power MOSFET is as shown in Fig. 2.14 (a). Here arrow indicates the direction of electron flow.
A BJT is a current controlled device whereas a power MOSFET is a voltagecontrolled devic e.
As its operation depends up on the flow of majority carriers only, M08FET is a unipolar device.
The control signal, or base current in BJT is much larger than the control sign al (or gate
current) required in a M08FET. This is because of the fact that' gate circuit impedance in
MOSFET is extremely high , of the order of 10 9 ohm. This large impedance permits the
MOSFET gate to be driven directly from microelectronic circuits. BJT suffers from second
breakdown voltage whereas MOSFET is free. from this problem. Power MOSFETs are now
finding increasing applications in lowpower high frequency converters.
Voo
Load
!11f\AA...
R
Jom;,
U
Gate
J
S
(a)
Current
Silicon
di
oxide
psubs trate
So urc ?
(b)
Power MOSFETs are of two types; nch annel enhancement M08FET and pchannel
enhancement MOSFET. Out of these two types, nchannel enhancement MOSFET is more
common because of higher mobility of electrons. As such, only this type of 'lOSFET is studi ed
in what follows.
A simplified structure of nchannel planar MOSFET of low power rating is shown in Fig.
2.14 (b). On psuhstr ate (or body), two h eaVIly doped n+ regions are diffused as shown. An
insulating layer of silicon dioxide (Si0 2 ) is grown on the surface. Now this insulating layer is
etched in or der to embed metallic sour ce and drain terminals . Note that n'" regions make
contact with source and drain t erminals as shown. A layer of m etal is also deposited on Si0 2
layer so as t o form the gate ofMOSFET in between source and drai n terminals, Fig. 2.14 (b).
When gate cir cuit is open, junction be t\ve en n'" region b;,!.ow drain and psubstrate i
reverse biased by input voltage V DD' Therefore, no current flows from drain to source an d lo ad .
'When gate is made positive with r espect to source, an electri c fi eld is established as shown in
Fig. 2.14 (b). Eventually, induced negative charges in the pSLlbstrate below Si0 2 layer are
formed thu causing the p layer below gate to become an induced n layer. These neg ative
charges, called e ectrons, form nch ann el between t vo n '" egions and current can floY'; from
drain to sour ce sh own by t he arrow. If V G L made lore pos 'tiv e, induced nchannel becom es
m ore deep an therefore m ore current fl ows from D to 8. This shows that drain curr ent ID is
enhan ced by the gradu al increase of gate voltage , h ence th e nam e enhancemen t NIOS ET.
as
28
P ower Electronics
[Ar t. 2.6]
The m ain disadv antage of nchannel planar MOSFET of Fig. 2.14 (b) is that conducting
nchannel in between drain and source gives large onstate resistance. This leads to high power
dissipation in nchannel. This shows that planar MOSFET construction of Fig. 2.14 (b) is
feasible only for lowpower MOSFETs.
The constructional details of high power MOSFET are illustrated in Fig. 2.15. In this figure
is shown a planar diffused metaloxidesemiconductor (DMOS) structure for nchannel which
is quite common for power MOSFETs. On n+ substrate, high resistivity nlayer is epitaxially"
grown. The thickness of n layer determines the voltage blocking capability of the device. On
the other side of n+ substrate, a metal layer is deposited to form the drain terminal. Now p
regions are diffused in the epitaxially grown n layer. Further, n+ regions are diffused in p
regions as shown. As before, Si0 2 layer is added, which is then etched so as to fit metallic
source and gate terminals. A power MOSFET actually consists of a parallel connection of
thousands of basic MOSFET cells on the same single chip of silicon.
Metal
Source
Source
Silicon
dioxide ~:~~~~~~~~~lf::
0 rift
Region
~+~~
n+ substrate
Curren t path
When gate circuit voltage is zero, and V DD is present, n  p junctions are reverse biased
and no current flo'ws from drain to source. When gate terminal is made positive with respect
to sou rce, an electric field is established and electrons form nchannel in the p 'regions as
shown. So a current from drain to source is established as indicated by arrows. With gate
voltage increas ed , current I D also increases as expected. Length of nchannel can be controlled
and therefore onresistance can be made low if short length is used for the channel .
f\n examination of the basic structure of nchannel DMOS power MOSFET (P MOSFET)
reveals th at a parasitic npn bipolar junction transistor exists between the source and dr ain
as :,hown in Fig. 2.16. The p body acts as the base, n+ layer as the emitter (or source) and n
layer as th e co llec tor (or drain) of this BJT. Since source is connected to both base and emitt er
of parasitic BJT) the saUTce short circuit both base and emitter. As a r esult, p ot enti al differ ence
between base and emitter of the par asitic BJT is zero and therefor e) BJT is ahvays in the
cutoff s Late.
"' A mi. . \lie of s ilicon ato ms and pe nta vale nt atoms, deposited on wa fer, forms a layer of n type se micon ductor
on hea ted s urfa ce . This iayer is called epitaxial layer.
[Art. 2.6]
29
Source
So urce
Load
np n
BJT ~1==='=~__./
Drain
O~'
source to n+ layer, then through nchannel of Fig. 2.16. PMOSFET showing parasitic BJT and
p layer and further through n and n+ layers
parasitic diode .
l.oed
Ro
= "D O
.t.
8 10 12
"G5
(6 )
(a)
(a)
circ uit di agram and (6) its typical transfer char cteristic.
30
[ r t . 2.6]
Ohmic
~ Active ~
CJ
0'>
~'~~ ~
c
V GS
~~4~a
.0
....
~~~~I ~
~
:::J
....o
a
VGST
::;
.~
VI
VGSP
tdn~ tr ~
<Il
.A.........;~__1
iO
.....:j
II......~
w hen VGS
<
I
.,i' ~,H...
, ,
,
t)os
ID
VG ST
~ :
, :
PMOSFET.
[Ar t. 2.7J
31
PM OSFETs find applica tions in highfr equency switching applications , varying from a fev{
watts to few kWs . The device is very popular in switchedmode power s upplies an d inverters .
These are , at present available with 500 V, 140 A ratings.
The three terminals in a PM OSFET are designated as gate, source and drain. In a BJT,
the conesponding three term inals are base, emitter and collector. A PMOSFET has sever al
features different from those of BJT. These are outlined below :
(i) BJT is a bipolar device whereas P MOSFET is a unipolar device.
(ii) A PMOSFET has high input impedance (mega ohm) whereas input impedance of
BJT is low (a few k iloohm).
(iii ) PMOSFET has low er switching losses but its onresistance and conduction loss es
are more. A BJT has higher switching losses but lower conduction loss. So, at high
frequency applications, PMOSFET is the obvious choice. But at lower operating
frequencies Cless than about 10 to 20 kHz ), BJT is superior.
(iu) P MOSFET is voltage controlled device whereas BJT is current controlled device,
(v) PMOSFET has positive temperature coefficient for resistance. Th is makes parallel
operation of PMOSFETs easy. If a PMOSFET shares increased Cl1Trent initially, it
heats up faster, it resistance rises and this increased resistance causes this current
to shift to other devic es in parallel. A BJT has negative temperature coefficient, so
current sharing resistor s are necessary during parallel operation of BJTs.
(vi) In PMOSFETs , secon dary breakdown does not occu. , because it has positive
t em perature coefficien t . As BJT has negative temperature coefficient, sec ond ar y
breakdown does occm , I n BJT, with decrease in resistance with ris e in temperature ,
the curren t'increa~ s. This increased current over the s ame a rea results in hot sp ots
and breakdown of the BJT.
(v ii) PMOSFETs in high er voltage ratings have more conduction loss,
(viii) The state of the art PM OSFETs are available with ratings upon 500 V, 140 A
whereas BJTs are avai1 able wi th ratings upto 12 00 V, 800 A.
32
Power Electronics
[Art.. 2.7]
Emitter
Load
p
p
~j2
J21,.,.;/
Drift layer
jlr4+~jl
Injection laye r
p+
p + substrate
Metal
Current path
C
Collector
G
C
Dr ift region
resistance, RD
~
P"
G
p+
p+ substrate
( b)
(a)
Mai n current
th
,..p_O_o:!1' 
p~ l
~Pa r osi\ic
: thyr ist r
,
I:_.....
\lh l
j(p _Od y
I resI5 .QI)Ce )
E
i
,L _____________________ I
~
(e )
(d)
Fig. 2.20. IGBT (a) basic s tructure sho.. .ving par asiti c tr ansistors and tbyristor (b) a pproxima te
equivaler t circuit (c) exact equivalent circui t a .d (d ) ci cui t symbol.
[. rt. l:7]
Fig. 2.20 (a) also shows the existence of another path from collector to emitter; thi.s path is
collector, p+, n,p (nchannel), n+ a..'1d emitter. There is, mus, another inherent transistor Q2 as
npn+ in the structure ofIGBT as shown in Fig. 2.20(a ). The interconnection between two transi tors
QI and Q2 is shown in Fig. 2.20 (c ). This figure gives the complet e equivalent circuit of all IGBT.
H ere Rby is the resistance offered by p region to the flow of hole current I h
The two transistor equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2.20 (c) illustrates that an IGBT
st ructure has a parasitic thyristor in it. Parasitic thyristor is also shown dotted in Fig. 2.20
(a). Fig. 2.20 (d ) gives the circuit symbol of an IGBT.
2.7.3. Working
When collector is made positive with respect to emitter, IGBT gets forward biased. With
no voltage between gate and emitter, two junctions between n region andp r egion (i.e. junction
J 2 ) aTe reverse bias ed; so no current flows from colledor to emitter, Fig. 2.19.
When gate is made positive with respect to emitter by voltage V0, with gateemitter voltage
more than the threshold voltage V OET of IGBT, an nch annel or inversion layer, is formed in
the upper part of p region just beneath the gate, as in PMOSFET, Fig. 2.19. This nchannel
shortcircuits the n region with n+ emitter regions . Electrons from the n+ emitter begin to flow
to n drift region through nchannel. As IGBT is forward biased with collector positive and
emitter negative, p+' collector region injects holes i1).~o n  drift region. In short, n  drift region
is flooded with electrons from pbody region and holes from p+ collector region . With this, the
injection carrier density in n drift region increases considerably and as a result, conductivity
of n  region enhances significantly. Ther efore, IG BT gets t urned on and begins to conduct
fo rward current Ie.
Current Ie, or IE , consists of two cur rent compon ents: (i) h ole current Ih due to inj ected
h oles flowin g fr om collect or, p+np transistor Q I' pbody region resistance R by and emitt er and
(ii) electr onic current Ie due to injected electrons flowin g fr om collector, injection layer p +, drift
region n, nch annel r esistance R ch n+ and emitter. This me n s that collector, or load, current
Ie = emitter current IE =lh + Ie.
Maj or compon ent of collector CUlTent is electronic current Ie' i. e. main cw'rent path fOT
collector, or load, current is throu gh p+, n, drift resistan ce Rd an d nchannel resistance R eh as
shown in Fig. 2.20 (c ). Th erefore, t h e voltage drop in IGBT in its onstate is
V eE .on = Ie Rch + Ie R d + Vj I
=Volt age drop [in n channel + across drift in n r egion
+ across forward biased p +n  junction J 11
Here Vj l is usually 0.7 to 1 V as in a pn diode. Th e voltage drop Ie . R eI! is du e to n channel
resistance, almos t the same as in a PMOSFET. The voltage dr op Vd{= Ie ,Rd in I GBT is much
less than that in PMOSFET. It1.s du e t o substantial increase in t...~e conductivity caused by
inj ec tion of electron ~ and h oles in n drift r egion. Th e conductivi ty 'ncrease is th e main reason
for low onstat e voltage drop in I GBT than it is in PMOSFET
2.7.4. Latchup in IGBT
I t is seen from Fig. 2.20 (a) an d (c ) that I GBT structure has two inheren t transistors Q1
and Q2' which constitute a parasitic thyrist or. When IGBT i.~ on, th e holecurrent flows through
transistor p+np andpbody esiscance R by ' Ifload curren tic is large, h ole component of ~ urrcnt
I" would also b large . This larg current WOL1ld increa e the voltage drop Ih . R by which IT ay
3'1
[Art. 2.7J
forw ard bias the base p emitter n + junction of transistor Q2' As a consequence, parasitic
transistor Q 2 gets turned on which further facilitates in the turnon of parasitic transistor
p~np labelled
Ie
VCEJ
Vec
V~E 1
(a )
(a)
oX
D<l,I
~
en
~.9
.~~
Cli
Vcu
(/
'1 CE I
.!!1
'0
u
VRM
( A)
~
0
0
1+=
Ie
VCE
VC E
(c)
( b)
VCE r
(c)
[Art. 2.7]
~I tdl
veE. ic
I
I
I
1
1
Y'
ttl
:
1
1
1
Ic
I
I
I
I
1
I
0.91e
35
VCE
'
1
I
1
1
1
VCE=V CC
I
I
I
I
1
I
O.lIc

ICE
VCES
collector current t o rise fro m its initial leakage current ICE to 0.1 I c , Here I c is the fin al value
of collector current .
The rise time tr is t he tim e during wh ich collector emitter voltagefalls from 0.9 VCE t o 0.1
VCE oIt is a.ls o defined as th e t ime for the collector curren t to rise from 0.1 Ic t o its fin al value
Ic. After time to"" the collector cur rent is Ic and the collector;emitter voltage falls to small value
called conduction drop = V CES where subscript S denotes saturated value.
The turnofftim e is somewhat complex . It consists oft hr ee intervals: (i ) delay time, t d{ (i i )
initial fall tim e, tr1 an d (iii) fin al fall time, tj2 ; i. e. t off =td{+ tn + tj2 .The delay time is the time
during which gate voltage falls from VGE to thresh old voltage V GET, As VGE falls to VGET dur ing
t df, the collector current falls fro~ Ie to 0.9 Ie. At the end of tdf, collectoremitter voltage begins
to rise. The first fall tim e tfl is defined as the time during which collect or cu rrent falls from 90
t o 20% of its initial value I c , or the time during which coll ector emitter voltage rises fr om
V eEs to 0. 1 V CE'
The final fall time tf2 is the tim e during which collect or current falls from 20 t o 10% of c,
or the tim e uring which collectoremitt er voltage rises fr om 0.1 VCE t o fin al value VCE. see Fig.
2.22.
IGBTs are widely used in medium power applicat ions su ch ,s dc and ac m otor drives, UPS
system s , poweT supplies and drives for s olenoids, rel ays and contactors. Though IGBTs are
somewhat mor e exp en siv e t han BJTs, yet t h ey aTe be com ing p op lar because of low er
gatedrive requirem ents , lower swit ching losses and smal er ;:,nubber circuit r equirem ents.
IGBT converters are m ore effi ci ent with less size as well as cost, as compar ed to converters
based on BJTs . Recen t ly, I GBT inverter inductionmotor drives u sing 1520 kHz s\vitching
frequ en cy are findin g favour whe.e audion oise is obj ectionable. In most applic ations, IGBTs
36
P ower Electronics
rArt. 2.8J
will eventually push out BJTs. At present, the state of the art I GBTs of 1200 V, 500 A ratings,
0.25 to 20 flS turnoff time with operating frequency upto 50 KHz are available.
The relative merits and demerits of IGBT over PMOSFET are enumerated below:
(i) In PMOSFET, the three terminals are called gate, source, drain whereas the
corresponding terminals for IGBT are gate, emitter and collector.
(ii) Both IGBT and PMOSFET possess high input impedance.
(iii) Both are voltagecontrolled devices .
(iv) With rise in temperature, the increase in onstate resistance in PMOSFET is much
pronounced than it is in IGBT. So, onstate voltage drop and losses rise rapidly in
PM OSFET than in IGBT, with rise in temperature.
(v) With rise in voltage rating, the increment in onstate voltage drop is more dominant
in PMOSFET than it is in IGBT. This means IGBTs can be designed for higher
voltage ratings than PMOSFETs.
In view of the above comparison, (a) PMOSFETs are available upto about 500 V, 140 A
ratings whereas state of the art IGBTs have 1200 V, 500 A ratings and eb) operating frequency
in PMOSFETs is upto about 1 MHz whereas its value is upto about 50 kHz in IGBTs .
 1
i
Source (5)
s
c urren t ftow
( b)
(b )
device symbol
tAr t. 2.91
37
journey t hrough n, n+ and reach drain as shown in Fig. 2. 23. (a ). The drain cu rrent 1D would
flow fr om D to S as shown. If Ves is negative, p+n j un ction s get reverse biased. As a result,
depletion layer is form ed around p + electrodes and this r educes the current flow from its value
when Ves = 0, Fig. 2. 24 (a). At some higher value of everse bias voltage V es , the deplet.ion
layer would grow to such an extent as to cutoff th~ channel completely, F ig. 2.24 (b ) and load
current iD would, therefore, be zero.
~
__....c 5
51
51
VGS=
Ip; T~)rl\i;J;r~'
Lood
Vos
I D\p\etl oiIOyer \
=
Vos ~h~
'<"1
lO
( a)
D
(b)
F ig. 2.24. (a) Lower reverse bias, load current iD redu ced due to depletion layer
(b higher reverse bias, expande d depl etion layer stops current flow.
38
P owe r Electronics
[Art. 2.9]
Ano de
0
Si02
/:// /////////////1
Gate n
tTrlY
Si02
I
1://,0//Wff//////';;
+
p
~~t
J,
~
Gate
n
(Of1 FET Channel or nChannel)
pp buffer
J3
n+ substrate
~Metal
Cathode
The basi c structure of an MeT cell is shown in Fig. 2.25. A practical MeT consist of
thousands of these basic cells connected in parallel, just like a PMOSFET (7, 8). This is done in
order to achieve a highcurrent carrying capacity of the device.
The equiva1ent circuit of MeT is shown in Fig. 2.26 (a) . It consists of one onFET, one
offFET and two transistors. One onFET, a pchannel MOSFET and the other offFET, an n
channel 1,'IOSFET, represent MOSgate structure of MeT. The npnp structure of MeT is
represented by two transist ors npn and pnp as shown in Fig. 2.26 (a). An arrow t owards the
gate t etminal in dicates nchannel MOSFET and the arrow away from the gate terminal as
"
the pchann pl IOSFET. The two transistors in the equivalent circuit indicate
that there is
regenerative fe edback in the MeT just as it is in an ordinary thyristor. Fig. 2.26 (b) gives the
circuit sym bol of an MeT.
An MeT is t urnedon by a negative voltage pulse at the gate with respect to the anode
and is turnedoff by a positive voltage pulse. Working of MeT can be understood better by
referring to t he equivalent circuit of Fig. 2.26 (a) .
Turnon P oce ss. As stated above, MeT is turned on by applying a negative voltage pulse
at the gate with r espect to anode. In other words, for turningon MeT, gate is made negative
with respect t o anode by th e voltage pulse between gate and anode. Obviously, MeT must be
initially forward biased and then only a negative voltage be applied . With the application of this
negative vol tage pulse, onFET (pch ann el) gets turned on whereas offFET is already off. With
onFET on , current begins t o flow fro m anode A, through onPET and then as the base current
and emitter current 0 npn transistor and then to cathode K. This turns on npn transistor.
As a result, collector current begins to flow i n np n transistor. As offFET is off, this collector
cu rre nt of npn "ransisto r a cts as the bas e curr ent of p np t ransistor. Subsequently, pnp
transistor is also t urne d on . On bo th t he tran s 'stors ar e on, regenera ti ve action of the
connection sch eme takes place and the thyristor or Me T is turned on .
Note that onFET and p np transistor are in parallel when MeT is in conduction state.
During the time MeT is on, base cur ent 0 np n transistor fl ows m ainly through p np t ransistor
because of i ts better conducting property.
(Ar t. 2.101
;~_ _ _ __
__
A [nOde
I
G~r~~
Got,
+ 14 '/
ot
, fOIT1
39
pnp
Off  FET
(nchannel)
~
7 V
On FET
(p channel)
np n
(b)
(a)
K
(a)
Cathode
(b)
circuit symbo~
Turnoff process. For turningoff the MCT, offFET (or nchannel MOSFErl') is energized
by positive voltage pulse at the gate. With the application of positive voltage pu 1 :e, offFET is
tu rned on an d onFET is turned off. After offFET is turneq on, emitterbase terminals of
pnp transistor are shor t circuited by offFET. So now anode current begins to flow through
offFET and therefore base current of pnp transistor begins to .decrease. Further, collector
current of pnp transistor that forms the base current of npn transistor also begins to decrease.
As a consequence, base currents of both pnp and npn transistors, now devoid of stored char ge
in their n and p bases respectively, begin to decay. This regenerative action eventually t urns
off the MCT.
An MCT h as the fcllovving merits:
(i) low fo rward conduction drop,
(ii) fast turnon and turnoff times,
(iii) low switching losses and
(iu) high gate input impedance, which allows simpler design of drive circ uits.
Main disadvantage of MCT is its low r everse voltage blocking capability.
MeT was commercially introduced in 1992. At that time, it was predicted that its use as
a power semiconductor device would be so vast that it might challenge the existence of most
of the other devices like SCR, BJT, GTO, IGBT etc. This has, however, not :happened because
an MeT has (i) limited reversebiased SOA and (ii) its switching frequency is much inferior
to IGBT. At present, MCTs are being promoted for' their use in soft switched converter
topologies, where these inferiorities do not inhibit their use.
2.10~ NEW
'
SEMICONDUCTING
MATERIALS .. .
.
.
.
At pr es ent, silicon enjoys  monopoly as a semicor.ductor material fo r the commercial
pr oduc ti on of p owercontrol dev ices. This is becau se silic on is che aply available an d
semic ondu ctor devices of any size can be easily fabricated on a ingle silicon chip. There ar e,
however, new types of materials lik e gallium assenic (C;'al\s), silicon carbide and diam ond which
possess the desir able properties required for swit ching devices. At pTe en t, st ateoftheart
techn ology for these materials is primitive ompar ed with silicon, and many more years of
research invest ment are required befor e thes0 materials become commerc ' ally viable for t he
production of powercontrolled devices. Diode, power MOSFET and thyristor made from silicon
carbide have be en established in the labora tory a d are expected to be commercially available
very soon. Superconductive materiah may also b<:: used in the manufa cture of such devic es.
but w .rk in this direc:tion has not yo.t been r eported.
40
Power Electronics
[pro b. 2]
G rm anium is not used li n the fabrication of thyristors because of the following reasons:
(i) Germanium
has much lower thermal conductivity; its thermal resistance is, there
fore, more . As a c~nsequence, germanium thyristors suffer from more losses, more
temperature rise and therefore lower operating life.
(ii) Its breakdown voltage is much less than that of silicon. It means that germanium
thyristor can be built for small voltage ratings only.
(ii i) Germanium is much costlier. than silicon.
PROBLEMS
2.1. (a) Why are semiconductor materials designated as p+, p, n, n+? Explain.
(b) What is pn junction? Discuss the formation of depletion layer in pn junction.
(e) What is barrier potential? How are depletion layer and barrier potential effected by
temperature?
2.2. (al Explain the effect of forward bias and reverse bias on the depletion layer in a pn junction.
(b) How is the magnitude of breakdown voltage effected if a junction has highly doped (i)
layers on its both sides and (ii) layer on its one side only.
(e) Describe the structural features of power diodes. How do these differ from signal diodes?
. 2.3. (a) What is a diode? Discuss iv characteristics of power, signal and ideal diodes.
(6) Describe reverse recovery characteristics of diodes. Show that reverse recovery time and
peak in'!erse current are dependent upon storage charge j:md rate of change of current.
;'2.4. (a) Describe the various types of power diodes indicating clearly the differences amongst
them.
(b ) What is cutin voltage in a diode? What are other terms used for cut in voltage?
(e) Discuss the following tenus for diodes:
(d) For a power diode, the reverse recovery time is 3.9 ,us and the rate of diodecurrent decay
is 50 A /~ s. For a softness factor of 0.3, calculate the peak inverse current and the storage
charge.
[Ans. (d) 150 A, 292.5 ~Cl
2.5. (al Discuss th e power loss in a diode during the reverse recovery transients.
(b) The forward characteristic of a power diode can be represented by vf= 0.88 + 0.015 if'
Determine the average power loss and nus current for a constant current of 50 A for
2/ 3 of a cycle.
r
1 2 T/ 3
2
]
Hint. (6) With T as the time of a cycle, average power loss =T 0
vf' lf db '3' ufIf etc
(c) De me a an d ~ for BJT and develop a relati on between the two . Why is a less than 1 and
~ m OTe t han 1 ?
(d ) Why is it preferrable to use hard drive for BJ T ?
(Prob. 2]
41
2.8. A bipolar tr ansistor, with current gain P= 50, has load eBistance Re = 10 Q , de supply voltage
Vee = 120 V and input voltage to base circuit, VB = 10 V. For VeEs = 1.2 V and VBES = 1.6 V,
calculate
(a ) the value of RB for operation in the saturated state
( b ) the value of RB for an or drive factor 6
(e) forced current gain and
(d ) power loss in t he tr ansistor for both parts (a ) and (b) .
[Ans. (a) 35.354 n ( b ) 5.892 n (c ) 8.33 (d ) 14.6362 W, 16.537 W]
2.9. (a) Explain the s.witching performance of BJT with relevant waveforms. Indicate clearly
turnon and turnoff times and their components.
FBSOA and RBSOA for BJTs.
(b ) Describe
\C~::
I
:,
I
i
:
I
I,
!I
iI
t!
Vee
i,
..
~.L~~;_.______________~I~__~L~
tton...! . "
Itolfj
(b ).
Vee ' I es .
Vee ' I es
Vee ' I es f . ]
6
f to.. (c) . ?".. ..:' t off,
6
tofr
2.11. In case les =80 A, Vee = 220 V; ton =1.5 ~s and t off = 4 ~s for the switching wavefor ms shown
in Fig. 2.27, find the energy loss during switchon and swi tchoff intervals. Find als o the
aver age power loss in t he power tr ansistor for a switching frequency of 2 kHz.
Derive the expression5 sed.
[Ans 4 .4 mWs, 11 .73 mWs, 32 .267 Wl
2.12. ( a ) For the typical switching waveforms shown in Fig. 2.27 for a power transis tor, find
expressions that give peak ins tantaneous power loss during ton and t off intervals respec
tively.
(b) In case I es = 80 A, Vee = 220 V, ton = 1.5 !LS and tofr = 4 !lS, find the peak value of instan
t ane ous power loss during t 0 1'. and torr intervals re~ pectively.
(Ans. (a )
2.13. A power transistor is used as a switch and typical waveforms ar e shown in Fig . 2.1 2(a ) Th e
par ameters for the tran"Tht or circuit are as under :
De termine ave ra ge pow er loss du e to collector current durin t on and t n . F in also t e p eeL
Sket ch t h e ins a tan eo u power loss duri g t on an d t n' (Ans. 20 .50 15 W, 60 Ii , 3037.97 Wl
42
Power Electronks
[Prob.2]
2.14. Repeat Prob. 2.13 for obtaining average
power loss during turnoff time and offperiod, and also peak instantaneous
power loss during fall time due to col
lector current.
Sketch the instantaneous power loss
. [AnS. ~ Vs . Ia
(tl
+ t2],
~ Vs Ia
(t3
+ t 4),
Vs Ia {(ton + torr),
7.5W
]
2.16. (a ) Explain the constructional details and working of lowpower MO~FET and power MOS
FET and bring out the differences between the two.
(b) Discuss the transfer and output characteristics of power MOSFETs .
2.17. (a ) Describe the switching characteristics of power MOSFETs.
(b) Compare power MOSFETs with BJTs .
2.18. (a ) Discuss how conduction takes place in PMOSFET of nchannel type.
(b) Explai n the formatio~ of parasitic BJT and paras itic diode in a PlY~QSFET. Can parasi tic
~
diode be used in some power electronic applications ?
2.19. (a ) What is an IGBT ? What are its other nam es ? Give it" basic st ructural features. How
does it differ in stnicture from PMOSFET ?
(b ) Derive the approximate and exact equivalent circu its of an IGBT .from its structural
details . Also describe its output and transfer characteristics.
2.20. (a) Describe the working of an IGBT. How does latchup occur in an IGBT ?
(b ) Give a comparison between an IGBT and a PlvIOSFET.
2.21. (a) Explain switching characteristics of an IGBT.
(b) Discuss why PMOSFET has no reverse blocking voltage whereas an IGBT has.
(c) Why a re IGBTs becoming popular in their applications to controlled converters ?
Enum erat e some applications of IGBTs .
.
2.22. (a) What is SIT? Give its basic structural details . E plain its working with relevant diagra ms .
(b ) Tho ugh SIT is not suitable for general power electronic applications , yet it is being used
in som e specific applications. Explain .
2.23. (n ) Descri be t he basic structure of MOS controlled thyristor (M e T). Give its equiv a lent circu it
and e plain t h e turnon and turnoff processes.
(b) Giv e the m er its and demerits of MCTs . In what type: o. _Appli cations are MCTs being
promoted at present?
(c) Discuss briefly about the new semicond ucting m ateri als .
2.24. Deduce to show t hat the energy loss during turnon of a power t ransistor is given by
(VI/6 ) T joules, wher e V :::: offsta t e voltage, 1 = ons tate current and T = turnon time. Assume
t he change of V and I to be li near over T.
'
H ence, ca lculate t he tur non loss of a power transistor for which the voltage an d current,
durin '" the process of t urnon, chang e linearly from 300 V to zeTO V a nd zero A t o 200 A
respectively in 2 j.l.S.
[Ans. 10 m W 3 or 10 x 10 3 J ]
[Prob. 2J
43
2.2 5. Read the following statements carefully and indicate the power semiconductor device' eac
statement represents .
(a ) twoterminal threelayer device
( b ) majority carrier devices
(c) bipolar devices
(d) negative pulse turnon device
(e) on operation in ohmic region
(f) normally on device
(g) onstate in saturation region
(h) twoterminal twolayer device
(i) uncontrolled turnon and turnoff device
(j) controlled turnon and turnoff devices.
[Ans. (a) Power diode (b) PMOSFET, SIT (c) Diode, BJT, IGBT, MeT (d) Me T
(e) PMOSFET (f) SIT (g) BJT (h) signal diode (i ) Diode
(j) BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, SIT, MeT)
Chapt r 3
tifiers
~.~~
In this Chapter
.. .. . ........................ ........
~
In t his chap ter, first diode circuits involving different combinations of R, L and C are
studied , and then diode rectifiers are describe ror simplicity, the diodes are considered as
ideal swi tches. An ideal diode has no forwar a'volt a ge drop and reverse recovery time is
negligible.
'1
In the circuit of Fig. 3.1 (a ), when switch S is closed, the current rises instantaneously to
V / R as shown in Fig. 3.1 (b). Here Vs is the dc source v oltage andR is t he loa d esist ance . 'When
switch S is opened at t 1, the current at once falls to zero, Fig. 3.1 (b) . Voltage Un across diode is
zero during th e tilne diode conducts and is equal t o + Vs after diode stops conducting.
3.1 .2.
Re Load
A circui t with de SOUTce, diode and RC load is sho'wn in Fig. 3.2 (0). Vlhen switch S is closed
a t t = 0, KV'L gives
45
[Art. 3.1]
J
J="4'
Iv,IR
(a)
load
(a)
!VS
(b)
(b) waveforms.
..
..
'.
Vs
is
1 !:L_=::::~_ _
Vb
+
Ys
l~~JCTl~c
(b)
(a)
Fig. 3.2. Diode circuit with RC load (a) circuit diagram and (b) waveforms.
. .
. .
1 "[1(S) q(O)] Vs
Its Laplace transform is R 1(s) + C +
'= .
.. :(3.1)
.[ 1]
1(8) R +  =Vs

Cs
or
.
i(t)
CVs
(" .
1
. RC s + RC
1(s)
=V
_S .
)=RVs ..
1
=1
+ RC
e tlRC
II .
1
uc(t) = C 0 .clt
... (3.2 )
Vs
= RC
=Vs (1 e U RC )
II e
0
tiRe
elt
... (3.3a )
46
Power Electronic
[Art. 3.1]
...(3.3b)
where "t = RC is the time constant for RC circuit. From Eq. (S.Sa), initial rate of change of
capacitor voltage is given by
(dd~c]
=:;
... (3.4)
t=O
source voltage, Vs
RC =;:
(d v/dt)t=o
In Fig. 3.2 (b), current through the circuit and voltage variation across C are shown.
3.1 .3. RL Load
When switch S is closed at t = a in the RL and diode circuit of Fig. S.3 (a), KVL gives
Time constant,
R i +L
~~ = Vs
... (3.5)
O~L~t
(a)
Flg. 3.S. Diode circuit with RL load
(b)
circuit diagram and (b) waveforms.
(a)
With initial current in the inductor as zero, the solution of Eq. (3.5) gives
!! t
i(t)
= ~ (1 
... (S.6)
L )
_lit]
di
= (Vs
e L
dt t = 0
vL(t)
di
=L dt = V
...(3.7)
=0
_li t
(1
...(3 .8)
='t is the time constant. The waveforms of current through the circuit and
[Ar~.
47
3.1J
3.1.4. LC Load
A diode circuit with dc source voltage V s' switch S and load LC is shown in Fig. 3.4 (a). When
switch S is closed at t = 0, the voltage equation governing its performance is given by
f 'dt = V
1
L di
dt + C
.s
[ sc1]
= 0 and Vc
=_s
s
S
=0
/(s) sL +  =Vs
or
..
Vs
/(s) =
L'
1
"
Vs
Let we = ~L C . ThIS gIves /(s) = L'
. We
1
+ LC
we
2
2
S + We
Ic
= Vs . "'V T.L
11
we
2
2
S + We
. :' ~ 
vcs;:
. 1
I
o
Vc
0
5
vD
+~
14to~
t~= 'T{I Wo
vL
.
~
tVL
Vs
T1\)C
V~l
lia
tvs
(b)
(a )
F i g . 3.4. Diode circuit with L C load (a) circui t diagram and (b) wavefor~s .
CDO
i(t) = Vs .
~ s'n wot
...(3 .9)
= ~lc is called reson ant fre quency of the circut. Capacitor voltage is given by
1
uc(t)
Jt
1 .t
/c
sin
Wo t .
dt
... (3,10a)
48
Power Electronics
[A rt. .]
VL(t) =L
When Wo to = 1t or when to
. vc(to ) = 2 Vs and vL(t O) =  Vs
Here to
di(t)
dt
... (3.10b)
=Vs cos Wo t
=1tlwo,
=0
= 1t ";LC
=1t2
W
Ip = Vs . ,jCI L as shown in Fig. 3.4(b). Voltage across diode, soon after diode stops conduction
at to is given by
VD
Waveforms of i(t),
=
VL  Vc
+ Vs = 0 . 2 Vs + V s =
 Vs
1t
Vc,
diode current reaches peak value, Vc = Vs and vL = O. Also at to =1t/wo =1t (";LC), diode current
decays to zero and capacitor is charged t o voltage 2Vs
' Soon after to, voltage across L is zero and
diode voltag,e VD =  VS'
'' Example 3.1. For the circuit shown in Fig. 3.5 (aJ, the capacitor is initially charged to a
voltage Vo with upper plate positive. Sw itch S is closed at t = O. Derive expressions for the current
in the circuit and voltage across capacitor C. What is the peak value of diode current? Find also
the energy di ssip ated in the circuit.
~ f idt= 0
R 1(8) + 1..
[!.ill _
CV o] =
S
1(s) [R + ~] = Vo
Cs
s
. V
or
V<IIi,
+
i(t)
ti RC
=~
R e.
ik
l)c
+
R
liR
Vo
(a )
(b)
F ig. 3.5, P ertaining to Example 3.1 (a) circuit diagram and (b ) waveforms.
[Art. 3.1]
49
_ Vo
R
ft.
1
v c(t) = C 0 ldt  Vo
Capacitor voltage,
~]t Vo . etiRC. dt _ Vo
CoR
IIRC
=  V0 e
Current i(t) and voltage vc(t) are sketched in Fig. 3.5 (6).
~ CV~ Joules
Example 3.2. In the diode and LC network shown in Fig. 3.6 (a), the capacitor is initially
charged to voltage Vo with upper plate positive. Switch S is closed at t::; 0. Derive expressions
for current through and voltage across C.
Find the conduction time of diode, peak current through the diode and final steadystate
voltage across C in case Vs = 400 V, Vo = 100 V, L = 100 W1.a'ni:1~C = 30~ Determine also the
. ;.
voltage across diode after it stops conduction.
Souti on. When switch S is closed, KVL for Fig. 3.6 (li}.gives  ,
l]'d t::; V
L di
dt + C
C S
S
s
I(s) sL +
L
Ie] = Vs s Vo
r
1
5
+
UL
vc 1C
Tlvc
(a)
Fig. 3.S. Pertaining to Exa mple 3.2
(b)
(a)
50
Power E lectronics
(Art . 3.1 ]
This equ ation in sdomain can be solved as in Art 3.l.4. Its solution is
i(t)
= (Vs 
Va) .
~~in
1 (Vs  Va)
vc(t) = C
(Do
~ft
. (Dot dt + Va
,T
sm
jl.J
At
(Do
t = 0,
At
(Do
= 11: / 2,
to
Ip
. .
Va)
= 2Vs 
Vo
x 10 6 = 54.77 ~s
.
3
~ 100
= 164.32 A
==
v L  Vc
+ V~ = 0 ~ (2Vs  V o) + Vs
= Vs + Vo = 400 + 100
300 V.
k'
Example 3.3. In the circuit sho wn in Fig. 3.7 (aJ, the capacitor has i nitial voltage Va with
upper plate positive. The circuit i.s switched ed t = O. Derive expressions for Cllrrent and voltage
across capacitor. Find the conduction time for diode' and steadystate capCiCi tor voltage.
Sqlution. The voltage equation for the circuit of Fig. 3.7 (a), after s\vitch S is closed at
t = 0, is
di+ 1 ~'d t=O
Ldt C
:~~
~ 71: /
Wo
.;
)0
I
I
Vc
~.;..
' _
I
I
U
D
t
O
F
:
I
to
=~o~_V~~I_
_ _
(a)
Fig. 3.7. Pertaining to Exampl e 3.3
(6)
(a)
..
[Art.
.1 ]
51
l (s)
[SL
+~]
= Va
sC
s
Here minus sign is put before Va, because for the direction of positive current flow, polarity
of Va is opposite.
Solution of above sdomain equation, from Art. 3.l.4, is
.
i(t) =
Va
~ sin Wo t
.
\I!cft
L a sm wot dt 
1
vc(t) = C . Va
Voltage across C is
Diode conduction time,
to =~
000
'
= 1t ..JLC
= Va cos 1t =+ Va
vn =  Va .
Solution . When switch S is closed, capacit or C begins to discharge through Land C. For
:' obtaining i , Vc expressions, refer to Example 3.3.
i = Va
Therefore,
di
vL = L dt = L . Va .
and
Nli
~ vocoswo t
I
+ Vo
. 10
~neigy
{ o _..... tLlp
J...C V~ .. , 0
2
'2
(a )
(b)
Fig. 3.S. P er tainin g to Exampl e 3.4 (a) circui . diagram and (6) wave for ms
52
[Art. 3.1]
i CV6
( b) .
At t
~ = ]p'
Vc = vL
and energy
diode D gets forward biased. Current Ip now begins to flow as iD through D and as i through
L. If there were no resistance in this closed path, current Ip would continue flowing unabated.
In practice, inherent resistance in the closed path would cause this current to decay
exponentially.
~
Example 3.5. In the circuit of Fig. 3.9 (a), current in inductor L is
the waveforms of i, Vc and vL after switch S is opened at t = O.
=0,
]0
before t = O. Sketch
J.
1 ~ dt =
di + C
L dt
wt
10
wI
wi
(6)
(a)
F ig . 3.9. Pertaining to Example 3.5. (a) Circuit diagram and (6) waveforms .
. L [sf
" (s)  i. (0)] + 1 [ ] (s)  cVo
Its Laplace transform IS
.
C s
s
I(s) [ sL +
or
I(s)
Its La place inverse is i(t)
Also
and
1=
s~ 1
=. LIo
=]0
s +
2'
CDo
1
where CDo = ~LC as before.
vc
vL
=L
~~ = L
:t
[Art. 3.1J
53
At wt =~, current i tends to reverse, but diode D blocks ~his current reversal. Also , at
wt =
V L =Io
1f.
Thus, after wt
i L I~ at wt
....
= 0
gets
transferred to C at wi
~ n/2 as ~ CV; ~ ~ C ( ~ J.
[0
A diode in series withRLC circuit is shown in Fig. 3.10 (a). KVL for this circuit, when switch
S is closed at t = 0, is given by
di + C
1 f'd
V
R l + L dt
l t = s
Critically damped
+
uR
lis
tv
i.
C
Underdamped
'~.~
, .< overd cmped
,,
lvc
,,
,"
"
.
...... .

t
(b)
(a)
Fig. 3.10. Diode circuit with RLC load (a ) circuit diagram and (b) waveforms.
1]
I(s) R +sL+ sC
Vs
:=
Vs
or
I(s)
=L'
1:
R
1
s + L s + LC
2
are
s = ~ 1(fLJ
or
wh er e
.s= s ~
R
 2L
1
LC
... (3 .11 )
... (3 .12)
54
Power Electronics
(A rt. 3.1]
...(3.13)
= ~rtc_
(~J2
w,<
and
~2
=}w6 Also
Wo
...(3.14)
=) w; + ~2
Depending upon the values of ~ andwo, the solution for the current can have three possible
solutions.
Case 1. In case ~ < wo, it is seen from Eq. (3.11) that the roots are complex and the circuit
= ~ + j
wr and
j wr
s2 =  So 
i(t)
V
_$.
wr L
e~I
sin
... (3.15)
Case 2 . If S > wo, the two roots are real and the circuit is said to be overdamped. The two
roots are
and the solution for current is
.(t )
Case 3. In case ~
81
S
= L ol~
'I ~ 
2 .
Wo
. h 01(,.
2
2)
sm
'I <; ~ _Wo . t
 
... (3.16)
t)
Vs
;t
=r'
t . e .,
... (3.17)
Waveforms of current for the three different levels of damping are sketched in Fig. 3.10
(b ).
E xample 3.S. For the circuit of Fig. 3.10 (a), the data is as under:
R
= lOn,
The circuit is initially relaxed. With switch closed at t = 0, determine (a) current i(t) (b)
time of diode (c) rate of change of current at t = O.
c o n~ u c tio n
S= 10 x
1000 = 5000
2x1
1
1
105
Wo = 'LC = [
3
 6J1I ,) = ~
O = 14142 .136 rad/s
"
1 x 10 x 5 x 10
 '1 ~U
]1/2
10
Fr om E q. (3 .14),
WI'
=[ 1~0
 (5000)2
= 13228. 76 r adls
[Art. 3.2J
Here as
~ <
wo, the circuit is underdamped. The current is, therefore, given by Eq. (3.15 ).
'(t) = 230
<Dr
t1 = 1t
1t
t1
di
"
J::) ef,t]
di
=  Vs
.  [;./
e ~ . <D cos <D t  sm
<D (
t ..,
dt <Dr L
r
r
r
dt
1t
I
t=
= Vs
 230 x 1000
1
L 
= 230000 A/s
,
in inductance L
decay to zero. As the current V/R tends to decay with the opening of switch S, a high reverse
voltage appears across switch as well as the diode. High voltage acr oss switch leads to spark
across the switch contacts, thus dissipating the stored energy: In the process , the diode,
subjected to high reverse voltage, may get damaged. In order to avoid such an occurrence, a
diode FD, called freewheeling, or flywheel, diode, is connected across load RL as shown in Fig.
3.11. (a). For understanding how FD comes into play, the working of circuit of Fig. 3.11 (a) is
divided into two modes.
.
Mode I : When switch S is closed in Fig. 3.11 (a) at t = 0, current flows through
V s ' S, D, Rand L as shown in Fig. 3.11 (b). In this circuit, current i is given by
VS
i=R
_!it
.. .(3.18)
(1  e L)
~I
:R!
Vs
FD
Vs
L
. i.
(a )
~t
FD
L
(b)
Fig. 3.11. Circuit of Fig. 3.3 with freewheeling diode
LI
(c)
~ L <!l,
dl
56
P ower Electronics
[Art. 3.3J
and so a voltage L
Current
~~ is induced! in L which
The current i1 will eventually decay to zero exponentially in mode II of Fig. 3.11 (c). The
current build up during mode I and current decay during mode II are shown in Fig. 3.11 (d).
V =L di
S
dt
.
or
Vs
... (3.20)
l=yt
This shows that current i rises linearly with time t . In case switch S is opened at t 1 ,Joad
VS
current L tl begins to flow through FD. As there is no resistance in the circuit formed by
. .
V
S
L and FD, current continues to flow at its constant value of L tl. Energy stored in the
inductance is
~ [V:2
L tl .
S
.L
t"
1
FD
..
itd
t
(a)
Fi g. 3.12. Diode circuit with FD and L load
(6)
(a)
I.
[Art. 3,5]
57
o
i,
(a)
(6)
F i g. 3.13. Energyrecovery circuit (a) switch S closed and (6) switch S opened.
vVhen switch S is closed, current i begins to flow and energy is stored in the inductance of
primary winding with Nl turns. The polarity of the secondary winding voltage V 2 is as shown.
The diode D is reverse biased by voltage (V2 + Vs).
When switch S is opened, polarities of voltages VI and V 2 get reversed, the diode is now
forward biased by voltage (V2  V s )' As a result, diode begins to conduct.a current i 1 into the
posi tive terminal of source voltage Vs and so the trapped energy is fed back to the source.
Energy fedback to de source = Vs x current i 1 dependent upon (V2  Vs).
The energy stored in L of NI turns is transferred to secondary winding of N2 turns from
where it is fed back into th e de source.
58
[Art. 3.5]
Power Electronics
m~mber
of pulses
( a ).
,471
,
I
:
~.
~
'
"
27[371
I
VD
is
to
us :
1[Vmsinwt]
VD
tVa
I
I
 .~. 
I
4rc
wt
..
+. .
wt
I
I
,,I
wi
..
o~~.~~~~
wi
ia
(a)
(b)
Fig. 3.14. S inglephas e halfwave d 'ode rectifier with R load (a) circuit diagram and (b) waveforms.
For a resistive load, output curren t io has the same waveform as that of the output voltage
Va Diode voltage VD is zero wh en diode conducts . Diod e is reverse biased fr1fm w t = 1t to
CDt = 21t as shown. The waveforms of us' Va, ia and VD are sketched in Fig. 3.14 (b). Here source
voltage is sinusoidal i.e. Us = Vm sin wt. KVL for the circuit of F ig. 3.14 (a) gives Vs = Vo + VD'
Average valu e of output (or load) voltage,
Vo ;
[Art. 3.5]
V
'
Vm .
m
I
cos
w
t
I
~=.
 2n
n
Rms value of output voltage, Vor
=[
1
2n
TC
= Vm fTC
::r2n [ 0
,..(3.21 )
]1/2
fa ~ sin
59
wt . d (wt )
lV2
'
Vm
.. .. (3.22)
 2
H ere the subscript 'r' is used to denote rms value .
Average value of load current,
Vo Vm
10 =  = 
... (3.23 )
. ' _ Vor _ Vm
lor  R ~ 2R
.. .(3,24)
nR
... (3.25)
, Peak inverse voltage, PlY, is an important parameter in the design of rectifier circuits.
P1V is the maximum voltage that appears across the device (here diode ) during its blocking
state. In Fig. 3.14, PIV = V m = f2 . Vs = v; (rms value of transformer secondary voltage ). It is
seen from the waveform of source current is (or io) that the transformer has to handle de
component of is' It leads to magnetic saturation of the transformer case, therefore more iron
10ss8s , more transformer heating and reduced
efficiency.
.
.
..
=V or
.,
lor
V~ V;
= 4R :::: 2R
=1;,. R
... (3.26)
= 2 . 2R
or
(b) L load: Singlephas e halfwave diode r ectifier with L load is shown in Fig. 3.15 (a ).
When switch S is closed
at wt = 0, diode starts con ducting. KVL for this circuit gives
\
'
dio
io =;:
or
f sin w t . dt
Vm
=   cos
wL
,At wt
or
v s = Vo =L dt  = V m sm w t
..".
= 0,
io:::: 0 , ..
'
wt+A
.. (3. 27 a )
60
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.5J
Output voltage,
Source voltage
Vs
va = L (it
=L
Vm .
wL [sm CDt]
... (3 .27 b)
CD
= V m sm CDt =Vs
and both output voltage Vo and output current io are plotted in Fig. 3.15
(b ).
cut
wt
wt
(a)
(b)
Fig. 3.15. Singlephase onepulse rectifier with L load (al circuit diagram and (b) waveforms.
. Vm
. 2Vm
= wL (1 + 1)
wL
.. .(3.28)
1 J27t V
10 = 27t 10 w'i(1 cos CDt) d(wt)
Vm
= wL =
.. .(3.29)
2 Imay:
r1 [V
\2 J2Tt
w1:)
I lr 127t
10
= T2 . wL = wI. = ...[2
Vm
]1/2.
0 (coswt)2d(CDt)
Vs
... (3.30)
'\
+i~r
+
l
I
=1.225 10
.. .(3. 31)
61
[Art. 3.5J
Vo
dv
= C dts == C dt (Vs sm w t)
= wC Vm cos wt
...(3.32)
= ~ Jidt =V m sin wt = v s = VC
wt
7r
2rr
4rc
wt
,,,
wt
I
I
wcvm ':
I
I
tJo
+ :
~
io
:1
rr,
tJot
n:
vcr _C
.'37[/ 2
I
3rr/ 2 2rr
3rr 7rr/2 :
wI.
v o=uc
io
(0 )
(a)
Fig. 3.16. Singlephase halfwave di ode r ectifier with C load (a ) circuit diagram and (6) waveforms .
="21t
= 
= V (sin wt 
vD
is
w CVm as
di ode
is given by
... (3.3 3)
1)
= 1t/ 2,
a cro ~ s
diode,
Zit
VD
=~ J
J..:t
= V :::
V m (~in wt  1) d (rot)
2Vs
G'D = 
2 V", .
.Power E ectronics
VIr
]112
. ==
" .(3.34 b)
= Jr"v""'1+v'i"r = 1.~'25 V m
Example 3.7. Find the time required to deliver a charge of 200 Ah through a singlephase
halfwave diode rectifier with an output current of 100 A rms and with sinusoidal inpu.t voltage.
Assume diode conduction bver a halfcycle.
;
Solution. For Iphase halfwave diode rectlfier, rms value of output current,
. V
R
I or = ~
2R = 100 A or V m. = 200

= 200 R = 200 A
7tR
7tR
7t
Also
.Io x time in hours = 200 Ah
\
:. Time required to deliver this charge
200 x 7t .
H eater resIstance,
.
R
S o 1u t Ion.
230 n
= 1000
=..J2 x 230
2
 V;r
=Ii:=
2 X 230
4
2
X
1000
230 2
= 500 W
..J2 x 230
2
230
_ Vor _
 V 
x 1000 = 6 .1 478 A
..J2 x
230
1
x 23 0 = 0.7 07 lag.
R E Load : Singlephase halfwave diode rectifi er with l oad resistance R and load
counter emf E is shown in Fig. 3.17 (a). If the switch S is closed at OJt = 0 or when Vs = 0, then
diode would not conduct at OJt = 0 because diode is reverse bi ased until SOUTce voltage Vs equals
E. \hen V m sin 8 1 = E, diode D st arts conducting and the turnon angle 8 1 is given by
(d)
.I (E]
\V
e1  SIn
... (3.313)
63
[Art. 3.5J
wt
o '
eI
t'
Uo I i
to
(77 8 1)
i' 11:
wt
i :
!i
~r
i i
\@j
'
\E
wt
(6)
(a)
'
<...
The diode now conducts from wt = 8 1 to wt = (&.= 8 1), i.e, conduction angle for diode is
(n  28 1) as shown in Fig. 3.1 i ( b). During the conduction period of diode, th~\oJtage equation.
for the circuitjs
V m sin wt = E +io R
.
V m sin wt  E
or
...(3.37)
to =
R
Average value of this current is given by
1
Io = 2rtR
[f
it 
= 2rtR
[2
Vm cos
81 
(n  28 1)J
... (3. 38 )
[~ fT8t 8
I =
or 2n
[Vm sin wt  E ]2 .
]112
R
d(wt)
=[~
f: (V~ sin
2nR
61
112
'UOo
1)
1]
+ V; sin 28 1  4 Vm E cos 91
..(3.39:
Supply pf
P = E 10 + 1;1' R "vatts
Power deli vered t o 10ad
=
(S ou rce volt age) (rms value of ;:;o urc e current )
2
E 10 + l or R
... (3.4 0)
'
.. (3 .41)
64
P ow er Elec troni cs
[Ar t. 3.5]
It is seen from Fig. 3.17 (a) that at rot = 0, UD =  E and at rot = 81 , uD = O. During the period
diode conducts, U D = O. When rot = 3rr/2, Us = V m and UD:;::  (Vm + E). Thus PIV for diode is
.
(Vm + E ) .
Ii'
.., Example 3.9. A dc battery of constant emf E is being charged through a resistor as shown
in Fig. 3.17 (a). For source voltage of 235 V, 50 Hz and for R = SQ., E = 150 V,
(a) find the value of average charging current,
(b) find the power supplied to battery and that dissipated in the resistor,
Solution:
(a)
. 1
sm
274660
.J2150
x 230 .
10
0

150 (1t  2 x
= 4.9676 A
(b)
'.
2~.:g6 x n Jl
I"
r'
~ 9.2955 A
(c)
pf
CT
230 x 9.2955
.
ao
(e)
Rectifier efficiency
RL Load: A sin glephase onepulse diode rectifier fe eding RL load is shown in Fig.
3.18 (a). Current i o continu es t o floweven aft er source volta ge Vs has become negative; this
i s be caus e of the pr es ence of inductance L in the load circuit . After positive half cycle of source
65
[Art. 3.5)
ectifiers
Ar~Q
ArroA,
wt
wt
Va
to
l<;
tVR
I\)
Vs=vmsinwt
wI
Vo
0
Va
wt
tVL
(b)
(a)
voltage, diode remains on, so the negative half cycle of source voltage appears across load until
load current io decays to zero at wt = ~ . Voltage vR =io R has the same waveshape as that of io
Inductor voltage VL = Vs  vR is also shown. The current io flows till the two areas A and Bare
equal. AreaA (where Us > vR) represents the energy stored by L and area B (where Us < uR) the
energy released by L. It must be noted that average value of voltage VL across inductor L is
zero.
When io = 0 at wt = ~; uL = 0, l.iR = and voltage Us appears as reverse bias across diode
D as shown. At ~, voltage vD across diode jumps from zero to Vm sin ~ where ~ > 11:. Here
~ = y is also the conduction angle of the diode.
Average value of output voltage,
1
. Vo = 21t
Vm
= 21t
f:
Vm sin wt d(wt)
(1  cos ~)
.. .(3.42)
Vo Vm
10 = Ii = 21tR (1  cos ~)
A general expression for outpu t current io for 0 < wt <
... (3.43)
~
When diode is conducting, KVL for the circuit of Fig. 3.18 (a) gives
dio
dt = Vm sin wt
Rio + L
The load, or output, curren t io consists of two components , one steady s tate component is
and the other transient component it. Here is is given by
:X
is = ~R2
66
Power Electronics
(Art. 3.5)
where = tan 1 ~ and X = wL. Here < is the angle by which rms current Is lags source voltage
di t
Ri +L=O
t
dt
=f
...(3.44)
where .
.
Z = ..JR2 +X2
.
.
Vm .
0=: y .sin ~ +A
I.
. Vm
. . .
A=Zsm4>
I.
I.
<) + si'n
~. etJ
wt ~ ~
It is also seen from the waveform of io in Fig. 3.18 (b) that when wt
condition, Eq. (3.45) gives
for 0
sin
o'f
.. .(3.45) . '.
1 ~] =
=~,
io == O. With this
The solution of this transcendental equation can give the value of extinction angle
~.
subjected .to reverse voltage with PlV equal to V m at CDt = 3re, 7; etc.
2
After wt = n, current freewheels through circuit R, Land FD. The energy stored in L is
now dissipated in R. When energy stored in L = energy dissipated in R, current falls to zero
at CDt = ~ < 2re. Depending upon the value of Rand L, the current m ay not fall to zero even
when CDt = 2re, this is called conti uous conducti on. But in Fig. 3.19 (b) , l0 2.d CUTrent decays to
zero before CDt = 2re; load current is ther efore discontinuous.
* Freewheeling diode is aiso called bypass diode or commutating diode .
67
(A rt. 3.5]
wt
2rr
371':
wt
:~:
'~I
2rr
31T:
wt
io
is
ISkr=l
i~
rI
O~FO
to
D jFO
wI
3n
2/f
.I
..
wt
(b)
(a)
Fig. 3.19. Singlephase onepurse diode rectifier with RL load and fre!twnee1ing diode
O\v
(a) circuit diagram and (b) waveforms.
Us ,
is
The expression for the load current io can be obtained from Art. 6.1.2 if required. It is seen
from Fig. 3.19 (b) that
1 J~
= V sin wt d(wt)
o 21t 0 m
I a ....!!!:. rtR
=....!!!:.
1t
... (3.46)
... (3 .47)
(g) Singlephase fun wave diode rectifier : Th ere are two types of fullwave diode
rectifiers, one i centretapped (or midpoint) full wave diode rectifier and the other is fullwave
diode bridge recti,er. These are now described briefly.
(i) Singl ephase fullwave midpoint diode r ectifier: Fig. 3.20 (a) illustrates a
singlephase fullwave midpoint rectifier using diodes. The turns ratio fTom each sec ondary
to primary 's taken as l.illty fOT simplicity. vVhen 'a' is positive with respect to ' b', or m idpoint
0, diode Dl con ducts for 1t r adi ans. In the next half cycl e, 'b' is positive with respect t o 'a' , or .
midpoin t 0, and ther efore diode D2 condu cts. The output voltage is shown as Vo in F g. 3.20
(b) . The waveform for output current io (not sh own in the figur e) 15 gimilar to va waveform.
68
Power Electronics
[Ar t. 3.5]
Vm sin wI
wt
wI
wI
vOl
is
+
wI
0
Vs (\J
io
+
Vo
02
wI
+
v02
(a)
(b)
Fig. 3.20. Singlephase fullwave midpoint diode rectifier
(a ) circuit diagram and (b) waveforms .
When 'a' is positive with respect to 'b', diode D2 is subjected to a reverse voltage of 2vs ' In the
next half cycle, diode Dl experiences a reverse voltage of 2vs' This is shown in Fig. 3.20 (b) as
VDl and VD2' Thus, for diodes Dl and D2 , peak inverse voltage is 2V~. Waveforms of Fig. 3.20
( b ) show that for one cycle of source voltage, there are two pulses of output voltage. So
singlephase funwave diode rectifier can also be called singlephase twopulse diode rectifier.
Source current waveform is is also shown in Fig. 3.20 (b). When Dl conducts, current in
secondary flows upward from 0 to a and therefore, primary current is must flow downward to
balance the secondary mmf from 0 to 7t rad . 'When D2 conducts, secondary current flows
downwar d from 0 to b, therefore, prim ary current is must flow upward to balance the secondary
mmf from It to 27t and so on.
Average outpu t voltage,
...(3.48 a )
[A rt. 3.5]
69
Va
lor=Ji
= Va . lor
pf=
~.~
Va' lor
= 1
A comparison of Figs. 3.20 (b) and 3.21 (b) reveals that a diode in midpoint fullwave
rectifier is subjected to PIV of 2Vm whereas a diode in fullwave bridge rectifier has PIV of
V m only. However, average and rms values of output voltage are the same for both rectifier
configurations.
i
01
is
"<fl
1: 1
to
01
03
a
R
" ' .
04
02
'1. 0 2
l
Vo
wt
(a)
Fig. 3.21. Singlephase fullwave diode bridge r ectifier
(b)
(a)
(b)
wavefonns.
For the waveforms of diode current i Dl or iD2 in Fit 3.21 (b) and also for iD3 , iD4 for the circuit
of Fig. 3.20 (a) (not shown in Fig. 3.20 (b) ), the average and rms values for diode current are
obtained as under:
. I J~
~
Average va1ue of di ode curren t) ID = 2
1m sin rot . d (cut) =
.. (3.49 a)
n o n
ID = [
]m
2~ ( I~ sin' wt d (wt)
Vm
=R
f'_
I;
... (3.49 b)
... (3.49 c)
70
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.5]
It can similarly be shown that average value of voltage across each diode in Fig. 3.20 (b) is
2Vm
Vm. The corresponding rms values of voltage across eac hd'10 d e
 and that in Fig. 3.21 (b) is TC
TC
V
is V m = {2 Vs in Fig. 3.20 (b) and ~ = Vs in Fig. 3.21 (b).
Threephase rectifiers using diodes are discussed in APt. 3.9. Example 3.10 is formulated to
illustrate the effect of
reverse recovery time on the average output . voltage.
.
Example 3.10. In a singlephase fullwave diode bridge rectifier, the diodes have a reverse
recovery time of 40 ~s. For an ac input voltage of230 V, determine the effect of reverse recovery
time on the average output voltage for a supply frequency of (a) 50 Hz and (b) 2.5 kHz.
Solution. Singlephase fullwave diode bridge rectifier is shown in Fig. 3.21 (a) and output
voltage Vo is shown in Fig. 3.21 (b). If reverse
recovery time is taken into consideration, the l..io
diodes D 1 and D2 will not be off atwt = TC in
Fig. 3.21 (b), but will continue to conduct until
t=~+t'T
as .depicted in Fig. 3.22. The
w
V
r
JV
= 1.
TC
Vm
=
sin wt d (cot)
rr
7t
...(3.50)
(1  cos wtrr )
IS
For
(:3.50), is .
(a)
f= 50 Hz and trr = 40
).lS,
Vr
40
10 6 X 18
0J
1t
1t
=8.174mV
Percen tage reduction in average outpuc voltage
=
(b) For
f = 2500 Hz, the reduction in t he average output voltage, from Eq. (3 .50), is
= 19 .77 V
10 6 X 180
1t
I
J
[Art. 3.5]
71
tI
It is seen from above that the effect of reverse recovery time is negligible for diode operation
at 50 Hz, but for highfrequency operation of diodes, the effect is noticeable.
.
t.r
Example 3.11, A singlephase full bridge diode rectifier is supplied from 230 V, 50 Hz
source. The load consists of R= 10 n and a large inductance so as to render the load current
constant. Determine .
(a) average values o{output voltage and output current,
(b) average and rms values of diode currents,
.
(c) rins values of output and input currents, and supply pf.
Solution. The circuit diagram and relevant waveforms for this uncontrolled rectifier are
shown in Fig. 3.23.
Vmsinwt
wt
. I
\)0
I.
'I
I~
,I
"
iOl
. io
+
01
03
is
w 't.
is
04
I
'.
lIo
1
(b)
. (a)
i1o
rIo .
02
.\
(a)
Vo
2V
~
10 = Vo == 207.04 = 20 704 A .
R
10
.
(b ) Average value of diode curren t ,
1 . 7t I
')0 '7 04
I DA
= ~7t = ; =...
'2
= 10.352 A
'
wt
......
72
Power Electronics
[A r t. 3.5]
"
"j
{
1 1t
21t
0
10
= 12=
20.704
T2"
= 14.642 A
~
.
='J
;=
10 = 20.704 A
1t
Load power
= Vo 10 = 207.04 x 20.704 W
= Vs Is cos <jl
Inp ut power
..
230 x 20.704 x cos <jl = 207.04 x 20.704
~' . Supply pf
= cos <jl = 2~~.g4 = 0.90 lagging.
"
o v Example 3.12. A diode whose internal resistance is 20 n is to supply power to a 1000 .0 load
from a 230 V (rms) source of supply. Calculate (a) the peak load current (b) the dc load current
(c) the dc diode voltage (d) the percentage regulation from no load to given load.
(I.A.S., 1983 )
Solution . A voltage of 230 V supplying power to 1000.0, through a single diode, is shown
.in Fi g. 3.24 (a ). Waveforms for the source voltage, load current ioaiid diode voltage vD are shown
in Fig. 3 .24 ( b ).
wt
Va
+   io
wt
+
R=1000 .n.
wt
(a )
(b )
F ig. 3.24. Pertaining to Example 3.12 (a ) circuit diagram and (b) waveforms.
(a )
H ere R
~
(b ) f) C load curren t,
10
= 21t
=
1
om
f lt
0
l orn sm wt d (wt)
0.101 51 A
[Art. 3.6J
(c)
V D =10 RD  27t
DC diode voltage,
=
(d )
on
V 01
10 RD  Vm
7t
= 0.10151 x 20. 
230.J2 =  101.5 V
7t
= Vm
= f2 x7t 230
= 103.521 V .
7t
.
= 230f2
7t
x 1020
:. Voltage regulation
f:
Von
1+1
Cathode
Breakdown
voltage
Rs
+v
V
Vz
Vs
Zener
vo ltage
Anode
(a)
I
Io
Is
1z
Load
V"Z
Vo= Vz
~
(c )
(b)
(a) circuit
For the operation of Zener diode as a voltage regulato~, (i) it must be reverse biased with
a voltage great er than its breakdown, or Zener, voltage and (ii) a series res ist or Rs, Fig. 3.25 .
(c) is necessary to limit the r everse cu rrent t hrough the diode below its rated value.
If V z = voltage across Zener diode, th en it is seen ftom Fig. 3.25
is
(c)
74
[Art. 3.6]
Power
V
Load, or output, current, 10 = Iiz where R
E lectronic~
1z = Is  10
Power rating of a Zener diode is V z . 1z. These are available in a voltage range from few
volts to about 280 V.
Example 3.13. Design a Zener voltage regulator, shown in Fig. 3.26, to meet the following
specifications:
.
Rs
Load voltage = 6.8 V, Source voltage Vs is
+
20 V 20% and load current is 30 rnA 50%.
1L
Is
The Zener requires a minimum current of 1
+
z
VL :6.BV
RL
mA to breakdown. The diode D has a forward Vs
+lmA
voltage drop of O. 6Y.
R
_ = (20 X 1.2)  6.8 = 200 n
5  mm
[30 X 1.5 + 1J X 10 3
= _ V_L_=
max
RL _mill
.
=1
30
mill
L
L  max
6 .8
=453.30
0.5 X 10 3
6.8
30 X 1.5 X 10 3
=151.5 n
0.6
= 6.2 V .
. E x ample 3.14. The complete circuit shown in Fig. 3.27 (a) rep resents a 25 V de voltmeter
where G is a PM MC galvanometer having fullscale deflection current 1{sd = 200 microA and
resistance R o = 500 ohms, and D is a 20V Zener diode. Find R l and R 2. W hat is the function
of the diode D in this circuit?
. (GATE, 1990) .
 I _ Zener voltage
2R .... R
(sd 
or
2 '
or
X 10
R.2  20200
 t)' 00 
09
oJ
5k
~~
[Art. 3.7]
RI
II
75
lz 12
RG=5 00n
(b)
(a)
Fig. 3.27. Pertaining to Example 3.14.
As Zener diode current is not specified, let it be assumed zero. Therefore, from Fig. 3.27
(b ),
II ~12 =lz == 0
cir
II =12 = 200)lA.
11 = 25  20 = 200 x 10 6
Rl
Also
5 X 10 6
Rl = 200 = ~5 kn
or
'
The input voltage to rectifiers is usually sinusoidal. It is desired that the output voltage
from a rectifier should be constant with no ripples in it. This, however, is not the case. This
shows that the rectified output voltage is m ad up of constant de voltage plus harmoniC
components. The waveform of input and output currents depend on the nature ofload and the
rectifi er configuration. In order to evaluate the overall performan ce of rectifierload
combinations, certain performance parameters relatin g tp their input and output must be
known. The object of this article is to defi n e the various perform ance parameters (or indices)
relating to input as well as output voltages and currents .
The inpu t power factor PF is defined as the r atio of mean input power (real power) to the
total r ms input volt amperes (apparent power) given t o the conver t er (or rectifier) system .
phase an gle bet ween supply vol age V s an d fu ndam en tal componentIs1 of supply
eu r ent Is ; see Fi g. 3.28 ;
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.7]
76
...(3.51)
=y .cos CPl
s
For a given power demand, if input pf is poor, more input voltamperes and hence more
input current are taken froin the supply. .
(ii) Input d i splacement factor (DF). As stated above, the phase angle between
sinusoidal supply voltage Vs and fundamental component lsI of supply current Is is CPl' This
angle CPl' shownin Fig. 3.28, is usually known as input displacement angle. Its cosine is called
the input displacement factor DF.
..
...(3.52)
.
I
CDF=~
Is
... .(3.53)
or input power factor = (input current distortion factor) x (input displacement factor)
(iv) Input current harmonic factor (HF). Nonsinusoidal input, or supply, current is
made up offundamental current plus current .components of higher frequencies . The harm onic
fa ctor (HF) is equal to the rms value of all the harmonics divided by the rms value of
fundamental component of the input current.
If Ih = rms value of all the harmoniccomponents combined
tTl
12
='i 1 s  sl
[L
Isn]
HF=
Ih
=
~
I~1
=
n=2
...(3.54)
then , as per the defmition,
lsI
lsI
lsI
where, Isn = rms value of nth harmonic content.
H armonic factor is a measure of the harmonic content in the input supply current. HF is
also known as total h armonic distortion (THD). Greater the value of HF (or THD), greater is
the harmonic content and hence greater is the distortion of input supply current. .
Also,
HF =
~(~)2
 1 = ~~1
Is1
CD"
... (3.55)
Higher va1ue of input distortion factor CDF indicates lower magnitude ofharinonic content
in the source current.
Nonsinusoidal input current can be esolved in to Fourier series as under :
a
...(3 .56)
i =; +
(an cos n wt + bit sin nwt)
It = 1,2, 3, ...
00
=~ +
where a o ::: T2
i(t).dt, an = T2
r
0
77
[Art. 3.7J
...(3.57)
=1,2,3, ...
,,
,,'
wt
Fig. 3.28. Waveforms for source voltage US) source current is, fundamental component
.isl of source current and ~l = phase angle between Us and is1 '
.. .(3.59)
CF is used for specifying the current ratings of power semiconductor devices and other
cgmponents.
..
, ,"
The load, or output, voltage and the load (or output) current at the output terminals of ae
to de converters are unidirectional but pulsating in nature. Fouriers series is used to express
these output quantities in terms of its two components, namely (i) average (or de) value and
(ii) ae component superimposed on de value a s under:
t\
+T
= Y de = ~ J y. dt
tj
1
Y or = T
[
[1
tj
TY 2 dt ]112
= (average outpu t
::: Vjo
where subscript '0' denotes output de valu es.
... (3 60)
78
P ower Electronics
[Art. 3.7]
Pdc
...(3.61)
11=
Pac
Rectifier ratio is also known as rectifier efficiency or figure of merit. In case Rd = forward
rectifier resistance, then
11
Pdc
... (3.62)
Pac + lor Rd
Vr=~~r ~
...(3.63)
where VI' is called ripple voltage, or effective value of ae component of output voltage.
(iii) Form factor (FF). It is defined as the ratio of rms value Vo/' of output voltage to the
dc value Va ~utput voltage.
~V
FF=~
.. .(3.64)
Va
FF is a measure of the shape of the output voltage. The closer FF is to unity, the better is
the dc output voltage wavefor m . For constant de output voltage, rms value of output voltage,
Val' = average value of output voltage, Vo'
Voltage ripple factor (VRF). It is defined as the ratio of ripple voltage VI' to the
average output voltage Va.
(i v)
V,.
VRF =
Vo
.. .(3.65)
Substituting the value of VI' from Eq. (3.63) in Eq. (3.65) gives
VRF =[
or
(t J' 
FF ='/VRF2 + 1
=VFj" 
... (3.66 a)
... (3.66 b)
(v) P erunit average ou tpu t voltage. It is defined as the r atio of the average output
voltage Va for any value of triggering angle to the average output voltage Vom for zerodegree
firing angle.
.. .(3.67)
(vi) Current ripple fa c tor {CRF). It is defined as the ratio of r m s value of all h armonic
components of output current to the de component ] 0 of the output curren t.
... (3.68)
." .
[Art. 3.8]
79
rms voltage and rms current ratings of the secondary winding of a transformer, then TUF is
defined as
... (3.69)
:. Transformer VA rating
... (3.70)
In this article, the performance parameters of singlephase diode rectifiers feeding resistive
loads are evaluated. The rectifier types discussed are Iphase halfwave rectifier and Iphase
fullwave midpoint and bridge types . The performance parameters are then collated in tabular
form.
Vm
IT
. and!
d e output current,
where 1m = ;
I = ~ =~
TtR
Tt
Output de power,
From Eq. (3.22), rms output voltage,
and rms output current,
Output power,
Rectifier efficiency,
.. .(i)
m
V. or=2
_ Vm _ [m
2.R  2
or 
Pac
V mI ,.
= VOl' l or = 4P dr
TJ == p = =
at;
FO :"lTI
factor,
V,,/m
 21t
.. .(ii)
4.i
. ~l
Y r'; l"l
== ~
Tt
V V
FF= E!.. =_2 y ~  .5708
Vo
'). y'm, 2
~
= 0.4053 or 40.53 %
80
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.8]
Ripple voltage,
Voltage ripple factor,
Also,
Since source voltage
Vi
=~
PIV=v2Vs =Vm
Peak value of source current,
Rms value of source current,
Crest factor,
1m
I s =1or =_
2 .
Isn 1m
CF == = x 2 = 2
Is 1m
R ms output voltage,
Output ac power,
[Art. 3.8]
Rectifier efficiency,
T1
'I
81
Vor
1t
Vm
1t
1t
1t
FF=Y=T2'
2V = iT2= 1.11
o
m
Form factor,
1/ 2
V,=~v;,v!=[(~ J _(2:," J 1 =0
Ripple voltage,
Voltage ripple factor,
V
1t
VRF=; = 0.3077 Vm x 2 V
o
3077
Vm
= 0.483
Also,
TUF can be obtained as under:
=#
e~ch
=; "
Primary winding current is, how ever, made up of both positive and negative half cycles.
:, Primary rms current
Primary rms voltage
Primary VA rating
:. Average VA rating of transfo rmer = 0.5 +2.
TUF =
707
. V m1m = 0.6035 Vm 1m
.
P dc
4
'
=
.2 . V m 1m
average VA rating of transformer It
Isp
1
 0 672
0.6035 V m 1m  .
=1m
1m
=T2
~1
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.8]
~~
2 Vm
21m
Vm
1m
Va = 11:' I" = 11: ' Vor = 12 and lor = .J2
This shows that the rectifier efficiency, FF, ripple voltage V,., VRF are the 3ame for both
types of diode rectifiers . However, PIVof diode in singlephase B 2 rectifier is Vm whereas
it is 2Vm in I phase M  2 rectifier.
.
Vm
T UF: Rms value of source voltage Vs = J2
TUF=
4
2
8
.
'
.
::V
1
x==08106
.
VA rating of transformer 11: 2 m m V m 1m 11: 2
.
Pdt:
Source current waveforms for both types are identical, therefore CF = .f2.
A comparison of three types of Iphase diode rectifiers discussed above is given in the table
below where Vm = Ii" V" H2re Vs = rms value of sinusoidal source voltage and f = source
frequency in Hz.
I
S.No.
1.
Halfwave
(o r onepulse)
Parameters
DC output voltage,
3.
5.
Rectification
efficiency, 11
6,
Transformer
utilization factor,
TUF
7.
Peak inverse
voltage, PIV
8.
Cr est factor, CF
9.
10 ,
Bridge (B 2)
Centret,zp (N!2)
~
'fm
"
Ivoltage, V o,.
I Ripple voltage, V,.
4.
 Vm
V"
2.
'2 V
  in
It
It
IT
Vm

Vm
Vm
T2
"2
0.3856 Vm
0.3077 Vm
0.3077 Vm
0.482
0.482
81.06%
81.06%
~I
1.211
40 .53%
,
0.2865
0.672
0.8106
Vm
2Vm
'11i !
J2
Number of diodes
Ripple frequency
2f
.
2f
It is seen from the above table that both u llwav e diode r ectifi ers
(i)
are better th an the halfwave rectifier in so fa r as vol tage ripple factor, nctificaticn
efficie ncy, T UF and cr est factor ar e concerned,
[Art. 3. ]
83
(ii) have average output voltage double of that of the halfwave rectifier (for the same
input voltage),
(iii) have ripple frequency double of that of halfwave rectifier.
For both the fullwave rectifiers, the following is observed from the table . .
.I
Vm
Output dc power,
It
J2 x 460
It
= 207.04 V
= V;
= 207.04
= 714 .43 W
de
R
60
It is seen from the table that TUF for Iphase halfwave diode r ectifier is 0.2865.
= TUF
Pde = 714.43 = 249365 VA
0.2865
.
:. VA rating of transformer
Example 3.16. A 230 V; 50 Hz supply is conne cted to a Iphase transformer which feeds a
diode bridge as shown in F ig. 3.23 (a). Primary to secondary turns ratwIor transformer is 0.5
and load RL has a ripple free current 10 = lOA. Determine (i) average value of output voltage (ii)
input current distortion fa ctor (iii) inp ut displacement factor DF (iv) input power factor (v) input
current harmonic factor HF (o r T HD) and (vi) crest factor.
Solution. Waveforms for supply voltage vs' constant load current io = 10 = 10 A and source
current is are shown in Fig. 3.23 (b).
Rms value of input voltage to bridge rectifi er,
~l = 2~0 = 0.5
2
vs = 230
= 460 V
0.5
The sourc e current, or input current, is can be expressed in Fourier series as under :
is::::: Ide
n'"
1,3,5
.. .(3.56)
[Art. 3.8]
84
It can also be stated from the waveform of is that as the area of positive and negative half
1 .2 TC
an =  J io(t). cos nrot. cosnrot. d(rot)
1t
= 2
fTC
1t
21
10 cos nwt. d(wt) =  0
nIt
tt
bn = 1.
1t
io
=~
(t)
ISIn
' nwt Ilt0 =:: 0
It
r
0
lor a 11 n.
J:
210
21
[ cos nrot]oIt =  0 [1  cos n1t]
nIt
n.1t
410
for n = 1, 3, 5 ....... (for odd values of n)
n1t
=
bn
=:: 0
and
for
~s
(l)
410
=1t
1.
1 ..
1.
sm rot + 3" sm 3wt + 5 8m 5rot + "7 sm
[.
2{2 x 460
2V
m
=I=
t.1t
twt + ... ]i
= 414.08 V
41
(ii) Since fundame n t al component of input source current ..R sin rot is in phase with source
1t
= O. Also, from
= cos
above, <1>1 = O.
= 1.
1'" ~ ~ 10 A.
10
410
.
.
lsI
1
Input current dIst ortIOnal factor, CDF = I = ;;::2 x I
s
(iu) In pu t
(v)
HF
(u i)
It."~
r~ [(019 1r~
= 12 x 2 = 0.9
1t
THD
[ (
" J'  1
J' 
0.4843 or 48.43%
..
10
CF= 10
= 1.00
;,.,
Examp le 3.17. A singlephase B 2 diode rectifier is required to supply a de output voltage
J of 230 V to a load of R = 10 n. De termine the diode ra ti ngs and transfo rmer rating required
Solu ti on.
2V.7l 2{2. Vs
V0 =  =
=230V
11:
'It
[Art. 3.9]
=232
Average load current,
2555 V
.
10
3613 A
= f2 x10255.5 =.
Vs
= Vo = 230 = 23 A
o
fd'od
MaXlmum
l e current, 1m = Vm
R
vaIue O
IDAv = 21
1t
85
IDr
iDl
1t
J:
=[ 2~ I~l sin
l/e
wt.
d(rot)
=; =36213 = 18.07 A
= ~ = 3~3 = 25.55 A = Is
=Vs Is = 255.5 X 25.55 = 6528 VA = 6.528 (kVA)
Pdc = Vo 10 = 230 x 23 = 5290 W
:. Transformer rating
P de
TUF
5290
0.81.
Peak diode current, 1m = 36.13 A and PIV = 361~3 V and transformer rating = 6.528 kVA.
86
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.9]
vD I
+
1.5
cc
La 01
to
Lb
02
R
1.e
1
J
Vo
03
Fig. 3.29. Threephase halfwave diode rectifier with common cathode arrangement.
secondary star. The three diodes 01, D2 and D3, one in each phase, have their cathodes
connected together to common load R. Neutral is used to complete the path for the return of
load current. As the cathodes of three diodes are connected together, circuit of Fig. 3.29 is also
known as commoncathode circuit for a 3phase halfwave rectifier. The threephase supply
voltage is shown as va (= Van' voltage between a and n), vb' Vc in Fig. 3.30 (a).
"Us
Ve"
(a)
rt /2
"

( b)
10 3
'
...
"
5rr /2
. ,;
~;,"
. . . . ._.
",,,,'<. .......
'.
/'"
",'",
Dl
. . . . . *"~""
02
03

Vb
(e )
Vmp
........ ,
.'*'...."
wt
",
. . . . . . _.
01
Uc
.'''"
Va
~
......... ~
~ ...
0.5 Vmp
Vo ltage of termina l P
~
"
wt
Voltage of neutral n
tC~
ie
La
1.b
ic
ta
( d)
Vmp
mp=1f'
17/ 2
"
Tl
wt
. .151LD1
(e) ~ . ~_~__
la=i5=___
iO1 __________~______~~L~
_________ _
_____
wt
~2rr=36 0 '~'
150 '
( I)
270 '
O r.~~~_r~,~wt
Fig. 3. 3'0 (a ) Line t o eutral so r ee voltages (6) dio de conduction (c) loa d volt age
sourc e cur r ent and (f) volta ge across diode D l.
(d )
load current (e )
81
[Art. 3. 1)]
The rectifier element connected to the line at the highest positive instantaneous voltage
can only conduct. In Fig. 3.29, a diode with the highest positive voltage will begin to conduct
at the crossover points of the threephase supply. It is seen fro m Fig. 3.30 (a) that diode Dl
will conduct for CDt = 30 to CDt = 1500 as this diode senses the most positive voltage :Jet' as
compared to the other two diodes, during the interval. Diode D2 will conduct from wt = 150
to 270 0 and diode D3 from CDt = 270 to 390. The conduction of diodes in proper sequence is
shown in Fig. 3.30 (b). When a diode is conducting, the common cathode terminal P rises to
the highest positive voltage of that phase and the other two blocking diodes are reverse biased.
The voltage Vo across the load follows the positive supply voltage envelope and ha.s the
waveform as shown in Fig. 3.30 (c). It should be noted that voltage of the neutral point 'n' is
taken as zero and is given by the reference line wt. The voltage of point P in Fig. 3.29 is shown
by va' Vb' Vc etc above the reference line in Fig. 3.30 (c). The de load voltage v(J varies between
V mp ( = maximum phase voltage) and 0.5 V mp' It is observed that for one cycle of supply voltage,
output voltage has three pulses, the circuit of Fig. 3.29 can therefore be called a 3phase 3pulse
diode rectifier or 3phase halfwave diode rectifier.
Voltage variation across diode D1 can be obtained by applying KVL to the loop consis ting of
D1, phase 'a' winding and load R. So VDl  Va + Vo = 0 or VDl = Va  Vo
When diode D1 conducts,
CDt = 30 to CDt = 150 in Fig. 3.30 (j).
Vo
= v o'
..
vDl
= Va 
Va
= O.
This is
shown from
At
At
At
At
obtained as outlined before. It is seen from Fig. 3.30 (f) that peak inverse voltage across diode
D1 is ,[3' V mp ; in general prv = '1/3 V mp for each of the three diodes D1, D2 and D3.
AB in singlephase rectifiers, the average output voltage in a 3phase diode rectifier can be
obtained by considering the output voltage over one periodic cycle.
For a 3phase diode rectifier of Fig. 3.29, the peri.odicity is 120 or 27t/3 radians as per Fig.
3.30 (c). Here the output volt age comprises of phase voltages Va' Vb, Vc and its average (or m ean)
value V o is given by
= p ena.~.lCl't y
r
at
Va
d (CDt)
88
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.9]
1t/
l!/6
=[ 21t
3 V~p I t _
x 2' w
5/t/6
sin 2wt
2
]112
= 0.84068 V mp
I
... (3.72)
/t/6
Ripple voltage,
VI'
= lv~1'  V~ = V mp lO.84068
Vr
VRF = Va
0.827
= 0.151
v.nip
0.151
FF = VOl'
Va
= 0.84068 = 1.0165
0.827
= 0.8~068
V mp
= 0.84068 Imp
V mp
where Imp = R = peak value of load, or output, current.
313
313
Rectifier effid en cy
Pac
21t
1
= 0.96765
0.84068 2
or 96.765%
During the interval wt = 30 0 to wt = 150, source current is = ia and the periodicity of source
current is 21t radian s as shown in Fig. 3.30 (e).
=[21
1t
[/t/6
/t/6
mp
=T2
= 0.707 V mp
VA rating of t r ansform er
DC output power,
..
Pd ,
TUF =
3;;
x V mp Imp
.
Pdc
Transformer VA ratmg
={3 v mp
[Art. 3.9]
89
A 0..,.......
06
b2
c u    __
Cl
R
B~~
Vo
02
ic 1
05
'1b2
vel
vbI
= V mp sin
240) = 
F i g. 3.32. Sixphase
' CI 331
vo It ages fior F lb'
.
.
180) = 
Val
Vc2
300) = vbl
Here V mp = maximum value of per phase voltage
The waveform of sixphase voltages , Val' VcZ, Vbl .... are sketched in Fig. 3.33 (a). As before,
a diode sensing the highest positive anode potential gets forward biased and conducts.
Therefore, from wt = 0 to wt = 60 0 , voltage Vb2 is the highest positive , therefore, diode D6
conducts; from wt = 60 to wt = 120, diode. Dl conducts and so on, Fig. 3.33 (a) and (b). Each
diode conducts fo r 6 ". It is seen fr om Fig. 3.33 (c) that load voltage Vo is m ade up of Vb2 from
wt = 0 t o 60 ; Val from rot = 6 0 to 120 0 and so on. Also, Va varies between Vmp and 0.86 6
V m p ' Periodicity of output voltage 1,'0 is 60.
and
90
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.9]
wI
( b)
''0
06
01
vb 2
VOl
02
vn
03
D4
05
06
01
vbl
v a2
vel
ub2
val
02
Ve 2
(c)
0
wI
Lo
1.b2
i.(2
tal
i 02
t bl
lb2
te I
Lal
te2
(d)
rn
"1'"
0
60
=Lal
( e)
42 0 0
1200
ri"'
,",.i,.iol
VD I~
!.
211' =360
180
wI
270 0
'"'
wI
277
(0
0.866 Vmp
Fig. 3.33. (a) Line to neutral (or phase) source voltages (b) diode conduction
(c) load voltage (d ) load current (e) source current and (f> voltage
across diode Dl for 3phase M  6 diode rectifier of Fig. 3.31.
frt /3
Vo 
1t
Rms value of output voltage,
rc/3
V mp sm rot. d(rot) 
3 V mp
...(3.73)
1t
112
V or =[
1t
/3
=[ 3V21t
frt / 3
mp
rt/ 3
(Vmpsmrot) d(rot)
{~_
sin 240
3
\
112
0

sin 120
1
].
J
2
Ripple voltage,
1t
FF = ~r
o
095'"8 V
. U
mp
1/2
V, =~~,  ~ =V O.95582_( ~ I ]
V
)
VRF = V = 0 . 04~8 x =0.043 or 4 .3%
mp [
= 0.0408 Vmp
... (3.74)
(Art. 3.9]
ectiflers
Val"
Pd,
0.9558
V mp
91
=0.9558 Imp
~ V, I, ~( ~ Vm~lmp
Rectifier efficiency
= ( 3 J2 X
1t
1 2 = 0.9982 or 99.82%
0.9558
.
The source current is in phase a l has the same waveform as for the current ial , Fig. 3.33 (d)
and (e). It is seen that periodicity of is is 21t radians.
f' ~
0.39 Imp
P dc
TUF
mp
=Vola =1tX Imp = 0.912 V mp Imp
1t
0.912
'.
5""
::> .1%.
Voltage variation across any diode, say Dl, can be obtained as done in 3phase 3pulse diode \
rectifier. Therefore, VDl = Val  Vo
0
When D1 conducts, va = Va l '
:. VDl = Val  Val = 0 from wt = 60 to 120.
When D2 conducts from wt = 120 0 to 180, va = vc2 ' :. vDl = Val  vc2
At wt = 150, vc2 = mp an d Lla l = 0.5 V mp ;
:. vDl =(0.5  1.0) V mp =  0.5 V mp
At wt =It, vc2 = 0.866 V mp and Val = 0,
; . VDl = 0.866 V mp
0
When D3 conducts from wt = 180 to 240, Vo =Vb I,
:. VDl = Val  Vbl
At wt = 240, Vbl = 0.866 V mp and Val = 0.866 V mp ' :. vDl =( 0.866  0.866) V mp =  {3 V mp
When D4 conducts from wt = 2400 to 300 0 Vo = va2 :. vDl = Val  Va2
At wt = 270, Val =  V mp and va2 = V mp'
:. vDl = (1 1) V mp = 2 V mp
Similarly, vDl waveform can be obtained when diodes D5, D6 conduct, this is shown in Fig.
3.33 {f;. It is seen from vDl waveform that PIV for each diode = 2 V mp '
The above analysis reveals the following.
Quality of output is sup erior as compared to 3 pulse rectifier, because RF is 4.3%
and FF is close to unity.
(ii) TUF is poor as compared to 3 pulse rectifier ; it is because of lower value of
conduction angle (= 60) for each phase and diode of this rectifier.
(iii) Output frequency is 6f; siz e of filter, if required, is therefore reduced.
It may be observed from Fig. 3.33 that each phas e winding carries un directional current
and there are six pulses during one cycle of sourc e volt age. That is why it is called sixphase
halfwave diod e rectifier.
At any time, only one secondary phase winding, say phase a 1, carries current, this gets reflected
downward in the primary delta for m mf balance. After furth er c.ut = 1800 , secondaryphase
,
(i)
92
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.9]
win ding a2 carries current, this gets reflected upward in the primary delta. This shows that
both secondary and primary windings handle alternating current during one cycle of source
voltage; there is therefore no magnetic saturation of the transfcrmer core as it is in the
transformer used in 3phase halfwave rectifier.
~ 3.9.3. Multiphase Diode Rectifier
For threephase threepulse rectifier, or threephase halfwave rectifier, each phase
conducts for 27t/ 3 radians of a cycle of 21t radians. Threephase M6 rectifier may be considered
as 6phase halfwave rectifier and it is seen that each phase of this type conducts for 27t / 6 rad.
In general, in mphase halfwave diode rectifier, each phase and diode would conduct for
2 1tl m rad and number of output voltage pulses p would be equal to number of phases m.
For m more than three, an mphase diode rectifier would have deltaconnected primary
and the secondary would have midtapped m/2 windings . The number of diodes is equal to m.
Fig. 3.34 shows a few pulses of output voltage waveform for mpulse halfwave diode rectifier.
Each phase conducts for 21tl m or 21tl p radians, because number of pulses p = number of phases
m for halfwave rectifiers. With time origin AA' taken at the peak value of output voltage in
Fig. 3.34, the instantaneous phase voltage is
v == Vmp cos rot = "f2 Vp h ' cos rot
where Vph = rms valu e of perphase supply voltage .
Waveform of output voltage Vo in Fig. 3.34 shows that in mphase halfwave diode rectifier,
conduction occurs from  ~ to ~, or from  ~ to 7tlp with time origin at AA' and periodicity
m
m
p
.
is 27tl m, or 27tl p, radians.
f_K
!P
,I
kR"
A/
~
I,
!
/:::
!
v
~
:
c..!t
~271/P1 '
Fig. 3.34. Output voltage waveform for mphase halfwave diode rectifier.
[ IP
1tl p _ re l p
Y mp
= Ymp . E..
sin ~
1t
p
Rms value of output voltage,
Y or = [ L2
1t
IP
.. .(3.75 )
]112
 'relp
y2 [IP
= P' mp
(1 + cos 2rot ) d (rot)
[ 41t
_ 'itlp
1 2)J
...(3 .76)
= V mp : 1
R
mp
, 112
=~
fTC IP
 rtlp
1~ cos cot. d
(rot )
Imp
1t
1t
sin
... (3 .77 )
[Art. 3.9]
(Imp
cos wt)2
d (wt)
93
]1/2
ltl p
./1\
'Y'
~c..
(J
=1
\L.
mp
J]1/2
... (3.78 )
Example 3.18.A stepdown deltastar transformer, wiih perphase turns ratio 5, is fed from
3p hase, 1100 V, 50 Hz source. The secondary of this transformer, th rough a rectifier, feeds a load
R = 10 n. Calculate the average value ofoutput voltage, average and rms values of diode current
and power delivered to load in cas'e the rectifier is (a) 3phase, 3pulse type and (b) 3phase M6
type.
Solution.
(a) 3phase threepulse type.' Perphase secondary voltage
1100
_'"
.
=..J2 x 22
A
From Eq. (3.77), average value of diode current, ID = 22: f2' sin
From Eq. (3.78), rms value of diode current,
lIn
Jr
~ = 8.575 A
= 15.10 A
sin 2120
3 (1t
Vor == 220 x..J2 [ 21t
 "3 +
==
;r
==
J]112
= 2.61.52 V
Vph
220
="'"2
= lIOV and V mp =..J2 x llO V
Vo
=~1t
x Y2 x 110 =148.53 V
mp
= VRmp = ..J2 10
x 110 = 'if2 X
11 A
94
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.9J
I l6
.
1 ( 7t sin 60
Fnm Eq. (3.78), rrns value of diode current, In,. == 11 x f2 L 27t
+
2
From Eq. (3.76), rms value of output voltage,
V
;r
)]112
= 6.069 A
r;
148.66 V
DL.
A
0.....
0
05
c o
,..."
06
I
8 O~
1
Vo
Fig. 3.S5. Threephase halfwave diode rectifie with common anode arrangement.
The threephase halfwave rectifier circuits of Figs. 3.29 and 3.35 can be connected in series '
as shown in F:ig. 3.37 (a). An examination of this series connected circuit r eveals that load
current can exist even without neutral wire n. Fo e ampl e, when diode Dl is conducting from
wt = 30 to W: = 150 in Fig. 3.36 (b ), the return path for the curren t is through diod e D5 fr om
wt 30 C to 90 and through dio e D6 from cot = 90 C to 1500 I s ee F ig. 3.36 (b) and (c) . Supply point
95
[A r t. 3.9]
(a)
( b)
1 03
(c)
01
05
D5
va
03
D2
IT
12
06
05
OL.
01
2rr
1T
(d)
ub
Dc
Fig. 3 .36. (a) Line to neutral source voltages (b) diode conduction for
Fig. 3.29, (e) diode conduction for Fig. 3.35, (d) load voltage.
'a' connected to the anode of Dl is the same as that connected to the cathode of diode D4. The
neutral wire can thus be eliminated and cathode terminal of D4 can be connected to anode of
Dl. Thus, the circuit of Fig. 3.37 (a) can be redrawn as shown in Fig. 3.37 (b). This circuit can
further be rearranged to that shown in Fig. 3.37 (c). The only difference between Fig. 3.37 (a)
and Fig. 3.37 (b) and (c) is that load voltage is equal to line to neutral voltage in Fig. 3.37 (a)
and it is line to line volt age in Fig. 3.37 (b) and (c). The circuit configuration shown in Fig. 3.37
(c) is called 3phase full waue bridge rectifier, or 3phase sixpuLse bridge rectifier. Note that
diodes Dl, D2, D3 of the bridge would conduct when supply voltage is the most positive,
whereas diodes D4, D5, D6 would conduct when supply voltage is the most negative. Diodes Dl,
D2, D3 may therefore be called a positive diode group and D4, D5, D6 a negative diode group.
The voltage across load would always be the direct emf with the polarity of P positive and that
of Q negative as indic a ed.
01
00
02
b
03
c
01
02
p
D3
0
L
0
L
0
c'
D2
D6
06
c
Q
(a )
(b)
(c 1
05
t
(d)
F ig. 3.3'7. Evol ution of 3phase sixpulse rectifi er (a ) circuits of F igs. 3.29 and 3.35
I~
96
Power Electronics
IArt. 3.9]
It may be seen from Fig. 3.36 (b) and (c) that conduction sequence of diodes is D1 (from
positive group), D6 (from negative group), D2, D4, D3, D5 etc. In order that sequence of
conducting diodes is D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D1. .... (easy to remember), circuit of Fig. 3.37
(c) is redrawn in Fig. 3.37 (d) with diodes numbered D1, D3, D5 for positive group and
D4 (1 + 3), D6 (3 + 3), D2 (5 + 3  6) for the negative group.
Line to neutral, or phase, voltages of Fig. 3.30 (a) or 3.36 (a) are redrawn in Fig. 3.38 (a)
as va, Vb' vC ' Fig. 3.36 (b) and Fig. 3.36 (c) are combined and drawn in Fig. 3.38 (b) but with
diode numbering scheme of Fig. 3.37 (d) . It is seen that for wt = 0 to 30, diodes D5, D6 conduct
together, for wt = 30 to 90, diodes D1, D6 conduct together and so on. Each diode conducts
for 120. At the instant marked 1 (when wt = 30), diode D6 is already on, conduction of diode
D5 stops and that of diode D 1 begins. The magnitude ofload voltage VI at instant 1 is, therefore,
given by
=f3vmp '
At the instant marked 3,
Here
V mp
V3
= 1.5 V rnp
The voltage of the load terminals P and Q of Fig. 3.37 (c) or (d) is shown in Fig. 3.38 (a).
This figure also reveals that at the instants marked 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 etc, the load voltage has a
magnitude off3Vmp ' At the instants marked 1, 3,5,7,9, 11 etc, the magnitude ofload voltage
is 1.5 V mp' The load voltage, or the rectified output volt age, Va can therefore, be plotted as
shown in Fig. 3.38 (c). In this figure, voltage ofterminal Q is shown at zero potential by straight
reference line wt, whereas the potential of terminal P is shown by line voltages v cb' vab' Vac etc.
In fact, if voltage waveform of terminal Q in Fig. 3.38 (a) is made a straight li~~, Fig. 3.38 (c)
Vo ltage of terminal P
I
wt
(a )
Voltage of ter minal Q
D1
I
(c)
/
"
;'
/w,
i
30'
04
02
06
+ve group
I 02
ve grou p
./
/ '
01
05
03
,":2:3
3C' '4
1.5 Vmp
.JJV m p
(.
a 9
0
I
10
11
1'2
wt
.1
Fig. 3.38. (a ) 3phase input voltage waveforms (b) conduction sequence of positive an negative
group of diodes (c ) output vo ta e wav eform of 3phase sixpulse diode bridge of Fig. 3.37 (d) .
Diod
[Art. 3.9]
97
is obtained. It should be remembered that in Fig. 3.38 (c); vab, v ae ' v bc et c are line voltages,
whereas in Fig. 3.38 (a) ; Va' Vb, Vc are phase voltages. The dual subscript ab in vab should be
taken to denote that as per the first subscript 'a', diode connected to phase termin al 'a' from
positive group, i.e . D1 conducts. Asper the second subscript 'b', diode connected to phase
terminal 'b' from the negative group, i.e. D6 conducts. For example, for output voltage Vcb, diode
D5 from positive group and diode D6 from negative group conduct. Note that each diode
conducts for 120.
Fig. 3.38 (c) reveals that there are six pulses for one cycle of supply voltage. Thus ,
three~phase bridge rectifier of Fig. 3.37 (d) can be called 3~phase six~phase diode rectifier or
3phase B6 diode rectifier. Here B denotes bridge and 6 denotes the n umber of output~voltage
pulses per cycle of source voltage.
c.)
1
It is thus seen from above that when two 3~phase 3~pulse rectifiers are connected in
antiparallel, a 3~phase 6 pulse rectifier (or a 3~phase bridge rectifier) is evolved.
;;f.v
Power circuit diagram for a 3~phase bridge rectifier using six diodes in shown in Fig. 3.39.
The diodes are arranged in three legs. Each leg has two seriesconnected diodes. Upper diodes
Dl, D3, D5 constitute the positive group of diodes. The lower diodes D2, D4, D6 form the
negative group of diodes. The three~phase transformer feeding,.the bridge is connected in
deltastar. This rectifier is also caned 3~phase 6~pulse diode rectifier, 3phase fullwave diode
rectifier, or threephase B6 diode rectifier.
.
.
Positive group of diodes conduct when these have the most positiv e anode . Similarly,
. n egativE) group of diodes would conduct if these have the most n egative anode. In other words,
diodes D1, D3, D5, forming positive group, would conduct when these exper ience the highest
posi tive voltage. Likewise, diodes D2, D4, D6 would conduct when these are subjected to the
m ost negative voltage.
+
03
A 0 >    ....
05
lo
Co~....
06
02
Bo~
It is seen from the source voltage waveform V s of Fig. 3.40 (a ) that from rot = 30 to 1500 ,
voltage va is more positiv e than the voltages v b' vc' Therefore, diode D1 connected to line 'a'
(as p.er subscript 'a' in va) counducts during the int erval rot = 30 to 150. Likewise, from
rot = 150 to 27 0, voltage vb is m or e positive as compared to va) V c; therefo e, diode D3 connect ed
to line 'b ' (as per the subscript 'b' in Vb) conducts during this interval. Similarly, diode D5 from
th e positive group co .ducts fr om cut = 27 00 t o 390 0 and so on. N ote als o that from (ct ,. 0 to
30 , Vc is the most positive, therefor e, diode D5 from t he positive group conducts for this
98
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.9]
interval. Conduction of positive group diodes is shown in Fig. 3.40 (b) as DS, Dl, D3, DS,Dl
etc.
Voltage ve is the most negative from rot =90 0 to 210 0 Therefore, negative group diode D2
connected to line 'e' (as per subscript 'e' in ve ) conducts during this interval.Similarly, diode
D4 conducts from 210 0 to 330 0 and diode D6 from 330 0 to 450 0 and so on. Note also that from
rot = 00 to 90 0 , Vb is the most negative, therefore diode D6 conducts during this interval.
Conduction of negative group diodes is shown as D6, D2, D4, D6, etc in Fig. 3.40 (b).
During the interval rot = 00 to 300 , it is seen from Fig. 3.40 (b) that diode D5 and D6 conduct.
Fig. 3.39 shows that conduction of D5 connects load terminal P to line terminal e; similarly,
conduction of D6 connects load ter minal Q to line terminal b. As a result, load voltage is
Vpq = Vo = line voltage veb (first positiv~ subscript corresponding to e and second negative
subscript corresponding to b) from rot = 00 to rot = 300 Likewise, during rot =30~ to. ,90 0 , diodes
Dl and D6 conduct. Conduction of diode D1 connects P to a and D6 to b. Therefore, load voltage
(al .
01
(b)
03
02
Vab
Vae
01
05
OL.
06
+ 'Ie group
102 'Ie group
liae
Vbc
(c)
,,
I
217
ia
or is .
wt
(0)
130 ~30~
<e)
i..Do'l
1 T    ,
~I
. L I~
~06 01 ~ 01
ozl
21T
wI
30'
O r~'~~~~~w~t
(t)
.,
(t
[Art. 3.9]
99
during this interval is Vo = line voltage vab' Similarly, for interval 90 to 1500 , diodes
D1 and D2 conduct and Vo = line voltage Vac; for interval 150 to 210,.diodes D3 and D2 conduct
and Vo = line voltagevbc and so on . Output, or load, voltage waveform is drawn by a thick curve
in Fig. 3.40 (c).
Average value of load voltage, Vo
= peno
. 1d'lClty
. J~ vab . d
a
(cut)
OfVab
.. .(3.79 )
1t
1t
1t
j7t/3
(ii) For a cosine function cos cut, voltage pulse of 60 duration extends 30 to the left of
its peak and 30 to t he right of its peak.
. ..
3
_ Vo=
[16 Vmlcos(j)t
. 3V .
.d(cut)=~
1t ~6
...(3 .79)
1t
1t lt/3
~
=
[
.Bipple voltage,
Voltage r ipple factor,
V,
27t/3]1/2
;1 I rot  s:n: I .
3
2
cut
lt/ 3
 (
r  0.0408  0 042 7
 V
497C1.y O
VRF :
V  3 /1t  .
or....
o
rol
= 0.9558 Vml
Vml
...(3.80)
~ 0.0408 V
ml
Power Elec.tronics
[Art. 3.9]
100
=(~ 1V
P d<= V,I.
Pac = Yo,.
'
ml : Iml
(6.9558) V ml .Iml
Vor =
",
=, (3)21
' "1t x .O.9558 =0.9982 or 99.82%
Rectifier efficiency
'
it = {:3v
'R
the waveform of line current iu (or transformer secondary current is) that (0 periodicity of this
current is 1t rad. and (ii) this current has two pulses, each of 60 durati~n, for each periodicity
of 1t rad .
.. Rms
valu~
of line current
= rms
Is =
,
Transformer VA rating,
r2rr / 3
I  JI
I[ 1t
. 2
rr/ 3
]li2 = 0.7804
,, Imt
,
,
Vml '
=3Vs I s = 3 x ~
x 0.7804 I ml
'
..
TUF =
de
P
'
VAra~ingoftransformer
... (3.81)
",
' "
=(,2.) x 3 x fa
, =0.9541
0.7804
1t
is
2 ]27t13 '
.
I D =2
Im1.sm
1t
1t
rr/ 3
tJ(/ 3
rr/ 3
rotd(rot)
"
I~ll sin
lml
=
rot . d (rot)
'
.~ .(3~. 82)
7t
...(3.83)
"
A conducting diode has zero voltage drop across it. Let it be required to sketch in Fig. 3.40
If), the variation of voltage across diode D1 belonging to positive group in Fig. 3.39.
For de output voltage Vab' vae ; diode Dl conducts, therefore, ' voltage across diode D1 is "
zero, i.e. vDl = 0 from rot = 30 to 150 and this is shown in Fig. 3.40 (f). After rot :: 150,diode
D3 conducts for 120 0 with output voltage vbc' Vba ' Now cathode of Dl gets conriected to supply
terminal b through conducting diode D3 for a period of 120 0 , whereas its anode is already
connected to supply terminal 'a'. Therefore, voltage across D1 from wt = 150 to 270.0 is ,
9
v Dl = va  V b as per KVL CVm  Va + Vb = 0). This voltage Vab during interval of rot ,= 150 to
270 reverse bia es diode D1 and therefore, voltage Vab is shown bel'ow the reference line in
Fig. 3,40 (f> . Examin ation of Fig. 3 40 (c) reveals that waveform Vba from rot = 150 6 to '270 ,
when reversed, becom es v ab in Fig. 3.40 (f>.
/
After wt = 270, diode D5 conducts for 120 0 an d now voltage VDl = Vac from wt = 270 to
390 This voltage is sh own as v ac and as a reverse bias across diode D'1, so vae is sk etched
below the re f~.ren ce line in Fig, 3.40 (f>. As before, voltage wa veform 'vcu from rot = 27 0'0 to
390 0 in Fig, 3.40 (c), when reversed, becomes Vae in Fig. 3.40 (f; ,
0
Fig. 3.40 (() revesals th a t PIV fo di ode D1, or any other diod e, is {:3 Vmp =
value of lin e vol tage .
Vml
= m aximum
10J .
[Art. 3.9]
voltages Vcd" Vue' Vbc ' Vba,Vca ' V cb ' Phasor diagram of
0
V~ by 30 ; this matches with the waveforms in Fig. 3.40
(c)
Fig. 3.42 show~ th e circuit diagram for a 3phase twelvepulse rectifier using a total of
twelve diodes. A 3phase transformer with two secondaries and on e deltaconnected primary
.feeds the diode rectifier circuit. One secondary winding is connected in star and the other is
in delta. Starconnected secondary feeds the upper 3phase diode bridge rectifier 1, whereas
the deltaconnected secondary is connected to lower 3phase diode bridge rectifier 2. Each
bridge rectifier uses six diodes as shown. The two bridges are series connected so that net
output, or load, voltage va = output voltage of upper rectifier, VOl + output voltage of lower
r~ctifier V02'
~,.
110 I
Aoe....
L
110
0.
\)02
80 

lQ2
Power Electronic
[Art. 3.9]
If Val, V bl , Vel are phase for the upper star, then upper line voltage Vabl (= Val  V bl ) would
lead Val by 30 0 as i~ a threephase bridge rectifier Of Fig 3.39. Similarly, line voltages
V bel' Veal would lead by 30 0 their corresponding phase voltages V bl and Vel respectively. In Fig.
3.43 (b) are shown all the six line voltages Vab l ' V acl ' V bcl ' Vbal, Veal , Vebl for the upper
starconnected secondary.
_Vertical
(cY'
(b)
(a)
:Vertica I
Fig. 3.43. Voltage phasor diagram for (a) primary line voltages (b) line voltages
Phase voltage V a l of upper star must be in phase with primary line, or phase, voltage
as per the tran sfor mer principle. Likewise, line, or phase, voltage Vab2 of the
deltaconnected secondary must be in phase with VAl' All the secondary line voltages
V ab2 , V ~2' V bc2 ' V baZ , V ea2 , Veb2 for the deltaconnected secondary are shown in Fig. 3.43 (e). The
line voltages V abl for upper rectifier and V ab2 for lower rectifier are phase~displaced by 30
with Vab1leading Vab2 by 30 0 In case input line voltages to upper rectifier 1 and lower rectifier
2 are superimposed ; line voltages Vabl' Vab2' V acl ' Vac2 etc would be obtained; these line voltages
would be phasedisplaced from each other by 30 0
VAl
In Fig. 3.44 (a) are sketched waveforms for voltages available across upperstarconnected
seconda~y.
UOl
(b); this is identical to the output voltage waveform of3phase B6 rectifier of Fig. 3.39. Lower
r ectifier 2 also gives sixpulse de output voltage V02 as shown in Fig. 3.44 (e). As V ab2 lags
0
. V abl by 30 , peak of vab2 of v 02 is also shown lagging p eak of vabl of VOl' Since the two rectifiers
are seriesconnected, net output, or load, voltage Vo = UOI + v 02 is obtained by adding the
corresponding ordin ates of VOl .a nd v02' Note th at waveforms of VOl and V02 are phaseshifted
from each other by 300 , therefo e, waveform of output voltage Vo consists of twelve pulses per
cycle of supply voltage.
Peak value of output voltage, Uo =V ml cos
where
V ml
50
= m aximum
For the sake 0 convenience, let the p eak val ue of t welvepuls e output voltage Vo be den oted
by Vp (= 1.932 Vmi)' P eriodicity of Vo is 300 = 11:/6 radians .
103
[Art. 3.9]
(a)
wI
(c)
O~
__
____
________L _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
 ~
_ __ _ _ _ _ _~
wI
2
,/
,
"
(d)
J
+
.J /
I~
"
,'
.
"
10
12
I'~
,
I
I"
'
:
I
'\,
yp = l ,~32Vmi\
.: :
1.866 Vmi
\
'\
,f
\\
[:~75.~T~3~~~~~
:
~.~I~n~~~2~rr~1
90
'1
90
Fig. 3.4.,1, Waveforms for (a ) voltages across stareonnected secondary (b) sixpulss output
voltage vO l from upper bridge 1 (c ) sixpulse output voltage v02 from lower bridge 2 and
,
(d) resultant twelvepulse output voltage Va obtained from ~01 + V02'
6
:. Average value of output voltage, Vo =
fIOS.
"
1t ,75
'
volt age,
VOl' =
... (3. ,8 3)
R ipple voltage,
Voltage ripple factor,
,x
m!
'
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.9]
104
FF =
Form' factor,
~: = \~~~1 = 1.00005
As voltage ripple factor is sufficiently small, the output voltage from 12pulse rectifier is
almost pure de voltage.
'
.
A comparison of various 3phase diode rectifiers discussed above is given in the table below:
[VI
I = maximum
value of line voltage = ..J3 V mp where V mp = maximum value of line to neutral,
n ,
. or phase, voltage].
I S.No.
1.
Parameters
DC output voltage, Vo
2.
6pulse rectifier
B6 type
12pulse
rectifier
3 ..f3vntp
3 Vml
or
re
re .
1.91 V ml
6pulse rectifier
M6 type
3pulse
rectifier
3Vml
3 V mp
2re
re
or
..J3vml
re
'1
1.9101 V ntl
0.4854 V ml
0.55185 V ml
0.9558 V ml
0.0872 Vml
0.02356 Vml
0.0408 Vml
4.
0.1826 or
18.26%
0.043 or 4.3%
0.0427 or 4.27%
5.
Rectifier efficiency, 11
96.765%
99.82%
99.82%
6.
TUF
0.6644
0.551
0.9541
7.
PIV
V ml
1.155 V ml
V ntl
8.
Form factor, FF
1.0165
1.0009
1.0009
~.
1
0.019545 V ntl .
0.01023 or
1.023%
1.00005
.r:
3~pha~e
Vml
=. 4003x 7t = 418.88 V
ml
'l2Vx Ts = 418.88
T6 = 171 .OV
M aXlm
' um va 1u e 0 fl oa d current, 1m = R
V ml = 418.88
10 = 41.89 A
I Dr
= [ 22
7t
r:/ 3
] 1/2
[Art. 3.9]
= [ I!
21t
(~+
v3) ]112 = 0 55181
3
2
.
105
1t 1t/ 3
1t
1t
.
.
400
Check .'
Pd,
:. Transformer rating
16000
Solution.
(a)
Here
Vml
7t
But
Vo =E +laR
.
Vo  E
:. Average value of battery chargIng current, 10 = R
= 310.568 
240
= 8.82 A
P d = Elo + l!r. R
all
or
.
a l
210
5 11:/6
1t2 f 1t/6
10 cos wt. d (rot) = 1t [sin 150
2
n
hI = 
f5/t/6
/6
It
210
10 sm rot. d (rot) =
7t
sin 30] = 0
0

[ cos 150
+ cos 30]
2..[3 I0 '
= ;sm rot an d !PI =tan
1[
0
~
1= 0
2v3
=10
1t
106
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.10]
(e)
.
Rms value of fundamental component of source current, lsI
12 x21t
Rms value of source current, Is = .[ . ~ x 3
.
1/ 2
lsI
=1; =
2{3 X 10
1t.
"12
2{3 10
=;t x T2
1f.
3" .
'.
'.
10
{3
x {2. 10
= n= 0.955
=THD =[(::1]'
=[ ( 0.0~55 )2
1
=0.3106
:;;F
20~:;4114 = 2876.92 VA
3.10. FILTERS
1+
Rectifi er
Vo
,,
I'
1+
Vo
Re ctifier
,
I
Filt er
Filter
(a)
( b)
1+
Rec tifier
Re ctifier
1)0
JFi lter
(c)
.,
Fi lter
I;
(d )
VO
Diode
Cj r~u its
[Art. 3.10]
and Rectifiers
107
The non~sinusoidal output current in rectifier circuit causes the supply line current to
contain harmonics. For reducing these harmonics in the supply current, ae filters are used at
the output terminals of rectifier circuits. Fig. 3.45 (d) shows an ac filter of LC type.
An inductor L in series with load R, Fig. 3.45 (a), reduces the ae component, or ae ripples,
considerably. It is because L in series with R offers high impedance to ae component but very
low resistance to de. Thus ac component gets attenuated considerably. A capacitor C across load
R, Fig. 3.45 (b), offers direct short circuit toae component, these are therefore not allowed to
reach the load. However, de gets stored in the form of energy in C and this allows the
maintenance of almost constant de output voltage across the load.
In this article, a simple design of L, C and LC type de filters is presented.
D2
.'.
As
In Fig, 3.47 (e) is drawn the profile of ripple voltage with the help of Fig. 3.47 (b) , A
horizon tal line at a h eight ~ (Vm + V 2 ), from r eference lin e wt in Fig. 3.47 (6) is now taken as the
r eference llne in F ig. 3 .47 (c) fo plotting voltage pr ofil e U r AB st ated before, peak to peak r ipple
vo tage is V rpp
= Vm 
V2
V rp ::::
%(Vm 
V 2)
108
[Art. 3.10]
Vs
=Vm sin wI
wI. '
,5u/2
(a)
Vo
Uo=uc
A
wt
0'
9.+t,
wCV~cos
0~~~oL~L~~1~2~rrrTLw~t
(d)
Capacitor disch,arging
't
'
:!
:
I
"0
I
(e)~:
: :l!
j
iI
I
I
I
! v'2
O
R.,..
L
N
ILP
'
71/2
.
'
I .
iI I
: :!
,
.,
311/2
'
'
!
I
571/2
277
JIl
wI
~ig. 3.47. Waveforms for (a) source voltage (b) load voltage with arid without filter
(c) ripple voltage (d) capacitor current and (e) load current for the circuit of Fig. 3.46.
...
~' .
Charging of Capacitor. From rot ,= e to 1t/2, capacitor charges from V 2 to V m . The equivalent
circuit for capacitor charging of Fig. 3.48 (b) gives the charging cunent ic as under :
ic
.
C dt (Vm sm oot)
=w C Vm cos IDt
CV!..
(3
=0,
but
.. . .85
Dc
)'
gives
~ fi
dt+Ri= 0
(c )
for capacitor
vsbcL
to .
tc
C
wt
01
02
~I
us~
Lo
'fc
'f'
wI
0
fa)
109
[Art. 3.10]
1+
Vm
Va
J(c)
(b)
In this equation, time origin is taken at rot = 1t/2. Laplace transform..of this equation is
l.[I(Sl_ C'Vm]+R.I(S)::O
or
1(s) = ;
1
s+ RC
where't' =RC
tit
Load voltage.,
.....
~"
..
. .
 '. . : .,
....
. V,pp
Charging time
T
tl
=Vm 
Vm ( 1 
~~ ) = VR~'
negl~cted.
.
V,pp
Peak value of rIpple voltage, V rp = 2
As a result, t2
=; . But
~c
Vm
= 4 (RC
Variation of ripple voltage, Vr shown in Fig. 3.47 (c), is not a sine wave, therefore rms
va ue 0 V,. of r ipple voltage can be approximat ely found from the relation
... (3.86)
.
It is seen from the waveform ~ output voltage vo ' Fig. 3.47 (b), that variation of ripple
.voltage VI' shown in Fig. 3.47 (c) is almost triangular and average value Vo of output voltage
is us ually taken as
. Vo= maximum valu e of V mpe ak value of triangu~ ar ripple voltage
. = Vm 
V,.p = Vm  4
~C = V
=V m [
1 2
m [
1
4kc 1
kc 1
... (3 .87)
110
[Art. 3. 10]
ripple voltage, Vr
RF'=         
average output voltage , Va
'=
Vml
4~.fRCx V
,
[1 __
1_]=:T2l4' fR
4fRC
...(3.88)
Cl]
1]
...(3.89)
At cot
VC
'=
OA
0 , le '= OP = R=R
, At ' wt = 8, ic = 0' K
' O'BV
=R = R2;
"
discharges from wt = 0 to wt = 8.
During charging time t 1, ic (= w CVm cos rot) follows the cosine wave with peak value
wCV:m cos 8 at rot = 8 and ic '= 0 at wt = n/2.
Current ( is positive as the capacitor is getting charged. Soon after the maximum value of V m
at wt
"
'= 
I Lp where I Lp
= ;. At wt
'=
"
(n + 8),
Vc
decays to
Waveform of load current io in Fig. 3.47 (e) is identical with the waveform of va in Fig. 3.47
(b). At wt = 0, io
= ~A, at wt = 8, io =
i,
at .wt
= n/ 2, io = ;
and so on.
Eq. (3.86) shows that if C is increased, ripple voltage gets reduced,. But high value of C
increases the amplitude of charging current as per Eq. (3.85). A high charging current would
entail hig~er current rating of diodes. This leads to increased cost of the rectifierfilter circuit.
Thus, a compromise between the value ofC and the magnitude of ripple voltage must be made .
E xample 3.21. A 's inglepha se diode B 2 rectifier is fed from 2 30 V, 50 H z source ahd is
connected to a load of R '= 400 n.
(a) Design a
capacitor~filter
5%.
(b ) W ith the va lue of C obtained in part (a ) , determine t/.. ~ average value of output
voltage.
(c ) Dete rmine the average value of output voltage without C filter.
S olution . (a ) From E q. (3 .89), the value of capa citor C to limit the ripple factor RF to 5%
1S
l[
C = 4 fR
11 1 [
1 + '12. RF
1] ='
189.3 )IF.
111
[Art. 3.1 0J
(b) From Eq. (3 .87), average value Vo of 'the output voltage, with filterC, is
6
V o =Vm [1.L]=2
4 {Re ' 3 0''2[
'1L. 1 _ 4 x 50 x 10
400 x 189.3 ]=303745V
.
(c)
1t
1t
It is seen from this example that use of C filter has reduced the RF from 48.2%to 5% and
at the same time, average output voltage Vo has increased from 207.04 V to 303.754V.
Fig. 3.49 (a ) shows an in ductor filter L connected in series with RIoad in a Iphase
twopulse diode rectifier. Fig. 3.49 (b) shows the rectified voltage Vo and the load current i o ' It
. is seEm that inductor has a smoothing effect on the load current profile.
iOl
:Filter ....,
:,,
.,'
10
+
D1
is
, to
D3
Vo
Vs= Vmsinwt
D4
D2
(a )
F ig. 3.49. Singlephase diode bridge rectifi er (a ) circuit diagram and ( b ) waveforms for
load voltage, load current , diode Dl current and sour :" current.
Vo
2Vm . 4 Vm
, 4 Vm
. 4 Vm
=    3' cos 2 wt 15
cos 4wt 3'"' cos 6
1t
1t
. 1t
0 1t
wt
.. .(3.90)
112
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.10]
v = 2Vm
10=]i =nR"
','t
V0
2Vm
.Zn = ~R2 + (n
roL)2
2Vm
= ;if 
4Vm
4 Vm
3n ~R2 + (2roL)2 cos (2wt  92)  15n ~R2 + (4 roL)2 cos (4 wt  94)
where first, second and third terms of above current expression are dc, second~harmonic and
fourthharmonic components of i o' Rms value of harmoniccurrent components, or ripple
current,Ir is
J2 '
4 Vm
Ir= [ ( 3n'l2
R2+(2roL)2+
2
4V~J
= ' ( :;c;J2
4 Vm
15nT2
[1
J2
.' 
J1/2
. ]]
R2+(4WL)2+'~~ '
1 1.
J'
3 2 . R2 + (2 WL)2 + 15 2 ' R2 + (4 roL)2 + .. '
,.. (3 ,91)
Secondharmonic component seems to be the most dominant component of I,,, Therefore, ' .
neglecting higherorder even harmonics, we get rms value of ripple current,
1 1 _ 4 Vm
r  2  3 n fi 'iR2 + (2 roL)2
4 Vm
re R
. 1r
: , 'Currentripple factor, CRF   x
 10  3'Jt '\[2"JR2 + (2 roL)2 2 Vm
... (3.91 a)
...
(3 92)
,
For good filtering, roL R. Thus, neglecting R in the denominator ofEq. (3.92), we get
.
. R
=0. 236 wL
R
CRF = 0.236 (2re X 50) L = 7.51
10
[A rt . 3.10]
113
resistance is low, ripple factor for Lfilter is low and pigh for Cfilter.
(b) In both Cfilter and Lfilter, time constant should be large for better waveform, i.e.
for low ripple factor, 't should be high.
.'
. '
. . . . .. ' ' .
.
(c ) For Cfilter, if R is increased, 't (= RC) increases, and therefore, ripple factor gets
reduced . .
.
.
Cd) For Lfilter, if R is lowered, 't (= LIR) increases, therefore ripple factor becomes low.
This shows. that Cfilteris suitable for loads having low curr ent (highload resis,:
tance) consistently. Dfilter is suited for loads requiring high load current (low R)
consistently. .
.' .
".
'.
'
.
(e) A high value of C reduces ripple factor but increases the chargingcurrEmt and the
diodecurrent rating. . '
. .
..
.
. .'
(f) Ahigh value of L reduces the ripple 'factor, but .a delay is introduced in the response .
.
'
Inductor filter is bulky, weighty, expensive and causes extra ohmic loss as compared to
Cfilter. Besides, Lfilt er is noisy in nature. .
.
Example 3.22.A singlephase twop1..J,lse diode rectifier has input supply of230 V, 50 Hz and
the load resistance R = 300 n.Calculate the value of inductance to bf!.connected in series with R
so as to limit the current ripple factor to 5%. Find the value of L in case R = 30 O. Determine also
without L .
the value of CRF
.
.
.
Solution. From Eq. (3.92), current ripple factor (CRF) with L is .
0.05 =0.4715
[3002 + (2
L = 4.4755 H .
For R = 3000,
For R
= 300,
0.05 = 0.471<>
.1
' .
300
21t x 50
L)2] 112
30
'130 + (2 x 21t x 50 x L )
.' L = 0.4477 H
CRF without filter L can be obtainedby putting L = 0 in Eq. (3.92). This gives CRF = 0.4715
without L .
'
.
' .
3.10.3. L C Filter
An L~C filter consists of inductor L in series with the load and capacitor C across the load.
This filter possess es the advantages of both Lfilter and Cfilter. In addition, ripple factor in
LC filter has lower value than that obt ained by either Lfilter or Cfilter for the same values
ofL and C.
'
Fig. 3.50 (a) show the use of L C filt er for reducing th e ripple from the output voltage of a
singlephase fu llwave di ode rectifier. Its equivalent circuitis g1venin Fig. 3.50 (b). The
inductor L blocks th e dominant harmonics. Capacitor C provides ,aneasy p ath to t h e nth
harmonic ripple currents .
In order t h a t capacit or yields an easy path for harmonics, load impedfu'1ce R must be much '
greater than nth h armonic capacitive reactance; i.e. R
that capacit or provides effe ctive filtering if
Power Electronics
[Art. 3.10]
114
01
1+
03
von
Vn
Vnl
rY'j .
wt
04
J l
02
(a)
Fig. 3.50.
(a)
1)on
( b)
R=~
...(3.93 a)
n roC
2
.fR
v + ( nro L L )2 = .. 10r'l
...(3 .93 b) .
UJ\.., . .
Under the condition ofEq. (3.93), effect ofloadR, or Rand LL' can be ignored during further
analysis. Therefore, nth harmonic current in Fig. 3.50 is
I" =
vn
nroL
nroC
where V" = rmsvalue of nth harmonic of rectifier output voltage.
Thus, nth harmonic component ofload voltage VOrl across filter C in Fig. 3.50 (b) is
Vo" =
v,
...(3.94)
=[
,~" ]112
... (3.95)
n = 2,4,6,
The Fourier series analysis of output voltage of Iphase fullwav e rectifier is given in Eq.
(3.90). The average value of output voltage Vo = 2Vm/1t. It is seen fromEq. (3.90) that second
harm onic is the most dominant component. Therefore, other harmonic components can be
neglected.
4 Vm
. V 2 = 31t . T2
From Eq. (3 .94) for n =2, ripple voltage is
V  V02 
r
rL (2ro)2LC1  1 ]1/2
...(3 .96)
115
[Prob . 3]
C=~
...(3.91a)
2CJJR
C
or
 2m ~R2
10
... (3 .97b)
+ (2m LL)2
Vr
V2
VRF = Vo = Vo . (200)2 L C _ 1 =
= f2 [
3
(200) LC 1
4 Vm )
3 1t . "l2
1t)
2Vm
x (200)2 LC  1
. . (3.98)
Once filter C is obtained from Eq. (3.97), the value of filter inductor L can be calculated
from Eq. (3.98) for a specified value of VRF.
Example 3.23. A singlephase twopulse diode rectifier has input supply of 230 V, 50 Hz.
and a load resistance R =50 n and load inductance LL = 10 mHo An LC filter is to 'be used on
the output side so as to reduce the output voltage ripple to 10%. Design the LC filter.
Sol u t ion. From Eq. (3.97 b), the value of filter capacitor Cis
10
or
(2001t)2 x 315.83 xL
or
PROBLEMS
;"
O~. = {2
[
1
1
3' (2001t)2.Lx315.83x 10 6 1
=~ x 0\ + 1
'.
.
Vo volts and (b)  Vo volts.
',"
3.1. Capacitor in the circuit of Fig. 3.2 (a) is initially charged with (a)
For both these parts, determine the expressions for current in the circuit and voltage across
[ Ans.
(a)
VsVo tiRe
tiRe V
R
e
. ' Vo+(VsVo)(le
), s
(b ) Va ; Vo
3.2. A diod e is connected in series with LC circuit. If this circuit is switched on to de source of
voltage Vs at t = 0, derive expressions for current thr ough and voltage across capacitor. The
capa citor is initially charged to a voltage of  Vo. Sketch waveforms for i, Ve, vL and uD'
In case this circuit has Vs = 230 V, Vo =50 V, L =.0.2 mR and C = 10 IlF, detennine the diode
V,  280 V]
116
Power Electronics
[Prob.3J
3.3.
the circuit shown in Fig. 3.4 (a), the circuit is initi ally rel axed. If switch S is closed
at t = 0, sketch the variations of i, uL, Ue and uD as a function of time. Derive the expres
sions describing these functions .
(b ) For part (a), Vs = 220 V, L = 4 mH , C = 5 IlF. Find the diode conduction time and peak
diode c urrent. Determine also ue, uLand uD after diode stops conducting.
fAns. (b) 0.444 ms, 7.778 A, 440 V, 0,  220 V1
(a) For
3.4. For the circuit shown in Fig. 3.5 (a) ; Vo = 230 V, R = 25 nand C = 10 IlF. If switch S is closed
at t = 0, determine expressions for the current in the circuit and voltage across capacitor C.
Find the peak value of diode current and energy lost in the circuit.
switch .
[Ans i(t) = 22  2 e lOOOtJ
tOll.
VS =220V
FD
3.S. (a) Describe how the energy trapped in an inductor
tOmH
can be recovered and returned to the source .
(b ) A 230 V, 1 kW heater, fed through singlephase
3.7. (a ) In the circuit shown in Fig. 3.52, a PMMC ammeter is placed in series with diode and a
PMMC volt meter across the diode . Take PMMC instruments ideal. Find the readings on
t hese instrument s . Derive the expressions used for obtaining thes e readings.
(b) If PMMC ammeter is replaced by MI ammeter, find its reading.
PM iVlC
[Ans. (a ) 10.352 A, 0 V (b ) 12 .6812 A]
,( V }      ,
D
O.lH
230V,
50 Hz
l,UF
PMMC
r7 'f/
3.8. (a ) In the circuit of Fig. 3.53, ideal PMMC voltmeters are placed, one across capacitor and
an other across diode as shown. Find the voltmeter readings . Obtain the expresoions used
for det ermining these readings.
(0) In case PMM C voltmeter 2 is repla ced by MI voltmeter, find its reading.
[Ans. (a) 325.22 V, 325 .22 V (0 ) 398.3 94 V]
Dra\v waveform of vo ltage acr oss diode and find its P lV.
t e
.  1 ,pi x 30 et c.
I n . 1 = sm
[H'
[Ans.
2~
[Prob. 3]
117
3 .10. (a) A singlephase halfwave uncontrolled rectifier is connected to RL load. Derive an expres
sion for the load current in terms of Vm' Z, ro etc.
(b) For part (a), Vs == 230 V at 50 Hz, R = 10 n, L = 5 mH, extinction angle = 210. Find
v"3,11.
(a) A
singlephase halfwave diode rectifier feeds power to (i) RL load and (ii) RL load with
freewheeling diode across it. Describe the working of this rectifier for both these parts
with relevant waveforms and bring out the differences if any. Hence point out the effect
of using a freewheeling diode.
(b) For part (a), Vs = 230 V at 50 Hz, R = 20 n, L = 1 H. Find the average values of the output
voltage and output current with and without the use of a flywheeling diode.
[Ans. (b) With freewheeli.n g diode : Vo = 103.52V and 10 = 5.176 A
Q o'f"" .. 3.12.
p not known, so
circuit shown in Fig. 3.54, the output current io is considered constant at 10 because
of large L. Sketch the waveforms of vs , io, va, iD' ifd , and is'
For the above circuit, find
(i) average values of output voltage and output current,
(ii) average and rms values of freewheeling diode current,
(iii) supply pf.
[Ans. (b) (i) 103.52 V, 26.76 A (ii) 13.38 A, 18.925 A (iii) 0.6364Iag]
(b)
to
1s
io
+
RI
2n
230 V.
50 Hz
FD
Vo
i fd
Vs
V:0
10
SOV
3.13. For the circuit shown in Fig. 3.55, Vs = 160 V, V z = 40 V and zener dio.de current varies from
4 to 40 rnA. Find the minimum and maximum values of Rl so as to all~w voltage regulation
for output current 10 = zero to its maximum value 10m , Also calculate 10m ,
[Ans. 3k n, 30k a, 36 mAl

/3.14 . (a) Enumerate the input perfo rmance par ameters of a rectifier. Discuss how the performance
of a rectifier circuit is influenced in case these parameters have low, or high, value.
(b) Define input power factor, displacement factor DF and current dist ortion factor CDF for
/.....a rectifier system an d show that input power factor = CDF x DF.
3.15. (a ) Defin e input current har monic factor (HF) and crest factor . Express (HF) in terms of
_ /"current distortion factor.~f HF is more, what does it i rucate in a rectifier system .
(b) Define t he following terms :
Rectification ratio, T' pple volta ge, form factor, voltage ripple factor, current ripple fa ctor
,/
and tran sformer utilization factor.
3. 6. F or a singlephase halfwave diode rectifier feeding a res 'stive load R, fmd the values of
recti 1e efficiency, form factor, voltage ripple factor, transformer utilization factor and crest
fa ctor.
/
3. 7. A sin glephase halfwave d'ode r ectifier is de igned to supply de outp ut voltage of 23 0 V to a
load of R = 10 n. Calcula te the ratings of di ode and transfonner for this circuit arra gem ent .
[ADs. I DAV =23 A, ID; =36.1 3 A, PN = 722. 6 V, Trans. rating = 18 .462 kV,\ ]
118
[Prob.3]
3.18. A singlephase fullwave midpoint diode rectifier feeds resistive load R. For this circuit, .
determine rectifier efficiency, form factor, voltage ripple factor, transformer utilization fac tor
and crest factor.
D\,f;,4 , How does this 'rectifier circuit differ from singlephase fullwave bridge rectifier?
V t..3. 1 ~ (a) Why are threephase rectifiers preferred over singlephase rectifiers?
(b) For a 3phase halfwave diode rectifier feeding load R, obtain the following:
,
Average output voltage, rms output voltage, VRF, FF, TUF andPIV
3.20. Describe the evolution of threephase sixpulse diode rectifier from 3phase threepulse diode
rectifiers with appropriate circuits and waveforms. Hence, derive an expression for the
average output voltage of 3phase sixpulse diode rectifier.
3.21. Describe a 3phase M6 diode rectifier with a circuit diagram and relevant waveforms for
resistive load R.
Hence, derive expressions for average and rms values of output voltage and obtain therefrom
. V o f" VRF, FF, rectifier efficiency and TUF.
, 3.22. A3phase midpoint 6pulse di.ode rectifier feeds a load of 10 n at a de voltage of 400 V. Find
the ratings of diodes and the threephase transformer.
[Ans. IDAV=: 6.667 A, IDr =: 16.337 A, PIV =: 837.76 V, Trans. rating=29.038 kVA]
/
..
..........
Describe a 3phase fullwave diodebridge rectifier with a circuit diagram and relevant
Hence, derive expressions for average and rms values of output voltage and obtain there from
3.24. A 3phase fullwave diode rectifier feeds a load requiring constant current 10 and is supplied
from a 3ph ase deltastar transformer.
(a ) Sketch input volta ge waveforms for Vab, v~, vbc etc., taking vab zero and becoming positive
at rot =: O.
(b ) Sketch waveforms for currents for the three diodes of positive group a'nd phase current
of the t ransformer secondary.
(c ) l<"'r om th e wave orm of secondary phase current , determine current distor~ion factor CDF
and THD.
[Hint. Here al
=: 
1t
3.25. A 3phase fullwave diode rectifier delivers power to an inductive load which takes ripplefree
. current of 120 A. The source voltage is 3phase, 400 V, 50 V, 50 Hz. Determine the ratings of
diodes, power delivered to load and the rms value of source current.
[Ans. 1DAV = 40 A, 1Dr = 69.284 A, PIV = 565.6 V, 64813.2 W, 97.98 AJ
3.26. Describe a threephase 12"pulse diode rectifier with circuit diagram and appropri ate
waveforms. Hence derive expressions for average and rms values of output voltage. Fro m
0\ these, obtain VRF and FF.
3.27. (a ) 'Wh at ar e the advantages of 3ph ase bri dge rect ifier over 3phase M6 rectifier.
(b ) For a 3ph ase ppulse diode rectifier, prove the following:
Av era ge output voltage,
Vo
= V mp ' E. sin ~
1t
mp
[.E..
(~+ 1. sin 21t )11/2
21t p 2 . P
I
3.28. (a) W ha t ar the fu nctions offilt ers in rectifier circuits ? Distinguish between de and ac filters .
( q ) Explain how the in ductance Land capaci tan e C pI y th eir rol e in r educing the harmonic
. contents in r ectifi er circuits.
[Pr ob. 3]
119
3.29. A singlephase fullwa ve diode rectifier feeds R with 3. .capacitor C directly connected across
load. Describe the opera tion of C as a filter with relev'~mt voltage and current waveforms .
Show that peak ripple voltage is
~ (Vm  V 2).
3.30. A singlephase twopulse diode rectifier feeds Rand C in parallel. Explain charging and
discharging of capacitor C and derive expressions for ripple factor and the value of filter
capacitor C.
3.31. A singlephase diode bridge rectifier is fed at 230 V, 50 Hz. The load is R = 200 n shunted by
a capacitance of 300 IlF . Neglecting all losses, detennine the average value of load voltage,
VRF, maximum and minimum value ofload current, peak capacitor current and average load
[Ans. 298.12 V, 0.0589, Imax = 1.6261A, Imin = 1.3551 A, 30.651 A 1.4911 AJ
current.
3.32. A singlephase twopulse diode rectifier feeds load R with an. inductor L in series with it.
Describe the working of L as filter with relevant voltage and current wavefonns. Derive
expression for current ripple factor and show that for 50 Hz supply, CRF = 7.51 x 10 4.
~.
3.33. A singlephase fullwave diode rect ifier has mean output vo.ltage of 200 V and the load
resistance is 400 n. Determine the inductance required to limit the amplitude of secondhar
[Ans. L = 3.48 Hl
monic current in the load to 0.06 A.
3.34. A singlephase fullwave diode rectifier with LC filter feeds load R. Describe its working and
derive expressions from which the parameters of LC filter can be obtained.
3.35. (a) Compare Cfilter with Lfilter. In what tyPe of applications are the two types usually
preferred?
(b) A singlephase twopulse diode rectifier is fed from 230 V. The load is R = 200 n. Design
an LC filter so as to get voltage ripple factor of5.89%. Find the rms value of ripple voltage.
[Ans. C = 79.58 IlF, L = 0.28654 H, 12.195 V]
FOUR
Thyristors
.. _. ... ... . .. ......... ... ............ _ .................. .. ... ....... ....... ... .... ..... ,
In this, ::hapte r
Term ina l C h aracteristics at Thyristors
Thyristor Turnon Methods
...... .......................... __ ................................................ ................ As stated before, Bell Laboratories were the first to fabricate a siliconbased semiconductor
device called thyristor. Its first prototype was introduced by GEe (USA) in 1957. This company
did a great deal of pioneering work about the utility of thyristors in industrial applications.
Later on, many other devices having characteristics similar to that of a thyristor were
developed .. These semic~mductor devices, with their characteristics identical with that of a
thyristor, are triac, diac, siliconcontrolled switch, programmable unijunction transistor (PUT),
GTO , RCT etc. This whole family of semiconductor devices is given the name thyristor. Thus
the term thyristor denotes a family of semiconductor devices used for power control in dc and
ac systems. One oldest member of this thyristor family, called silicon controlled r ectifier (SCR),
is the most widely used device. At present, the use of SCR is so vast that over the years , the
word thyristor h a.s become synonymous with SCR. It appears that th e term thyristor is now
becoming more common than the actual term SCR. In this book, the term SCR and thyristor
have been used at r andom for the same device SCR. Other members of thyristor fam ily are also
discussed in this chapter.
A thyristor bas characteris tics similar to a thyratron tube. But fro m the construction vi:w
poin t, a thyris to r (a pnpn device) belongs to transistor (p np or n.pn device) fam ily. The name
'thyristor ', is der ived by a combination of the capi tal letters fr om THYRa.tr on and trans ISTOR
This mea.TJ.S that thyristor is a solid state device like a transist or and has charFlcteristics s im ilar
to that of a thjTatron tube. The pr esen tday r eader may not be fa miliar with thyratr on tube as
this is not being taught these days. Actually, the n:lme 'thyri stor ' ca me in to exis~ence afte r a
Thyristors
[Ar t.
~. l l
121
(ii)
4.1.
TER~llNAL
CIWL\CTERISTICS OF THYRISTORS

Thrl!odli!
stud
Anode
(Aluminium )
Anode
1 ,I1 J,
1IIjJ,
Gai,
Galt terminal
weJdtd to p
r tgion
Ca ll'lodo:
Fig. 4. 1.
Col ho(J~
W
~I
(0) Con3tn.:ctional d ':ili!.s (b, Sch~matic diagrum
and
(e)
circut t symbol of a
thy :iSt8r.
122
Power EJectronics
[Art. 4.1J
An SCR is so called because silicon is used for its construction and its operation as a rectifier
(very low resistance in the forward conduction and very high resistan ce in the r everse direction)
can be controlled. Like the diode, an SCR is an unidirectional device that blocks the current flow
from cathode to anode. Unlike the diode, a thyristor also blocks the current fl ow from anode to
cathode until it is triggered into conduction by a proper gate signal between gate and cathode
term inals.
Fig. 4.2 (b) shows static I V characteristics of a thyristor. Here,vo is the anode voltage
across thyris tor terminals A , K and 10 is the anode current. Typical SCR JV characteristic
shown in Fig. 4.2 (b) reveals that a thyristor has three basic modes of operation; namely,
reverse blocking mode, forward blocking (offstate ) mode and forward conduction (onstate)
mode. These three modes of operation are now discussed below :
Reverse Blocking Mode. When cathode is made positive with r espect to anode with
switch S open, Fig. 4.2 (a ), thyristor is reverse biased as shown in Fig. 4.3 (a). J unctions J 1, J 3
are seen to be reverse biased whereas junction J 2 is forward biased. The device behaves as if
two diodes are connected in series with reverse voltage applied across them. A s mall leakage
current of the order of a few milliampe res (or a few microamperes depending upon the SCR
r ating) flows. This is reverse blocking mode, called the offstate, of the thyristor. In Fig. 4.2 (b),
reverse blocking mode is shown by OP. If the r everse voltage is increased, then at a critical
+10
K
Forward conduction mode
(on stote )
1ElO~A~DUr
A
Reverse !E.'C~oc;e
\:urr ent
v,
. '>
,.......
RevE'r;i.' blocking
modE'
>
~)
Forward Iec.lIcge
currml
For .....ord
bloc~in9 mode
~)
Fig. 4.2. (e) Elementary circuit for obtrtining thyristor IY characteristics
(b ) S~atic IY charac:eristics of!l thyristor.
[Art. 4.2]
Thyristors
123
"!.
Forward B locking Mod e: When anode is positive with r espect to the cath ode, with gate
circuit open, thyristor is said t o be forward biased as shown in Fig. 4.3 (b). It is seen from this
figure that junctions J h J 3 are forward biased but junction J 2 is reverse biased. In this mode,
a s mall current, called forward leakage current, flows as shown in Figs. 4.2 (b) and 4.3 (b ). In
Fig. 4.2 (b) , OM represents the fonvard blocking mode ofSe R. As the fonvard leakage curren!
is small, SCR otTers a high impedance. Therefore, a thyristor can be. treated as an open switch
even in the forward blocking mode.
"
F orward Conduction mode. 'When anode to cathode iorward voltage is increased with
gate circuit opep, reverse biased junction J 2 will h ave an avalanche breakdown at a voltage
called fOl'ward breakover voltage VBO ' After this breakdown, thyristor gets turned on with
point }.If at once shifting to N and then to a point anywhere between N and K. Her e NK
represents the forward conduction mode. A thyristor can be brought from forward blocking
mode to fo rw'ard conduction mode by turning it on by applying (i) a positive gate pulse between
gate and cathode or (ii) a forward breakover voltage across anode and cathode.
Forward conduction mode NK shows that voltage drop across thyristor is of the order of
1 to 2 V depending upon the rating of SCR. It may also be seen from N K that voltage drop
across SCR increases slightly with an increase in anode current. In conducti on mode, anode
current is limited by load im pedance alone as voltage drop across SCR is quite small. This
small voltage drop VT across the device is due to ohmic drop in the four layers, In forward
conduction mode, thyristor is treated as a cl osed switch.
., , . .. .
'"
With anode positi',e with r espect to cat.hode, a thyris tor can be turned on by anyone of the
follow ing techniques: (a) Forward voltage trigging (b) gate triggering (c) du / dt triggering (d)
t emper ature triggering and (eo ) light trigg=ring,
[Art. 4.2J
Power Elt!ctronics
These methods of turningon a thyristor are now discussed one after the other.
Forward voltage triggering. When forward voltage is applied between anode and
cathode with gate circuit open, junction J 2 is reverse bianed. As a result, depletion layer is
form ed across junction J 2 . The width ofthis layer decreases with an increase in anodecathode
volta.ge. If forward voltage across anodecathod e is gradually increased, a stage comes when
the depletion layer acr oss J 2 vanishes. At this moment, reverse biased junction J 2 is said to
have avalanch e breakdown and the voltage at which it occurs is called forward breakolJer
voltage VaG The name forward breakover voltage is given because at this voltage VBo iu
characteristic breaks over and shifts to its onstate position wi th breakover current IBO' At
this voltage, thyristor changes from offstate (high voltage with low leakage current) to onstate
characterised by low voltage across thyristor with large forward current. As other junctions
J t J 3 ar e already fOT'Hard biased, breakdown of junction J 2 allows free movement of carriers
across three junctions and as a result, large forward anodecurrent flows. As stated before,
thi s forward current is limited by the load impedance. In practice, the transition from offstate
to onstate obtained by exceeding V BO is never employed as it may destroy the device.
(a )
The magnitudes offorward breakover and reverse breakdown voltages are nearly the same
and both are temperatur e dependent. In practice, it is found~ that V BR is slightly more than
V BO' Therefore, forward breakover voltage is taken as the fin al voltage rating of the device
durin g the design of SCR applications.
After the avalanche breakdown, junction J 2 loses its reverse blocking capability. Therefore,
if the anode voltage is r educed below V BO SCR will continue conduction of the current. The
SCR can now be turned off only by r educing the anode current below a certain value called
holding current (defined later).
Gate Triggering. Turning on of thyristors by gate triggering is simple, reliable and
efficient, it is therefore the most usual method of firing the forward biased SCRs. A thyristor
with forward breakover voltage (say 800 V) higher than the normal working voltage (say 400
V) is chosen. This means that thyristor will remain in forw ard blocking state with normal
working voltage across anode and cathode and with gate open. However, when turnon of a
thyri stor is r equired , a positive gate voltage between gate and cathode is applied. With gate
current thus established, charges are injected into the inner p layer and voltage at which
forward breakover occur s is r educed. The forward voltage nt which the device switches to
onstate depends upon the magnitude of gate current. Higher the gate current, lower is the
forward breakover voltage.
(b)
When positive gate current is applied, gate p layer is flooded with electrons from the
cathode. This is because cathode n layer is heavily doped as compared to gate p layer. As the
thyristor is forward biased, some of these electrons reach junction J 2 As a result, width of
depletion layer near junction J'l, is reduced. This causes the junction J 2 to breakdown at an
applied voltage 10v/eT than the forward bre akover voltage VBo.lfmagnitude of gate current is
increased, more ele ctrons would reachjunctionJ'l" as a con sequence thyristor would get turned
on at a much lower forwar d applied voltage .
Fig. 4.4 (a ) snow3 that for gate current 1, = 0, fo rward breakover voltage is 1,/30' For gate
current lll' forward br eakover, or turnon voltage is VI which is less than VBO ' For 1,2 > 1,1'
forward breakdover voltage i3 further reduced to V2 < VI ' For 1,3 > 1z'2 1 the forward breakuver
voltage is VJ < V2 , Fig. 4.4 (0). Th e effect of gate current on the forward br eakover voltage of a
[M . 4.2J
Thyristors
Forward voltcgi/'
drop

\ 0'
"
I g]<Igl<lg'
VJ <
Forward leokcge
current
V2<V,
o
 I,
~)
101 102 10 3
Gat Currn t ~)
thyristor can also be illustrated by means of a curve as shown in Fig. 4.4 (b) . For I, < oa, forward
breakover voltage remains almost constant at VBO ' For gate currents 1,1,18'1 and 1,3' the
magnitudes of forward breakover voltages are ox = Vi' OJ = V2 and oz =V3 respectively as
sh own in Fig. 4.4 (a ) and (b). In Fig. 4.4 (a), th e curve marked I, =0 is actually for gate ::urrent
less than 00. In practice, the magnitude of gate current is more than the minimum gate current
required to turn on the SCR. Typical gate current magnitudes are of the order of 20 to 200 rnA.
Once the SCR is conducting a fofward current, reverse biased junction J 2 no longer exists.
As such, no gate current is required for the device to remain in onstate. Therefore, if the gate
current is r emoved, the conducti on of current from anode to cathode remains unaffected.
However, if gate current is reduced to zero before the rising anode current attains a value,
called the latching current, the thyristor will turnoff again. The gate pulse width should
therefore be judiciously chosen to ensure that anode current rises above the latching current.
Thus [atckin current may be deemed as the minimum value of anode current which it must
attmn uring turnon process to mam am con uc Ion w en gate signal is remove .
Once the thyristor is conducting, gate loses control. The thyristor can be turnedoff(or the
thyristor can be return ed to forward blocking state) only if the forward current falls below a
lowlevel current call ed the h olding current. ,!,hus h olding current may be defined as the
minimum value of anode current below which it must fall for turningoff the thyristor. The
Iitching current IS hIgher than the holding current. Note _that latching current is associated .
\V1th turnon prct:ess and holdin[..c urrent wi ~h turnoff process. It is usual t o take latching
current as two to three tImes the h oiding current tIl. In mdUstria::t applicatioos, holding current
(typically 10 rnA) is alm ost taken as zero.
(c )
two oute r junction J 1 JJ are fo rw ard biased, but inner junction J 2 is revers e biased. Thi5
revers e bias ed junction J,!, Fig. 4.3 (b), h as th e characteristics of a capacitor due to charges
exis tin g across the jLlOction. In other words, spacecharges exist in the depletion region nea r
junction J 2 and th~:efore junction J 1 ~e ha.ves like a capacitance. If forvard voltage is su ddenly
126
Power Electronics
[Art. 4.21
applied, a charging current th rough junction capacitance CJ may turn on the SCR. .AJrnost the
entir e suddenly applied forward voltage Vo appears acrcssjunction J 2 the char ging current ir:
is , ther efore, given by
. _ <!SI _ !
'e
_ dV.
dCj
dt  dt (Cj . Va)  CJ dt + V(l o dt
... (4.1 a )
dC
dt
is zero and current ie as
dVe
... (4.1 b)
'e= CjTt
Therefor e, if rate of rise of forward voltage dVa / dt is high, the ch arging current ic would
be more. This charging current plays the role of gate current and turns on the SCR even th ough
gate signal is zero. Note th at even if Va is small, it is the rate of change of Va that plays the
role of turningon the device.
(d ) Temperature Triggering (Thermal Trigge ring) . During forward blocking, most of
the applied voltage appears across revers e biased junction J 2. Thi s voltage across , J 2
associated with leakage current, would raise the temperature of this junction. With increase in
temperature, width of depletion layer decreases. This further leads to more leakage curr ent and
t herefore, more junction temperat ure . With the cumulative process, at. some high temperature
(within the safe limits), depl etion layer of r everse biased junction vanishes and the device gets
turned on .
(e) Light Triggering. For light.triggered SeRs, a recess (or niche) is made in the inner
player as shown in Fig. 4 .5 (a ). When this recess is irradiated , free charge carriers (pairs of
h oles and electrons ) are generated just lik e when gate signal is applied between gate and
cathode. The pulse of light of appropriate wavelength is guided by optical fibres for irradiation .
If the intensity of this light thrown on the t ecess exceeds a certain value, forwardbi ased SCR
is turned on . Such a thyristor is known as lightactivated SCR (LASCR).
LASCR may be triggered with a light sou r ce OT with a gate signal. Sometimes a
combination of both light source and gate signal is used to trigger an SCR. For this, the gate is
biased with voltage or current slightly less than that required to turn it on, now a beam oflight
directed at the inner player junction turns on the SCR. The ligh~ intensity required to turnon
the SCR depends upon the voltage bias given to the gate. Higher the voltage (or curren t) bias,
lower the li ght intensity required.
Light trigger ed thyristors have now been used in highvoltage dir ect current (HYDC)
transmission systems. In these several SCRs are connected in series parallel combination and
their lighttriggering h as the advantage of electrical isolation between power and control
circuits.
Example 4.1 . Discuss what would happer. if gate is made positiue with respect to cathode
during the reverse blocking of a thyristor.
S olution . Before answering t his question, it is worthwhile to know
in terna l details of a thyristor.
Fig. 4.5 (b) shows cross section of a conventional cen tr egate t hyri stor. In this figure ,
a pproxi mate doping densities in num ber per cubic centimeter are also indicated for all t he four
layers. For example, for PI layer, the doping den sity is 10 19 per cm 3 .
[Art. 4.3]
Thyristors
127
A node
A,
p
J,
n
Light 
,
,
10"cm1
P, (pot)
pp "
"
n,(n) 10" to 5x
l0"cml
JJ
r,10"cmn,
n,(n+)1
,
J,
J
10"cm 1
P1(p ot )
J
Cathode
(a)
Gote
(b)
Fig. 4.5. (0) Elementary LASeR (b) Structural details of conventional centregate thyristor.
For semiconductor devices, it should be kept in mind that
(i) junction with lightly doped layers (at least on one side of the junction) requires large
breakdown voltage,
(ii) junction with highly doped layers on both sides requires low breakdown voltage.
When thyristor is in forward blocking state, junctions J 1, J a are forward biased whereas
j unction J 2 is r everse biased. As layer n l is lightly doped around j unction )2' depletion r::egion
of junction J 2 extends mainly into n} layer. Therefore, n 1 layer is made to h ave larger width
to withstand the high voltage during forward blocking state.
For reverse voltage on the device; junctions J 1, J 3 are r~verse biased and J 2 is forward
biased. As layers P2, n2 across junction J 3 are heavily doped, J 3 h as low breakdown voltage.
Layer nl being lightly doped as compared to layer Pl,juDction J 1 has large break'down voltage.
As a consequence, during the reverse blocking of a thyristor, junction J 1 suppor ts most of the
r everse voltage. Even during blocking, the depletion r egion extends into tne nl layer. This
shows that width of layer nl absorbs most of the voltage during forward blocking mode and
also during the reverse blocking mode of a thyristor.
If positive gate voltage is applied between gate and cathode during the rever se blocking
of a thyristor, blocking property of junction JJ disappears as J 3 has low breakdown voltage.
As a result, reverse voltage appears across junction J l ' Positive charge carriers are now inj ected
into the n 1 layer of reverse biased junction J 1. This causes an increase in the reverse leakage
current . The flow of large leakage current associated with high reverse voltage results in
increased power loss across junction J 1 and heat thus generated may raise the junction
temperature above the allowable maximum and this may destroy th.~CR. Such an happening
can be avoided if no positive gate voltage is applied between gate and cathode during the
reverse blocking of SeR. Some manufacturers do specify the maximum positive voltage
(usually less than 0.25 V) that can exist between gate and cathode during the reverse blocking
of a thyristor.
128
fArt. lJI
have already be en examined. In this part of the section; switching , dynamic or transient ,
characteristics of thyristors are discussed.
During turnon and turnoff processes, a thyristor is subjected to different voltages across
it and different currents through it. The time variations of the volta ge across a thyristor and
the current through it during turnon and turnoff processes give the dynamic or switching
characteristics of a thyristor. Here, first switching characteristics during tumon are described
and then the switching characteri stics during tumoff.
The delay time can be decreased by applying high gate curren t and more fo rward voltage
.
between anode and cathode. The delay time is fraction of a microsecond.
A
P
J,
n
'%
.~
JJ
la)
(b )
Fig. 1.6. la ) Distribution of gate and anode currents durin g delay time
(b) Conducting area of cathode (i) during td (ii ) afte r tr (iii) after tp'
Thyristors
(ii)
[Art. Uj
129
Rise time t,.: The rise time t,. is the tim e taken by the anode cur rent to rise fr om 0.1
Ia to 0'.9 I a' The rise time is also defined as the time required for the forward bloc kin g offstate
voltage to fa ll from 0 .9 to 0.1 of its initial value OA. The ris e tim e is in versely pr oportional to
the magnitude of gate current and its build up rate. 'Thus t,. can be reduced if high and steep
current pulses are applied to the gate. However, the main factor determin ing t,. is the nature
of anode circuit. For example, for series RL circuit, the rate of rise of a node current is slow,
ther efore, t,. is more. For RC series circuit, dU dt is high, t,. is therefore, less.
From the beginning of ris e time t,., anode current starts spr eading fr om the narrow
condu cting r egi on near the gate. The an ode
current spreads at a rate of about 0.1 mm per \ g
microsecond [2]. As the rise time is small, the
anode current is not able to spread over the entire
crosssection of cathode. Fig. 4.6 (b ) illustrates how
anode current expands over cathode surface ~rea
during tumon process of a thyristor. Here \the
thyri stor is taken to have single gate electr~e
a way fr om the ce ntre of p layer. It is seen that
anode current conducts over a small conducting
l
chann el even after t,.  this conducting channel
area is however, greater than that during t d.
Fig. 4.7. Typical waveform for
gate current.
130
[Art. 4,3J
Pow e r Electronics
VOltog., Vg
Gate pulse
,
Anode voltoge LIe and
gote curr ent i g
On state voltagE'
drop across SCR
~nodp
O.IVe
I
I I
, I
current ]
+rI[
Anode currenl
begins 10
decrease
I
,
r,
I)
i't't.IorfTtOI\+i
. Reverse voltage
due to powt>r circuit
Ii;
.
POWt>f Ioss
'I
( Ucla
I
I'
[
di
C:lmmutation I I
" I
Recovery
j'
!
'I
,R ecombination
,I '
i
tJ
,!
t l,
I
I
ts
"
0 .1 10
Forward
leakoge
currpn!
I
t, i
'/
t tq '1 I ,
,
" [I i 'I"~,~_I_
I' Q_~_"Q_O_C_~_"_._n~'
Ie
. ....
A~l g
0.9 I9
o, ~
. . . ". ~ ....
~
" :.i '~
r
t tr  l tg l
;   tq
I ,
t ,   '
' 1
I .
I:
Time In Microsec
fig LS Thyristor voltage and cu rrent wavl! fo r rru du:ing turnon and turnoff proces.ses .
'Th )" C;1:l be achie\"erl thNl ugh nat ural comm u ta tion or forced com:":"lutation.
Thyristors
[Art. 4.3)
131
The turnoff time tq of a thyristor is defined as the time between the instant anode current
becomes z.ero and the instant SCR regains forward blocking capability. During time tq , all the
excess carriers from the four layers of SCR must be removed. This removal of excess carriers
consists of sweeping out of holes from outer pIayer and electrons from outer nlayer. The
carrier s around junctionJ2 can be r emoved only by recombina tion . The tumoff time is di vided
into two intervals; r everse r ecovery tim e tTT and the gate recovery time t,r; i.e. tq = tTT + t,r The
thyristor characteristics during turnon and turnoff processes are sh own in one Fig. 4.8 so as
to gain insight into these processes.
At instant t 1 anode current becomes z.ero. After t 1, anode current builds up in the reverse
direction with the same dildt slope as before t 1. Th e reason for the rever sal of anode current
after tl is due to the presence of catTiers stored in the four layer s. The r everse recovery current
r emoves excess carriers fr om the end junctions J 1 and J 3 between the instants tl and t3' In
other words, r everse recovery current flows due to the sweeping out of holes from top pIayer
and electrons from bottom nIayer. At instant t 2 when about 60% of the stored charges are
r emoved from the outer two layers , carrier density across J 1 and #3 ..begins to decr ease and
with this reV,e rse recovery current also starts decaying. Th~ reverse current decay is fast in
the beginning but gradual thereafter. The fast decay of r ecovery current causes a 'reverse
voltage across the device due to the circuit inductance. This reve r s~ voltage surge appear s
across the thyristor terminals and may therefor e damage it. In practice, this is avoided by
using protective RC elements across SCR. At instant t 3. when reverse r ecovery current has
fallen to ne arly zero value, endjunctionsJ1 and J 3 recover and SCR is able to block the reverse
voltage . For a thyristor, r everse r ecovery phen omenon between tl and t3 is similar to that of a
r ectifier diode.
At the end of r everse recovery period (t3  t 1), the middle junction J 2 still has trapped
'3.
charges, the refore, the thyristor is not able to block the forward voltage at
The trapped
charges around J 2 i.e. in the inner two layers, cannot flow to the external .circuit, therefore,
these trapped charges must decay only by recombination. This recombination is possible if a
reverse voltage is maintained across SCR, though the magnitude of this voltage is not
important. The rate of recombination of charges is independent of the external circuit
pa.ram eters. The time for the recombination of charges between t3 and t4 is called gate recouery
time t,r' At instant t", junction J 2 recovers and the forw ard voltage can be reapplied between
anode and cathode. The thyristor turnoff time tq is in the range of 3 to 100 )lsec. TI:e turnoff
time is influenced by the magnitude of forward current, dildt at the time of commutation and
junction temperature. An increase in the magnitude of these factors increases the thyristor
turnoff time. If the value of forward current before commutation is high, trapped charges
around junction J 2 are more. The time required for their recombin ation is mor e and ther efore
tu::c..off time is increased. But turnoff time decreases with an increase in the magnitude of
reverse voltage. particularly in the range of 0 to  50 V. This is because high reverse voltage
sucks out the carriers out of the junctions J I , J 3 and the adjacent transition region::; at a fa3tcr
r ate. It is evident from above that turnoff time tq is not a constant parameter of a thyristor.
Th e th)..ristor turnoff time tq is applicable to a.T). indi,,;dual SCR. In actual practice. thyristor
(or thyristors ) fonn a part of the power circuit. The rumoff time provided to the thyristor by th~
practical circuit is called circllit tum offtime t l! ' It is defined a.5 the time bet\",een the instant anode
current becomes zero and LIJ.e iIlstant reverse voltage due to practical circuit reaches zero, sec Fig.
4.8. Time tc must be greater than tq for reliable turnoff, otherwise the device may turnon at a n
UndE'3Ued instant, a proc ess called commutation failure .
Power Electronics
[Art. 4.4]
132
Thyristors with slow turnoff time (50  100 ~sec ) are called converter grade SeRs and
those with fast tumoff time (3  50 lJ.Sec) are called inverter.grade SeRs. Convertergrade
SCRs are cheaper and are used where slow turnoff is possible as in phasecontrolled rectifiers,
ae voltage controllers, cycloconverter s etc. Invertergrade SeRa are costlier and are used in
inverters, choppers and forcecommutated converters.
Vo
..
y
C~~'~~I~~
~
gm
Ig
A nontriggering gate voltage is also prescribed by the manufactur ers of SeRs. This is
indicated by oa in Fig. 4.9. If fl.!""ing circuit generates positive gate signal prior to the desired
i. n.stant of triggering the SCR, it should be ensured that this un wanted sipal is less than the
nontriggering gate voltage 00 . At the same time, all spur ious a T noise s ign als sh ould be less
than the voltage oa.
The design of the firing circuit can be carried ou t with the help of Figs . . t I 0 and 4.11. In
Fig. 4.10 (0 ) is shown a trigger circuit feed ing power to gatecathode circuit. For this circuit,
Thyri5lors
[Act.
Trt gg~r
circuit ,
__________
.x,
+ G
R,
+
E,
E,
R,
,,
,,
,
L______L~J K
1l ______________ J,
;7
10
I1
133
,r 1
~.~l
l _____ __ __________
(a )
Vo
~

,
J,
(b )
E,
=Vg +lg Rs
... (4 .2a )
where
.. .(4.2b )
V~
gm
1
c
""
E
"
" 0
_.!_~
Sl~"  '
1:01
;g
0
Igm 0
Gate Curnmt
Ig
P ower Electronics
[Art. 4.4]
134
S must li e within the limit curves 1 and 2. The gradie nt of the load line AD (= OAI OD) will
give the required gate source resistance Ro!. The minimum value of gate source series resistance
is obtained by drawing a line AC tangent to Pgau curve.
Gate drive requirements in terms of continuous de signal can be obtained from Fig. 4.11 .
However, it is common to use a pulse to trigger a thyristor. For pulse widths beyond
100 Ilsec, the de data apply [1]. F or pulse widths less than 100 ~sec , magnitudes of gate voltage
and gate current can be increased, see Example 4.2.
As stated before, thyristor is considered to be a charge controlled device. Thus, higher the
magnitude of gate current pulse, lesser is the time to inject the required charge for turningon
the thyristor. Therefore, SCR turnon time can be reduced by using gate current of higher
magnitude. It sh ould be ensured that pulse width is sufficient to allow the anode current to
exceed the latching current. In practice, gate pulse width is usually taken as equal to , or gt:eater
than , SCR turnon time. If T is the pulse width as shown in Fig. 2.12 (a), then T ~ ton
With pulse triggering, grea~er amount of gate power dissipation can be allowed ; this
should, however, be less than the peak instantaneous gate power dissipation Pgm as specified
by the manufacturers. Frequency of firing (or pulse width) for trigger pulses can be obtained
by taking pulse of (i) amplitude Pgm (ii) pulse width'T and (iii) periodicity T 1. Therefore,
P T
~>P
Tl
grlli
or
Pgau
. or
... (4 .30 )
fT $Pgm
wher e
and
or f= ~;P.!;"~,T Pgm
A duty cycle is defined as the ratio of pulseon period to periodic time of pulse. In Fig.
4.12 (a), pulseon period is T and periodic time is T 1. Ther efore, duty cycle 5 is given by
T
o==(T
T,
'E ig
,
u
>l
SLLLLLULL____11111LLL___
(0)
Ie)
Thyristors
[Art. U J
p
From Eq. (4.30 ),
135
.E 'S
Ii
Pgm
.. .( 4.3 b)
Sometimes the pulses of Fig. 4.12 (a) are modulated to generate a trai n of pulses as shown
in Fig. 4.12 (b). This technique of firing the thyristor is called highfrequency carrier gating.
The ad vantages offered by this method offiring the scas are lower rating, reduced dimensi ons
and therefore an overall economica1 design of the pulse transformer needed for isolating the
low power circuit from the main power circuit.
For an SCR, Vim and I,m are specified separately. If both of these are used for pulse firing,
then Pim may be exceeded and the thyristor would be damaged. For example, GEC35 thyri stor
has Vim = 10 V and I,m = 2 A. If both these limits are pl aced on C35 , the power dissi pation is
20 W. But this is far excess of the specified Pgnt = 5 W. It should be ensu red that (pulse voltage
amplitude) (pulse current. amplitude) < Pgnt .
There is also prescribed a peak reverse voltage (gate negative with respect to cathode ) that
can be applied across gatecathode terminals. Any voltage signal, given by the trigger circuit
(or by any interference), exceeding this prescribed limit of about 5 to 20 V may damage the
gate circuit. For preventing the occurrence of such hazard s, a diode is connected either in series
with the gate circuit or across the gatecathode terminals as shown in Fig. 4.12 (c ). Di ode
across the gatecathode terminals, called clamping diode, prevents the gatecathode voltage
from becQming more than about 1 V. Diode in series wi th gate circuit prevents the fl ow of
negative gate source current from becoming more than small reverse leakage current.
The magnitude of gate voltage and gate current for triggering an SCR is inversely
proportional to junction temperature. Thus, at very low temperatur es, gate voltage and gate
current must have high values in order to ensur e turnon. But P,m should not be exceeded in
any csse;The res istor R 1. connected across gatecathode terminals, Fig. 4.10 (b ), also serves to bypass
a part of the thermallygenerated leakage current across j unction J 2 when SCR is in the
forward blocking mode ; this improves the thermal stability of S'CR.
Example 4.2. (a) The average gate power dissipation for an SCR is 0.5 W. The allowable
gate voltage variation is from a minimum of 2 V to a maximu m of 10 V. Taking ar;e rage gate
power dissipation constant, plot allowable gate voltage as a fun ction of gate current.
(b) If SCR of part (a) is triggered with gate pulses of du ty cycle 0.5, find the new valLle or
average gate power dissipation.
Solution . (a) Here
F or
For
v"Ig = 0.5 W
Vi = 2 Y, Ig = 0.5/2 = 0. 25 A to
Vg = 10 Y, Ig = 0.5/ 10
= 0.05 A
For other values of ga ts voltaot? V, in between 2
and 10 V, gate current 19 is obtained and plotted in Fig. >c::
 4
4.13 showing the variation of V, 83 a fun cti on of I, for
CJI
>
constant p,cu.
2
(b) For this example, T I =2T in Fig. 4.12 (a)
. __ ..
......,;.
I: 
I f = 0 .5 W.
,,
: :
:; 1,
.. ..' I..,
P9 C ~ :0' 5 W
.. l..J ___~_
' :
:"
:
. ::.:+t.:::1::~::.::::_. , ...
, I
.'
,
1
:
t: :
"
0.05
0.25
Ig
Power Electronics
136
where UN' iJl are th e ins tantaneous val ues of gate voltage and gate current. Therefore, for this
e xampl e, av erage gate power dissipation is given by
V, I, ;;. = (o.o)!
=0.25 W.
As thi s is less th a n the all owable Piau, higher values of ti" i, can be used fo r the pu lse firin g
of SeRs.
Example 4.3. For an SeN. the gatecathode characteristic has a straightline slope of 130.
For trigger so urce voltage of 15 V and allowable gate power dissipation of 0.5 watts, compute
the gatesource resistance.
Sol uti on . Here
V, I,=0.5W
V
and
:.L = 130
Ig
1301;=0.5
Thi s gives
:. Ga te voltage.
F or th e gate circuit,
Exam p le 4.4. The trigger circuit of a thyristor has a source voltage of 15 V and the load
l ine has a slope of  120 V per ampere. The minim um gate current to tum on the SCR is 25
mA Compute
(a) source resistance required in the gate circu it,
.
(b) the trigger voltage and trigger current for an average gate power dissipation of 0.4 watts.
Solution. (a ) The slope of load line gives the required gate source resis tance. From the
load line, se ri es resis tance required in the gate circuit is 1200.
(b) Here
V, I, = 0.4 W
EJ =R)c + V,
F or th e gate circuit,
..
or
15 = 120 I + 0.4
g
Ig
120 Ii  15 Ig + 0.4 = 0
Its so luti on gives
I, =38.56 mAo or 86.44 rnA
..
V
I
= 0.4 X
10'
38.56
= 10 37 V
.
V  0.4 X 10' _ 4 6?  V
, 86.44  . .. 1
or
Choose Vg = 4.627 V and I,
25 rnA.
Example 4.5. Foran SCR, gatecathode characteristic is gi uer. by Vi = 1 + IO I~. Gate sou.rce
()oltage is a recta ng ula r pu lse of 15 V with 20 )J sec du. retiol!.. For an average g ate power
d issipation 0/ 0.3 \V and a pec k g ate dri ve pOlL"er ol5 ~v, compute
(a) the resistance to be connected in series with the S CR gate,
(b) the triggering fre quency and
[A rt. 4.4]
Thyristors
137
(1 + 10 I,) I, = 5 W
1Of,+I,5=0
or
I,
or
E,=R, Ig+V,
15 = R, I, + 1 + 10 I,
<.
15  1
(b )
Pgm
:. Triggering frequency,
(c)
= 0.659 A.
=0.659 A
Pr fJ II
= fl"
f=
H ere T= 20 ~sec
0;:ig' =3kHz
B=fT= 3 x 10' x 20
Duty cycle,
10"= 0.06,
0 '
Example 4 .6. Latching current for an SCR, inserted in between a dc uoltage source of200
V and the load, is 100 mA. Compute the minimum width of gatepulse current required to
turnon this SCR in case the load consists of (a) L =0.2 H, (b) R = 20 n in series with L =0.2
H and (c) R = 20 n in series with L = 2.0 H.
Solution. (a) When load con sists of pure inductance L, the voltage equation is
E= L
..
0100 =
di
dt
~og t
or
d'L = E
Lt
or
t=
0.1 x 0.2
200
L di
E =R L+
dt
. E( '!!.')
or
t=R 1 
or
t = 100.503
eL
or
or
~s e c
. E t
L
L=
= 100 ~sec
138
Power Electronics
[Art. 4A]
. E
t=
(e)
(1 !!,)
e
or
or
t =1005.03 ~see .
This example shows that if load resistance is increased from zero to 20 n, the gatepulse
width remains almost unaffected. But with an increase in indu ctance from 0.2 H to 2 H, the
gatepulse width becomes 10 times its previous value.
Example 4.7. Th e gate current of a forward biased SCR is gradually increased from zero
until the device is turned on. It is obserlJed that gate CUTTent, just prior to the instant of ttlrn on,
is 1 mA and soon after SCR goes in.to conduction, gatt. current decays to about 0.3 rnA. Discuss
how it happens.
Solution . When anode of an SCR is made positive with respect to cathode, a small voltage
E'g genera ted internally, appears across the gate cathode terminals, Fig. 4.14 (a ). The
magnitude of E'g depends upon applied anode voltage and the device geometry. In the
gatec athode equivalent circuit of Fig. 4.14 (0), R is the static nonlinear gate resistance.
If the SCR is turned on by applying a positive gate signal, then the equivalent circuit for
the trigger circuit is as shown in Fig. 4.14 (bl. Here E, is the gate voltage ~e nerated internally
due to the flow of anode current. The magnitude of E'g is mu ch smaller as compared to Eg. For
a typical SCR, E'g = 0.05 V and Eg '" 0.7 V.
Go~
Es
Eg
E'o
K
(b)
(a )
I,' = ERE'
+ R: . As E;
is very small,
E  E
+ R:' Voltage Eg is quite large as
compar ed to E'g, therefore , gate current is reduced fr om a higher value of 1,' to a lower value
oi I,.
In ca3e E, is reduced to zer o, gate current becomes n egative with its value equal to
E
Iz" = R +
"
[Act.
Thy ristors
~.5J
139
T he gate source voltage is 16 Vand load line has a slope of  128 V I A. Calculate the trigger
voltage and trigger current for an average gate power dissipation of 0.5 W
Are the val ues of V" I, obtained here justified? Discuss.
Solut ion. Slope of load line gives gatesource resistance, R.
and E, =I, R.+ VI
16= I ,x 128+ 0/
g
or
128
I; 16 I, + 0.5 =0
V;
..
I, = 2.1 x 10 3 (
I, = (2.1)
10 3
~,5
of Fig.
_),.5
~gO
Since point 5 (8 V, 62.5 rnA) lies in between 5, (6.198 V, 80 ..67 rnA) and 5 , (8.93 V, 56.01
rnA) as desired, the calculated values of V,; a V and I,l =6'2'.5 rnA are j ustified.
.....
Ie = CJ. IE + l cBD
wher e a is the com mon base cu. rrent g ain and ICBO is the comm on base leak age current of
collector base j un ction of a transis tor.
For transis tor QJ in Fig. 4. 15 (c), emitter current Ie = anode current Ia a nd Ic = collector
current le i' Th er efor e, for Q t,
wher e
an d
...(4 .4 )
Power Electronics
[Art. 4.5]
140
r,
1,
1,
p
n
G 1,
P
J
,,,
,
,,
n
J
P ,, P
J,
P n
n
1"
J,
G [,
Jl
1"
161=lc2
a,./3,
p,0,
,
,
1"
J,
G 1,
1"
"
I "~
n
P a2'PZ
0, n
r.
(a)
(e)
(b )
Fig. 4.15. Thyristor (a) its schematic diagram, (b) and (c) its twotransistor model.
... (4.5 )
or
=' (l2
[Art. 4.5J
Thyristors
141
= C ~~. In

case it is assumed that entire forward voltage ull appears across rev erse biased
) dt
This ch argi ng or displ ac ement current across junction J'). 13 collector currents of
Q'l and Qt Cu rrents I C'l , I Ct will induce emi tter curren t in Q2' Qt. In case rate of ri se of anode
voltage is large, the emitter currents will be large and as a res ult, 0.1 + ~ will approach un ity
!e ~.d ing to eventu al switching action 01 th e thyri stor.
(iu) Te mperatltN! triggerin.g : At high temperature , the forward leakage current aCr0.55
j~lDction J 2 rises. This leakage current se rves as the collector junction current of th e compon ent
.u
j.
[Act.
I.6J
Power Electronics
[Mt. 4.6]
Thyristors
143
(ii ) V DUM Peak repetitiue forwardblocking uoltage. It refers to the peak transient voltage
that a thyristor can withstand repeatedly or periodically in its forwardblocking mode. The
rating is specified at a maximum allowable junction temperatUre with gate circuit open or with
a specifi ed biasing resistance between gate and cathode.
:~
VDR.\I
acr oss
thyristor terminals.
(iii) V DSM Peak surge (or nonrepetitiue) forw ardblocking voltage. It refers to the peak
value of the forvtard surge voltage that does not repeat. Its value is about 130% of V DR.I/, but
V DSM is less than forward breakover volta'ge V BO as shown in Fig. 4.17 (b).
",VOS M
(a )
(b )
Fig. 4.17. Anode voltage ratings during the blocking state of a thyristor.
(iv ) VRWM Peak working reuerse voltage. It is the ma.'Ximum r everse voltage that a
thyristor can withstand repeatedly. Actually, it is equal to the peak negative value of a sine
voltage wave, Fig. 4.17 (a).
(v) V RR .\!  Peak repetitive reverse uoltage. It specifies the peak reverse transient voltage
that may occur repeatedly in the reverse direction at the allowable maximum junction
temp erature. The transient lasts for a fraction of the time of one cycle, Fig. 4.17 (a). The reason
for the periodic appearance of V RJUf is the same as for V DR.\!'
(vi) VRSM  Peak su rge (or nonrepetitive) re ve rse voltage . It represe nts the peak value of
the reve rse surge voltage that does not repeat. Its value is about 130% of VRRJf . But VRS.\I is
less than r everse breakover voltagc"BR as shown in Fig. 4.17 (b ).
Both VDS.\I and VRS.\f ratings can be increased by conn ecting a diode in series with a
thyristor. Th e anod e vo ltage ratings listed above from (0 to (iii) pertain to forw ard ' blocking
voltages whereas from (iu) to (vi) belong to reverse blocking voltages; a thyristor must be J.ble
to suppOrt these voltages safely with gate circuit open .
(vii) V T  Onstate voltage d rop. It is the voltage drop between anode and cathode .....ith
specified forward onstate current an d junction tempe ratu re. Its value is of the ord ~r of 1 to
1.5 V.
(v iii ) Foru'ard du /d t rating. If rate of ri se of fo n~ard anodetocilthode vol tage !.:i high,
thyr : ~t o r mny turn on eve n when
"
Power Electronics
[A r t. 4,6J
144
(b) anode.to.cath~de
The forward du / dt ratin g depends on the junction temperature; hi gher the junction
temperature, lower the forward du / dt rating of the device . In pr actice, du /dt triggering is never
employed as it gives random turnon of a thyristor. This type of triggering also leads to
destruction of the device through high junction temperature.
(ix) Voltage safety factor (V SF ) ' It is defined as the ratio of peak r epetitive reverse
voltage (VRRM ) to the maximum value of input voltage.
V
..
' .,
r '
..
[Art. 4.6]
Thyristors
145
until finally it reaches its rated value Tj = 125C. As the SCR has low thermal time constant,
final temperature of 125C is reached in a relatively short time. Suppose now that anode
current is of rectangular waveshape with conduction angle 180' (
ir
4.18 (b) . If the rectangular wave bas. average value equal to the constant current OA in Fig. 4.18
(a ), then current amplitude of rectangular wave in Fig. 4.18 (b) is DC = 2 times OA . As the SCR
has short time constant, junction temperature in Fig. 4.18 (b) is likely to exceed the allowable
temperature of 125C and this is not desirable. In order to limit the temperature to 125C for
rectangular wavefonn of anode current; there are two techniques, (i) provide better cooling to
the thyristor or (ii) reduce the pulse amplitude from OC.
As per the second method, pulse amplitude of anode current is r educed from OC to some
lower value on (say), so that junction temperature remains within limits, Fig, 4.18 (b). But a
reduction in the amplitude of rectangular wave would result in a lower value of average anode
current. This means that for the temperature rise to remain within limits, SCR must be rated
at a lower value of average forward current I TAv when it is conducting a pulsed anode current
than when it is carrying a constant dc. This shows that thyristor is derated when it handles
rec tangular or square wave of anode cumnt. The effect of conduction angle on anode current
ITAv is depicted in Fig. 4.19 (a) for rectangul ar waves. The avera.ge onstate power loss Pa ~ in
this figure is apprOximately given by
Pall
=~
180'
1,
3:
3:
.E
>
0.0
>
0.0
ITAyil A _
(a )
li..,W in A _
(b)
Fi g. 4.19. Avera ge onstate power dissipa tion Pa ll as e. fiJn ction of IT~\ ..,for
(0 ) rectangular wa've and (b) hal iw:.w e s inuJoid .
146
Power Electronics
[Art. 4.6]
form factor for sine wave is higher than , for the rectangular wave (see Examples 4.8 and 4.9),
This means that average current for sine wave will be lower than it is for the r ectangular wave
for the same de (or rms ) current. The derating of the SCR is therefore more for sine waves than
for the square or r ectangular waves . The effect of conduction angle on average current is
depicted in Fig. 4.19 (b) for sine wave. For 180" conduction angle, the anode current in Fig. 4.19
( b ) is less than that in Fig. 4.19 (a ). This diagram is applicable for Iphase halfwave circuit (o r
Iphase oneway, one pulse circuit).
Curves shown in Fig. 4.19 are supplied by the manufacturers ofthyristors and are valid for
supply frequency range 0[50 to 400 Hz. The curve marked dc in Fig. 4.19 (0 ) is applicable when
anode current is continuous dc. The current for different conduction angles are terminated at
different valu es of average current in Fig. 4.19. For example, for 30" conduction angle, I TAV
terminates at [Idcl(form factor)] = (I dcI3.46 4) in Fig. 4.19 (0) for rectangular wave !lnd at
(ldc / 3 .979) in Fig. 4.19 (b) for sine wave. At these terminal points, maximum rms current
rati ngs of the device is reached . Table 4.1 gives different values of formfactor for different
conduction angles of the halfwave sine waveforms.
15'
3('
45'
60'
90'
1200
1800
FCJrm factor
5.650
3.9812
3.233
2.7781
2.2214
1.878
1.5708
Curves of Fig. 4.19 are applicable when load is purely resistive. In case load i5 inductive in
nature, these curves should be modified. With an improvement in the waveform , i.e. with
waveform becoming more smooth, the form factor decreases and as a consequence, higher
average onstate current I TAy can be handled by the device.
RMS onstate current (IRMs)' By definition, for direct current, rms value I RMS or I rmJ =
average or de value, I dc ' Heating of the resistive elements of a thyristor, such as metallic joints,
leads and interfaces depends on the forward rms current l rnu. The rms current rating is used
as an upper limit for constant as well as pulsed anode current ratings of the thyristor. Its value
is equal to Ide of Fig. 4.19 (a). The value of the rms forward current for an SCR remains the
same for different conduction angles . Average current, however, is dependent on conduction
angle as shown in Fig. 4.19. For example, for 180" conduction angle, the form factor for halfsine
wave is n: / 2, therefore average current is 2 I de/ X or 2 I''M /x. This means that for 180"
conduction angle, thyristor circuit should be designed to carry an average current of 2 I dJrt
instead of I de (or Ir'M)' The derating of the SCR below the dc value depends upon the current
waveshape and it is defined as under :
SCR derating below de value
=ld'  :; =li
1 F~ )
...(4.3 )
where FF is the form factor of the waveform. Its value is always more than one.
For rectangular wave, FF is less as compared to its value for sine wave for the same
conduction angle. Eq. (4.3 ) reveals that SCR derating below dc is less for rectangular wave
than for the sine wave. The average current IT_4v fo r other conduction angles can be comput ed
as discussed above.
The significance of ITA'" and l'nl3 can be highlighted with an example. Suppose ma.'<..imum
35
r m3 curren t for a thyristor is 35 A. F or 120" conduction angle for sine wave, IT.4v = 1.875
Thyris tors
1M!. 4.6J
147
= 18.637 A.
This means that thyristor can h andle an average curr ent oi 18.637 A for 12 0 ~
conduction angle and its temperature will rem ain within limits. Suppose an ammeter is placed
in s eries with the SCR for measuring the average current. Now decrease the conduction angle
t o 30" but with average current as measured by the ammeter remaining unchanged at 18.637
A. But a n average current of 18.637 A at 30 conduction angle would require an rms current
oi I rml = 18.637 x 3.9812 = 74.1976 A. But such a large value ofrms current would caus e large
ohmic losses and is, therefore, certainly going to destroy the SCR. This shows that as
conduction angle is reduced, I TAV must be lowered acco rdingly so that rms current is not
exc eeded beyond its rated value and the SCR is not damaged .
The current ratings I TAV and I,rru are of repetitive type. They are dependent on maximum
junction temperature. If better cooling is provided to a thyristor body, th es e ratings can be
upgraded .
As stated above, power loss in a thyristor and its heating is dependent upon the rms
current. Manufacturers also provide curves showing the variation of case temperature Te with
,
'"
oU
120
~I
~
'"
0
v
ITAV in A _
I TAV in A "
(b)
(0 )
Fig. 4.20. Maximum allowable case temperature T ern as a function of frAY for
(a ) rectangular wave and ( b) for balfwave sinusoid .
average onstate currentITAv Fig. 4.20. These curves can be obtained :from Fig. 4.19 provided
9.k (thermal resistance betw~en junction and thyristor case)" in C/ W is known. If Tj is the
junction temperature, then
TJ. Te = 9"jt: . P0 11
For SCRs, Tj is usually 125C. Taking 9.k = 0.15CI W for dc current of200 A ; PfJ IJ = 300 W,
fr om Fig. 4.19 (a), is obtained for I TAy = 200 A.
fJIJ
= 125 
0.15 X 225
Far und !rs tandi ng the term th C!rmal rC!sistance read Ar t . 4.8.
=91. 25C
Power Electronics
(Art. 4.6]
148
This point is plotted as C in Fig. 4.20 (0 ), Other points can be plotted accordingly for
rectangular as well as halfwave sinusoids to obtain the curves of Fig. 4.20. These curves
indica te that for junction temperature Tj = 125"C, lower the average onstate current I TAv
greater is the case temperature that can be allowed for the same conduction angle. For
example, fOT sine wave with 180" conduction angle, for I TAv = 120 A the case temperature
Tem =91 DC ; for !TAV = 80 A the case temperature Tem = 104C and so on.
Surge Current Rating. When a thyristor is wolking under its repetitive voltage and
current ratings, its permissible junction temperature is never exceeded. However, a thyristor
may be subjected to abnormal operating conditions due to faults or short cirtuits. In order to
accommodate these unusual working conditions, surge current rating, I TSM (pea,k
nonrepetitive on state current), of thyristors is also specified. A surge current rating indicates
the maximum possible nonrepetitive, or surge, current which the device can withstand. Higher
currents caused by nonrepetitive faults or short circuits should occur once in a while during
the life span of a thyristor to prevent its degradation.
Surge currents are assumed to be sine waves with frequency of 50, or 60, Hz depending
upon the supply frequency. This rating is specified in terms of the number of surge cycles with
corresponding surge current peak. Surge current rating is inversely proportional to the
duration of the surge. It is usual to measure the surge duration in terms of the number of cycles
of normal power frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. For example, a threecycle surge current rating for a
period of 60 msec (3 x 20 msec) for 50 Hz supply consists of three conducting halfcycles, each
followed by a n offperiod. Thre e different surge current ratings are provided by the
1
manufacturers ; as for example, ITSM =3000 A for "2 cycle, ITSM =.2109 A for 3 cycles and
or
... (4.8 a)
where
... (4.8 b)
It rating. This rating is employed in the choice of a fuse or other protective equipment for
thyristors. The r ating in terms of amp2sec specifies the energy that the device can absorb for
a short time before the fault is cleared. It is usually specified for overloads lasting for less than ,
or equal to, onehalf cycle of 50 or 60 Hz supply. The ft r ating is given by the relation .
(rms value of onecycl e surge current )2 x time for one cycle
...(4.9)
Thyristors
[Art. 4.6]
149
~ an example, Pt rating for 4 A(rms) SCRis 10 amp2.sec and for 35 ASCRis 100 amp2.sec.
In order that a fuse (or other protective equipment) protects a thyristor reliably, the Pt rating
of fuse must be less than the ft rating of the seriesconnected thyristor.
dil dt rating. This rating of a thyristor indicates the maximu~ rate of rise of current from
anode to cathode without any harm to the device. When a thyristor is turned on, conduction
starts at a place near the gate. This small area of conduction spreads to the whole area of
junction. If the rate of rise of anode current (dUdt) is large as compared to the spreading
velocity of carriers across the cathode junction, local hot spots will be fonned near the gate
connection on account of high current density. This causes the junction temperature to rise
above the safe limit and as a consequence, SCR may be damaged pennanently. Therefore, a
limit on the value of dUdt at turnon is specified in amperes per microsecond for all SCRs.
Typical values of dUdt are 20 to 500 A / J.l sec.
Other ratings . In addition to the voltage and current ratings ofthyristors discussed above,
there are some other ratings as under :
(a) Latching and holding currents,
150
[Ar t. 4.6]
Power Electronics
 I rm $
FF 
TAV
35 x 2 _ 22 282 A
It
and
Form factor
la,
I,m.
= 2;
[1 + ( 0.866)]
= 0.02 13227 1m
(b)
(0)
 0.0849035 1m  3 9818363
 0.02 13227 1m  .
Form factor
35
I TAv =3.98 184
=8.7899A.
Example 4 .10. Repeat Example 4.9 in case the current has rectangular waveshape.
Solution. For the rectangular waveform of current shown in Fig. 4.21 (b),
~Lx 360
Conduction angle
nT
360
or
=~C;on;du~ct;Ci~onangl;e
I =I x T =l
Here
nT
a ('
_lI 2 x T]U2 _ I
rms 
nT
Tn
[Art. 4.6)
Thyristors
(a) F or
18 0~
151
360
conduction angle, n==2
180
I
Iau =2 and
I 2 .m
=T2
' 1=,2
Form factor
35
I TAV = T2 = 24.7487 A
0
= 360
90 =4
I
I ou ="4 and
4
="2I ' 1=2
Form factor
35
I TA V =2"=17 .5A
'
(c) F or 30 can d uctlon
angI e,
n _ 360
12 _ 12
I
I",u = 12
and
I '
I,.17U = ill
... .
I
12 =
Form factor = ill ' T = , 12
35
ITAv ~ill
= 10.1036 A.
Example 4.11. An 8CR has halfcycle surge current rating of 3000 A for 50 Hz supply.
Calculate its onecycle surge current rating and I 2t rating.
Solution. Let I and I,b be the onecycle and subcycle su rge current ratings of the S9 R
r~spe ct ively. Then equating the energies involved in them, w e get
PT=I;b ' t
..
1
2
1
r x 100 = (3000) x 200
or
or
1=
3~0 = 2121.32 A
2
It
.
ratmg
I,
1 (:J2
3000 ) x 100
1 = 45000 Amp 2 . sec.
x 2f=
Thus the SCR has onecycle surge curr ent r ating of 2121.32 A
and I 2 t rating of 45000 amp2.sec.
Example 4.12. In the circuit of Fig. 4.22, the thyristor is gated
with a pulse width of 40 microsec. The latching current of thyristor
is 36 rnA.. For a load of 60 nand 2 H, will the thyristor get turned
on ? Check. If the answer is negative, how this difficulty can be
overcome for the given load. Find the m axim um va lue of tht~
remedial parameter shown dotted.
S olution. The current through load and thyris tor is
. V' (le_!!.,)
LT ='R
: ~
T JOO V
.l..
60n
2H ~
,,
,,
,,, l,,,
,, ,'
,,
"~
,,
L _ _ _ _.._____ ',
. _ 300(1
tr
60
 e. 60
2 ' '' '''' ' )  o. 996 x 10 '  o. 996mA
.
Power Electronics
(Art. 4.61
152
This shows that for a pulse width of 40 ~s, the anode current rises to 5.996 rnA which is far
less than the latching current of 36 rnA. So thyristor will not get turned on.
The remedial parameter, shown dotted in Fig. 4.22, should be resistance, say R I because current
can rise in resistance without any time delay. The value ofRl can be obtained as under:
. 36 10 J 300 300 (1
tr=
x
=T+ 60 e0.00'2,)
300
or
100 A
 0.8 . 08 0012'
= O.8 + 2.0100
x La = . +.
La
Pau = T
JTI2
.
0
VT' ta . dt
=~ J0
~2
=70.4W
J 80~;
T = 56.577 A
io
:I
~,,,
BOA
t:TI1~
.I
"
v,
VT
TI<'
0
I
T
Til
(aj
/'
,
,,,
,,
,,
w'
,,
,,
C.
O.96Y
 6 ~8\T 
1.
(oj
F ig. \,.24. Curr ent a nd voltage wave forms pertai ning to Example 4.13.
wt
(Art. 4.7)
Thy ristors
(b )
Here
UT
153
P = 1.16x30 x T = 115W
au
3T
.
Rm s current rating
30 x
fa
17.321 A
Halfsine wave of peak: value of 80 A, Fig. 4.24 (b), can be expressed as ta = 80 sin wt .
UT = 0.8 + 0.012 x 80 sin wt = 0.8 + 0.96 sin wt
From the waveforms for ia and UT shown in Fig. 4.24 (b ), the average onstate power loss
is given by
(c)
P"
J:
= 2~ J
:
= 21.
J:
'.
154
Power Electronics
[Art. 4.7J
turningon a thyristor, called du l dt turnon must be avoided as it leads to false operation of the '
thyristor circuit. For controllable operation of the thyristor, the rate ofrise offol"'Nard anode to I
cathode voltage dVa/ dt must he kept below the specified rated limit. Typical values ofduldt are'
20  500 V/ ~sec . False turnon of a thyristor by large du / dt .;:an be prevented by using a
sn ubber circuit in parallel with the device,
=(R, + RLJ i + L ~:
... (4.1 0
oj
[Art. 4.7]
Thyristors
155
Snubber
Cs ,1'" cir(.lJit
i,
Rs
~
          
~<>L~LroW
,
la)
(b)
(e)
Fig. 4.26. (a) Thyristor in series with RL (b) Thyristor protection with L and R~> C!
(c) Equivalent circuit of Fig. 4.26 (b) at the instant switch S is closed.
R, + RL._tl r:
V,
R, +RL
L. '
V, _II~
=r e
o.
. ..(4.]0 b )
or
L=
or
or
Y,
(dildt)m~
Vo
50
. ~
Rs i
0
di
dv o _
dt  R, . dt
(d:;L R,.(~:L
... (4.]] )
(dUoL
dt
or
R,' Y,
L
"
(dUol
R = L  , Y, dt
... (4.12)
= 48
' x300= 6a
~
240
The circuit of Fig. 4.26, consisting of R, L, C, should be fully analysed to determine the
op timum values of sn ubber circuit par ameters R,> C,o The analysis of this circuit shows that
resistance R, can be ob tained from the relation {9J
R,=2~#,
Power Electronics
[Art. 4.71
156
where ~ is the damping factor (or damping ratio). In order to limit the peak voltage overshoot
across thyristor to a safe value, damping factor in the range of 0.5 to 1 is usually used. For
optimum solution of the problem, ~ is taken to be about 0.65.
.
It is seen from Fig. 4.26 (b) that when switchS is closed, capacitor C, is charged to dc supply
voltage before the SCR is triggered.. Now when the SCR is turned on, capacitor C, will discharge
a maximum current of V,IR, and total current through thyristor will be (V,IR, + V.r I RLl . It
should be ensured that this current spike is less than the peak repetitive current rating
(1TRM) of the SCR. Thus if R. is small, the current spike contributed by the discharge of C, will
be large. In order to r educe this spike, R. is normally taken greater than what is required to
limit d uldt . At the same time, value of C. is also reduced so that energy stored in C, is small
and the snubber discharge does not harm SCR when it is turned on. Thus, in the present case,
R, may be chosen somewhat higher than SO, say I on and C, somewhat less than 0.2253 ).1F, say
0.15 ).1F. The adoption of the new value of R, demands a new value of L . From Eq. (4,12),
L=
R, . V, = 103xO~40 = 8 ~H
(d val dt}rrwu
L'
diL
50 = 20 AI~, (duldt)m~ = 2
200 = 100 V I IlS
dt
="2
In order t o r estrict the rate of rise of current beyond specified valu e, (di/dt) inductor must
be i:Jerted in series with thyristor. From Example 4.14,
V,
L = (dil dt)=u =
400 x 10'
25
= 16 ~H
Before thyristor is turned on, C, is charged to 400 V. 'When thyristor is turned on, the peak
current through the thyristor is
400 400 = 140 ~
10 + 4
..
..
[Art. 4.7]
Thyristors
157
As this peak current through SCR is more than the pennissible peak. current of 100 A, the
magnitude of R, must be increased. Taking R, as 8 n, the peak current through the SCR
400
= 400
10 + 8" = 90 A, less than the allowable peak current. So choose R, = 8 o.
Also
The value of C, may be lowered as discussed in the previous example, so C, may be taken
as 0.30 ~F.
At the instant switch S is closed, Fig. 4.26, thyristor is open circuited and current through
C, is given by
du
V, C, dt == R, +RL
o3
or
. x
or
10 6 du = 400
dt 10 + 8
du 400
d =18 x
t
1
6 = 74.07 V/ ~s
0.3 x 10
Since designed value of(du / dt) is less than the specified maximum value oflOD
of C, chosen is correct. So choose L = 10).lH, R, =8 n and C, = 0.31J,F.
V/ ~s ,
value
tr:.
we get
..
t, =20[ 230N x
III
158
[Art.
1.71
Power Eleclronics
rever.ses due to stor ed charges. This reverse recovery curren t rises to a peak value at which
time t he SCR begins to block. After this peak, reverse recovery current decays abruptly with
large dildt . Bec au se of the s eries inductance L of th e SCR circuit, large transient voltage
~~
is produced. As this internal overvoltage may be several tim es the breakover voltage of
The RC circuit, called snubber circuit, is connected across the device to be protected, see
Fig. 4.30. It provid es a local path for internal overvoltages caused by reverse recovery current.
Snubber circuit is also helpful in damping overvoltage transient spikes and for limiting
d u/dt across the thyristor. The capacitor charges at a slow rate and thus the rate of rise of
forward voltage (d u/dt) across SCR is also reduced . The resistance R, damps out the ringing
oscill ations between th e snubber circui t and the stray circuit inductance. Snubber circuits are
also connected acr os s trans fonner secondary terminals to suppress overvoltage transients
caused by switch ing on or switching off of the primary winding. As snubber circuits provide
only parti al protection to SCR against transient overvoltages, thyristor protection against such
overlOltages must be upgraded. This is done with the help of voltagec1amping devices .
Current
"
,,
,
.~
a:
~
'E Rrsistonet.,
~
!;
u
"i
,,
'
"
.
.,
\ ,.
"
".
Vo llage
,,
,,
,,
\
'",
Prok loull
current
......
without any
1
luse
,."'0 ",
,
,,,
'.
.'
\
I
o L~let
:inqL !,rein~
I IIml , t,;J"'" tme, t o
~C [ or l nc:;J
In)
lime
lim!!:
Ib)
an.! yoltr:!3istance char acteri s tics of voltagedamping de'lice
Thyristors
[A ct. 4.7]
159
A voltageclamping (V. C.) device is a nonline ar resistor connected across SCR as shown in
Fig. 4.30. The v.e. device has falling resistance characteristic with incr easing voltage, F ig. 4.28
(a). Under normal working conditions of voltage below the clamping level, the device has a high
resistance and draws only a small leakage current. When a voltage surge appears , the v.c.
device operates in the low resistance region and produces a virtual short circuit across the S CR.
The incr eased current associated with virtual short circuit produces an increased voltage drop
in the source a nd lin e impedances and as a r esult, voltage across SCR is clamped to a safe value.
After the su rge en ergy is dissipated in the nonlinear resistor, the operation of the V.C. device
returns t o its high resistance region . Selenium thyrector diodes, metal oxid e varistors or
avalan ch e diode s uppre ssors are commonly employed for protecting the thyristor circuit
against overvoltages. As the voltage clamping ability of a thyrector is inferior to those of metal
oxide varistor and avalanchediode suppressor, use of thyrector is on the decline.
It has already been stated that RC snubber is not enough for overvoltage protection ofSCR.
In practic, therefore , a combined protection co nsisting of RC snubber and V.C . device is
provided to thyristors as shown in Fig. 4.30.
160
[Art. 4.7]
P ower Electronics
~~
may be
high; as a result arcing voltage would be excessive. It should therefore be ensured during fuse
design a~d coordination that arcing voltage is limited to less than twice the peak supply
voltage. In case voltage rating of the fuse is far in excess of circuit voltage, an abrupt current
interruption would lead to dangerous overvoltages.
When both circuit break er and fastacting currentlimiting fuse are used for overcurrent
protection of SCR, Fig. 4.30, the faulty circuit must be cleared before any damage is don e to the
device. A circuit breaker has long tripping time, it is therefore generally used for protecting the
semiconductor devi ce against the continuous overloads or against sur ge currents of long
duration. A fastacting C.L. fus e is used for protecting thyristor s against large surge currents
of very short duration. The tripping time of the circuit breaker, the fu singtime of the
fastacting fuse must be pr o ~e rly coordinated with the rating of a thyristor. In order that fuse
protects the thyristor reliab ly, the [2t rating of the fuse must be less than that"Of the SCR.
Electronic crowbar protection. As thyristor possesses high surge current capability, it
can be used in an electronic crowbar circuit for overcurrent protection of power converters using
SCRs. An electronic crowbar protection provides rapid isolation of the power converter before
any damage occurs.
Main fusr
+
Crowbar
thyristor'"
Convtr
t ..
Powrr
l
jb Got!Ci rTri~f!r
cuit
A
terminals. A current sensing resist or
detects the value of converter current. If it r 0
exceeds preset value, gate circuit provides
Currrnt
the signal to crowbar SCR and turns it on in
'srnSlng
rrglSt rr
a few microseconds . The input terminals
Fig. 4.29. Elementary electronic crowbar circuit.
are then shortcircuited by crowbar SCR
I J
,
:
C. 8 .
i
'
;I
Snubber cirC'Jit ,
~. .. :\.. _...,
,
,
~ inductor
, UUV
F.A.C.L.Fi
L __._ ____ __ .i
Gol e Protection
H 5
SeR
L~ :
~
c
>
'
,:
,
,,,
,
... . _. _ _ _ _ __ __    _ _ _    ...I
~  .
_.  
Thyristors
(Art. 4.7J
161
and it shunts away the converter overcurrent. The crowbar thyristor current depends upon the
source voltage and its impedance. After some time, main fuse interrupts the fault current. The
fus e may be replaced by a circuit breaker if SCR has adequate surge current rating.
4.7.4. Gate Protection
Gate circuit should also be protected against overvoltages and overcurrents. Overvoltages
across th e gate circuit can cause false triggering of the SCR. Overcurrent may raise junction
temperature beyond specified limit leading to its damage. Protection against overvoltages is
achieved by connecting a zener diode ZD across the gate circuit. A resistor R2 connected in
series with the gate circuit provides protection against overcurrents.
A comm on problem in thyristor circuits is that they suffer from spurious, or noise, fi ring.
Turningon or turningoff of an SCR may induce trigger pulses in a nearby SCR. Sometimes
transients in a power circuit may also cause unwanted signal to appear across the gate of a
neighbouring SCR. These undesirable trigger pulses may turn on the SCR leading to false
operation of the main SCR. Gate protection against such spurious firing is obtained by using
shielderl cables or twisted ~ate leads. A varying flux caused by nearby transients cannot pass
through twisted gate leads or shielded cables. As such n o e.m.f. is induced in these cables and
spurious firing of thyristors is thus minimised. A capacitor and a resistor are also connected
across gate to cathode to bypass the noise signals, Fig. 4.30. The capacitor should be less than
0.1 ~F and must not deteriorate the waveshape of the gate pulse.
Example 4.17. For the circuit shown in Fig. 4.31,
10 A o.15 )JF
(a) calculate the maximum ualues of dil dt and
d ol dt for the SCR,
(b) find the rms and atJerage current ratings of
the SCR for firing angle delays of90"and 150" and
SCR
(~;L =[~)
2"
n. As
For firing angle delays of 90 and 150:, the conduction angles are 90 and 30C respectively
and from Example 4.9, the respective values of iorm factors are rt/{2 and 3.98184.
'1'2 . 115 '1'2
:. For firing angle delay of 90, iT,w =
=73.211 A
'1'2 . 115
ITAv= 3.98184 =40.8l!4 A
162
[Art. 4.7]
Power Electronics
RMS current rating of the thyristor is 115...[2 = 162.634 A for any conduction angle, but
average currents aTe 73.211 A for conduction angle of 90 and 40.844 A for conduction angle
of 30.
(e) Voltage rating of the SCR = (2.5 to 3) times the peak working voltage
= (2.5 to 3) x 12230 =813.173 V to 975.807 V.
So a voltage rating of about 900 V may be chosen for the SeR.
Example 4.18. For the circuit shown in Fig. 4.32 (a), the initial voltage across capacitor
is Uc (0) =  100 V. Sketch the time variations of i, ULI Vel iD and iL after the thyristor is turned
onatt=O.
Solution. When the thyristor is turned on at t =0, the voltage equation for the circuit is
1 f 'd
L di
dt + C t t
=V
or
1 [1(5) C ",(0)] V,
5
=;1(5) + C +
1(. ) =
V, L
"N .
1
s+LC
2
300
=T '
lIvLC
2
~LCs+LC
.
Vl'Yc
3001/
.,~ L....".L'~_'_+~
T(1~______L~~~~
o
iLk:: .
"2
(b)
(0)
300 .
Its Laplace inverse is ,'(t) = "',;sm "'ol
h
were
"'0 = ~LC
diet)
"L
The current and voltage waveforms are as shown in Fig. 4.32 (b). At 1i: / 2, uL tends to reverse
and as a result, diode D gets forward biased and current i L starts flowing through D as iD ' uL
is therefore zer o from 1t/2 to 'It. Voltage u~ remain,:; 200 V and current i zero from 1t/2 to 7t as
shown in Fig. 4.32 (b ).
Thyristors
[Art. 4.8J
163
'.
. "
4.8.1.1. Highergate current. At the start of turn on, if
P1lot
Man
!hyris~or
thynstcr
highergate current is applied, turnedon area of cathode surface
/
.' . .........
has to be more for handling this highergate current. As a consequence, initial cathodeconduction area for allowing anode curr e n~ to pass through it, increases, and this is what is desired. The
widely used gate current profile is shown in Fig. 4.7. However, FJom gc!e..eny ~ elfe!.: .!
K
big.her gate current should not be obtained from a gate drive
circuit . The usual way of accomplishing this goal of highergate Fig. 4.33. l'o'fain thyristor turn
current is through the use of a pilot thyristor shown in Fig. 4.33.
2n by pilot thyristor.
When pilot thyristor is turned on, a high value of gate current
flows from anode A, pilot thyristor and gatecathode terminals of main thyristor for switching
Hoo.
. '
4 .8.1.2. Structural m odification of the device . As stated above, the di / dt rating of a
thyristor can be improved by having more cathodeconduction area during delay and rise time
of totl ' This can be achieved by higher.gate current (already discussed ) and by modifying the
gatecathode geometry. This alteration consists of iritermixing, or interdigitating gate and
cathode regions . The effect of this structural change can be r.ealized by examining the initial
conduction process firs t (i) in sidegate thyristor and then (ii) in centregate thyristor.
...
A sidegate thyristor is shown in Fig. 4.34 (a). When gate current is applied , the
gatecu rrent density is higher near the gate terminal. As a r esult, cathodeconduction area is
small during delay and rise time . This :=.llows that initial conduction occurs over a nar row
channel n ear the gate terminal as shown in Fig. 4.34 (a). Refer ence to Fi g. 4.6 and its rele'l;mt
writeup is also helpfuL
A cen tregate thyristor is shown in Fig. 4.34 (b ). \Vhen positive gate pulse is appli ed, the
gate current flows fr om gate to cathode in all possible direc tions covering a ringshaped area
on the cathod e surface as indic a.ted in Fig. 4.34 (b). Exam ination of Fig. 4.34 (0 ) and (b ) shows
that initial ar ea of cathode conduction is very large in centregate thyristor as compared to
that in sid egate thyristor. Thi3 illustrates that initial area of cath ode conduction can be
enhanced significantly by intermixing th: gatecathode reg:ons approp riately.
164
[Art. 4.8]
Anode
Anode
r~P'~~~::::=1An~e
current
fttj J,
p'
Al"IOde
current
r   t t 1 J,
!.!:j"
~;;:=\I J'
t====
f++j J,
J,
Cothode
Initiol cathode
conduction
area
(aJ
( bJ
"
Anode
p.
,g,
p'
p'
J,
o
o
J,
"
Cathode
short
K
K
(a)
.,
0
RA
FIR
I
I/
r
rJ
0
(0)
advanc::!d intermixin g.
Thyristors
(Art. 4.9J
165
In normal structure, discharge current d uldt (acting as gate curren t) flows through J 3
junction, Fig. 4.3 (a), and leads to spurious tum of of SCR. In cathodeshort structure, most
of the discharge current (or displacement current) passes through narrow p channels in
between cathode n regions as shown in Fig. 4.36 (a ). Junction JJ shares only a negligible
amount of dvl dt current. A little discharge current flowing through J 3 junction (and acting as
gate current) is too small to turn on the device. Thus, higher valuos of dul dt are now
pennissible with cathodeshort structure.
The thermally generated leakage current across junction J 2 also does not pass through
gatecathode junction J 3 . Therefore, current injection across gatecathode, or J 3 , junction is
drastically reduced, hence the total discharge current, or dul dt , can be larger without'
turningon the device. It can, therefore, be inferred that cathodeshort structure improves
du / dt rating of the thyristor.
1.9. IIEATING, (,OOLING ANI!
~\OUNTING
(W THYHlSTOnS
Some power loss occurs in a thyristor during its working. The various components of this
power loss in the junction region of a thyristor are as under :
(i) Forward conduction loss
(ii) Loss due to leakage current during forward an~ reverse blocking
(iii) Switching losses at turnon and turnoff
(iu) Gate triggering loss
At industrial power frequencies between zero and 400 Hz, the forward conduction loss, or
onstate conduction loss, is usually the major component. But switching losses become
dominant at high operating frequencies. These electrical loss es produce thermal heat which
must be removed from the junction region. The thermal losses and hence the temperature rise
of the device increase with the thyristor rating. The cooling of thyristors, therefore, becomes
The heat produced in a thyristor by electrical loss is dissipated to ambient fluid (air or
water) by mounting the device on a heat sink. When heat due to losses is equal to that
dissipated by the heat sink, steady junction temperature is reached. Thyristor heating and
hence its junction temperature rise is dependent primarily on current handled by the device
during its working. As Buch, current rating of thyristors is often based on thermal
considerations.
4.9.1. Thermal Resistance
Thermal energy, or heat, flows from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower
temperature. This is similar to the flow of current from higher to lower potential in an electric
circuit. There is thus an analogy between thermalpower flow and current flow as given in
tabular form below :
Eledrnal quantit~s
1.
Heat, J or Ws
1.
2.
3.
4.
2.
3.
4.
Charge, C or As
Potential diffeT~Dce , V
Current. or rate of charge transfer, A
Electrical ~sis tancc, VIA or ohms.
It is seen fr om above that thennal resis tan ce, an alogou3 to electrical resis tanc.e, is the
resistance offer~d to thennal. power flow. Thermal r esis tance is denoted by 8. If p o'~er loss,
166
[A r t. 4.91
Pall in watts, causes the temperature of two points to be at T l C and T 2 C wher e Tl > T2 then
t hermal resistance is given by
9 12 = Tl  T , ' CIW
... (4. 13 )
p~
The heat gener a ted in a thyristor due to internal loss es is t aken to be developed at a
j unction within the semiconductor material A simple arrangement of thyristor, its case and
h ea t si nk is shown in Fig. 4.37 (a) . Various temperatures and thermal r esistanc e are also
indicated in this figure. The heat flow from thyristor junction to ambient fluid is as under:
Tj
a jc
9 0s
,
(b)
(a)
There is thu s therm al resistance 9jc between junction temperature T, and case temperature
Te' Simil arly, ther e is th erm al r esistance eel between Tc and sink te mp erature T! and 901A
between T, and ambient temperature Tk Using the electrical analogy, a thermal equivalent
circuit depicting the flo'.'V or h eat from junction to ambi ent fluid can be drawn as shown in Fig,
4.37 (b). Her e P au is the average r ate of heat generated at a thyristor junction and is analogous
to constantcu rrent source. Here
p
au
_ TJ.TA
9jA
... (4.14)
wh er e
e', A= 9JC + BCol + B_..
is the total thermal r es istance between junction and ambient.
;on .
The junctiontocase thermal resistan.:e 9jc is specified in th e thyristor data sheet. The
cas:tosink therma l r esistance BI'S depends on the size of the device case, flatness of the case
surface, the clam ping pressure and the use of conducting greas e beh. .een the in terfaces. Usual
value orge, vari es between O.0 5 ~C /W and O. 5D C/W. In addition to Bjc , thyristor data sheet also
Thyris tors
[Art. 4.91
167
specify 9u assuming correct installation procedure and use of the interface thermal lubrication.
The sinktoam bient thermal resistance 8sA. is independent of the thyristor configuration. The
parameters on which e. . . depends are heat sink material, surface area and fmish of the heat
sink, volume occupied by heat sink and the type of cooling (air cooling or water cooling). For
naturally cooled heat sink, aaA may be equal to O.5CIW and this valu e would be lower for better
cooled heat sinks.
The difference in temperature between junction and ambient can be written from Fig. 4.37
as
Tr T.=P.,(9.. +9,,+ 9..)
...(4.15)
Eq. (4.15) shows that for maximum valu e ofTj (= 125C), POll can be increased by reducing
BaA. This means that by providing efficient cooling system to the SeR, the power dissipation
capability of the device can be increased.
4.9.2. Heat Sink Specifications
The thyristor data sheet specifies maximum junction temperature Tj t thennal resistances
Bjc arid eell. The manufacturers of heat sinks provide catalogs in which sufficient data on heat
sink is available. Fig. 4.38 gives typical data in the forI\l. of curves for standard heat sinks of
aluminium extrusions. These curves relate temperature difference (T lI  T A) in C between heat
sink and ambient uersus average power dissipation POll in watts.
100
,v
Cur vt
Sink
dl"""';;'on'""1
h.......
IOxlOxl0
1 .. 15.5xI5. 5_22.5
160
120
In order to illustrate the use of these curves, choose a particular h eat sink and read POll
and (T,  TA ). Then the thermal resistance of th e h eat sink to ambient is' calculated as
T lI  TA
~=p
( ~l m
168
[Art. 4.9)
In the seconu m ethod of heat sink design, first average armature current is determined
from a known current waveform and conduction angle. Corresponding to this average current,
P cz,; is read off from Fig. 4.19. For this P fW thermal resistance aaA is determined from Eq. (4.15)
as temperatures Tj (= 125C), TA and 9ft. eu are already known . This computed value of 8sA is
used to obtain temperature difference (T..  T A ) between heat sink and the ambient from Eq.
(4.16). Using these values of Pau and (T,  TA ), an appropriate heat sink is selected from Fig.
4.38, the details of which are usually supplied by the manufacturers.
In the third method of h eat sink selection, first compute average armature current as done
in the second method. For this value of average cUrrent, obtain Pou from Fig. 4.19 and case
temperature Tc from Fig. 4.20 for the known current waveform and conduction angle. An
examination of Fig. 4.38 r eveals that the sink temperature T, in terms of case temperature
T( is given by
...(4 .17)
As ambient temperature is known. (T,  T),) can be calculated. Now, with the knowledge
of Fau and (T.  T A ) . a cl:.oice of suitable heat sink can be made from Fig. 4.38.
Heat sinks are made from metal with high thermal conductivity. Aluminium is the most
commonly used metal. Copper, being a costly metal. is seldom used as a heat sink. material.
Heat dissipation from heat sink takes place primarily by convection. As such, thyristor cooling
by convection can be made more effective by enlarging the cooling surface area by providing
the heat sink with peripheral fins. Heat dissipation also takes place by radiation. Heat sinks
are usually provided with black anodized. finish to enhance the heat dissipation by radiation.
Sometimes the size of naturallycooled finned heat sink may become large. In such a case,
size of the heat sink can be reduced by using forced air cooling which involves a fan ~l owin g
air over the fins . With forced air cooling, heatremoving capability of the finned heat sink
incr eases by a fact or of two t o three. For dissipating large loss es 10 highpower thyristors ,
watercooling is usually employedto get a compact size of the heat sink.
4.9.3. Thyristor Mounting Techniques
Internal pow er losses in a thyristor cause high thermal stresses which further give rise to
mechanical for ces. A thyristor must be braced to withstand such mechanical forces. In addition,
SCR mountin g must be so designed as to facilitate heat flow from junction to the case.
Depending upon the low or high power ratings of thyristors, there are five major mounting
techniques for SCRs as described below :
(0 ) Leadmounting, For loadc~ent rating of about one ampere', leadmounted SeRs are
used, Fig. 4.39 (a ). Such SCRa do not require any additional cooling or heat sink. Their h ousings
to its fl exibility and ruggedoess . The threaded stud forms the anode. The SCR is attached to
a h eat sink by means of threaded stud and nut. Thus anod e gets electrically connected to the
heat sink. If electrical connection between anode and h eat sink is undesirable then mica or
PTFE washers are used in betwee"n the joini."'lg surfaces. Both .mica and PTFE conduct heat
easily put act as insulators to electricity.
(c ) Boltdown mountin.g. This is als o called flatpack m ounting. This type of device
mounting has tabs \vith one or more holes. Sometimes the hole is provided in the middle a3
169
[Art. 4.9]
Th:.. ristors
Teb
H. S.l.
Holt
(lI
HOlE
er
C AG
(0 )
CA G
(0)
(b)
C
0
G
a
HE
SCR
~ H .S.
C
HE: T . SINK
~)
shown in Fig. 4.39 (c). Bolts are pu shed through these holes so as to mount the device on to
heat sink with nuts etc. In case the device is to be insulated from the heat sink, a thin insulating
mica or PTFE washer is used between the device and heat sink and the bolt is made up of
nylon. This type of mounting is used for small and medium ratings.
(d) Pressfit mounting. Pressfit (or pressurefit) package is designed for insertion into an
appropriate sized hole in the heat sink. The insertion may be done by using a vice and pressing
the device into the hole using wooden block etc. For large sizes, the insertion is carried out by
means of a hydraulic r am. This type of mounting is used for large rated thyristors. Fig. 4.39
(d) illustrates pressfit mounting of SCRs.
(e) Presspak mounting. This type of mounting is also called "disc" or "hockeypuck"
mounting because of its shape. The SCR is clamped between t\l'O heat sinks, Fig. 4.39 (e) .and
external pressure is applied evenly so that there is no deformation of any part. The heat sinks
may be air, wateT or oil coolfi'd. Such type of mounting is used for thyristo rs of very high current
ratin gs.
170
[Ac!. 4.9J
Power Electronics
Example 4.19. The data sheet for a thyristor gives the following values:
T
Jm = 12S'C
9j<=O. l SC/ W
Be.. =O.075C/W
(a) For average power dissipation of 120 W: check whether the selection of heat sink g from
Fig. 4.38 is satisfactory. Use first method of heat sink selection with ambient temperature of
40 C.
(b) A sinusoidal voltage source 0(230 V. 50 Hz feeds power to a resistiue load of R = 2 n.
For a firing angle delay of zero degree, choose a suitable heat sink and find the circuit efficumcy.
(e) For the heat sink chosen in part (a), compute case and junction temperatures in case
the firing angle delay is 60.
Solution. (0 ) For the' heat sink g , Fig, 4.38 gives a value of
T .. TA=54C for Prlu =120W.
From Eq. (4.16),
9. . = :2~ =
O.4, CIW.
125  40
p o. = (0.15 + 0.075 + 0.45)  125.93 W.
As this computed value of Pall is different from the previous value of 120 W, another heat
sink, say f, for which T,  TAo = 58e for Pav = 120 W should be tried .
58
9... = 120 = 0.483
Po,
125  40
I
TAo V=
1 f ' Vm .
Vm 'l'2x 230
2it 0 Ii: sm rot dlcot) = rtR = 7t X 2
.. A
=51.77 =. . 2
9...
= 1259~ 40 
(0.225)
= 0.7194'
CIW
For T,  TA = 64.75e and Pr;J.u= 90 W, Fig. 4.38 shows that heat sink c should be selected.
The use of third method of heat. sink selection is also demonstrated. First I~A~ is calculated
as in the second method. F or this current, Pall = 90 W from Fig. 4.19 (b) and T( =112e from
Fi g. 4.20 (b). Now sm.< temperature from Eq. (4.17) is
T. = 112 90 x 0.075 =105.25'C
and
For T,  TA = 65.25C and Pcw = 90 W, Fig. 4.3B shows that heat sink c should be chosen. As
expected, this agrees with the choice made by the use of second m ethod.
Thyrist nrs
[Art. 4.9J
V;
P~I,R~R
wher e
v,~[;<J:v;.Sin'wtd(wt)r ~ ~m
P= (V2mJ' .lR ~ (230'if)'
1. = 13225 W .
2) 2
13225
:. Circuit efficiency
(e)
171
230>12
,
2< . 2 (1 + cos 60 ) =38.82 A.
POll
86' C.
T) =T" + Pall'
S)C
This example demonstrates that selection of heat sink by second and third methods is more
simpler than by the first method.
Example 4.20. For a thyristor, maximum junction temperature is 125C. The thermal
resistances for the thyristorsink combination are Sjc = 0.16 and SCI = O.OBoe I W. For a heatsink
temperature of 70C, compute the total average power loss in the thyristorsink combination.
In case the hea t sinh temperature is brought down to 60C by forced cooling, find the
perce ntage increase in the device rating.
Solution . From the equivalent circuit of Fig. 4.37 (b )
T j = T~ + POll (Sjc + 9c~)
125  70
p. ol ~ 0.16 + 0.08 = 229.17 W
Thus total average power los5 in the thyristorsink combination is 229.17 W. With improv ed
cooling,
P" , ~
125  60
0.24
=270.83 W.
Thyristor r atin g is proportional to the square root of aver age power loss.
:. P ercentage increase in thyristor rating
= "270.83  " 229.1 7 100 = 8 71a
'1229.17
x
. ".
172
[Art. 4.10J
Power Electronics
applications, the demand for voltage and current ratings is so high that a single SCR cannot
fulfll such requirements . In sucn cases, SeRs are connected in series in order to meet the h.v.
demand and in parallel for fulfilling the high current demand. For series or parallel connected
SeRs, it should be ensured that each SCR rating is fully utilized and the system operation is
satisfactory. String efficiency is a tenn that is used for measuring the degree of utilization of
SeRs in a string. String efficiency of SeRs connected in series/parallel is defined as
string efficiency
_
Actual voltage/current rating of the whole string
 [Individual voltage/current rating of one SCR J [Number of SCRs in the stringJ
In practice, this ratio is less than one. For obtaining highest possible string efficiency, the
SCRs connected in s eries/parallel string must have identical J V characteristics. As SCRa of the
same ratings and specifications do not have identical characteristics, unequal voltage/current
sh aring is bound to occur for all SeRs in a string. As a consequence, string efficiency can never
be equal to one. However, unequal voltage/current sharing by the SCRs in a string can be
minimised to a great extent by using external equalizing circuits.
Even in a string provided with external equalizing circuits, the string efficiency is less than
unity. For a given system, if one extra unit is added to the series7paraUel string, the
voltage/current shared by each device would become lower than its normal rating. The use of
this extra unit will certainly improve the reliability ofthe string though at an increased cost. A
measure of the reliability of string is given by a factor called derating factor DRF defined as
under :
DRF = 1  string efficiency
For example, for a string voltage of 3300 V, let there be six seriesconnected SeRa, each of
600 V rating.
:. String efficiency
and
3300 , /
= 600 x 6 = 0.917 or 91.7 %
DRF = 1  0.917 = 0.083 or 8.3%
If one extra unit is connected in series with the same system voltage, then string efficiency
3300
= 600 x 7 = 0.786 or 78.6% and DRF = 1  0.786 = 0.214 or 21.4%.
With the addition of extra SCR, DRF has increased from 8.3% to 21.4%, indicating higher
reliability of the string, though at an extra cost.
The object of this section is to study the problems concerning the serieslparallel operation .,
of SCRs and to discuss the measures adopted to overcome these proble m ~.
4.10.1. Series Operation
When system voltage is more than the voltage rating of a single thyristor, SCRs are
conne cte d in seri es in a string. As stated b e fore , thes e SCRs should ha ve thei r J  V
characteristics as close as possible. On account of inherent variations in their characteristics,
the voltage shared by each SCR may not be equal. For ins tance, consider two SeRs with their
static 1 V characteristics as shown in Fig. 4.40. For SCRl, leakage resistance (= VI I lo) is high
whereas for SCR2, it is low (V 2/ Jc). F or the same lea.\cage current 10 in the series connected
Thyristors
[Art. 4.10]
173
l
(b)
(a)
VI +
2V
V, _!( V,)
2 I +V
This shows that even though SCRs have identical ratings, voltage shared by each is not the
.
same and string efficiency is therefore less than one.
174
[Art. 4.10]
Power Electr onics
~~~.. ,~
: 
. ~
,
,,I
( Ibmn
,,
,,
!":~
..J"' :
St ri~
I,
'
I,
~VbmJ
,.c'
I .r'"
,
I,
cu r r. l:nt
"I,
,
,,
I,
...
;.~ St r in 9 voltagl: Vs .~,
=(n 
1) 1.JI
For a string voltage V.. the voltage equation for the series circuit of Fig. 4.41 is
where
As
or
= n Vbm 
V..
.. .(4 .18)
(n  1) . t> I,
The SCR data sheet contains only maximum blocking current I bmx and rarely 11 lb' In such
a case, it is usual to assume 11 Ib =Ibrru: witll Ibmn = O. With this, the value of R calculated from
Eq. (4.18 ) is low . than what is actually required. The value of minimum leakage, or blocking,
current Ibm may be acquired from manufacturers if required, but data sheet does not give its
value.
Once the value of R is alculated, its power rating is given by
V;
PR =1f
where
V,
R.
It is likely that SCRs do not have identical dynamic characteristics. In such a case,
series connected SCRs will have unequal voltage distribution during the transient conditions
of turnon, turnoff and high frequency operation. The dynamic characteristics of two SCRs
during turnon are shown in Fig. 4.42 (a ) where it is assumed that turnon time ofSCR2 is more
than that of SCR1 by 11 td . Before these two SCRs are gated, string voltage V, is shared as
V, 12 by each thyristor as shown. Now both SCRs are gated at the same time . F,:, SCR1 has less
turnon tim e, it gets turnedon at instant tlo whereas SCR2 is yet off. Voltage across SCR1 drops
from V,/ 2 to alm ost zero. At the same inst~t t I , voltage across off SCR2 win boost from V, / 2
to almost full V s' Thus , the voltage shared by two SCRs are unequal. Mer instant t I , voltage
V, a cross SCR2 m ay turn it on in .c ase V, is greater than its breakover voltage. S CR2 will ,
however, get turn ed on a t time (t t + 11 td ) as assumed> Fig. 4.42 (a ).
During t urnoff, thyristor characteristics are shown in Fig. 4.42 (b ). SCR1 is as sumed to
h ave less turnoff time t q l than that ofSCR2, i. e. tql < t q2 . At instant t 2 , SCR1 h as recovere d and
is pa.5sin g through zer o vol tage whereas SCR2 is developing revers e recovery volt age xy. At
0;
[Art. 4. 10J
Thyris:ors
175
ing
loge
... tt.ldet
Anode
voltage
V,
,,I
!
,
I ,
I
,
I f,
I
",
,,:
,
:: ~l1
,., .,
,,
I
An ode
'ojloge
I':
, ,
~ 2
. ,,Y
, I tl:
'
,
:C
Anode
tunen\
: i
:" I
,I
::
:
:,
,,t
q2!
, tq 1"""",,
':
v,
F,
: I
t2
,
:
,. 1/ :
, .,...2 ..
~
(a)
,I
(b)
"
Fig. 4.42. Unequal voltage distribution for two series connected SCRs during
(a)
instant t l in Fig. 4.42 (b), both SCRs are developing different reverse recovery voltages given
byab for SCRl and ac for SCR2 as shown, so the two SCRs have unequal voltages across them
at tl ' It is thus seen that .SCRs with different characteristics during tumofT time suffer from
unequal voltage distribution during their turnoff processes. It may thus be concluded from
above that seriesconnected SCRs do suffer from unequal voltage distribution acros s them
during their turnon and turnoff processes and also during their highfrequency operation
which means more frequent turningon and turningoff of the devices.
A simple resistor as shown in Fig. 4.41 for static voltage equalization cannot maintain
equal voltage distribution under transient condition . Duritig turnon and turnoff, the
capacitance of the reverse biased junctions determines the voltage distribution across SCRs
in a series connected string. As reverse biased junctions are likely to have different
capacitances, called selfcapacitances, the voltage distribution during tumon and turnoft:
periods would be unequal. Voltage equalization under these conditions can, however, be
achieved by employing shunt capacitors as shown in Fig. 4.43. This capacitance has the effect
of removing the inequalities in thyristor selfcapacitances. In other words , during tumon and
turnoff periods, the resultant of shunt capacitance and selfcapacitance of each SCR tend to
be equal for each of the series connected SeRs. Thus the shunt capacitors playa dominant
role in equalizing the voltage distribution across the seriesconnected thyris tors during their
turnon and turnoff processes.
When any SCR is in the forward blocking state, the capacitor connected across it gets
charged to a voltage existing across that SCR. When this SCR is turned on, capacitor discharges
heavy current through this SCR. For limiting this discharge current spike, a damping r es istor
Rc is used in series with capacitor C as shown in Fig. 4.43. Resi stor Rc also damps out the
high frequency oscillations that mily arise du e to the series combination of R e , shunt capacitor
and circuit inductance. Combination of Rc and C is called the dynamic equaliz ing circuit and
is shown in Fig. 4.43 (a ). Note L1.at the function of Rc and C us ed in Fig. 4.43 is to equalize
the voltage during dynamic (or transient) cond itions and to protect the thyris tors against high
du ldt.
176
Power Electronics
[Act. 4.10}
Dynamic equall zing
circuit
\.
r  . ,
,
j
,,
' D,
,,
c>
,,
;, C =,
c
,
:
,,,
,
:
,
==i,
,,
'D!
2) ,,,
(4)
,!
,,
,,
,,
,
r '    ~ ' ~  .
,,
,
Rc
R
C
,
,
,,,,
,
:
r 
,
,
,:
',{ ,
,
D~
L. ____ C __
~_
,,
,
__ J,
,,
Rc
D
2
>R
C
,\ Revers e recovery
curr en'
reCO,Yery
current
(b)
Fig. 4.43. Dynamic and static equalizing circuits for seriesconnected SCRs.
A diode D is also placed across Re When forward voltage appears.,diode byPasses Rc
during charging time of the capacitor C. This makes the capacitor more effective' ui'Yoltage
equalization and for limiting du/dt across SCR. However, during capacitor discharge,Rc comes
into play for limiting the current spike and rate of cbange of current di/dt. During turnoff
period, when all SCRs are developing r everse voltage, the reverse recovery current ir flows
through all series connected SeRs as shown in Fig. 4.43 (a). However, if one SOR recovers
early, it will not allow the passage of ir from ~he other SORs. If SORI is assumed to recover
fully and earlier than other SORs, then reverse recovery current due to other SCRs can pass
through R connected across SCRI as shown in Fig. 4.43 (b ). In this figure, i, may flow through
C, Rc also in case the conditions are favourable. For simplicity, only two SORs are shown in
Fig. 4.43. The existence of reverse recovery current is desirable as it facilitates the turningoff
process of the seriesconnected SOR string.
)'
, ..
(
[Art. 4.10)
Thyristors
17i
Anode
current
r' .
~
'c. ,
V,
.r
i, =c
+
~I
~ __ _
_ .J
t,
.r
+
~2
=c
LRcvcrsc
recoonry
curr~nt
(a)
(b )
V'm  '"cQ (less than V'm shared by fast thyristor 1). Thus, in Fig. 4.44 (a),
Q
and voltage across slow bottom thyristor 2, V2 = Vb~  6 C
: . String vol tage,
or
an d
Vs
In order to aid the reverse recovery process of the thyristor s in a string, the string voltage
reverses in polarity as shown in Fig. 4.44 (a ).
Now consider that there are n seriesconnected SeRa in a string as shown in Fig. 4.45 . If
top S CR h as characteristics similar to SCRI of Fig. 4.44 (b) and the r emaining (n  1) SCRs
h ave ch aracteristics similar to SCR2 of Fig. 4.44 (b), then SCRI would r ecover first and support
a voltage Vbm. The charge (n  1) 6 Q fr om the remaining (n  1) thyristors would pass through
C connected across top fast SCRI and as a result, a voltage (n  1) 11 QI C would be induced in
C. As befon.::excess charge contributed by each on e of the (n 1 ) thyristors is 60 Q, therefore,
the voltage aCrOSS each one of the slow thyristors is
(V.
m 
"'cQ ) as shown in
a string of n seriesconnected thyristors, voltage across fast top thyristor I,V } =Vbm
voltage across each one of the slow thyristors . V2 is
v., = Vbm  ~
C
and voltag e across (n  1) slow thyris tors
=(n 
1) Vo;!
178
[MI. 4.10]
V,
=V, + (n 
1)
V,
and
~CQ)
=~[V
(n l)~
Ql
n
,+
C
C = (n 1) ~ Q.
n V bm
Vs
... (4.19)
V,
(Vbm 
, .......
.
~cQ)
2
=V, + (n n
or
V,
1) ~
V~
,
C
=
v,
<
or
or
V bm
= 1'1
C=
,
"
t =,
" ,i C
= .......
.
"
C ~
' c
(n  1). ~Q
=l[v
n
Ci=
,
,
__ .l
r
;:: (n_~ t. Q
n. V bm 
.. .(4.20)
Q_~
nC
,+
(n l)~Ql
C
C = (n 1). ~Q
n,Vbm V,
[Art. 4.10]
Thyristors
]79
~: i.
I .... b t
V,
. _ ..9
, '
..
., ,
LL..J....;'vc,   V
(bl
(0)
dJQ
.ia1
,
I
(el ,
11+1'=!(1+
I,)
211
2
II
Now consider n parallel connected SCRs. For satisfactory operation of these SCRs, they
should get turned on at the same moment. The importance of their simultaneous turn on can
be explained with an example. Consider that SCRI has large turnon time whereas the
r emaining (n 1) SCRs have low turnon time. Under this assumption, (n  1) SeRs will turn
on first but one SCR1 with longer t~on time is likely to remain off. The voltage drop across
(n  1) SCRs falls to a low value and SCR1 is therefore subjected to this low voltage. For a given
gate drive power, anode to cathode must have Some minimum forward voltage, called finger
voltage, for a thyristor to turnon. If voltage across SCRl drops to a value less than its finger
voltage, then this thyristor will not tum on. As a consequence, the remaining (n  1) SeRs,
w~ich are already on, will have to share the entire load current. A$ such, the~e SCRs may be
overloaded and damaged because of heating caused by overcurrents.
If one SCRI in a parallel unit carries more current than. other SCRs, then this SCRI will
have greater junction temperature rise. As a result, its dynamic resi~.tance (= dVrldIa ) during
forward conduction, Fig. 4.46 (c) decreases and this further increases the current shared by this
SCR. In Fig. 4.46 (c), dynamic resistance is oalab wd current shirred is 1'. Because of junction
temperature rise, its dynamic resistance decreases to oalac and current shared by SCRl
increases to 1". This process of anode current rise becomes cumulative and subsequently the
junction temperature of SCRI exceeds its rated value; as a r esult SCRl is damaged. This
sequence of events may engulf another SCR and in this manner all SCRs in the string may be
destroyed permanently. Therefore, wh.3 SeRs are to be operated in parallel, it should be
ensured that they operate at the same temperature. This CfUl be achieved by mounting the
parallel unit on one common heat sink..
Unequal current distribution in a parallel unit is .also caused by the inductive effect of
current carrying conductors. Vlhen SeRs are arranged unsymmetrically as shown in Fig. 4.47
(a), the middle conductor will have more inductance because of more flu.'C linkages fro m two
nearby conductors. A3 a consequence, less current flows through the middle SCR as compar::d
to ou ter two SCRs . This unequal current distribution can be avoided by mounting the SC R.s
symmetrically on the heat sin.., ., shown in Fig. 4.47 (b).
180
(Art. 4.10)
+
(Heat sink
oJ
o
1
(a)
(b)
(b)
(c)
In ae circuits, current distribution can be made more uniform by the magnetic coupling of
the parallel paths as shown in Fig. 4.47 (c). The tapped point A is the mid point of the reactor.
H anode currents are such that II = 12 , then flux produced by two halves of the reactor oppose
each other. As A is the mid point, opposing flux linkages cancel and there is therefore no voltage
drop in the reactor. If currents II and 12 Bre unequal, say 11 > 12 then resultant flux linkages
are not zero. These flux linkages induce emfs in Ll and L2 as shown. Emf across reactor L l
opposes the flow of 11 whereas that across L2 aids the flow of 1a. There is thus a tendency to buck
1! and boost 12 so as to minimise the unbalance of currents in the parallel unit .
When three or more SeRs are connected in parallel, reactors can be arz:anged accordingly
so as to minimise the current unbalance.
Example 4.21. A string of four seriesconnected thyristors is provided with static and
dynamic equalizing circuits. This string has to withstand an offstate uoltage of 10 k V. The static
equalizing resistance is 25000 n and the dynamic equalizing circuit has Rc = 40 nand
C =0.08~. The leakage currents for four thyristors are 21 mA, 25 mA, 18 rnA and 16 rnA
respectiuely. Determine voltage across each SCR in the offstate and the discharge current of
each capacitor at the time of turnon.
Solution. Let 1 be the string cur r ent in the offstate. Then c'urrent through
static' equalizing resistanc e R of25000 n is (Ileakage current), current through each SCR is its
own leakage current and no current flows through series r')mbination of Rc and C.
:. Voltage across
Voltage across SCR1
Voltage .across SCR2
Voltage across SCR3
Voltage across SCR4
= (0.12 
..' '.
Thyristors
[Art. 4.10J
181
2:~5 = 61875 A
Similarly, discharge currents through thyristors 2, 3 and 4 are respectively 59.375 A, 63.75
A and 65 A.
Example 4.22. SCRs with a rating of 1000 Vand 200 A are available to be used in a string
to handle 6 k V and 1 kA. Calculate the number of series and parallel units required in case
derating factor is (a) 0.1 and (b) 0.2.
0.1=1
6000 =1  1000
n, x 1000
np x 20.0
np = 200
(b)
np = 200
With higher value of DRF. more SCRs are required and therefore voltage and current
shared by each device are lower than their normal rating. This increases the string reliability
though at an increased investment.
Example 4.23. It is required to operate 2S0A SCR in parallel with 350A SCR with their
respective onstate voltage drops of 1.6 Vand 1.2 V. Calculate the valu.e of resistance to be
inserted.in series with each SCR so that they share the total load of 600 A in proportion to their
current ratings.
Solution.
Dynamic resistance of 250A SCRt
Dynamic resistance of 350A SCR2
Let R be the resistance inserted in series with each SCR. With this, current shared by
12
+R
SCRI = 600
350 .
~ 250
Tota l res13tance
1. 6
SCR2 = 600
? ~O
_0.
~ 350
182
Power Electronics
[Act. 4.11]
1.2
From above,
Its simplification gives
350+
1.6 R
250 +
250 5
==350 7'
R = 0.004 n.
to cathode.
(b) Gate pul'Se width must be more than the turnon time of an SCR. This will ensure that
anode current exceeds the latching current before gate signal is removed.
Cc) Anode to cathode voltage must be more than finger voltage. A finger voltage is that
voltage below which an SCR cannot be .turned on with 'a gate signaL
(d) Magnitude of gate current must be more than the minimum gate current required to
turnon a thyristor, otherwise the thyristor tumon will not be reli able.
(e) Magnitude of gate current must be less than the maximum gate current allowed,
otherwise gate circuit may. be damaged.
In a P UT, G is always biased positive with respect t o cathode. "'Vhen anode voltage exceeds
the gate volt age by a bout 0.7 V,junction J 1 gets forward biased and PUT turns on. When anode
.
voltage beco mes less than gate vo ltage, PUT is turned off.
[Art. 4,IIJ
Thyristors
18J
P
G
J,
10
n
p
J2
10
'iT
Va
Va
J3
L_ _ _ _.
..~J
K
~)
Fig. 4.48. (a) Schematic diagram (b) circuit symbol and (e) J V characteristics of a PUT.
A
10
+1
G
p
10
G
va
__ J
 Va
L.
Va
K K K
~
00
.!
,I
,
184
Power Electronics
[Art. 4.IIJ
A
J,
ON
~.
n
AG
J,
KG
AG
 Vo
Vo
puls.e
0"
K&
10
(0)
Fig. 4.50 .
~L
ON
pulse
OFF
pulse
(b)
(~)
(c)
(e) J. V
characteristic of an SCS.
Its ratings are about 100 V and 200 rnA. This can be operated like an OR gate. Its
applications include :
(i) timing, logic and triggering circuits
(iu)
oscillators etc.
Vo
I.
(0 )
(b)
Fig. 4.51. (a) Circuit symbol and (b) IV characteristic of LASCR
Thyristors
[A n . 4.11]
185
10
,I
,
,
,I
!,
:~
n'
pnpn

~~V':O~2;=======_+~~~==~~~
Va
Vaal Va
pop"';
10
00
00
00
Fig. 4.52. (0) Crosssectional view (b ) circuit symbol and (c) ,! V characteristics of a di ac.
19'1
191
Igo =O
MT2
 lgO
19 1
1 92
G
MTI
(0 )
1 0
.
(b)
F'ig. 4.53. (a ) Circuit symbol and ( b) static 1 V ch aracteris tics of a t:ri ~c.
186
(Art. 4.111
MTI
triac can conduct in bo th the directions, the terms anode and
ca thode are not applicable to triac. Its three terminals are usually
designated as MTl (main terminal 1), MT2 and the gate by G as
in a thyristor. For understanding the operation of the triac, its
crosssectional view sh owing all the layers and junctions is
sketched in Fig. 4.54. The gate G is near terminal MTl. .The
cfosshatched strip shows that G is connected to N3 as well as P2.
P.
Similarly. terminal MTI is connected to P2 and N z i terminal MT2
to Pi and N 4 .
N,
With no signal to gate, the triac will block both half cycles of
the ae appli ed voltage in case peak value of this voltage is less than
the breakov cr voltage orvBD l or V BD2 of the triac, Fig. 4.53 (b). The
triac can, however, be turned on in each half cycle of the applied Fig. 4.54. Crosssectional
voltage by ap plying a pos itive or negative voltage to the gate with
view of a triac.
respect to terminal MTl. For convenience, terminal MTI is taken
as the poi nt for measuring the voltage and current at the gate and MT2 terminals.
The tumo n process of a triac can be explained as under :
(i) MT2 is positi ve and gate current is also positive. When MT2 is positive with respect to
MTI, junction PI NI, P2 N2 are forward biased but junction N I P2 is reverse biased. When
gate terminal is positive with respect to MTl , gate current flows mainly through P2 N2
junction like an ordinary SCR, Fig. 4.55 (a ). When gate current has injected sufficient charge
into P 2 layer, r everse biased junction NI P z breaks down just as in a normal SCR. As a result,
triac starts conducting through P I N I P z N 2 layers. This sh ows that wh~n MT2 ' and gate
terminals are positive with respect to MTl, triac turns on like a conventional thyristor. Under
this condition, triac operates in the first quadrant of Fig. 4.53 (b). The device ism ore sensitive
in this mode. It is recommended m ethod of triggering if the conduction is desired in the first
quadrant.
.
(ii) MT2 is positive but gate current is negative. When gate tenninal is negative with r espect
to MTl , gate current flows through P 2 N 3 junction , Fig, 4.55 (b) and reverse biased junction
Nt Pz is forward biased as in a normal thyristor. As a result, triac starts conducting through
P , NI P 2 N3 layers initially. With the conduction of P l Nl P z N 3, the voltage drop acr oss this
'. 'I 1,
1, 1,1 Ig
MTI (  )
1,
., I
"
P,
MT2(r )
MTt i  )
,
N,
N,
11
1,
N,
1,
P,
 _.PzJ
IMiol
conduction
(P,N, P2 NJ)
Finol
N,
conduction
(P, N, P, N,)
P,
MT 1(+)
N,.
..
"
'ilt
",
conduction
(PzN,P, N,)
",
10112(+)
Io4TI ( ... )
.,
1,
P,
Finol
P,
1,
",
P,
N,
MT 2{)
1
MTz(  )
[Art. 4.11 )
Thyristor s
187
path falls but potential of layer between P2 Ns rises towards the anode potential of MT2. As
the right hand portion of P 2 is clamped at the cathode potential of MTl, a potential gradient
exists across laye r P2 , its left hand region being at higher potential than its right hand region.
A current shown dotted is thus established in layer P2 from left to right. This current is similar
to conventional gate current of an SCR. As a consequence, righthand part of triac consisting
of main structure PI NI P2 N2 begins to conduct. The device structure PI Nl P 2 N J may be
regarded as pilot SCR and the structure P INI P2N2 as the main SCR. It can then be stated
that anode current of pilot SCR serves as the gate current for the main SCR. As compared
with tumon process discussed in (i) above, the device with MT2 positive but gate current
negative is less sensitive and therefore, more gate current is required.
(iii) j}IT2 is negative but gate current is positiue. The gate current Ig forward biases P2 N2
junction Fig. 4.55 (e). Layer N 2 injects electrons into P 2 1ayer as shown by dotted arrows. As a
r esult, reverse biased junction N I P I breaks down as in a conventional thyristor. Eventually the
structure P 2 Nt PI N4 is completely turned on. As usual, the current after turnon is limited by
the extemall oad. As the triac is' turned on by remote gate N 2 , the device is less sensitiue in the
third quadrant with positive gate current.
(iv ) Both MT2 and gate current are negatiue. In thi.s mode, Na acts as a remote gate, Fig.
4.55 (d). The gate current 16 flows from P2 to Na as in a normal thyristor. Reversebiased
junction N t PI is broken and finally, the structure P2 N} P l N4 is turned on completely. Though
the triac is turned on by rem ote gate N3 in third quadrant, yet the device is more sensitive under
this condition compared with turnon action with positive gate current discussed in (iii) above.
It can, therefore, be concluded from above that :
sens itivity of the triac is greates t in the first quadrant when turned on with positive
gate current and also in the third quadrant when turned on with negative gate
current,
.
(ii) sensitiv ity of the triac is low in the first quadrant when turned on with negative
gate current and also in the third quadrant when turnedon with positive gate
current.
(i)
Thus the triac is rarely operated in first quadrant with negative gate current and in the
third qu adrant with positive gate current.
As the two conducting paths fr om MTI to MT2 or from MT2 to MTI interact with each
other in the structure of the triac; their voltage, current and frequency ratings are much lower
as compared with conventional thyristors. At present, triacs with voltage and current ratings
of 1200 V and 300 A (r ms) ar e available.
Triacs are used extensively in residential lamp dimmers, heat control and for the speed
control of small singlephase series and induction motors.
.
A tri ac may sometimes oper ate in the rectifier mode rather than in the bidirectional mode.
This may happen due to the fan owing r easons:
For a given value of'positive gate current, a triac may turn on with MT2 positi ve
in first quadrant bu t may fail to turn on with MT2 negative.
(b) 'Wi th constant negati ve gate current, the triac m ay t urn on with MT2 negative in
third quadrant but may not turn on with MT2 positive.
The re ctifi ermode can be overcome by increasing the value of gate current.
(a)
188
[Art. 4.12J
Power Electronics
,
Fig. 4.56.
Reverse
conducting
thyris tor
Gateassisted turnoff thyristor (GAT) is. a normal fourlayer thyristor, but its turnoff is
achieved by applying a negative gate drive across gatecathode terminals. In order to reduce
the turn off time appreciably, the gatecathode junction is highly interdigitated so that stored
charges can be removed more effectively from the base region . GAT thyristors are extensively
employed in TV deflection circuits at fr equencies around 20 kHz with turn off times as low as
2.5j.l sec for 200V devices.
Gateturnoff thyristor (GTO) and static induction thyristor are described in the next two
articles. The latest semiconductor device to enter the family of thyristors is integratedgate
commutated thyristor (IGCT).
IG CT is basically a hardswitched GTO. IGCT with 4500 V, 3000 A ratings are available.
Its adv:lntages over GTO are (i ) lower conduction drop . (ii) faster switching speed, (iii)
monolithic bypass diode, (iu) snubberless operation and (u) ease of series operation \121.
,
4.12. ~TE:I'URN OFF TIIYRISTOR (GTO)
Conv entional thyristors (CTs) are nearly ideal switches for their use in powerelectronic
applica tions . These can easily be turned on by positive gate current_Once in the onstate, gate
105:5 control. CTs can now be turned off by expensive and buLlty commut ation circuitry. This
shor:coming of thyristors limit their use up to about 1 kHz applic ation:;. These drawbacks in
thyris tors has led to the development of GTOs.
A GTO is a more versatile powersemicon ductor device. It is like a. CT but with added
features in it. A GTO can easily be turned off by a negative gate pulse of appropri ate amplitude.
Thus, a G'T O is a pn pn device th3.t can be turnedon by a positive ga.te cu rrent and turnedoff
by n nega tive gat e current at iw gate cathode terminals.
Thyristors
[Art. 4.12]
189
Selfturn off capability of GTO makes it the .most suitable device for inverter and chopper
applications.
.
4.12.1. Basic Structure
A GTO is pn pn, there terminal device with anode (A): cathode (K) and gage (G), Fig. 4.57
(a ). The four layers are p np+ n as shown. In CT, anode consists of p. layer, but in a GTO,
anode is made up of n type fingers diffused into p . layer.
Fig. 4.57 (e) gives two alternate circuit symbols for GTO. Since GTO is a four layer
pn pn device just like CT, it can also be modelled by twotransistor analogy as shown in Fig.
4 .57 (b ). The four layer s have different doping levels indicated by p +np+n.+ . Transistor Q 1 is
p +np type and transistor Q2 is np+n+ type, with p. emitter of Q1 as anode A and n+ emitter of
Q2 as cathode K.
"
I.
J
J1
JJ
"
1"
IS2
P'r 0,
n'
I,
r.,
Gate (6)
I"
I"
I
Ca thode (K)
p+ l.....J
Q,,.I
,
,.
~)
(b)
and
I CI
and
= P, . Ial
let = Cll l EI
I C2 = ~. IE2
190
Power Electronics
[Act. 4.12J
or
... (4.20 )
oc
I
When saturation in Q2 has occurred, 182 = ~, For initiating the turnofT process, Qz must
be brought out of saturation. This can be accomplished only if 182 is made less than IC2 /~2' So,
when [82 < (Ic2/~2)' Q2 would shift to active region and regener ative action would eventually
turnolfthe GTO.
.
:. For turnmg off of Q 2 (or GTO),
IB2
I~
<~
Substituting the value of 182 from Eq. (4.20) and IC2 from E q. (4.21) we get
i,<
(1  0. 1)
~2
fa
fa
alIa
Substitution of
oc
I g' > I , [ a, +: :  1
or
... (4 .22)
_ In order that gate current I ,' for turningoff GTO is low, CX:! should be made as near to unity
as possible whereas 0. 1 sh ould be made small.
Th e turn off gain is defIned as the
turn off the GTO_
I,
~Qii = I;
rati c~f
Ca.!1
ex,
= 01 + O:z 
... (4.23)
F ig. 4.58 shows that Ia =IJt and Eq. (4.22) gives Ii' more than I!. So when negative gate
current la' flows be t.,... een gatecathode terminals, net base current (182  19') is reversed, exc ess
(i)
carriers are drawn from base p ~ region of Q2 and collector current l e1 of Q1 is diverted into :he
rhyristors
[Art. 4.11J
191
external gate circuit. This r emoves base drive of transistor Q2' This further rem oves ba3e
current I Bl of transistor Q1 and the GTO is eventually turned off.
(ii) As stated above, a low value of negative gate current requires low value of u i and high
value_of U 2 '
Low value of current gain a l of Q 1 can be achieved (a ) by diffusing gold or other heavy
metal n base of Q 1 transistor (6) or by introducing shortcircuiting n+ fingers in the anode p.
layer as shown in Fig. 4.57 (a), (c) or by a combination of both the techniques li sted in (a) and
(6) here. Techniques (a) and (6) are described below.
(1) Gold doped GTO. A go lddoped GTO retains its reverse blocking capability.
A
Golddoping also reduces turnoff time, therefore, these GTOs
are suitable for highfrequency operation. However, golddoped
[,
p' 1
GTOs suffer from more onstate voltage drop for a given current
than a similar CT.
,,AnOC;? s ho rt
(ID Anod esh orted GT O. The shortcircuiting fingers, also
called anodeshorts, leads to shortcircuit of the emitter P+ (anode
A) with base n of Ql transistor as shown in Fig. 4.59: For anode
or emitter current la' effective emitt!3r current 11 is reduced
I,
because of anode short. This further decreases collector current
Y' 11
I C I ' Therefore, effective current gain a l of QI' now given by c.oJ._:,c:_{~ ~_1
l Cllla gets r educed. So by anodeshort structure, Ct l is reduced
.. '
but ~ remains unchanged as desired.
Anodeshort, howeve r, reduces r everse voltage blocking
Fig. 4.59. Tw otrrm.~i s tor
capability. With reverse biased GTO,junction that blocks' reverse
model of GTO with
voltage is J 3 only. Junction J 1 blocks no voltage because of n+
nnodes ho n _
'I
Anodeshorted GTO
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
192
Power Electronics
lArt. 4.12]
to tum on GTO. For turning off the GTO, the tumoff circuit should be capable of outputting a
high peak current. Usually, a thyristor is used for this purpose. In Fig. 4.60 (a), turnoff process
is initiated by gating thyristor Tl. When Tl is turned on, a large negative gate current pulse
tUrns off the GTO.
4.12.3.1. Gate turnon. The turnon process in n GTO is similar to that of a conventional
thyristor. Gate turnon time for GTO is made up of delay time, rise time and spread time like
a CT. Further, tumon time in a GTO can be decreased by increasing its forward gate current
as in a thyristor.
In Fig. 4.60 (b), a steepfronted gate pulse is applied to tumon GTO. Gate drive can be
removed once anode current exceeds latching current. However, some manufacturers advise
that even after GTO is on, a continuous gate current, called back porch current 19b as shown ,
should be applied during the entire onperiod of GTO. The aim of this recommendation is to
avoid any possibility of unwanted turnoff of the GTO.
,,TR'
Spl~~ vo!tag~
",
Tail current
R,
c,
K
L
TI
(a)
... t .. P
Gale
current
(b)
(a)
(b)
switching characteristics.
4.12.3.2. Gate turnoff. The tumoff characteristics of a GTO are different from those of
an SCR. Before the initiation of turnoff process, a GTO carries a steady current la. Fig. 4.60
(b) . This figure shows .a typical dynamic turnoff characteristic for a GTO. The total turnoff
'time tq is subdivided into three different periods; namely the storage period ,(t,), the fall period
.(t;) and the tail period (t f ). In other words,
tq =t, + t;+ t/
Initiation of turnoff process starts as soon as negative gate current begins to flow after
t = 0 at instant A. The rate of rise of this gate current depends upon the gate circuit inductance
L and th e gate voltage applied. During the storage period, anode current 1a and anode voltar.e
(equal to onstate voltage drop) r emain constant. Termination of the storage period is indicated
by a fall in If! and rise in Va' During t" excess charges, i.e. holes, in p '" base are removed by
negative gate current and the centre junction comes out of saturation. In other words, during
storage time t., the negative gate current rises to a particular value and prepares the GTO for
turningoff (or commutation) by flushing out the stored carriers. After ts' anode current begins
to fall r apidly and anode voltage starts rising. As shown in Fig. 4.60 (b), the an od e current falls
to a certain value and then abruptly changes its rate of fall. This interval during which anode
current fall s rapidly is the fall time t'l Fig. 4.60 (b ) and is of the order of 1 ~sec {4J. The fall
[Ml. 4.13J
Thyristors
193
period l; is measured from the instant gate current is maximum negative ta the instant anode
current fall s ta its tail current.
At the time t = l .. + l ,. there is a spike in voltage due ta abrupt change in anode current. After
t,. anode current ig and anode volta.ge Ug keep moving towards their turnoff values for a time
t/ called tail lime. After t,. anode current reaches zer o value and Ug undergoes a transient
overshoot due to the prese nce af RJ , C.. and then stabilizes to its offstate value equal to the
source va ltage applied to the anode circuit. Here R J and C.. are the snubber circuit parameters.
The turn ofT process is complete when tail current reaches zero. The over shoot voltage and tail
current can be decreased by increasing the size of C but a compromise with snubber loss must
be made . The duration oft, depends upon the device" chara cteristics [4] .
(ii )
(iii)
(i v )
( v)
(ui)
4 .1 2 .5 . Application of GTOs
In view of the above facts, GTO device are now being used in (a) highperfonn anc e drive
systems, s uch as the fieldoriented control sc heme used in rolling mills , robotics and machine
tooh [41. ( b) tracti on purposes because oi their lighter weight and (e ) adju 5 ~3.bl efr2:que ::lo)
inverter dr ives . At present, GTOs with r atings ':1P to 5000 V and 3000 A are available .
'
A static in ducti on thyristor, or 81TH, is a three terminal sel f controlled devjce just like a
GT O. It wa s co mmercially introdu ced in Japan in 1988. A si mil a r de.i: e, kn own as
field controlled thyristor (FCT), or fi eld controlled diode (FCD ), was de'/ elopea ea rEe r by
Gene ral Elec tric but could not be comm ercially launched . H owever, commercial use 0[5I1 H is
being promoted by Japanese unive rsities and industries .
194
Power Electronics
[.\ rt . 13)
\,<>001('
,
(b )
(a)
(a )
Vg
. ~
v, L
L==iJ Anoae
(a )
(b)
offcondition when
Vg
is nega tive.
.
"
"
Thyristors
195
If 51TH is reverse biased, with cathode positive and anode n egative, electrons can flow from
anod e, intermixed n'" layer, n , through p + grid, n '" and finally to cathod, Fi g. 4.6 1 (a). Th us,
reverse current from cathode to anode can exist when 51TH is r everse biased. Thi s shows that
81TH does not have any reverse blocking capabi lity due to emittershorting (p+ lay er
interdigitated with n+ layers at the anode ).
.
"'0
Pulse
g~n~rQlor
nput
Jlf1.
+
PuiS!
amplif i er
+
L..
J1Jl
Pu ! s~
trons to rm~ r
ll)
Pulse
transtorme r
Pu isil
tr ansfor mer
SCR
SCR
DC power
supply
v
Contro l CirC 1Ji!
Dr iV'lf ci rcuit
SCR
'y'
PO'Nllr (: jrcuit
Power Electronics
[An. 4.141
196
(i) If power
circuit has more than one SCR, the flring circuit should produce gating pulses
for each SCR at the desired instant for proper operation of the power circuit. These pulses must
be periodic in nature and the sequence of firing must correspond with the type of thyristorised
power controller. For example, in a singlephase semiconverter using two SeRs, the triggering
circuit must produce one firing pulse in each balf cycle; in a 3phase full converter using SLX
SeRs, gating circuit must produce one trigger pulse after every 60 interval.
(ii) The control signal generated by a firing circuit may not be able to turnon an SCR It is
therefore comm on to feed the voltage pulses to a driver circuit and then to gatecathode circuit.
A driver circuit consists of a pulse amplifier and a pulse transfonner.
A firing cir cuit scheme, in general, consists of the components shown in Fig. 4.63. A
r egulated dc power supply is obtained from an alternating voltage source. Pulse generator,
supplied from both ac and dc sources, gives out voltage pulses which are then fed to pulse
amplifier for their amplification. Shielded cables transmit the amplified pulses to pulse
transform ers . The function of pulse transformer is to isolate the lowvoltage gatecathode
circuit from the' highvoltage anodecathode circuit. Some firing circuit schemes are described
in this section .
Resistance firing circuits. As statad above, resistance bigger circuits are the simplest
where
LOAO
il
rv "'s= Vmsinwt
R,
I,
~R'
.,I
Vm
R , S Igm or R , ~ Igm
... (4.24 0 )
V", = maximum val ue of sourc e volta ge
,,''0"';.
>R
Resis ta nce R should have such a value that maximum voltage drop a cross it does not
exceed maxi mum possible gate voltage V,Ir.. This can happen only when R2 is zero. Under this
condi tion,
Vm
R S V,flll
0:
R < Vi m' R l
 V It!
VJ m
..'< 4.24 0)
197
(Art. .U4]
Thyristors
As resistances R t , R2 are large, gate trigger circuit draws a small current. Diode D all ows
the flow of current during positive half cycle only, i.e. gate voltage
amplitude of this dc pulse can be controlled by varying R 2.
The potentiometer setting R2 determines the gate voltage amplitude, When R2 is large,
current,i is small and the voltage across R, i.e. tlg = iR is also small as shown in Fig. 4.65 (0). As
V,p (peak of gate voltage u,) is less than Vgl (gate trigger voltage), SCR will not turn on.
Ther efore, load voltage tlo = 0, io =0 and supply voltage U~ appears as UT across SCR as shown
in Fig. 4.65 (a>" . Note that trigger circuit consists of resistances on ly, II, is therefore in phase
with source voltage u~ . In Fig. 4.65 (b ), R2 is adjusted such that V,p =V,I. This gives the value of
v,
V;
',I
i,(
Vgt ;
,
,
'
'
,
,,
,
.  . .;.: .  . ......:... j.  ~
V~ i
"
"
VlI'Isinwl
,,
: wI'
"
,U
Vgp=Vgt
:, wt
"bN
i,t N
..,
N,
,
,
: I
: wi
: I
T\
,
:wl
:I
:i
,,
r:::::s
210' ;
:6
.,
;wt
"t
: WI
:
: wi
wi
Cl.
=90'
(1<
90'
00
~
W
Fig. 4.65. Resistance firing of an SeR in a halfwave circuit with dc load
(a) No triggering of SCR (b) a = 90 (c) a. < 90~.
firing angle as 90 0 The various current and voltage waveforms are shown in Fig. 4,65 (b ). In
Fig. 4.65 (c ), Vgp > V~. As soon as va becomes equal t o V,! for the first time SCR is turned on,
The resistance triggerin g cannct give firing angle beyond 90 0 Increasing v, above Vg l turns on
the SCR at firing angl es less than 900 \"Vhen Vg r eaches Vgl for the first ti me, SCR fires, gate
loses control and v, is reduced to almos t zero (about 1 V) value as shown. It may also be seen
that firing a1,;{le can never be equal to zero degree however large VzP may be ; it can, of course,
be brought nearer (2 0 _4) to zero degree firing angle. A relationsh.ip between pea1t gate voltage
VzP and gate trigger vol tage VGt may be expressed as follows:
V gp sin
= V,I
or
Some s~ud'!n !.J argue th3t in every posi:l're cycle of source, died e ci rcui~ will :e act ive l1:ld will therefore dro'l!
curren: [roo. s:lurce. The current will ca u.se '/olt:!g! d!1)p liD acreS! load iL"~ .::erefore, v" ..nd i .. should be
shown in. F i~. ".5~ (a l. Ac~ually, load resilta."lce (3 few I,lh::!.s) in ccr::::Jar:so:1. w:~h R\ ... R:l " R (km is quite
,:nail. Ther'! ;",,!e, current d uring the posi tive cycle of source is negligibly S;';"I:lll ;:!.::d li!t'!wise ')~ across the load.
[Art. 4.14]
198
Since
vgp = 'R;,+"
Vrn R
ROc,+ R;<
. _, [VI' .IR,VR
+ R, + R
l]
'
a=sm
This shows that firing angle is pr oportional to R 2. As R 2 is increased from small value
(i.e. small a), firing angle increases. In any case, a can never be more than 90.
As the firing angle control is from 00 (approximately) to 90 0 , the halfwave power out put
can be controlled from 100% (for a = 00 ) down to 50% (for a = 900 ).
Exampl e 4.23 . Discuss what would happen to the circuit of Fig. 4.64 in case load is shifted
between terminals a and b.
Solu tion. In the circuit of Fig. 4.64 , when SCR is on, voltage vT across it is almost zero
(actually about 1 to 1.15 V) and therefor e voltage across R I , R 2, D, R is a lso nearly zero. As a
result, trigger supply voltage v, is reduced to zero after SCR turnon. There is thus hardly any
gate current and the associated gate power loss is zero during the time SCR is cond ucting in
Fig. 4.64 .
In case load is shifted between terminals a and b, the circuit may still operate. But after
SCR turnon, the circuit comprising of R 1, R 2, D and gate to cathode would be subjected to
source voltage. This would cause an increased gate current and the associated gate power loss
would be mo re during SCR turn on . Such an happening would certainly burn out the gate
circui t and destroy the SCR. This shows that load should never be connected between t erminals
a and b in Fig. 4.64.
(b) R C firi ng circuits. The limited range of firing angle contr ol by resistance firing circuit
can be overcome by RC firing circuit. There a re several variations ofRC trigger circuits. Here
only two of them are presented.
RC halfwave trigger circuit. Fig. 4.66 illustr ates RC halfwave trigger circuit. By
varying the value of R, firing angle can be controlled fr om 00 to 1800 In the negative half cycle,
(i)
capac itor C ch arges through D2 with lower plate positive to the p eak supply voltage V m at
wt =  90. After wt =  90 0 , source voltage v, decreases from  Vm at wt =  90 0 to zero at
wt = 0. During this period, capacitor voltage Uc may fall from  Vm at wt =  90 to some lower
value  0 a at wt = 0" as shown in Fig. 4.67. Now, as
the SCR anode voltag e passes through zero and
becomes positive, C begins to charge through
LO A 0
variable resistance R from the initial volt age  oa.
\Vhen capacitor charges to positive voltage ~ual to
02
.
R~
gate trigger voltage VS/I SCR is fired and after this,
'1
capacitor holds to a small positive voltage, F ig. 4.67. rv vs =Vmslnwt
Diode D1 is used to prevent the breakdown of
01
ca thode to gate junction through D2 during the
negative half cycle . .'\n examination of Fig. 4.67
re veals that firing a ngle can never be zero and
Fig. 4.66. RC halfwave trigger circui t.
VC f C
180'.
Thyristors
199
In the range of power freque ncies , it may be empirically shown [3J that RC for zero output
voltage is given by
1.3 T
RC >
 2 w
where
T=
... (4.25)
The SCR will tri gger when u~ =Vgt + ud' where ud is the voltage drop across diode D1. At the
instant of triggering, if Uc is assumed constant, the current I, t must be supplied by voltage
source through R, D1 and gate to cathode circuit. Hence the maximum value of R is given by
u,:::?: RIgt+u c
u~ ~RI,t + Vgt +ud
u. V,t  ud
R5
I
or
or
... (4.26)
II
where Us is the source voltage at which thyristor turns on. Approximate values of Rand C
can be obtained from Eqs. (4.25 ) and (4.26).
.l',01041.1
, ,
wI
,,
,,
".
.' 0:
~Q~
".
wI
2rr
wi
: 37f
wi
~:
", 1
0
wi
v,,
I I,
,I,
wI
~f..
11
3<
~)
200
[Mt. 4.14J
voltage from which the capacitor C charges is almost zero. The ca pacitor C is set to this low
positive voltage (upper plate positive) by the clamping action of SCR gate. When capac itor
char ges to a voltage equal to Vgt, SCR triggers and rectified voltage ud appears across load as
uo. Th e value of RC is ca l culated by the
empirical r elation [31,
RC
~ 50 T2 "
157
...(4.27)
01
[,.
_oj
where UJ is the source voltage at which thyristor turns on. In Fig. 4.69 (a), firing angle a is
more than 90 0 and in Fig. 4.69 (b) , a < 90 0
+fv
vd
vs=Vm sin wt
:..t
"
Vm sinwt
wt
....l.
.'*  ~~
'.. _.*..  . .... ; ,
vo
Cl
: .
Vjvj l
(a )
wt
'I
wT
j " I
I ' i
Vd~
Vd~dl
I
Ii
I
I
'
.I
WT
wi'
"1N N N J etr"'
vT
w t~
I'
lj
I'
i'
!,
1
/1
i/1
(b )
I wi
Thyristors
[Art. 4.U ]
201
An UJT is made up of an ntype silicon bas e to which ptype emitter is embedded , Fig.
4 .70 (a). The ntype base is lightly doped whereas ptype is heavily doped. The two ohmi c
con tacts provided at each end are called baseon e B1 and basetwo B 2 So, an UJT has three
terminals, n amely the emitter E, baseone Bl and basetwo B 2 . Between bases B1 ano. 8 2 , the
unijunction behaves like an ordinary r esistance. RBI and R B2 are the internal resistances
respectively fr om bases Bl and B2 to eta point A, Fig. 4.70 (a). Its symbolic representation is
given in Fig. 4.70 ( b) and its equivalent circuit in Fig. 4.70 (c).
When a voltage V BS is applied across the two base tenninals B I and B 2, the potzntial of
point A with respect to 8 1 is given by
V AB l
V BB
RBI
=R 81 + R B2 . RB i = R 81 + R B2 . V 8S =n VBB
where n = R
81
B~ is called the intrinsic standoff ratio, Typical values ofn are 0.51 to 0.82.
+ B2
.,
8,
Etopcint
"to ~ in~
ptype
E
1+
QS 1.
ntype
1.,
8,
~)
1
",
"B2
...,
A~
.../
.S.
i
VB B
"~ 'IB8
QEl I
,
~
F ig. 4.70 . (a) Basic structure ofUJT (b) symboli c representation and (c) its equi"alent circu it.
The operation ofUJT can be und erstood with its equivalent circuit of Fi g. 4.70 (c). A:, UJT
is usually operated with both B2 and E biased positive with respect to reference base terminal
B!. DC voltage source VB8 between B2 and Bl is constant . DC source vEE in ser ies with
resistance RE is considered as l?put to tl~e UJT. Both V BB and VEE are shown in Fig. ~71 (a )
where UJT equivalent circuit is sh own inside the dotted rectangle. As before
VAB I
Th e magnitude of voltage V, can be varied by regulating external r esis tancz R E . _!.5 long a.5
emitte r voltage Vr < ll. V BB , the E  Bl Wlijunction (or p  n junctior!) is reverse biased and
emit ter current 1, is negative as shown by curve PS in Fig. 4.il (b) , The region PS of very low
current is tr eat ed as 'off' state of UJT. The resistance behveen E  B I j unction is therefore \er.y
high. At ;lOint S, 1, = 0, drop across R z is zero, th erefore 'llf = sour ce volta;;e, i. e. OS = V~ = VEE '
202
[A ,t. 4.14]
Power Electronics
Actually, offsta te ofUJT extends to a point where emitter voltage V, exceeds VA' or n .V!JB' by
diode voltage VD in E  BI junction. So when V, =fl . VBB + VD point B is reached and E  B I
junction gets forward biased to allow forward current through the diode. Here V D is the forward
voltage drop across E  B I junction (usually 0.5 V).
Point B is called the peak point . Voltage Vp and current Ip pertaining to point B are called
peakpoint lIoltage and peakpoint current respectively. By varying R E Vr is increased till V,
approaches Vp . At this peak point, V, =Vp = fl .VBB + YD. thep emitter begins to inject h oles from
the heavily doped emitter E into the lower base region B t . As n type base is lightly doped , the
holes rar ely get any chance to recombine. The lower base region B I is, therefore, filled up v.;th
additional current carriers (holes). As a r esult, resistance RB l of E  B1 junction decreases. The
fall in R BI causes potential of eta point A to drop.
v,
UJT
i
region
Saturation rf9!On ~
~<';.''~
eqlJlvclent .:
CirCUlI
'
Negative
re sistance
Cut olf
region
vse
j.R
lood Une ;
'~B(peakpoin l )
( nV
.~ S8
+v )
D
1 ::
:
:
'~ ~
RI load line
''':'' J
.. .. .::.
~
v,
'.:
~~~,
:.~ ~
:L__ _ . _ ____
BI _.~:
P 0 101
ix
.. .. xl
volley point
Iv
~)
00
Fig. 4.71. UJT
'0
~~,
~~
L. V ~::::"C, __
:
.:
..... __ _ ....1 VI
. :
:
i
.'...
I,
This drop in VA' in turn, causes Vf (= VA + V D) to fan . As VEE is constant, fall in Ve gives rise
to more emitter current Ie (= (VEE  Ve) / RE). This increased Ie inj ects more holes into region
B 1 the reby further reducing the resistance RBI and so on. This regeneratiue or snow balling
effect continues till RBi has dropped to a small value (from about 4 kn to around 2 to 25 !l). The
emitter current, limited by external r esistance R E is then giv en by
=~V;.E=E_~V!!D
I
r
R BI +RE
'Nhen RBI has dropped to a very small value, indicated by point C in Fig. 4.71 (b ), the UJT
has r eached 'on' state. At point C, entire base region Bl is saturated and resistance RBI cannot
decr ease any more. This point C is called the valley point ; Vu and Iu are the corresponding
emitter potential and curr ent. After UJT is on, or after valley point is r eached, an increase in
Ve is accompanied by an increas e in I f; this is indicated by curve CQ. At point Q, Ve is a little
more than its valley poin t voltage Vu. Between points B and C, em itter voltage Vr falls as It
incre ases; UJT, therefore. exhibits negative resistance between these two points. The negative
Thyristors
203
[Art. 4. 141
resistance region between peak and valley points in Fig. 4.71 (b) gives UJT the switch ing
characte ristics for use in SCR triggering circuits.
At the valley point, the current is given by VuIRB l' Valleypoint current , aLso called holding
current, keeps UJT on. When emitter current It falls below l u, UJT turns off.
UJT oscillator triggering. The unijunction transistor is a highly efficient switch ; it5
sw itching tim e is in the range of nanosecond s. Since UJT exhibits negati v~ resistance
characteri stics, it can be used as a relaxation oscillator. Fig. 4.72 (a ) shows a cir cuit diagram
with UJT work1ng in the oscillator mode. The external resistances R 1. R 2 ar e smaH in
comparison with the internal resistances RBI' RB2 of UJT bases. The charging resistance R
should be such that its load line intersects the device characteristics only in th e negati ve
res istance region.
In Fig. 4.72 (a), when source voltage VBB is applied. capacitor C begins to charge through
R exponentially towards '\lBB ' During this charging, emitter circuit of UJT is an open circuit.
Th e capacitor voltage Uel equal to emitter voltage u t is given by
u~=Ut=
V BS
(1e<lRC)
t l =
Re.
When this emitter voltage u t (or IJ e) r eaches the peakpoint voltage Vp (= 11 V BS + VD)' the
unijunction between E  B I breaks down. As a result, UJT turns on and capacitor C rapidly
discharges through low resistance RI with a time constant t 2 = R IC. Here t a is much smaller
than tl' When the emitter voltage decays to the valleypoint voltage Vu, emitte r current
(V1/(R B1 + R 1 falls below I I) and UJT turns off. The time T required for capacitor C to charge
from initial voltage VI) to peakpoint voltage Vp through large r esistance R , can be obtained as
under :
Assuming
or
... (4.28 )
v,
VE3
Capocitor
discnorging
v,
R,
R
S,
V,
Bl
R'
.,
,.
00
(a )
(b)
204
[Art. 4.14)
Power Electronics
In cas e T is taken as the time period of output pulse duration (neglecting small discharge
time ), then the value of firing angle a 1 is given by
a, = roT = wRC In
1
I ~
... (4.29 )
Vas ' R l
R
R < SCR trigger voltage V,t
BB+
1+
where
R Bs = R st + R'B2
The emitterdiode forward characteristics vary with temperature in such a manner that
VD decre ases and Ras increases with temperature. In order to provide compensation against
this thermal effect, the value of R2 used in Fig. 4.72 should be calculated from the relation
10'
R, =TjV
... (4.30)
SB
 ..
R n fU 
Vp _
VSB 
(TlVSB + VD)
... (4 .3Ia)
The mimmum value of R, governed by valleypoint values VII and I I,; is given by
R o~
V ss  Vu
I
... (4.31 b )
"
E xamp l e 1.2 5. A rela.xa tion oscillator using an UJT, Fig. 4. 72 (a), is to be designed fo r
triggering an S CR. The UJT has th e following deta :
[ML 4.14)
Thyristors
~}
205
R=
A s V D is not given,
C In 1=~
(C In 1 = ~
10'
= 9.82 kn
Vp =T)Vss
_.'::e_18.00_2V
11 ~ 0 .72 
ss 
;:)
10'
R, = 0.72 x 25
V BB
R,
= 555.55 n
Leakage curre nt (R 1 + R 2 +R BS )
25 3
4.2 x 10
5000  555.55
n = 396.83" 397 n
Example 4.26. If the firing frequency of the SCR in Example 4.25 is changed by uarying
charging resistor R, obtain the maximum and minimum values of R and the corresponding
frequencies .
Solution.
From Eq. (4.31),
=
max
R .
= 25.0 
1.0 = 9 6 kn
2.5 X 10 3
.
mm
r.
mm
and
25 (10.72) = 11.67kn
0.6 X 10 3
=_1_ =_~1,:
R e i _1_
m=
n 1~
..
10'
=
1 =1682 .8 Hz" 1.683I;Hz
11.67 x 0.04ln 0.28
fm= =
T m:u:
10'
1 = 2045.7 Hz" 2.05 kHz
9.6 x 0.04 1n 0.28
206
Power Electronics
[Act. U4]
01
03
<
i, ~
~R
/.
E
Vd,
04 ~
zr; ~
\:
02
V,
;: C
'~
Puln Troosf.
le
j)8
"
I,
GI
c,
TO SCR
~G2
GAT ES
~c,
on . As soo n as the capacitor discharges, it starts to recharge as shown. Rate of rise of capacitor
voltage can be controlled by varying R. The firing angle can be controlled up to about 150:1. This
method of co ntrolling the output power by varying charging resistor R is called ramp control,
openloop control or manual con trol.
As the zener diode voltage V z goes to zero at the end of each half cycle, the synchronization
of the trigger cir cuit with the supply voltage across SCRs is achieved. Thus the time t, equal to
a / w, when the pulse is applied to SCR for the first time, will remain constant for the same value
of R. Small variations in the supply voltage and frequen cy are not going to effect the circuit
operation.
1111
Pulst
voItac;j!
Puis!
voltage
",",,
, :,,
,
,,
iii
~)
,
"
"
,,
::
"
I'
1111
"
"
"
:2
,, i
,,
"
':"
I'
"""
",, I
I 2 ,'
,
1111
Fig. 4.74 . GenerBtion of output pulses for the circuit of Fig. 4.73. Here, t = ct/w.
In case R is r educed so tha t Uc reaches UJT threshold voltage twice in each half cycle as
shown in Fig. 4.74 (b), then there will be two pulses in each half cycle. As the first pulse will be
able to turnon the SCR, second pulse in each cycle is redundant.
Rampandpedestal triggering. Ra mp and pedestal triggering is an improved version of
syn chr onizedUJToscillator triggering . Fig. 4.75 shows the circuit for r ampan dpedesta!
triggering of two SCRs conn ected in antiparalleJ for controlling power in an ac load. This trigger
ci rcuit can als o be us ed for triggeri ng the thyri3tor s in a singlephase semiconverter or a
5inglephase iull converter. The various voltage waveforms are shown in Fig. 4.76.
Zener diode voltage V": is constant a t ita thr es~h old voltage. R2 acts as a potentia! divider.
Wiper of R2 controls the value of pedestal voltage Vpd. Diode D allows C to be quickly charg ed
to Vpc! through the low r es is tan ce of the upper portion of R 2. The setting of wiper on R,! is such
Thy r istors
[Acl. 4.14J
207
LOAD
+
Y,
, 01
R,
<
' 03
~VmSinwt
V"
Z'2
~ V R,
04
VC:l
02
>,
!=
i
C=
Y,
R,
,.
(
g.
Y,
nr
~.
T2
c........"O
Y'~m'inw. ~
.I w'
i'~.
V,.
Ib,
V"
V,
v,
I'
'
I . Vp '
jJI
k
I .
vo~~JJ
I . Wi
I 1
U
(0 )
U_
,I
Vdc
"
 ~~iz
I I W.
~IW'
v.
WI
Y
,
Y'F~2
Y'~~~ .
I
N_
w!
'
V,
I'
'I' r ..... 1
_ ,_
v,~
,_ ... ~, ___I[ Y, V~'._.L
+ ~'
!
.
!
1
Vg Q2
'
I v ' J lIJl
pd
'
'
rtVz
. ,.
1
I
ltUt'"'
Yo
 Iwr(b )
208
Power Electronics
(Ar!. 4.15]
charging of C through R r eaches nVz faster, firing a.Y1g1e delay is smaller, Fig. 4.76 (b) and ',
output voltage is high. This shows that output voltage is proportional to the pedestal voltage,
The time T required for the capacitor to charge from pedestal voltage Vpd to nV: can be
obtained from the relation
,= Vpd+( V,  Vpd)(l.TI Re )
~V
Note th at (V:
Vpd ) is the effective voltage that chnrges C from Vpd to nVz' From above
VlVDd
... (4.32 )
T =RC In V, (1 _~)
and the firing angle delay
U2
is given by
Vz  V Dd
...(4.33 )
ex, = w RC In V, (1 _ ~)
4.15. PULSE TRANSFORMER IN FIRING CIRCUITS
Pulse transformers are used quite often in firing circuits for SCRs and GTOs , This
transformer has usually two secondaries. The turn ratio from primary to two s~condaries is 2 :
1 : 1 or 1 : 1 : L These transformers are designed to have low winding resistance, low leakage
reactance and iaw interwinding capacitance. The advantages of using pulse transformers in
triggering semiconductor devices are :
the isolation oflowvoltage gate circuit from h ighvoltage anode circuit and
(ii) the triggering of two or more devices from the same trigger source.
(i )
A square pulse at the primary terminals ofa pulse t ransformer may be transmitted at its
In Fig, 4.77 (a), RL limits t h e current in the prima ry circuit of puhe tra.'1sformer. Its
equivalent circuit is drawn in Fig, 4.77 (b ), where L is the magnetizing inducta:.lce of the pulse
tr ansformer and Rg is the resistanc e of gatecathode ci~cuit of an SCR. Fig. 4.77 (c ) 5hoW3 the
transfer of R, to pulse transformer prim ary as R, =
[~:
Thyristors
[MI. US]
Rl
209
R,
V,
N, : N2
(b )
R,
T2
I,
t Pulse
V,
'
R,,(N,N, )R
(e).
trans former
IUl
G
Vo
RO)
L'
..
I.
..
.' . , ....
.
..
(<i)
Fig. 4.77. (a ) Pulse transformer trigger circuit (b), (c) and (d ) its equivalent ci rcuits .
R,
Vo= VB R , + R L
The voltage equation for Fig. 4.77
(d )
b.
Fig. 4.77
(d )
and
is
di
V0= R O l + L dt
Rl
R 1RL .
di
VSR 1+RL = Rl + RL,+Ldt
or
) ~;
L
VB= RL i + L (R ';,R
or
i=
~: [ 1 _ e L (:I :tRt ) t]
The voltage across L appears as the outpu t voltage. The magnitud e of thi s voltage from
pulse trans former is
or
where
o W ~
.,
(a )
...(4.34 )
21 0
[Act. 4.1;]
Depending upon the values of Ro and L , t her e are two functio nal modes of pulse
transformer.
V
Rl e e  B Rl + RL
Fort=O,
and fo r t = T,
(t IlO T)
R,
"0= V. R ,+ R L
"T = V. R
.
Rl
1+
R "
 0.1
= 0.904 V.
Rl
1+ L
= 0.904"0
Thus the fall in the pulse level during the transmission through the pulse tran sform er at
as square pulse a t the output terminals of pulse transformer as shown in Fig. 4.78 (a).
Fort=O,
and for t = T,
This shows that for
Rt
Rl+RL
Eq. (4.34).
'e ( l O/7')t
R,
"o=V' R ,+ R L
Rl
10
eT = V. R, +RL e
;0 ro,
<
R1
= 0.0000453 VB R, +RL = 0.0000453'0
decaying pulses as sh own in Fig. 4.78 (b). It is seen that for a step rise in input voltage, the
pulse transformer output is a positive puls e. In other
words , the input signal is trapsmitted as a derivative of
the input waveform for a step rise. Likewise, for a step
fal l in input voltage, a negative pulse appears at the
pulse transformer output. Fig. 4.78 (b). The operation of
th~ pulse transform er in this mode can be achieved by
uS.mg a small value of L , i.e. by us ing an air core for the
pulse transformer.
L !_ __ + !___'_ +.t
.,
II
v91
(O)!
1.J1\l.l. .    .rJ.:I\>.,yrr . ,
hr=:y
to)
(0 ) Ro > l OT
Thy r is tors
[Act. . 16[
211
N2
Vg=N V R
1
R}
1+
l.
The magnitude of VB should be large enough to pr oduce t rigger voltage Vgr at the gate
circuit of SCR fo r its r eliable turn on, i.e.
N, V. R ,
N 1 ' R I + R l. ~Vg,
V. ~V~~: (l + ~~)
or
R, =
But
(~: JR,
(435J
In practice, exponentially decaying t rigge r pu lses of Fig. 4.78 ( b ) are preferred due to the
.
following reasons:
{O This pulse waveform is suitable for inj ecting a large charge in the gate circu it fo r
reliable turn on .
(i i )
The duration of this pulse is small, therefore no signi fi cent heating of the gate circuit
is observed.
(iii) For the same gatecathode power, it is permissible to raise VB t o a suitable high
value so that a harddrive of SCR is obtained. A device with a ha rddrive can
withstand high dU d t at the anode circuit which is desirable.
(iu) The size of th e pulse t ran sfor me r is r educed . For an ext ended pulse, large L (with
ironcor e) is r equired which increases size and cost of the pulse tr ansformer .
4.16. TRIAC FIRING CIRCUIT
A tr igger ing circuit for a triac using a diac is discu ssed in this. sectio n.
Fig. 4.79 shows a t ri ac fi ring circuit employing a diac. In this circuit, resistor R is variable
whereas resistor Rl has constant resistance. When R is zero, R } protects the diac and triac gate
fr om getting exposed to a lmost full supply voltage.
:1
Resistor R2 limits the current in t he diac and
r'i:i!co;;."' }.!.r   ;
triac gate when diac turns on. The value of C and
R,
potentiometer R are so selected as to give a firing
angle range of n early 0:' and 180:'. In practice,
however, a triggering angle range of 10:' to 170=
TriOC"
is only possible by the firing circuit of Fig. 4.79.
,vo
212
Power Electronics
[M t. 4.16J
diac trigger voltage earlier and firin g angle for triac is small. Likewise, when R is high , firing
angle of triac is large.
When capacitor C (with upper plate positive) charges to breakdown voltage Vd: of diac, diac
turns on. As a consequence, capacitor discharges rapidly thereby applying capacitor voltage Vc
in the form of pulse across the triac gate to turn it on. After triac turnon at firing angle cr.,
source voltage v, appears acr oss the load during the positive half cycle for (n  cr.) radians. When
Vs becomes zerq at rot = n, triac turns off. After OJt = It, uJ becomes negative, the capacitor C now
charges with lower plate positive. When Vc r eaches Vell of disc, diac and triac turn on and v ,
appears across the load during the negative half cycle for (n  cr.) radians. At Wi = 2n, triac turns
off again and the above process repeats.
The waveforms for v" vc. vT and Vo are shown in Fig. 4.80 (a ) for minimum R and in Fig.
4.80 (b) for maximum R . Here VJ is the source voltage, Vc is the voltage across capacitor, vT is
the vo ltage across triac and Vo is the output or load voltage. After triac turnon, capacitor C
holds to a small positive voltage.
v,
, I
I, I
Vc
~~
.__

.I I
. ,,
wt
.. __
J
'
.
i
VT
( 1f+0) I
.'2J't
:I
'K
. W
:, II
! wt
I
I
wi
~
(a )
Fig. 4.80. Waveforms for triact firing circu it using Q diac with
pot . R adjusted to minimum and (b) pot. R adju ~t(' d to maximum.
Thyristors
[Ac'. 4.16]
213
commercially used for controlling the power in lamp dimmers, heat convertors, speed control of
fans etc . For inductive loads, snubber circuit must be used across the triac.
Example 4.27 . The firin g circuit for a triac using a diae, Fig. 4.79, ha.s the following data :
R I = 1000 n, R = zero to 25000 n. C = O.SIJF.
V, = 230 Vat 50 Hz, Diae breakdown voltage = 30 V.
Find the magnitude of maximum and minimum firingangle delays for the triac. The effect
of load impedance may be neglected.
Solution. When the diac is not conducting, the current through R I Rand C is given by
V,
I,=Z
Z=[(R +R)'+(~)'
where
, ]'12
10002+(2'X;~XO.5)
Z= [
When R =0 :
R, +R
230 LO'
I, = 6444.3 L _ 81.07'
V, =J, X,
= 230 L81.07' x 6366.2 L _ 90' = 227.2 L  8.93'
6444.3
.
u, =,[2 . (227.2) sin (Oli  8.93')
or
When capacitor voltage
a l is given by
Uc
reaches the breakdown voltage of the dine, the triac firing angle
al
When R = 25000 n
_

. 1
sm
'12
893' 143'
x30227.2 +.
.
$.' tan'
[;~~~;] = 13.76'
230 LO'
I, = 267 68 L 13 .76'
or
When
..
or
ii;a
76
230
' x 63 66.2 L 90' = 54.7 L  76 .24'
2
Uc =..J2 x 54 .7 sin (wt  76 .24)
V,
Uc
ex, = sin
Thus the ma'<imum and rTlifIimurn values offiringangle delays are 99.06 ' and 14.3 respectively.
C
214
[Art. 4.17[
(ii)
Synchronizing midtapped transformer steps down the supply voltage suitab le for zero
crossing detector and for .delivering de supply Vee to gate trigger circuit. The zero crossing
Power circuit
Sourc.e
vollage
Ov,
..
, It
~
;;
=C vcc
~
Sync;;tz ing
Transf .
'ICC
I
Zero crossing
Detector
Input
(ontrol sigl"lol
I
Firing OI"Igle
Vi
D~ l ay
Pulse
amplifie r
Vj
Gale pulse
isolation
transforme r
=:~G'
~~ V"
=:G
~
V9 1
hr
~ C'
vc.,
Fig. 4.82. Blc c:~ dia rram of':! th}Tisto, g";!.ting circuit.
Thyristors
1M!. 4.17]
2t5
Synchronizing
Trans!. vol tage
r
o
,i.'
).
I
.
!
I
wI
.
I
f.=f1
2.
'
b~ n I
wI
Control voltage Ec
Uikb
o
2_
I
(211'..u ) 311'
1::0
'If
WI
wI
detec tor conve rts ac synchronizing input voltage into ramp voltage and synchronizes th is ram p
voltage with the zero crossing of the ac supply voltage 8S shown in Fig. 4.83. In the;firing angle
delay block, the constant amplitude r amp voltage is compared with con tr ol voltage Ee. When
rising ramp voltage equals contr ol voltage E e , a pulse signal of con trolled duration is generated
as shown in Fig. 4.83. Th ese signals are indicated as u, for thyri stors 1 and 2 and uJ fo r
thyristors 3 and 4 for the power circuit of Fig. 4.82. If Ec is lower ed, firin g angle dec reases and
in case Ec is rai se d, firing angle increases. This shows that firingdelay an gle is dir ectly
proportional to the control signal voltage. The pulse output from the firin gdelay angle block
are n ext fed to a pulse amplifier circuit. The amplified puls es ar e th en used for triggering
thyristors 1, 2, 3 and 4 through gatepulse isolation trans formers as shown.
4.17.1. Gate Pulse Amplifiers
Pulse output from integrated circuits (lCs) may be directly fed to gatecathode circuit of a
lowpower thyristor to turn it on. But in highpower thyristors, triggercurrent requirement is
high. The refore, pulses derived from rcs must be am plified and then fed to thyristor fo r its
reliabl e turn on. In a thyristor, anode circuit is subjec ted to high voltage whereas gate circuit
works at a low voltage. Th erefore, an isola tion is essenti al betwe en a thyristor and the
gatepulse gen er ator. As stated befor e, this isolation is provided by an optocoupl er or a pulse
transform er.
A pulseamplifi er circuit for amplifying the input pulses is sh own in F ig. 4.84. It consists of
a MOSFET (or a tran sistor ), a pulse transfor mer fo r is olation and diodes 01, D2. Wh en a
voltage of appropriate level is applied to the gate of MOSFET, it gets turned on. :\3 a resu lt,
most of the de voltage Vee appeC'.rs acr oss transformer pr imary a.'1d corresponding pulse voltage
is induced in the transformer secondary. This amplified pulse or;. the secon dary side is applied
to gate and cathode of a thyristo:" to turn it on. When pu lse signal appl ied to the gate of
MOSFET goes to zero, MOSF ET turns off. Th e prim nry current due t o Vee ten ds to fall and
li kewise flux in core also tene!.s to decrease. Due to th is tendency, a vo ltage of opp os ite polarity
is indu ced in both prima.ry and seco ndary windings of pu lse transformer. Diode DI an the
Zl6
Power Electronics
[Art. 4.1 7]
secondary side of pulse transformer prevents the flow of negative gate current due to the
reverse secondary voltage when MOSFET is off. Reverse voltage in primary, however, forward
biases diode D2 when MOSFET is off. Current flow is thus established in the circuit consisting
of primary, Rand D2. As a consequence, energy in the transformer magnetic core gets
dissipated in R and the core flux gets reset. In case pulse width at the secondary terminals is
to be increased. then a capacitor C is connected across R as shown in Fig. 4.84 (b).
vco
A
Pulse
Trans
V~t=15V
0
~:
.,
0'
~
N, iN,
N,
02
.J tG
N,
02
v g,
R
P ~15 e
,i gnal
II
(al
MOSFET
~
~~JMOSFET
rr,
=!=
..
R,
Pulse
si gnal
(bl
Fig. 4.84. Pulse amplifier circuit using a MOSFET for a thyristor trigger circuit
(a) shortpulse output (b ) longpulse output.
[Ad. 4.1 81
Thyristors
217
Pu lse
Trans
Vee
01
N,
N,
02
v,
",k
V'hnn nhnnnhnnnhn
V'h nnn
pnno ;
,
I
I
::IMDSFET
R,
Timer
(a)
Fig. 4.85. Pulse train gating
(a)
(b)
circuit (b) waveforms.
JK
FLIP
FLOP
Inverter
tor 2
Fig . 4.86. Cos ine firing sch em~ for trigge r:ng thyristo rs.
Iv
21S
I"'t.
Power Electronics
~.181
governed by the intersection of u2 and E,. When E, is maximum, firing angle is zero. Thus,
firing angle a in terms of V2m and E, can be expressed as
V2m cos a =E,
or
where V 2m
=cos 1 (~)
...14.36 )
V'm
1)2'
' I
Vm sinwt
4n wI
"!
wI
wI
!'< 3lT+ot)
'r;+jl
wI
:.... C211'tQ)
wI
",I
2"
The signals 1)3' u 4 obtained from comparators are fed to c1ockpulse generators 1, 2 to get
clock pulses us, Us as shown in Fig. 4.87. These signals 1)5, U6 energise a JK flip flop to generate
output signals I)j and ur The signal ui is amplified through the circuit of Fig. 4.85 (a) and is then
empl oyed to tum on the SCRs in the positive half cycle. Signal Uj' after amplification, is used to
trigger SCRs in the negative half cycle.
For a single.phase full converter, average output voltage is given by '
2Vm
... (4.37)
Vo =   cosa
Substituting the value of a from Eq. (4.36) in Eq. (4.3 7), we get
1]
Vo =2V
  cos [ cos IE,
 ] = [2Vm
  .   . E,
7t
V2m
1t
V 2m
Th} ristors
[Prob.4]
219
... (4.38)
This shows that cosine firing scheme provides a linear transfer characteristic between the
average output voltage Vo and the control voltage Ec. This scheme, on account of its linear
tr ansfer characteristic, improves the closedloop response of the converter syst em. This feature
has mad e the cosine firing scheme quite popular in industrial applications.
PROBLEMS
4.1. (a ) What is a thyristor? How has this term been coined? Name the most popular thyristor.
(:'
4.2.
Des cribe the diffe rent modes of operation of a thyristor with the help of its stati c IV
characteristics.
<fb ) Enumerate the various mechanisms by which thyristors can be triggered into co nduction.
Discuss the techniques which result in random turnon of a thyristor.
v'
4.3. (a ) Describe gatetriggering of a thyristor. Does the gatecurrent has any effect on the
forwardbreakover voltage? Discuss.
lb) How does light triggering of a thyristor differ from gate triggering ? Whe re are LASeRs
used ?
lC./
:? 4.4 . (a) Define latching and holding currents as applicable to an SCR. Show these currents on
its static IV characteristics.
(b) What are the necessary conditions for turningon of an SCR ? Discu~s.
(c) Define turnon and turnoff times for an SCR.
4.5. Sketch switching (or dynamic) characteristics of a thyristor during its turnon and turnoff
processes . Show the va riation of voltage across the thyristor nnd current through it during
these two dynamic processes . Indicate clearly the various interva ls into which turnon and
turnoff times can be subdivided. Discuss briefly the nature of these curves.
&>~4 :6 . (al Can a forward voltage be appl ied to an SCR soon after its anode current has fallen to
zero? Explain.
Ib) A forward voltage is applied to an SCR soon after reverse recovery current drops nearly
to zero value. Discuss what would happen to the SCR.
(ci Discuss the importance of dildt rating during the turnon process of a thyristor.
4.7. (al Discuss the conditions which must be satisfied for turning on an SCR with a gate signal.
(b) A thyris tor is conducting a forw ard current. Discuss the basic requirements for commutating (turningoff) this thyris tor.
(0) Bring out clearly how the: anode curre nt expands over the cathode surface area during
the turnon process of a thyristor.
4.8. (0) Are the tumon and turnoff times of a thyristor constant? On what factors do thes e
de pend?
(0) In an SCR, the anode curren.t rises li nearly fro m zero to II = 100 A whereas anode voltage
across S CR falls linearly from VI = 600 V to zero during its turnon time of i } = 5 !JS. Derive
an e!'Cpression for the average power los3 in SCR for t} = 5 !IS. Derive an expression for the
average power loss in SCR for a t rigge!"ing frequency f . In case f"" 100 Hz, find the aVer:lge
pow!:!r 1053 in SCR.
IAns. 1/ 6 VI. /I .l I .!;
5 watts]
(a )
220
Power Electronics
l/
4.9. (a) Justify the statement, "Higher the gate current, lower is the forward breBkover voltage."
(b ) Wh at is harddriving for a thyristor? What are its advantages? Sketch a typical waveform
for gate current for harddriving the thyristor.
(c) For an SCR, the gatecathode characteristic is given by a straight line with a gradient of
20 volts per ampere passing through origin . The maximum turnon time is 4 ~s and the
minimum gate current required to quick turnon is 400 rnA. If the gate source voltage is
15 V, calculate the resistance to be connected in series and the gatepower dissipation.
Given that pulse width is equal to the turnon time and the average power dissipation is
0.2 W, compute the maximum triggering frequency that will be possible when pulse firing
is used.
(Ans: (e ) 17.5 n, 15.625 kHzl
4.10. Ca) Draw thyristor gate characteristics showing the six gate ratings as specified by the
manufacturers. Discuss these ratings. Indicate clearly the preferred gate drive area . Are
there any other gate ratings in addition to the six mentioned above? If yes, describe
this/these briefly.
(b) The gatecathode characteristic of an SCR is given by Vg:: 0.5 + 8Ig . For a triggering
frequency of 400 Hz and duty cycle of 0.1, compute the val ue of resistance to be connected
in series with the gate cireuit. The rectangular trigger pulse applied to the gate circuit
has an amplitude of 12 V. The thyristor has average gatepower loss of 0.5 watts.
[ Hint : (b) 0 =
~O~:: 250 IJ.S. A1; T is more than 100 !ls, dc data apPlY]
IAns: Ca) Peak gatepower dissipation and peak reverse gate voltage
(b) 44.23 OJ
4.11. (a) Draw the gate input characteristics ofa batch of thyristors indicating the upper and lower
limi t loci and explain why this variation exists.
(bl Draw the circuit model of a triggering circuit connected to the gatecathode terminals of
a thyristor. Explain the purpose of connecting a resistor across the gate circuit of an SCR.
:./' Ccl A thyristor data sheet gives 1.5 V and 100 mA as the minimum value of gatetrigger
voltage and gatetrigger current respectively. A resistor of 20 n is connected across
gatecathode tenninals. For a trigger supply voltage of8 V, compute the value of resistance
that should be connected in series with gate circuit in order to ensure tumon of the device.
[Ans, (b ) 37.143 OJ
4.12. (a l Draw thyristor gate VI characteristics indicating clearly the gate drive limits. Explain,
with the help of these char'acteristics, the selection of an 'operating point and the choice
of gate circuit parameters.
Discuss also how tumon time and jitter can be minimised.
( b ) In case gating signal for an SCR consists of a train of pulses instead of continuous dc
signal, explain how the frequency of triggering and other factors are decided .
{cl A thyristor is triggered by a train of pulses of frequency 4 kHz and of duty cycle 0.2.
Calculate the pulse width. In case average gate power dissipation is 1 W, find the
maximum allowable gate power drive.
I Ans: (c ) 50 !lS, 5 WI
4.13 . (a ) Di3cus:; the function of connecting a
[P,ob .4]
Thyris tors
.
t,
221
2jJ~' I '
!,).J~_I......;
O '~~'CC;_C~_C,300 A
+'__ ___
OL________  : 2.1.15;""
~
'
100 '1
[Hint:
(e)
Pf)=~fV1Il.tl]
4.14. The spread in the gatecathode characteristics of a thyristor is given by the foll owing two
relations:
I, =2.0 x 10 3 V; and Ig =2.0 x 10 3 V:s
For an average gate power dissipation of 0.5 W, design the trigger circuit voltage and current
fo r harddrive.
(Hint: Here I, =79.37 rnA and Vg = 6.3 V. Also I, =47.82 rnA and Vg = 10.456 V. For harddrive, choose I, say 75 m...o\ etc.1
[Ans. Vg = 5.56 V, Ig = 75 mAl
4.15 . (a l Discuss the twotransistor model of a thyristor. Derive an expression for the anode current
and discuss therefrom the turnon mechanisms of a thyristor .
'.
4.16. (a ) Which cU.rTent rating of an SCR is the most important?
( b) What is the difference between repetitivecurrent and surgecurrent ratings of a thyristor?
(c) What are V DR.lI and VRR.\f? Are these ratings different from each other for a thyristor?
(d ) Is it possible to exceed rms current rating of an SCR?
(e ) What are VDWM and VDR.\l? Which ruting is low?
(f) An SeR has maximum rms current rating of 78.5 A. Find its maximum average current
rating.
(Ans: (a) RmscuITent (cl VDR.\/ = VRRJf (d) No (e) VDlVMisl'ow if) 50A1
4.17. 1o ) Describe the various anode voltage ratings as opplicBble to an SCR. Indicate these voltage
ratings on a relevant voltage waveform .
Ib) Discuss the signi ficance of duldt in case of thyris tors.
(d Explain why an SCR is derated when it handles pulsed anode current 83 compared to its
rating for constant dc current.
The
ave rage current rating of an SCR decreases as its conduction angle is reduced .
/ ' Id)
Explain
.
>'
4.1 S~ Define th e following terms relating to SCR and discuss their significance : ~
1i) Forward breakover vo ltage (ii) Peak inverse voltage (iii) critical rate of rise of voltage (iu)
voltage safety factor (u) onstate voltage drop ( ui ) finger voltage.
4.19. (01 The derating of an SCR is more for sine waves than for the square (or rectangular) waves .
Explain.
Sketch the curves showing average power dissipation as a function of average forward
current for different cond oldion angles for both sine and square waves.
( b) \Vho t is the effect on average curr~nt rating oi an SCR in C"52 inductance is in:;;erted in
the anode circuit? Discuss.
222
[P.ob.
(c)
~J
Power El ec tronics
The specification sheet for an SCR gives maximum rms ons;:nte cuin nt us 50 A. If this
SCR is used in a resistive circuit, compute its average on state current ra ting for conduction angles of30~ and 60 a in case current waveform is (i ) half::;ine wave nnd (ii) rectangular
wilve.
[Ans: (cl 30 G (i) 12.56 A (ii ) 14.434 A; 60 (i) 18.00 A (ii ) 20.412 AJ
Q
4.20 .
If a forward voltage is applied to an SCR which is below its breukover voltage , it may
well switch on , particularly if the voltage is applied rapidly. Explain why this is so .
Discuss how the effect mentioned above can be min imi zed .
( b ) A thyristor is placed between a constant dc voltage source of 240 V nnd resistive load
R . The specified limits for dildt and du l dt for the SCR are 60 Nmicro second and 300
V/micro second respectively . Determine the values of the di l dt inductor and the snubber
circuit parameters. Take damping ratio as 0.5.
Discuss how these parameters may be modified to suit the working conditions in the
circuit.
Derive t he various expressions used.
[Ans: (b) Computed values: 4 J..lH, 5 n, 0.16 J..lF
modified values : 6.4 !lH, 8 n, 0.12 !lFI
4 .2 1. (a ) Snubber circuit for an SCR should primarily consist of capacitor only. But, in actual
practice. a resistor is used in series with the capacitor. Discuss.
(b) R, Land C in an SCR circuit meant for protecting aga inst du l dt and di l dt arc
4 n, 6 J..lH and 6lJ.F respectively. If the supply voltage to the circuit is 300 V, calculate
permissible maximum value:;; of duldt and dildl.
[Hint: (b) Rate of change of voltage across the thyristor at t = 0 when the supply is
switched on is given by
dUe
di . l~e
V, 300
_
= R  +  where I =  = = 7";) !\ etcl
[ Ans: (b) 50 A/J..ls. 212 .5 Vl }lsJ
dl
S dt
C
' C Rl
4
(n )
4.22. Following are the specifications of a thyristor operating from a peak supply of 500V:
Repetitive peak current, Ip = 250 A
(~:
= 60
AI~s,
Take a factor of safety of 2 for the three specifications mentioned above. Design a suitable
snubbe r circuit if the minimum load resi3 tance is 20 n. Take; = 0.65.
I An" 17 ~H, 6 n, 0.5 ~F I
4.23. (a) Discuss how a thyristor may be subjected to internal snd external overvoltages. Describe
the methods adopted for suppressing such overvoltages in thyristor systems .
( b ) During the turnoff process in a thyristor, the revers e recovery current of 10 A is interrupted in a time interval of 4 !ls. The thyristor is connected in series with an inductance
of 6 mH with no resistance in the circuit. If the source voltage during turnoff process is
 300 V, calculate
(il peak voltage across the thyristor when reo:erse current is interrupted and
(i j ) the value of snubber ci rcuit resistance in case snubber capacitance C, '" 0.3).J.F and
damping ratio is 0.65:[ Ans : (b)  15.3 kV, 183.85 OJ
4.24.
Explain the methods adopted for the protection of SCRs against overcurrents.
(b ) A thyris tor. having maximum rms onstate current of 45 A, is used in a resistive circuit.
Compu:e its average ons tate current rati ng fo r halfsine wave for co nduction angl es of
,";13 and ',"'( 12 .
[Ans: (b ) 16.198 A, 20 .26 Al
{a )
4,25, (a ) Describe electronic crowbar prot<!ction scheme employed fo r the overcllrren t protec tion of
power con'/ette rs .
1. 0) Dr aw Co circuit diagra m illustrating the protection of both anode and gate ci rcuits of a n
SC? . Describe briefly t h~ [unctio n of .... arious component .. used.
T hyr istor s
[Prob.4)
223
4.26. (a ) Enumer ate the various abnormal conditions against which tbyristors must be protected.
(b ) Describe tbe significance of di l dt and duldt in
(c) Describe, with the help of a circuit diagram, the functi on of various co mponents uded for
the protection of gate circuit of a thyristor.
4.27. (a) Describe the methods employed for improving dildt rating in a thyristor.
(b) Large dIJ l dt may turn on a thyristor at random . Describe how cathodeshorts in thyristors
improve their dIJl dt ratings .
4.28. (a) Discuss briefly the different components of power loss that occur in a thyristor during i~s
working . Which of the power loss component/components islare dominant at power frequencies a nd which at high freque ncies?
( b ) Give the concept of thermal resistance. Describe the analogy between thermal and electri
cal quantities.
(e) Draw the thermal equivalent circuit for an SCR and discuss the various paramete rs
involved in it.
Cd) Describe anyone method of designing the heat sinks for thyristors.
4.29. Ca) For thyristors, various mounting techniques are based on their therm al considerations.
Discuss these mounting techniques with releva nt diagrams.
(b) A t hyristor is rated to carry fullload current wi th an allowable case temperature of
100Ge, for maximum allowable junction temperature of 125C and thermal resistance
between case and ambient as 0.5C/W. Find the sink temper.aty re for an ambient
tempe rature of 40C . Take thermal resistance between sink and ambient as 0. 4 ~C/W.
[Ans, (b) 88' C[
scas.
4.30. A thyristor is rated to carry an rms current of 100 A Its maximum allowable j unction
t emperature is 125C.
(0) If this thyristor is made to carry direct current continuously, find the maximum allowable
current rating of the SCR.
(6) If th is SCR is used in a singlephase halfwave circuit with resistive load, find the
maximum allowable average current for firing a ngl es of 0.1 = 30" and ~ = 120.
(c) For part (b ), determine the sink remperatures if average powers dissipated are 200 W for
0. 1 and 150 W fo r 0.2' The value of thermal impedances a re:
a;e = 0.15 C/ W, Be", = O.07C/ W for a1
and
9je=0 .16C/ W,9c, =0.OaoC/ Wfora2'
[An., (a) 100 A (b) 60 .273 A, 25 .118 A (0) 81 ' C and 89' CI
4.31. A thyristor string is made up of a number ofSCRs connected in series and parallel. The string
has voltage and current rati ngs of 11 kV and 4 kA respectively. Th e voltage and cur~ n t
ratings of avail able SCRs are 1800 V a nd 1000 A respectively. For a string efficiency of 90%,
calculate the number of series and parallel connected SCRs.
For these SCRs, maximum offstate blocking current is 12 mA . Determine the value of static
equalizing resistance for the string. Derive the fonnula used for this resistance .
[Ans: Series 7. Para llel5, R = 22 .22 kOJ
4.32. For the th}Tistors of ?rob. 4.31, maximum difference in their reverse recovery charge is 25
mi crocoulombs. Compute the value of dynamic equalizing capaci ta nce of this stri ng. Derive
the formula used for the computation of this capacitance.
[Ans: C == 0.094 ~FJ
4.33. Three s eriesconnected thyTistors, provided with static and dynamic equalizing circuitd. have
to withstand an offst ate volta ge of 8 kV. The static equali zing r esistance is 20 kn and the
dynamic equali. zing ci rcuit has Rc = 40 n a nd C == 0.06 ~I F . These th ree th}'1"istors have ieak,lg:!:
currents of25 rnA, 23 rnA and 22 IT'_A. respectively. De:ermi ne volta ge across each SCR in the
off state and the discharge curren t of each ca pacitor at the time of t urn o ~ .
iAns: 2500 V, 254 0 V, 2560 V; 62. 5 A, 63. 5 A. B.IA]
224
[Prob.41
4.34. In a power circuit, foul' SCRs are to be connected in series. Permissible "difference in blocking
voltage is 20 V for a maximum difference in their blocking currents of 1 rnA. Difference in
recovery charge is 10 ~C . Design suitable equalizing ci rcuit.
IAns: Static equalizing resistance = 20 k 0; shunt capacitance = 0.5 ~Fl
4.35. (a ) Discuss how 8CRs suffe r from unequal voltage distribution across them during their
turno n and turnoff processes.
(bl A number of8CRs , each with a rating of2000 V and 50 A, are to be used in seriesparaUel
combination in a circuit to handle 11 kV and 400 A. For a derating factor of 0.15, cnlculate
the number of SCRs in series and parallel units .
The maximum difference in their reverse recovery charge is 20 microcoulombs. Calculate
(il the value of dynamic equalizing capacitance and (iil the voltage across each of the slow
thyristors in case one seriesconnected SCR is fast.
[Ans: (b) n,:7, np=10, C=0.04).lF, 1500V)
4.36. Define string efficiency for series I parallel connected SCRs. Show that stri ng efficiency of two
series connected SCRs is usuallv les s than one.
Derive an expression for the resistance used for sta tic voltage equalization for a series
connected strin g.
4.37. Describe how two series connected SCRs are subjected to unequal voltage distribution during
their dynamic conditions. Derive an expression for capacitance C used in the dynamic equalizing circuit for n series connected SCRs.
4.38. Show that string efficiency for two parallel connected 8CRs is usually less than one.
Discuss the problems associated with the parallel operation of 8CRs and how these are
overcome.
4.39. (a) Describe briefly the following members of thyristor family.
PUT, SUS, SCS
Illustrate your answer with suitable diagrams.
(b)
(c)
4.40. (a )
(b )
(c)
4.41. (a)
(b )
4.42 . (a)
(b )
4.43. (a )
( b)
4.44. (a )
( b)
(cl
Draw the crosssectional view of the diac and explain how it can conduct in both the
directions.
Give the crosssectional view of a triac and explain its turnon process with relevant
diagrams. Hence show that a triac is rarely operated in first quadrant with negative gate
current and in third quadrant with positive gate current.
Describe LASCR. Give its industrial applications.
Discuss how a triac may sometimes operate in the rectifier mode.
Enumerate the advantages of ASCR and RCT over conventional thyristors.
What is a GTO ? Describe its basic structure.
The turnoff process in a GTO can be described with its twotransistor model. Explain
this in detail.
Bring out clearly the difference between golddoped GTOs and anodeshorted GTOs .
Describe switching performance in a GTO with relevant voltage and current waveforms.
Give the merits and demerits of GTOs as comp ared t o conventional thyristors .
Define the following terms as applicable to GTOs and discuss their significance.
Turnoft' gain, backporch current.
Give the application of GTOs.
Describe the bas ic structure of a static induction thyris tor (81TH ).
Explain the turnon and turnoff processes in a SITH. Show that 5 1TH is a normallyon
device.
Compare 81TH with a GTO.
Thyristors
[P<ob.4]
.,
2'
/' 4.45. (a) Discuss the features that the firing circuits for thyristors should possess.
Give the general layout of a firing circuit scheme and explain the function of various
components used in it.
(0 ) Describe the ,.,istance firing circuit used for triggering SeRs. Is it possible to get a firing
angle greater than 90 with resistance firing? Illustrate your answer with appropriate
wa.veforms.
<'.46. (0) For resistance firing circuits show that firingdelay angle is proportional to the variable
resistance.
(b ) Resistance firing circuit is used for triggering an SCR in a laboratory. This SCR is
destroyed by a batch of students inadvertently.
A new SCR with the same specification number is installed. But it is found that maximum
firing angle attained is 75 a only. Explain how the desired maximum firing angle of 90 ~
can be obtained.
{Ans: (b) Increase Rl or R2 or else decrease R in Fig. 4.64J
4.47. (a) Draw RC halfwave trigger circuit for one SCR and discuss the function of the various
components used.
Describe, with the help of wavefonns, how the output voltage is controlled by varying the
resistance. Draw the voltage waveform across SeR also.
(b) Describe RC fullwave trigger circuit for one SCR when the load is (i) ac type (ii ) dc type.
Relevant diagrams and waveforms should be drawn to illustrate your answer.
4.48. (a) Compare an UJT ti.ring circuit with Rand RC firing circuits.
(b ) A unijunction transistor, used in relaxation oscillator, has the following data:
T1 =0.67, Iv = 10 rnA, Vu = 2.5 V, Ip;: 15 JJ,A
An oscillator, with an oscillation frequency of 1 kHz, is to be designed by using this UJT.
Compu~ the values of charging resistor and external resistors needed in the ba3e circuits.
Take O:::O.4)J.F and forwardvoltage drop of E  Bdunction as 0.5 V. Scu..ce voltage is 24
V dc and triggering pulse width is 50 J,ls.
[Ans: (b) R = 2.772 k 0 , RmCl:r = 495 k n, Rmin::: 2.15 k 0 ,
R, =621:9 n, Rl =125 nJ
4 .49. (a) Explain the working of an oscillator employing an UJT. Derive expressions for the
frequency of triggering and firing angle delay in terms of eta, chargir.g resistance etc.
A relaxation oscillator, using an UJT, is to be designed for triggering nn SCR. The UJT
has the following data :
11=0.7, Ip =0.5mA, Vp =15 .0V, Vu=O .BV, Iu=2mA, R BB =6k!l.
Normal leakage current with emitter open = 3 mAo
The firing frequency is 1.5 kHz. For C = 0.05 )J.F, compute the values of charging resistor
and the external r esistors connected in the base circuits. Take forwardvoltage drop of
E  B 1 junction as zero.
(e) If the frequency of firing the SCR in part (b) is changed by varying charging resistor R ,
obtain the maximum and minimum values of R and the corresponding frequencies.
IAn" (b) 11.074 kn, 47 6.66 n , 666.67 n
(c) 12.858 ill, 10.315 kn, 1.292 ffiz, 1.611 kHzl
(b)
4.50. (a) The intrinsic standoff ratio for an UJT is 0.65. Its intel'bl.'!.se resistance is 10 k n. Calculate
the values of the interbase resistances .
(b ) Estimate the minimum and maximum values of chargi ng resistor in the UJT oscillator
circuit for manu al triggerangle control of a between 2tj" and 160~ fo r 50 Hz supply.
IAns: (a ) 6.5 k 0, 3.5 k 0, (b ) 2.307 k 0, 1B.457 k OJ
Assume C = 0.4 ).IF and 11 = 0.7.
4.51. (a) Draw and explain the working of an UJT oscillator. Discuss how th e ampli tude of output
voltage pulse can be estimated in this oscillatnr.
226
Powe r El ectronics
[Prob.4J
(b)
Using a 15V supply to an UJT, design the oscillator circuit for a frequency of5 kHz . Da ta
fo r UJT is as und er :
., = 0 .65 to 0.75, R B8 = 4 .7 .to 9.1 len
'fake C = 0 .04 J..LF. Missing data may be assumed.
[Hjnt! (6) Ass ume leakage current = 1.88 mAl
(An.: (b) R=4.153kO, R ,= 952.40, R I = 126.30, R_ = 6 kO,
Rmin =3 k
{min = 3460.8 Hz, (max r 6921 .6 Hzl
n.
4.52. A r elaxation oscillator using an UJT is' fabricated to generate pulses for triggering SCRs.
When th e circuit is energised, the circuit fails to oscillate. What could be the plausibe causes
of this failure? How can the circuit be made functi onal?
[Ans. More V BS or less VB! than required ; R < R mill or R > R ma..:.:1
4.53. An UJ T of Fig. 4.71 (a ) has the following parameters :
[Hint. (a ) V EE
=.,
VEE
,, =
4.5 6. (a ) Describe the use of pulse transformer in the triggering ofSCR! and GTOs. With a suitable
circui t, discuss the conditions under which the input pulse is faithfully transmitted or is
tr ansmitted in the form of exponentially decaying pulse. Which of these two functional
modes is preferred and why?
(b ) The primary of a pulse transformer is connected in series with a t ransistor and a current
limiting r esis tor R L . The data for the triggering circuit is .as under :
RL = 500 0 , gat.e to cathode r esis tance = 200 n
P rimary to secondary turns ratio
Comput.e the voltage a pplied to the circuit consisting of transformer primary, RL etc.
Derive the expression used.
[Ans: (b) 16.5 V]
4.57. (a) Describe the trigger circuit for a triac using a diac.
( b) A diac with a breakdown voltage of 35 V, Fig. 4.79, is used for t riggering a tri ac. This
circuit h as RI = 1000 n, R = zero to 280 k n and C = 0.1 J,lF. For a supply voltage of 230
V, 50 Hz ; calculate the maximum and minimum values of firingdelay angles for the triac.
The effect of load imped ance may be neglect ed.
lAns: (b ) 156.5", 7.98 j
Q
Thyristors
(Prob.4]
227
4.58. (0 ) Describe 9. gate trigger circuit for a singlephase full converter. Discuss how the adjustment 'of control voltage varies the firingdelay angle.
(b) Describe a gatepulse amplifier using' a MOSFET.
4.59. (a) Why is pulsetrain gating preferred over pulse gating? Explain, with relevant circuit and
waveforms, the pulsetrain gating of SeRs.
(b ) Why is the cosinefiring scheme so popular? Describe 8 cosinefiring scheme for the
triggering of thyristors.
Chapter 5
............ .. ... .... ...... .. ..... ..... ............... .............. ........... ..... ....... In Ihis Chapter
Closs
Class
Closs
Class
Class
Class
.. ........ ..... __ ... ... ... ..... .. ...... .... ..... .. ................... . ..  .. , ..... ..... __ ..... .... . .
...
A thyristor is turned on by applying a signal to its gatecathode circuit. For the purpose of
power control or power cO:lditioning, a conducting thyristor must 'be turnedoff as desired. As
stated before, the tumoff of a thyristor means bringing the device from forwardconduction
state to forwardbl ocking state. The thyristor turnoff requires that (i) its anode current falls
below the holding current and (ii ) a reverse voltage is applied to thyristor for a sufficient time
to enable it to recover to blocking state. Commutation is defined as the process of turningoff a
thyristor. Once thyristor starts conducting, gate loses control over the device, therefore,
external means may have to be adopted to commutate the thyristor. Several commutation
te ch niqu es have been devel oped with the sale objective of reducing their turnoff (or
commutation) time,
The use ofthyristor circuits in lowpower converters has declined relatively. This is because
of recent advances in semiconductor power devices leading to the availability of power
transistors , GTOs and IGBTs. However, for highvoltage and highcurrent applications above
about 1 kV and 0.5 kA,' thyristor circuits offer popular circuit configurations.
The classification of thyristor commutation techniques, as reported by various authors, is
not the same, Here, an attempt is made to refer to all these classification techniques. Primarily,
the classification of commutation techniques is based on the manner in which anode current
is reduced to zero and on the configuration of the commutating circuits.
J'hyristor commutation techniques use resonantLC, or underdamped RLC circuits, to force
the current and / or voltagf! oi a thyristor to zero to turn off the device. Several powerelectronic
converters employ the circuit co nfigurations used for describing the thyristor commutation
techniques. TherefClre, a study of the various commutation techniques serves as an introduction
and leat.ls to '" better und ers tand ing of the trans!ent ph enomena occuring in powerelectronic
converters under switching con ditions .
The various commutati on techniques are now described in this chapter.
For achieving load commutation of a thyristor, th e commutating com ponents L and C are
connected as shown in Fig. 5.1. Here R is th e load resis tance. For low v alue of R, Land C are
[Art. 5.1J
229
v.
O~~~~,,~,f'~'~'~'~'~_'t
r ,
o
o
Io R
11: , __ ;
ILood
0
L. _..:
<aJ
+
v,
r0
oR
,
ih
O~
A\.
:lood
Ic_ 0
...J
,7
,,t
'"
<b)
Fig. 5.1. Class A or load commutation (a) series capacitor (b) shunt capacitor.
connected in series with R , Fig. 5. 1 (a). For high value of R,lond R is connected across C, Fig.
5.1 (b). The essential requirement for both the circuits of Fig. 5.1 is that the overall circuit must
be underdamped. When these circui~ are energized from dc, current waveforms as shown on
the right hand side of Fig. 5.1 are obtained. Itis seen that current i first rises to ma.umum value
and then begins to fall . When current decays to zero and tencfs' to reverse, thyristor Tin Fig. 5.1
is turnedoff on its own at instant A.
~ Load, or classA, commutation is prevalent in thyristor circui ts supplied from a dc source.
The nature of the circuit should be such that when energized from a dc source, curre nt must
have a natural tendency to decay to zero for the load commutation to occur in a thyristor circuit.
Load comm utation is possible in dc circuits and not in ac circuits. ClassA , or load, commutation
is also called resonant commutation qr selfcommutation. A practical circuit employing load
commutation is a series inverter which is described in Chapter 8. Asimple example illustrating
the basic principle of load commutation is given below:
' ..
Example 5.1. The circuit shown in Fig. 5.2 (a) is initially relaxed. The thy ristor T is turned
on at t =O. Determine (a) conduction time of thyristor and (b) voltage across thyris tor and
capacitor after SCR is turned off Ca lculate these values for L = 5 mH, C = 20 p.F and
V. =200 V.
Solution. \vh;n thyristor is turned on , it behaves like a diode. Th erefo re, with S CR on, the
devi ce acts like a closed switch , Fig. 5.2 (b). KVL for this circui t gives
If 'd V
L di
dt + C l t = J
lt3 solution, fro m Art. 3.1.4, is given by Eq. (3.9) which is r epeated here.
i(l) = V.
~ sin ""t
... (5.1 )
230
P ower Electronics
[A r t. 5.2]
l(t)~
v. ~,
T
L
v.
O~x~/2~~,"~/~w,~t'"
~l
_
(a )
2V,
O~I::::::=tt~,.~~~::::::::.!~1'tl
v,
l_ _cTl~'
v,,I_
(b)"
Ie)
Fig. 5.2. Ca ) ond (b ) Load commutation circuit (e) waveforms.
Here
Wo =
",Ie
is
~alled
... (5.2)
It is seen from above equations that at time t = to=n/Wo. i(t ) = O anl tic: {t } = + 2 V;. TruS''''
shows that 1t/000 sec or 1t ..JLC sec after thyristor is clos ed at t = 0, the charging current becomes
zero, Fig. 5.2 (c) and thyristor is, therefore, turned off on its own. Here
10 =conduction time of the thyristor
=. ~LC
....
... (5.3)
Voltage tiT across thyristor during its conduction time to is zero. When it stops conducting,
Ur = 2V~ + V, = V" It implies that SCR is subjected to a revers e voltage afV, which helps in
its recovery.
For the circuit parameters given, the calculations are as under :
R'
t f
. f th .
t
1
esonan requency 0
e ClrcUl , COo = {S x 10 ~ x 20 x 10 61 1/ 2
=
10'
=Fa'
3162.27 rad/ , .
5.2. CLASS B
CO~I1IIUTATION
: RESONANTPUI.sE CO~I1IIUTATION
[A rt. 5.2 ]
it
'gAt
io 1
231
'"
110
t
,~wot=l(_ I'
,
, ,
TI
iT!
V,
+ ~(_.
+.='J''''''''',
t( ,
V'
"
.,.i... . ~D
"PHI
ic
,I ,I
Vall
load
"
TA
' T1
tc lor
~ I
"
ie1
"0
10
v
T1
ON
,, _1..._. __ :
t,
TA
DN
, ,
II
t2 t) t, ts
TA T1
OFF OFF
~)
(b )
waveforms .
thyristor Tl as well as auxiliary thyristor TA are off. Positive direction of capacitor voltage Vc
and capacitor current ic are marked. \Vhen Tl is turned on at t = 0, a constant current 10 is
established in the load circuit. Here, for simplicity,load current is assumed constant.
yptill time tv Uc = V r, ic = 0, i o=10 and iT! =10, Fig. 5.3 (b). F or in itiating th e
commutation of main thyristor Tl, auxiliary thyristor TA is gated at t = tl . With TA on, a
resonant current ic begins to flow from C through TA. L and back to C. This resonant current,
with time measured from instant t l , is given by
ic = V,
Minus sign before 1p .sin 000 t is due to the fact that this current fl ows opposite to the
r eference positive direction chosen for ic in Fig. 5.3 (a) .
Capacitor voltage
= V, cos Wo t
... (5.4 )
After half a cycle of ic from instant t 1; ic = 0, Uc =  V, and iTl =10 , .<\fier Jt radians from
instant t l , i.e. just after instant t2 as ic tends to reverse, TA is turned off at t 2 . With Vc =  V"
righthand plate has pos iti ve p olarity. R es onant curr ent ic n ow b u il ds up thr ough
C, L , D and T l. As this curren t ic grows opposite to forward thyristor current of Tl, net for ward
curr ent in = 10  ic begin s to decre ase. Finally, wh en ic in the reve rsed direction attain s the
value 10 , fo rw ard current in T l (i n =10  10 = 0) is r educed to zero and the device Tl is t urn ed
off at t J . For r eliable commutation, peak r esonan t current Ip must be greater th an load current
10 . As thyri stor is commutated by the gradual build up of r 2 ~o na.T}t current in th e reve rs ed
232
Power Electronics
[Art. 5.2J
or
~ sin 000 (t 3 
where
Ip
t 2) = 1 0
=sin 1 (~; J
... (5. 5)
Main thyristor Tl is commutated at t3 ' As constant load current 10 charges C linearly from
Vab at t 3 to zer o at t 4 , SCR Tl is reverse biased by voltage Uc for a period (t4  t 3 ) = te'
:. Circuit turnoff time for main thyristor,
V
... (5.6)
tl; =t~t3 =C 10
Eq. (5.6) shows that tc is dependent on the load current. Waveform of capacitor voltage u~
reveals that the magnitude of reverse voltage Vab across main thyristor TI , when it gets
commu tated, is given by
... (5.7)
Example 5.2. Circuit of Fig. 5.3 (a) employing resonantpulse commutation (or class B
com m utation) has C =20 ~ and L =5 ~. Initial uoltage across capacitor is V, = 230 V. For a
constant load current of 300 A, ~alculate
(a) conduction time for the auxiliary thyristor,
"'0 = ~LC
10'
(0 ) From q. (5.5),
"'0 (I, 
t,i=sin
, = 31.416 ~s .
0.1 x 10
1
Voltage across main thyristor, when it gets turned ofT. is given by Eq. (5.7).
..
V = V, cos "'0 (I,  I,) = 230 cos (40. 706') = 174 .355 V
[Art. 5.3]
I, = I.  I, = C 1, = 20 x 10
_, 174.355
2
300 = 11 .6 4 ~s .
CO~lPLEMENTARY
COMMUTATION
l,
v,
RI
u;t ITI
T1
~, i,
,r
 V,+
T2
./
i
  ~T
(a )
iT I =ll"f" l'
(b)
,Ei:l
P,/RII
II
II'd!
I
v,[~,+mb i
!
1"
I,
,,
t
f/"RI ,
v,
v,
v,
Vs (1 2p t/RrC)
v,
i,
T1
ON
,
,
2V.
e _ '/ R1C
R, ,
I,
n OFF
T2 ON
(c)
Fig. 5.4. Cla33'C commutation (a) and (b ) circui t diagrams (c) wa veforms .
233
234
Power Electronics
[Mt. 5.3J
R:
(i, i;I
+
through R2 fr om ue = O.
R:'
begins to flow, Figs. 5.4 (b) and (c). Capacitor C l?egins charging
C and R2 is given by
V
ic (t ) = R' . e t/R~ c
'c = 2V,
R l an d'.T.!. =V
(2R I + 1) In t h. e CirCUit
..
R
'
conSIS t'log a f
V" R I , C and T2, the capacitor voltage changes from V, to  V, as shown in Fig. 5.4 (c).
Jic dt =V,
1 [I,
CV,]
V,
C s
s
s
R t ic + ~
R 1 (5)+ 
ie (t)=
(s)
   =
2V
R' eIIRLc
As. this current ic (t) flows opposite to the positive direction indicated in Fig. 5.4
(a),
... (5.8)
1
... (5.9a )
un =  Uc = V, [1 2 e tlRIC)
... (5.9b)
Note that in Eqs. (5.8) and (5.9), time t is measured from the instant t,. The plots of
capacitor current ic (t) from Eq. (5.8), and capacitor voltage u~ (t) and uTI from Eq. (5.9) are
shown in Fig. 5.4 (c). Current in falls from its value V,
R ,C.
(i,
[Art. 5.4J
uTI
= V"~ Ue =  V"~ ic = 0,
Un
= 0, i1'2 = V, I R 2 and i Ti = O.
=  V"~
UTI
= 0 and
.
Lc
235
V,(;, ;j}
+
2VJ
R,
With the turn on ofT2 at t I , capncit~r voltage V, suddenly appears as reverse bias across
Tl to turn it off. Similarly, at t 3 , capacitor voltage V, applies a sudden reverse bias across T2 to
turn it off. On account of this, classC' commutation is also called complementary impulse
. commu tation.
Waveforms for voltages and currents are drawn in Fig. 5.4 (c) . Waveform for UTl indicates
that a reverse voltage  V, to zero appears across thyristor Tl for a certain period, This period,
called circuit turnoff time tel for Tl is given by
UTI
or
= 0 =V.
(1_2e'J RtCj
...(5.100)
... (5.10 b)
(b) ualue of capacitor C if each thyristor has turnoff time of 40 )ls. Take a factor of safety 2.
Solution. (a) An examination of Fig. 5.4 (c) reveals that
= V,
=V
J
[.l. +.1.]
RI
R'l
2
= 200 [ 10 +
(b) From Eq. (5. 10 0),
c=
=
I~O ] = 42 A
tel
Rjln (2)
2 X 40 X 10 6
10 In (2) =11.542~F
_
2x40xlO 6
C = 100 In (2) 1.1042 ~F
236
Power Electronics
[Art. 5.4]
i"b
i9At~_
_ __
!'I!!I
"_ _ _,_
i,rr:+,
.
Ir,
. v" In
10=10
i,'
i,
v,+==c
+ VTA
,V
Y,
fA
.vLv
'0
T1
ON
~)
tl
T1 OFF
TAON
t2
TA OFF
V, is applied across load and load current 10 begins to fl ow which is assumed to remain constant.
With Tl on at t = 0, another oscillatory circuit consisting of C, TI, L and D is formed where the
capacitor current is given by
.
Ic SLnWot
. = IpSLnCllot
 t
'e V
= .. 'I
When (00 t = Tt, ie = 0. Between 0 < t < (It!wo), iTl = 1 0 + Ip sin Wo t , Capacitor voltage
change s from + V, t o  VI cosinusoidally and the lower plate becomes positive. At
Wo t = 1t, ic = 0, iTl = 10 and tic = V". Fig. 5.5 (b).
At t l auxiliary thyristor TA is turned on. Imm ediately after TA is on, capacitor voltage
V, applies a reverse voltage across main thyristor Tl so that uTI =  V. at tl
SCR Tl is
rurned off and in = O. The load cun:ent is now carried by C and TA. Capacitor gets charged from
 V, to V. with constant load current 10 , The change is, ther efore, linear from + V, to  V, as
shOwn. 'W hen Ut =V" it = 0 a t t2 , thyristor TA is turned off. During the time TA is on from
tl to t 2, Uc = uTl,i c = 10 and to =10  For main thyristor T1, circuit turnoff time is tc as shown in
Fig. 5.5
, (b).
ana
With the firing of thyristor TA , a reverse voltage V, is suddenly applied across Tl ; this
method of commutati on is therefore, also called uoltage commutation. . With sudden appearance
of reverse voltage across Tl, its current is qu ench ed; in fact the current momentarily reverses
to recover the stored charge ofTI. As an auxiliary thyristor TA is used for turningoff the main
thyristor Tl, this type of commutation is also known as auxiliary commutation.
[A rt. 5.5]
237
When thyristor TA is turned on, capacitor gets connected across Tl to tUrn it off, this type
of commutation is, therefore, also called parallelcapacitor commutatLon .
Example 5.4. Circuit of Fig. 5.5 (a) illustrates classD commutation. For this circuit,
V, =230 V, L = 20)J.H and C =40 I.J,F. For a constant load current of 120 A , calculate.
(a) peak value of current through capacitance and also through main and auxiliary
thyristors,
(b) circuit turnoff times for main and auxiliary thyristors.
Solution_
(0)
~ =230~=325.22A
=10 = 120 A
Waveforms for vTl or ve in Fig. 5.5 (b) indicate ~hat circuit turnoff time for mam
thyristor Tl is the time required for un or ve to change linearly from  V J to zero.
(b)
.. I ,
V,
Ct,
~
= 2
n
OJo
10'
"'0 = 'JLC =
10'
ho x 40 = ~800
tel
It
f8()'O
In this typ e of comm utati on, a p1l1se of current is ob tained from OJ sepr.rate voltage sou rce
tL :urn off the conducting SCE . The pea.~ value of this current puls e must be more than the load
238
Power Electronics
[Art. 5.6]
Tbis type of commutation is also 'known as natural commuta~ion. This c;an occur only when
the source is ac, When an SCR circuit is energised from ac source, current has to pass through
its natural zero at the end of every positive half cycle. Then ac source applies a reverse bias
across SCR automatically. As a result, SC~ is turned ofT. This is called natural commutation
because no external circuit is employed to turnoff the thyristor. This method of commutation
is applied to phasecontrolled converters, iinecommutated inverters, ae voltage controllers and
stepdown cyclocon verters.
U,
Ur
+T
Vs =Vmsin wt
(a)
'
wt
~,~
. to t U ~
i
io:
t,
to
+
U,
I
, ......
~ ..... ....
'b
"raj
2'1('
1"1
~
J1r
\.Ji
t.1I'wt
wt'
(b)
'0
[Ml5.6J
239
C=O.
e tI RCl
..
[du'l
or
dt
' 0=
V,
RC
current Cj
.(
~'
).0
Vc
...( i )
happens to be equ al to 5 mA, SeR will get turned on. Here Cj is the junction
capacitance ofSeR.
of(~cl _
, 0
V, 103
CJ RC
=oX
or
Power Electronics
[Art. 5.6J
240
C = 25
or
12
10. x 200
250 x 10"
X
=0.02
In order to obviate turning on of SCR, the value of capacitance C should be less than
0.02 ~F .
T1
...
.
v, =i';c
...
vs=200V
.:Y"
TA.,..o
R
Ji
R . i (I) + ~
(I) dl = V.
[IM v.] v.
[ 1]
s
 C s
=s
or
sC
2V.s
I (s)
sC
2V,
1
1
s+ RC
(t) =
fi
(t) dt
"
JI
1
2V' etlRC_V =V [1 _ 2e tlRCj
=_
CoR
"
During the time auxiliary SCR TA is on, Ve = !.In =V, [1 e 1IRC ) . The circuit turnoff time
for Tl is the time taken by lie =Un to change from its value  V, to zero.
..
or
Example 5.7. For the circuit shown in Fig. 5.1 (a), commutatillg elements L = 20 J,J1{ a.nd
C = 40 ~ a.re connected in series with load resistance R =1 n Check whether selfcommutation,
or load commutation, would occur or not. Find the conduc tion time of the thyristor.
Solution. It is seen from Art 3.1.5 that ringing frequ ency
given by
w, =
1/ L~ ti )' =
'" (
[Art. 5.6]
241
L1C( ~ J
or
>0
R<"'f
or
f4L
 f4L
4L 4 x 20 x 10 '
Here C =
= 2. Therefore '''I ~C = ..f2 = 1.41 4 and R = 1 n . As R < 'I ~C ,' the
40 x 10
circuit is underdamped.
Fig. 5.1 (a ) shows that thyristor stops conducting when
Here
OJ,
, ]'12
10 12
1 X 106
= 2 x 40  [ 2 x 20 )
Example 5.B.
00, t 1 = n .
1t
OJ,
1t x 106
= 25000 ~ = 125.664 ~s .
For the circuit shown in Fig. 5.10 (a), d ul dt rating of thyristor T is 400
o. Calculate the ualue of
(a )
(b ) In case maximum current through thyristor of Fig. 5.10 (a) is limited to 40 A, determine
the ualue of R,.
Sol u tian . (a ) When switch S is closed, the equivalent circuit for Fig. 5.10 (a) is as shown in
Fig. 5.10 (b) wh ere C = Cj + C, . The voltage rise across C is given by
_ v,
:200'1
Fh20n.
R
~
R,
I
0,=1=
C;
 v,
C,
=F 1=F
I
(eJ
(a J
UC= UT=V,[l  e
tl t
T} = V, 400 = 200
(dO
dl =, RC or 10' 20 x C
..
Vi""hen switch S is closed, C, would be charged to voltage VJ 'w ith upper plate positive
as shown in Fig. 5.10 (c). Now when thyristor is turn ed on , current iT a t that moment through
T would be give n by
(b)
VJ V,
I T =R+ 1f
R, =10n.
or
Power Electronics
[Arl. 3.6]
242
constant load current 10 = 10 A and capacitor C is initially charged to source voltage V~ with lower
plate positiue. The auxiliary thyristor TA is turned all, at t =0 to commutate the main thyristor TI .
Calculate (a) the time at which the commutation ofmoin thyristor Tl gets initiated (b) the circuit
turnoff time for T 1. Comment on the conduction timl! 1)( auxiliary thyristor.
.,
I
01
'
. ~ F c
T1
"
"
[,
= 'I,
LOad
Load
[0 =lOA
(a)
(b)
Fig. 5.11. (a) Pertaining to Example 5.9 (b ) Circuit model when Tl is turned on.
:b4<.,.
I_
il l
is
turnedoff at
t}
. . rr
f sin
H
ere
..
or
OJ,
000 t}
oo:..oo
V, \J
:~
,
.: ,
lo!., t~   l.. i,
= 10 A
rc .
1
.1 10'
10'
dV G.OO xlO
= ~LC = \I 0.2 x 20 = ~40 an ,'I f = 200 \I 0.2 x 10' = 40 A
40 sin 00 tl = 10 A
0
I(
1 .
t '=sm
1
Wo
40
10
(b) After t 1 as i" exceeds 10, diode D1 begins to conduct till time t 2 where
time to of h alf cycle of i, is given by
~s
iDl
falls to 10 , Here
n
.,.,.
{.IQ
=
=
n , LC =n = 198.693 ~s
o 00
105
0
~s
Thyristor Commutation
Techn~ques
[Art. 5.6]
243
(a ).
i.e =
V,
and
ue =
i'O~

'_
It,
'
t
v,
.
c' ~,.3
iT :lO.,.i c
, o~o
R ~
(a) O<t< tl
~ \T:1 01<
"
l.i . 1
" "
t, l , ,..
o ~~~~~~
,
T
"
'.,
I T''
v,
"
vI
t,
I,
,b
T
oil
244
[Art. 5.6J
Power Electronics
Vs
Vc =
0, iT =1 0 + V,
~ (peak value),
liT =
0 and at
After time t l ie r everses, therefore i T = 10  it: begins to decrease, Fig. 5.13 and Fig. 5.14 ( b ).
At t 2 ic ri se s to 10 and in
= 0,
t,.
I =C Vob
t3  t2
=(t3 
V..
t 2) = te =C T
..
,
Example 5.11.1n. the circuit shown. in Fig. 5.15 (a), switch S closes at t ~ 0and opens after
10 ms. What will thi currerits in R and L, 8 ms after the switch S opens. A ssume 0.7 V drop
across diode whenever i.t conducts.
Solution. When switch S is closed, Ri + L
It solution
Here
~: =V
,=. V
' [l eI/'J
R
is
t
= 1.574 A.
' ]
e 0.02
O.7V
00
Counting tim e from the instant switch S opens, voltage across L forward biases diode, Fig.
5.11 (b) and current i1 begins to flow.
di 1
L dt + 0. 7 = 0
or
or
i 1  i 1 (0)=  0.7 t
or
[Prob. 3]
245
=O.
Example 5.12 .. In the circuit shown in Fig. 5.16, switch S closes at t = 0 and opens afte r 10
ms. What will be current in R, L and voltage across C, 9 ms after switch S opens. Assume diode
to be ideal.
Solution. 'When switch S is closed, Ri +L
~; =V"
i=4[1_e tI O,02]
and
At t = 0.0 1 s, i
50n
i,
'"F == C
;;~
L=IH
(aJ
w,
Since tl is less than 9 ms, energy in L gets transferred to C as the current il in L decays to
zero.
l
v ' l L ,
c ='2
'2 C
'0
Vc =
=
PROBLElUS
1f
_I
'l/1 x l0
5.1.
Expl ain t he need of commutation in thyristor circuits. Wha t are the differen t methods of
commu tation schemes? Dis cuss one of them, involving tw o thyristors . with a neat
schematic and wa veforms.
(b ) A circuit employing parallelresonance turnoff (or c1assB commutation) circuit ha!l
C =50 IJ.F, L = 20 IJ.H, VJ = 200 V and inicial voltage across capacitor is 200 V. Determine
th~ circuit turnoff tim e for main thyristor for load R = 1.5 n .
rAns : (b) 68 ~I3J
5.2.
(0. )
(0.)
Distinguish clearly be twee" voltage commutation and current co mmuta tio n in thyristor
circui ts.
246
Discuss how the voltage across the commutating capacitor is r eversed in a commutating
circuit.
(c) For the circuit in Fig. S.3 (a), supply voltage V, = 230 V dc, load current 10' = 200 A. circuit
turnoff lime for main thyristor::: 25 J.I.S and reversal current is limited to 150% of 10 ,
Determine the values of commutating components C and L .
[An.: (e) C =29.166 ~F, L =17.143 ~Hl
(b)
5.3. In the circuit shown in Fig. 5.9, capacitor C is initially charged to V. = 200 V with polarity as
indicated. Find the circuit turnoff time for mai n thyristor Tl after it is voltage commutated
by thyris tor TA Load current is constant at 40 A and C = 10 ).IF .
[Ans. 50).ls]
5.4.
(a )
(b)
5.5.
Explain the merits and demerits of selfcommutation of SeR and its other methods of
commutation.
For the circuit shown in Fig. 5.10, given that the load current 10 to be com mutated is 10
A, circuit turnofTtime required is 40)Js and the supply voltage is 100 V, obtain the proper
values of commutating components. Take peak resonant current equal to twice the foad
current.
lAns : (b) C:::: 4.619 )JF, L = 115.475 )JH]
Di sc uss , with relevant waveforms, class A and class D types of commutations employed
for thyristors .
(b) For the circuit shown in Fig. 5.10, peak thyristor current =2.5 times the constant load
current, L = 18 )JH and C = 4 )JF. Find the time elapsed from the instant thyristor is turned
on to the instant it gets turned off.
rAns: (b) 32.852 }lsl
(a.)
5.6. (a.) Enumerate the various commutation techniques used for thyristors.
(b) Describe linecommutation and c!assE commutation for thyristors. Name the circuit
configuration where linecommutation is employed.
5.7. (a. ) Discuss, with relevant waveforms, class B and class E types of commutations employed
for thyristor circuits.
(b ) A circuit employing resonantpulse commutation has C:::: 20 )JF and L = 3 flH. The initial
capacitor voltage = source voltage, Vl =230 V dc. Determine conduction time for alL'Ciliary
thyristor and circuit turnoff time for main thyristor in case constant load current is (i) 300 .\
nnd (ii) 60 A.
rAns: (b) (i) 24.335 )JS, tc = 13.23)Js (ii) 24 .335)iS, tc = 76.273 IlS]
5.8. (a) Describe classC type of commutation used for thyristors with appropriate current and
voltage waveforms.
(b) An impulsecommutated circuit is shown in Fig. 5.5 (a). In this circuit, capacitor is initially
charged to source voltage VJ =200 V with upper plate negative . When auxil iary thyristor
is turned on main thyristor gets commutated in 50 )lS. Find the value of C in case load
r esistance i5 20 Q.
Ir peak value of current through main thyristor is limited to twice the fullload current,
calc ulate the value of commutating inductance.
fAns: (b) 3.607 )IF, 1.4428 mHl
5.9. What is com plementary impulse commutatio n? Desc ribe this type of commutatio n with a
circuit di agram and appropriate wavefonns .
Derive expressions for current through and voltage across commutating capacitor. Find also
the circuit tunloff times for the complementary th)T1stors.
5.10. (0 ) A ca pacitor C, initially charged to dc voltage VJ is connected to inductance L through a
thyristor. Determine
(0 the peak value of current through thyris tor Bnd
(ij) the maximum value of dildt through SCR.
(b ) F' OT illustrati ng closs C commutation , ci rcuit of F ig. 5.4 (a ) is empl oyed wher e
VJ :: 200 V and R 1 :: 10 n. Find the value of C 50 that thyris tor Tl i3 commu tat.i!d in
50 )l s .
[Prob. 5]
247
It is required that SCR T2 is turned off naturally when current through it falls below the
[ Ans: (a) V,
."". L
_icV,
.
]
Amp/sec (b) 7.2135 ~F. 50 kn
5.11. In the circuit of Fig. 5.4 (a) employing complementary commutation; V., = 200 V, RI = 20 n
and R2 = 100 Q. Detennine the minimum value of C so that thyristors do not get turned on
due to reapplied duldt. Each SCR has a minimum charging current of 4 rnA to turn it on
and its junction capacitance is 20 pF.
[Ans: 0.1 ~FJ
5.12. For currentcommutated circuit of Fig. 5.3 (a ); VI = 230 V, L = 16 ~H and C = 5 ~F. Capacitor
is initially charged to voltage VI with left hand plate positive. Auxiliary thyristor TA is turned
on at t = O. Find the total time for which capacitor current i( exists. The peak resonant current
is 1.5 times the fullload current.
.
.
[ Hint: In Fig. 5.3
(b), t5  t J =
V, +V.b
10
etc.
[Ans , 58.047 ~I
Chapter 6
II!
Dual Converters
Some Worked Examples
[.,,1. 6.J]
2'1)
V/
6.1. PRINCIPLE OF PHASE CONTROL
The simplest form of controlled rectifier circuits consist of a single thyristor feeding dc power
to a resistive load R as shown in Fig. 6.1 (a). The source voltage is u, = Vm sin (llt, Fig. 6.1 (b). An
SCR can conduct only when anode voltage is positive and a gating signal is applied. As such, a
thyristor blocks the flow of load current io until it is triggered. At some delay angle a, a positive
gate signal applied between gate and cathode turns on the SCR. Immediately, full supply voltage
is applied to the load as vo, Fig. 6.1 (b). At the instant of delay angle a, Va rises from zero to
Vm sin a as shown. For resistive load, current io is in phase with va' Firing angle of a thyristor is
measured from the instant it would start conducting if it were replaced by a diode. In Fig. 6.1, if
thyristor is replaced by diode, it would begin conduction at wi = 0, 21t, 41t etc. ; firing angle is
therefore measured from these instants . A firing angle may thus be defined as the angle between
the instant thyristor would conduct if it were a diode and the instant it is triggered.
Firing pulses
I
Vm sin Cl
wi
I
I,
I
Ii
V Vm
ii
wi
(io11 TO')
l,,(" ,
,
wi
..
~~
,,
WI
'0
1
~
250
Power Electronics
[Art. 6.1]
A firing angle may also be defined as follows: A firing angle is measured from the angle that
gives the largest average output voltage, or the highest load voltage. If thyristor in Fig. 6.1 is
frred at wt = 0, 2n, 4n etc., the average load voltage is the highest ; the firing angle should thus
be measured from these instants. A firing angle may thus be defined as the angle measured
from the instan t that gives the largest average outpu t voltage to the instant it is triggered.
A critical observation of Fig. 6.1 leads to the emergence of another definition of firing angle.
Thus, a ring angle rna be defined as the angle measured fr om the instant SCR gets forward
~l.. ~
biased to the Instant it is triggere .
Once the SCR is on, load current flows, until it is turnedoff by r eversal of voltage at
wt = n, 3n etc. At these angles of1[, 3n, 5n etc. load current frula to zero and soon after the supply
voltage reverse biases the SCR, the device is therefore turned off. It is see n fr om Fig. 6.1 (b) that
by varying the firin g angle ex, the phase relationship between the start of the load current and
the supply voltage can be controlled ; hence the term phase control is used for such a method of
controlling the load currents [3J .
A singleph ase halfwave circuit is one which produces only one pulse of land current durin g
one cycle of source voltage. As the circuit shown in Fig. 6.1 (a) produces only one load current
pulse for one cycle of sinusoidal source voltage, this circuit represents a singlephase halfwave
thyristor circuit .
In Fig. 6.1 (b ), thyristor conducts from wt =ex to n, (2n + ex) to an and so on. Over the firing
angle delay ex, load voltage tlo = 0 but during conduction angle (1t  ex), tlo =tis. As firing angle is
increased fr om zero to n, the average load voltage decreases from the largest value to zero.
Th e variati on of voltage acr oss thyristor is also shown as tiT in Fig. 6.1 (b). Thyristor
remains on from Wi = a to n, (2n + a) to 3n etc., during these intervals ti T =0 (strictly speaking
1 to 1.5 V ). It is off fyom n to (2n + a), 3n to (4/t + ex) etc., during th ese off intervals vT has the
waveshape of s upply voltage tI, . It may be obse rved that tI, =Vo + tiT. As the thyristor is r everse
biased for 1t r adians , the circuit turnoff time is given by
t, =w
" sec
where w = 2ft' and, is the supply frequen cy in Hz.
The ci rcuit tumoff time tc must be more than the SCR turnoff tim e tq as specified by the
manufacturers.
Average voltage Vo across load R in Fig. 6.1 for the singlephase halfwave circuit in terms
of firing angle ex is given by
1
Vo= 2n
f"Vm sin wt d
CI
(wt)=
V
2; (1 +cos ex)
... (6. 1)
\
.\lso,
Average load current,
Vom
VO = T ( l rcos ex)
Vo
Vm
...( 6.2 )
lA,'.6.IJ
251
In some types ofloads, one may be interested in rms value of load voltage Vew Exam ples of
such loads are electric heating and incandescent lamps. Rms voltage Vur in such cases is given
by
v" = [1...
J' V~ sin' w/ . d (WI)]"
2it
tl
= ~~
[(na)+~ sin 2a
... (6.3)
V"
l or = Jf
Power deliver ed to resistive loa d = (rms load voltage) (rms load current)
V;r
'J
= Vo'!or = If = 1~,R
... (6.4 )
J .
..J2 ...In
V;
lor = 2R
[ (:t 
1 sin 2 a ] "
a) + '2
'I;n [ (n  a)
~ sin 2 a
... (6.5)
,;j.
~~~
is
shown). T he load voltage Vo at once becomes equal to source voltage v, as show n . But the
inductance L forces th e load, or output, current io to rise gradua lly. After some time, io reaches
maximum value and then begins to decr ease. At wt = Tt , Uo is zero but io is not zero because of
the load inductance L . After rot = Tt, SCR is subjected to reverse anode voltage but it will not be
turned off as load current io is not less th an the holding current. At some angle P> It, io reduces
to zero and SCR is turned off as it is already reverse biased. Afte r Wi = p, Vu = 0 and io = O. At
wl = 2n + (,(, SCR is triggered again, Vo is applied to the load and load current develops as before.
Angle ~ is called the extinction angle and (P  a) = y is called the conduction angle.
The waveform of voltage LIT across thyristor T in Fig. ~2 ( b) reveals that when wt = a,
vr = Vm sin CJ. ; from wi = a to P, vr = 0 and at Wi = ~, ur =V m sin ~ . As P> n, ur is negative at
wt = p. T hyristor is therefore reverse biased fr om Wi = ~ t o 2n . Thu s, circuit turn off time
dio
V . . .. sin C!.'l :: R io+L dt
tq
,,
,
Power Electronics
[Art. 6. 1J
of+';\
wi
,,
,
aiy..J.J
:,
. I.
+1
+
rv
wi
"5:
WI
"0
L_Vm_Si_nw_t_ _L::.J
U:.
wi
(a)
(6)
compo~ent i.
q. = tan 1 ~ and X = 00. Here $ is the angle by which rms current I. lags V"
.
di t
R I,+L Tt= 0
Its solution gives,
it =A e(R IL)t
..
io = i.+t/=
wher e
Z=,JR'+X"
Constant.4 can be obtained from the boundary condition at oot = a.
0=
or
= _
... (6 .6)
[Art. 6.1 1
253
io =
~m sin (00/ 
$)  ;
(00/ (1) }
... ( 6.7 )
for
a<wt<Jl
It is also seen from the waveform of io in Fig. 6.2 (b ) that when rot = p, load current
to = D. Substituting t his in Eq. (6.7) gives
sin
(~  Il) }
This transcendental equation can be solved to obtain the valu e of extinction angle
case ~ is known, average load voltage Vo is given by
1 J~
Vm
Vo = 21t 0. Vm sin rot d (rot) = ~ (cos ex  cos ~)
Vm
V., = [
00/ .
~.
In
.. (6.8)
. ..(69)
: ..
/6.1.2. Singlephase Halfwave Circuit with RL Load and Freewheeling I;>iod e
The waveform ofl oad current io in Fig. 6.2 (b) can be improved by conneCting'a freewheeling
(or flywheeling) diode across load as shown in Fig. 6.3 (a). A freewheeling diode is also called
bypass or commutating diode . At rot = 0, source vo ltage is becomi ng positive. At some delay
angle a , forward biased SCR is triggered and source voltage vJ appears across load as vo' At
wt = It, source voltage vJ is zero and just after this instant, as v, tends to rever se, freewhe eling
diode FD is fonvard biased through the conducting SCR. As a r esult, load current io is
immedi ately tran sferred from SCR to FD as vJ tends to reverse . At the same time, SCR is
subj ected to r everse voltage and zero current, it is therefore turned off at rot = 1t. It is assumed
that l!uring freewheeling period , load current does not decay to zero until the SCR is triggered
again at (21t + a). Voltage dr op across FD is taken as almost zero , the load voltage Vo is,
therefore, ze ro during the freewheeling period. The voltage variation ac ross SCR is shown as
l)T in F ig. 6.3 (b). It is seen fr om this waveform that SCR is reverse biased from wi = 1t to
wi =21t. Therefore, circuit turnoff time is
n
tc =sec
00
The source current i, and thyristor current iT have the same w ave form as shown.
Operation of the circui t of Fig. 6.3 (n) can be explained in two modes. In the first mode,
called con duction m ode, SCR conducts from ex to Tt, 21t + a. to 3rt and so on and FD is reverse
biased. Th e duration of this mode is for ((Tt  CX)/ wJ sec. Let the load current at the beginning
of mode 1 be 10 , The exp ression for current io in mode I can be obtained as follows:
dio
V m sm wt= R~o +L dt
Power Electronics
[Art. 6.1]
251
WI
'!
i,
' [0
I"~
_
T .;.._ FD'
'I, '
ICl
I:
I
is
l<
T
R
!!
101
~
.' T i
1:
in
!:
wt
I:
. :
wi
N4,,+a)
F_~f_d~_L1~J
Wi
I
.
Wi
;"Mod~~
,
I
rvL.. _V___
'
101
i,
wi
(a)
(b)
Its solution, already obtained in the previous section, is repeated here from Eq. (6.6 ) as
Vm
RIL
' o=ysm(wt41)+Ae (
)t
..
A=[ 1
..
io=
'"
0
~m sin(a) }eRa/1ill.
(S. l!)
d io
O=RIO+ LCi/
[Art. 6.1]
Its s olution is
.
II  (R/ L J t
'0
=. e
At wi = n,
io =101 ,
l t giv es
..
io=IOlexp [
n,
 ~I: )l
,
0>
...(6.12)
Tt < wi S (2n + a )
J' Vm sin
ex
wt d (wt ) = V
2; (1 + C05 (X)
Vo
Vm
Average load current, I =  =   (1 + cos (X)
o R 21tR
.. .(6.13 )
... (6. 14)
Note that load current io is contributed by SCR fr om a to Tt, (2n + 0 ) to 3n and so on and by
FD from 0 to (X, 1t to (2Tt + a) and so on. Thus the waveshape of thyristor current iT is identical
with the waveshape of io for wt = a to Tt, (2n + a) to 3ft and so on . Similarly, th e wave shape of
FD current iid is identical with the waveform of io for wt = 0 to ex, n to (2ft + a) and so on.
In Fig. 6.2, load consumes power Pl from source for a t o 1t (both Vo and io arc positive)
whereas energy stored in inductance L is return ed to the source as power P2 for n to Jl (va is
n egative a nd iois positive). As a result, net power consumed by the load is th e difference of these
two powers PI and Pa. In Fig. 6.3, load absorbs power for ex to n, but for 1t to (21t + a ), en ergy
stored in L is delivered to load resistance R through the FD. As a consequence, power consum ed
by load is more in Fig. 6.3 . It can, therefore, be concluded that power delivered to load, for the
same firing a ngl e, is more when FD is used. As voltampere input is almost the sam e in both
Figs. 6.2 and 6.3, the inputpl(= power delivered to load/input voltam pere) with the use ofFD
is improv ed . .
v.;.
It is also seen from Figs. 6.2 (b) and 6.3 (b ) that load current waveform is improved with
FD in Fig. 6.3 (b ). Thus the advantages of using fr eewh eeling diode ar e
input pI is improved
(ii) load cu rren t waveform is improved
(iii) as n r esu lt of (ii) , load performance is better and
(i v) as energy stored in L is trans ferred to R during the freewheeling pe ri od, overall
converter efficiency improves.
(i)
It may be seen from Fig. 6.3 (b ) that fr eewheeling diod e prevents the load voltage Uo from
becoming negative. \Vhenever load voltage tends to go negative, FD comes into pl ay. As a result,
load current is t r ansferred fr om main thyristor to FD, allowing the thyristor to regain its
forward blocki ng capabil ity.
It is seen from F igs. 6.2 ( b ) and 6.3 ( b ) th nt sup pl y current i , taken fr om the source i~
uni directiona l an d is in the fo rm of de puls e.5 . Si n~ le phase h alfwave converter thu s intr odu ces
a dc co:nponent into th e supply line. TPi s is u nd ~ :;i r a bl= as it leads to .5atura tion of the supply
transformer and other diffi culti es (harmonic ::; etc.).
Th e3e shortc oming5 can be overcom e to som e ext e nt by the use of sin gleph as e iull wave
circu its discu3s ed in Art. 6.2.
256
!'
[Art. 6.1J
Power Electronics
A sin glephase halfwave controlled converler with RLE load is shown in Fig. 6.4 (a). The
counter emf E in the load may be due to a battery or a de motar. The minimum value of flring
angle is obtain ed from the relation Vm sin wt = E. This is shown to occur at an angle 9 1 in Fig.
6.4 (b).
where
... (6.15)
In case th}Tistor T is fired at an angle a. < 91 then E > V., SCR is reverse biased and
therefore it will not turn on. Similarly, maximum value of firing angle is 9 2 =1t  9 1 Fig. 6.4
(b ). During the interval load current io is zero, load voltage uo=E and during the time io ' is
not zero , Uo follows v, curve. For the circuit of Fig. 6.4 (n) and with SCR T on, KVL gives the
voltage differential equation as
.. .(6.16)
The so lution of this equation is made up of two compon ents; namely steadystate current
component i J and the transient current component it. For convenience, i. may be thought of as
Y.
001
9,
.,
"i
i,
Firng pulses
I
Wi
Yo
I,
FYT?]
io
Y.
'V
~ a :""' y ...........:
~~
vT
"
,
(VmSinaE ) ~
J' ,
: r
'.
!Ir.
:
!I i.
wt
. I
!
wt
Yo
Vm s in wt
E
~
[An. 6.11
257
the sum of i"l and i $'~' where is1 i3 the 3teaily 3'::<1te current due to liC source voltage acting alone
and i s'1. is that dut: to de counter emf E acting alone. A3 in the p'ccsentation leading to Eq. (6.6),
i~l due to source voltage V. sin Wi is given by
i ,;2
would be given by
ij;l =  (EI R)
i, _A
 etlVL}l
.
t il
,~:
.,.
t.~ or '/
= V'II
Z
.... = a, to
. = O,L' .e. at t = a
. = 0 . Thi s glVes
.
EAt u...
W' LO
.It = R
; f   R.
VJ.cXp
V",r SlO
. ((Ill_I"',
.
.. ',o = !
:'In (Ct 
z L
'
:iL
. (
S lO
Vc'
Zm.Sln (a 
,11 
~ Wlv.J ~
we .;>
E A  iRI L )(
 R
) ] eRwLw
' R.
_:..
C1l(  ( l
)1]
'
... {ii. !. 7i
~.; .
\o.l.7J ~:s ~~~ 1 ~':::':::' tc I~:' .:.c.:; u.t ~ ::.. r..~(. ::: c:..1..:. .:'(. ... :.
tiring ~fl g!.:: .:r. ;ina the 10;;.,J i(...:;.e.:J.~:I:i.:= ::.r.:.gle y.
iVlid emf E.
Aver 3.ge voltage across inductance is zero. Thus, a.ver&ge value of luad current can be
obtained by integrating \Vm sin wt  E) / R oetween a ar..d ~ . T he average load curren t 10 is
therefore given by
10 =
1
= 2JtR
 a . Putting
=y + a
a3
u( 619)
= ~ l  J..
) + Vr.mSinru +l2 )'inl2
2n
,
u.( 6. 20)
25:s
POWH E)cClr()nk~
[A n . 6.1 )
The above expression for the average lo&.ct voltage Vo can also be obtained as under :
For periodicity 21t , extending from a to (2:t
1
Vo = :in
a ), we have
UJl . d(wt)
In case
'
E (2rr T a .
co.;~) T E (211
CI. 
13)1j
~)l
...:
is is made i::qual co (YT c.) in the a bvve expression , Eq. (6.20 ) can be lihrained.
If lead inductance L is :lero in Fig. 6.4 (ul, then extin..:;tion anglo:: 13 would be: .:'l.ual to
tl! = :'t  1, i.e. now 13 woula be leSS thz..r. n. Average V:iILle oilo~d current can still be oL~:i.ined
from Eq. (6.1S' by substituting ~ =:!  al . Therefore, a V i;r~gE: load current 1", with L = 0, is
=[
c~s ~) }
P = I;,. R + 19 E.
J" . .
(6.2 1)
...(6.22 )
... (6.23)
Tht! time variation of voltage across thyristor is ;;hown as uT in Fig. 6.4 (b). At WI = 0,
u$ = 0, and therefore, uT =  E . At wt =ft, u, = E, therefore u = O. At Wi = a, Us = Vm sin a,
therefore uT = Vm sin aE. During the conduction angle y =(P  a), uT = O. At wt = p, ui h as
reverse polarity. Therefore , just after thyristor is turned off at Wi = p, voltage
UT =IVm sin (p  TC ) + E I. It is also possible to write uT = V", sin P Eat wf = Il, because
Vm sin Pis negati ve fo r P> It. The magnitude ofma.ximum r everse voltage is (Vm + E ) as shown
j
v:
turn~off tim e is
21t + 91 OJ
~ sec.
I
[Art. 6.1 ~
V:.'
R
'
;/ =
, ;!
"30
V'
;.( :000 =
~ 5 .; .5 :
\. ;,:::t::.
( 11 \'
) x 1000 = 250 \v::.tt ::..
~ :23~
Example 6.2. A de: I,c.!tery is charged rhro~gh a resisror R a.s .shOI4"n. in Fig. (;.5 fa). Derive
C!xpre.s.sioH /'cJr the average uaLue of chargirtg curr.!!!! in rerms of VIII" E.,.!? etc. on. the
usswflpticJft thut SeR is {ired cCmtiILuDusly
(J.fI
.'~ I
R :::. ~
~1 ~/'.!
E :::. 150 V.
[;(j fi'.!.
if:
tit.! resi.stor.
pl
vol t:1~e
cq us.tion is
Vm sin we =E T ioR
V sinwtE
. C..!.mo....:=;,;::'=
I, =
or
'o',; t
vm sinwt
T
'0'$
'"'v Vmsin wl
1
J
(a)
Fig. 6.5 .
(c )
, ,,
e,
I!
'I:Ne,)
to :
!!
WI
,
:
\'~S'tnw t  E
i r (" ,
1/
'\ I
(b)
It is seen from Fig. 6.5 that SCR is tur ned on when Vm sin 8 1 = E and is turned off when
Ym sin 8:! = E, where 8:! = It  8 1, T he battery charging r equires only the average cu rrent 10 given
by
260
Pow~r
(A n. 6.IJ
Electronks
1
= 21tH (2Vrn cos 8,  E(x  28,)1
(a) Here
27 660
,= sm.  , \12150
. 230 = .
1 [
r;;_ (
2x27.496xx ',1
_
10 = 2 . 8 2 ,2 230 cos 27.466  100 180
] = ,.9076 A.
For finding the power dissipated in R, rms value of charging current must by obtained.
From Eq. (3.39),
1"
 2 x 27.466 x
1~0
_ .....
::;t. _~ oo
~:imp~..:: (; . ~ .
P= 02 = r.  e1 = 180 
a (,gL~
oj 3f," if!
27.466" = 152.534
 cos
152.53~O) 
1~0 1
= 4.9192A
(b ) Power delivered to battery = E1, = 150 x 4.9192 = 737.88 W
1~0
= 9.2874 A
Examples 6.2 and 6.3 demonstrate that an increase in the firing angle reduces the value
of average charging current. rms current and the supply power factor.
Example 6.4. A 230 V, 50 Hz, onepu.lse SCR controlled converter is triggered at a firing
angle of 40 and the load current e."Ctinguishes at an angle of 210t). Find the circui t tllm off
tim e, average output uoltage and th~ average load current for
Q
(0 )
R = 5 n end L
(b ! R
= 5
=2mH.
n, L =2 mE and E = 11 0 V.
r.
26 1
[Ac'. 6.1J
Soluti o n. (0) For this part, refer to Fig. 6.2. It is seen from this figure that circuit tUrn
off tim e tc
10 =
~o = 84;77 = 16.8954 A.
=_2_"_+_6'.,_.'.~
t
c
Here
(oJ
E
.  1 110
19 77.
.  1 V",
e1 = sm
= sm
"'12 x 230 = .
19.77  210) "
t.: = (360180
X 2l't x 50
= 9 432
.
ms .
no (210 
40) 180
=6.5064 A.
/.:: :. Average load voltage, Vo =E loR = n o+ 6.5064 x 5 = 142.532 V.
Example 6.5. A singlephase transformer. with secondary uoltage of 230 V, 50 Hz, deliuers
power to load R = 10 n through a half waue controlled rectifier drcuit. For a fi ring.angle dela.y
of 60, d etermine (a) the rectification efficiency (b) fo rm factor (e) uoltage ripple factor (d)
transformer utilization factor and (e) PIli of thy ristor.
Solution. Here V, = 230 V,r =50 Hz, R = 10 a,a =60
From Eq. (6.1),
V
'2 x 230
Va = 2; (1 + cos a ) =
2Tt
(1 + 005'60) = 77 .64 V
I.
= 7~;4 = 7.764 A
Output dc power,
P rk = V., I I)
Output ac power.
(c)
FF
\0'0
77 .61
262
[A rt. 6.2J
(d )
TUF = V,l,
(e )
PIV =Vm
V .. I.
= V, l , =
Vr I"r
602.8
230 x 14.587
=0.1797
. .'
 I LeAl) ~.
(7'
{a )
Fi. 6.'3 .
: 0 1'1
The di~ad \ ::'.:1t ~::c~ ~f s\ngleph.<..~~ halfw3.\O::. ~r. sin~:l ~t"ha ~ ~ ':'n'.:' t"Jl,,? ,:::, n\ ~Tto:! ... are
minimi sed by t.':1~ U~!? of s!ngkt'_~a~'? f 'JJl \\a.... ~. (lr s1nzl ~ pha ~e tW0 cu l :;:~. (';o,,\"e"~'."rs. In
practice. th erE" arp t W I) bal':i...: :("\nfi~urations f')r f1JJ1\\'a \~ cC'ntrr,i:~J C':'('l\~ rt <;: r s. One
configuration uses an 1nput transformer with tv,;o \1.indin!:.~ for ?ach ino:_lt oh ;\$~ "'1.0:1;:11:. Thi,.
is cailed midpoint. ':()n. I.;ert.er. A sL'lgkphase tW'Jpulse midpoi ... t SCR cp';,\<.:r',: r i~ ~ ~ ~wn in
Fig. 6.6 (a' and a threephase 6 PlJl~e midpoint converter in Fu::. t3 .G ~ 1: ' .
, C "~st
f !>uoc' y
Zr
zf
.,
,,'
\('0
'." .)
:,
tf tf
z:f
.:
,. . :  C
0. 
"
?S
~n
z:f
(17)
' '2)
Fie:. 6. 7.
(e )
SingJepha5'e twopulse
' h) Tlv(>phas",
bridg~
converter and
bridJ?" con\"~rter .
z:f
z{
r,
(Ad.6.3J
263
The second configuration uses SCRs in the fo rm of a bridge circuit. Singlephase full wave,
or twopulse, bridge converter using four SCRs is shown in Fig. 6.7 (a ) and a t hreephase
six p ulse bridge converter using si x S CRs in Fig. 6 .7 (b ). A bridge conver ter h as som e
advantages over midpoint converter, these will be discussed after both these configurations a re
studied in the n ext article.
6.:1. SINGLEPHASE FULLWAVE CONVERTERS
In singlephase twopulse (or fullwave ) converters, voltage at the output terminals can be
controlled by adjusting the firing angle delay of the thyristors. Midpoint or bridgetype circ uits
may be used for ac to dc conversion. In this section, first midpoint and then bridgetype
configurations are discussed with input from singlephase source.
W!
T1
10 1
w!
vo
I
T1
1[>(
.11
b:'=
'
(0'
v tlro
.

'7 v  , 
g~
:
.
h
,
I
.
~I
~

'"\..
vl::on
: ... V".
12
(b )
2IJmsi no
(c)
264
P ower Electronics
[Art. 6.3]
Thyri 5 tcr~
T l and T2 are forwa:d biased during positive and negative half cycles
r espectively ; these are therefore t:riggered accordingly. Suppose 12 is already conducting. After
Wi = 0, va." is positi\'e, I I is therefore forward biased and when trigger ed at delay an gle a . TI
gets turned on. At this firing angle (x, supply voltage 2V"m sin ex reverse biases T2. thi s SCR is
therefore turned off. Here Tl is called the incoming thyristor and T2 the outgoing thyristor .
.~ the in:: ":':n i:;g SCR i~ triggered. ac supply voltage applies reverse bias across the outgoing
thyristor and turos it off. Load CUTTed is also transferred fr om outgoing SCR to incoming
SCR. This process of SCR turn off by natu.ral reversal of ac supply voltage is called n a. tural or
lin p. commu.tation.
From the equivalent circuit of Fig'. 6.8 (b ), it i ~ seen that if
flo" = V m sin (Ot,
then
ub" = u ,,~= Vm ~i n Wi
and
r' '1'::. = I.: c" . "',.!, = 2V;"I. s;n
(,t
.~
When rot = ex, T1 is triggered . SCR T2 13 subj ected to a reverse voltage uob = 2Vm sin a as
stated before ; current is transferred f!"om T2 t o T1 and as a result T2 is turned off. The
magnit ude of reverse voltage across T2 can also be 0bt.ain~ ~ b;. applyin&, KVL t C' the loop
/!fgb.p. of the equi.:alent circuit of Fig. 6.8 (b) at ~:,,~ l'1st.ant Tl is trigge!"ed. Thus.
I)T2  '1 /:" . ...011.  !..Tl = IJ
~
~=~~~~
(t)t
a is gi...en
by
1) T2
= v.'" sin 0: 
VIn sin ex = 
2v... sin a
This sh ows that SCR T2 is r ever.<;e biased by vo!t.age 2V.., sin a and it is therefore turned
off at rot = a . Thyristor Tl conducts from a. to ;:: a. Mer ,.:)/. = 1':. Tl is reverse piased but it
\...ill continue conducting as the f'Jrward biased SCR T2 is n ot. get gated. At WI. = j t . a. T2 is
triggered, Tl is reverse biased by voltage '.)f magnitude 2\lm sin 0 , current is transferred from
Tl to T2. Tl is t herefore turned C'ff.
At CJ)t = a. T2 is turned off anel it r e main~ r ever~e bias<;;:d from (ot = a. to r.. thj ~ c ~.n be seen
f!'om Fig. 6.8 (c). The turnoff time prC'. .;.ded ?,y this circuit to 8CB. T2 1<:: t~'O'r.efo:' ghc.:n by
r.(l
t ,, =  .
'"
...{'3.24'
~ec
Thyristor Tl is turned off at wt = 1't. a md Fig: . 6.8 {c) re .... eals ~h :;>.': T;, is ~ '.l'Jjec ted to a
reverse voltage from OJ!: = l't I a to Wi = 2l't. Therefore. this circuit provides a tu:n'Jff time to
thyristor Tl as
te =
=CJ)
gi ven by
1
'I/o =Tt
. (1 :
. (1
2\.
Vn. sin ox . d (oot) =~
cos a
;t
.. .(6.2.5 '
The circuit turn off tim e t el E q. (6. 24), as provi ded by this circu it of F ig. 6.8 {<::.' mu st be
gr ea te r t ha n SCR t urno ff ti me t'l a s gi ven in th e sp eci fi cation sh e!;' t. b case t e "": t 7 .
co mm uta tion fai lu re w ill occur and the whole s econdary win ding \\ill be sh ort circuited. During
com m uta tion fai lur e. if th e .r a te of rl 3e of fa ult curren t is high. t he inc omin g SCR may be
[Art. 6.3J
265
damaged in case protective elements do n ot clear the fault. Fig. 6.8 (c) reveals that each SCR
is subjected to a peak voltage of 2V m'
, The follo..ving observations can be made from the above study.
(i ) \Then commutation of an SCR is desired, it must be r everse biased and the incoming
SCR must be forward biased.
(i i) Wh~n incoming SCR is gated on, current is transferred fr om outgoing SCR t o incoming
SCR.
(iii ) The circuit turnoff time must be greater than SCR turnoff time.
It is seen from above that thyristor commutation achieved by means of natural r ever~al
of line voltage l called line or natural commutation, is simple ; it '\ s therefore employed in all
phasecontrolled rectifi er s. ac \'oltage controllers and cycloconverters.
V 6.3.2. Single.phase Fullwave Bridge Converters
Phasecontrolled slr.glephase, or threephase, fullwave converters are primarily of three
types ; namely unc o:':".troll ed converters, half controlled converters and fully con trolled
converters. An uncontrolled con uerter or rectifier u~es only diodes and the le.vel cf dc output
voltage cannot be ccntrolled. A halfcontrolled conUl!rter or semiconverter uses a mixture of
diodes and thyristors and ther e is a limited
v,
control over the level of dc ou tput voltage. A
f'J.llY':l)ntrolled conli<:::rtl!r or r.J.ll cOnl.:erter
uses thyristors only and the~e is a ""ider
control over the level of dc output voltag~.
266
[Art 6.3J
Power Electronics
that when TI, T2 are gated at wt =a , thes e SeRa will get turned on only if Vm sin ex > E .
Thyristors T1, T2 conduct from rot = ex to 1t + ex. In other words, TI . T2 conduct for 7t radians.
Likewise, waveform of current iT} through Tl (or in through T'2 ) is shown to flow 1t radians in
Fig. 6.10 (b). At wt = n + IX, forward biased SeRs T3, T4 are triggered . The supply voltage turns
off Tl, T2 by natural commutation and the load current is transferred from Tl, T2 to T3, T4.
Voltage across thyristors T1, T2 is shown as un = uT2 and that across T3, T4 as un = uT4'
Maximum revers~ voltage across Tl, T2, T3 or T4 is V m and at the instant of triggering with
firing angle a, each 8CR is subjected to a r everse voltage of V m sin a. Source current i, is
treated as positive in the arrow direction . Under this assumption, source current is shown
positive when Tl. T2 are conducting and n egative when T3, T4 ar e c0:t:lducting. Fig. B. 10 (b).
,,
,,.!
~ , ....'
,' I
WI
/ I
T1
I 13
I T2
T4
Output
vollog~
Volo!
I
!
I r'
I .
WI
I:
wI
~.".~
.1.:.,,+
.
i!
.
I~
jj
lIoltog~
ocross TI
0'
T2
o'~2~~__~
I T:'~~__~~__~____
WI
wI
(a )
(0 )
Fig. 6.10. (0) Singlephase full converter bridge with RLE load
(b) voltage and current wavefonn.;: for conti n ~ous load current.
[Art. 6.3]
267
During a to ft, both t:, and i, are positive, power therefore flows fmm ac source to load.
During the interval 7t to ( 7t .. a), L'~ is negative but i~ is positive, thE> load therefore returns some
of its. energy to the supply system. But the net power flow is from ac sou rce to dc load becau~e
( "  (X) > (X in Fig. 6.10 (b) .
The load terminal voltage,
fullconverter output voltage. Vo is shown in Fig. 6.10 (b).
The average value of out put voltage Vo is given by
or
V I)
=;:
sinlephas~
J't.(t V",sm
"
V' [
O "
... (6.26)
Oo'l/.d(wt)
= 2ft wt  "21
V
. 2
co~ a
,
1 .. 1' v'... V'
1 5102(.)/
'l
J=T = ~
... (6.27)
~ V,
.,
,
268
[Art. 6.3]
Power Electronics
biased and current through SCRs must flow in the same direction as these are unidirectional
devices. This is the reason output current io is shown positive in Fig. 6.10 (c). As before, source
current is is positive when T1, T2 are conducting.
The variation of voltage across thyristors T1, T2, T3 or T4 reveals that circuit turnoff time
for both converter and inverter operations is given by
xa
t, =5ec
ro
As both the types of phasecontrolled converters have been studied, the advantages of
singlephase bridge converter over singlephase midpoint converter can now be statecl. :
(i) SCRs are subjected to a peak inverse voltage of 2 VI'll in midpoint converter and V 1'1\ in
full conVErter. Thus for the same voltage and current ratings of SeRs, power handled by
midpoint configuration is about half oft..~at handled by bridge configuration, see Example 6.6.
(ii) In
midpoint converter, each secondary should be able to supply the load power. As such,
the transformer rating in midpoint converter is double the load rating. This, however. is not
the case in singlephase bridge converter.
It may thus be inferred from above that bridge configuration is preferred over midpoint
configurati on. Howe.... er, the choice between these two types depends primarily on cost of the
various components, available source voltage and the load voltage required. Midpoint
configuration is used in case the terminals on dc side hav~ to be grounded.
ExamplE' 6.6. SCRs with peak forwcrd uoltage rating of 1000 V and auerage onstate
current rating of 40 A are used in singlephase midpoint conuerler and singlephase bridge
conuerter. Find the power that these two conlJerters can handle. Use a factor of safety of2.5.
Solution. Maximum voltage across SCR in singlephase midpoint converter is 2Vm , Fig.
6.8. Th erefore, this converter can be designed for a maximum voltage of 21~~~5
=200 V.
1
_
yTAV= 2x200
x40x 1000=,093kW
0
SCR in a singlephase bridge converter is subjected to a ma.ximum voltage of"'... , Fig. 15.10.
Therefore, maximum voltage for which this converter can be designed is
1000 =400 V
2.5
:. Max;mum average power rating of bridge converter
2 x 40C
= l OCO x x x 40 = 10.186 kW
6.3.2.2. Single.phase 'semiconverter, A singlephase semicon\' ~ rt e r ,ridge wi L~ t;.."o
thyristors and three diodes is shown in Fi g. 6.11 (a). The two thyristors are Tl, T2; the ~'O
d.i odes are Dl, D2 ; the third diode connected across load is freewheeling d.iode FD. The load
is of RLE type as for the full converter bridge. Various voltage and currant waveforms for this
converter are sho\\>n in Fig. 6.11 (b), where load current is assume d continuous over the
working ra."1ge .
After ~t = 0, thyristor T I is ion vard biased only when source voltage Vm sin IJ.)l exceeds E .
Thus . T l is tri gger ed at a fir ing ang!e delay a such that V III sin a > E . With TI on. load ge ts
[.\rt. 6. 3J
wt
wt
wt
,
,W
~1Tcrl
wt
I
!
D
,
'..
"
~TI .,.! T2 i .
"f tt la
"""1r '
~"
T ,, ..;;,
Ib FO +
'+  4
02
01
~)
,
, ..."
:\ ~;r""~J
,,~Tr_=_."";;"1:;:i
.1

is.
N r ,
:'\
wt
::1"11'
:(2,..,. ) I
, :'
'T~[
wt
I.
lJ
"
'CJ
wt
Fig. 6.11. Singlephase s emiconverter bridge (a) Powereircuit diagram with RLE load and
, (b) voltage nnd current wavefonns for continuow load current.
connected to source through Tl and Dl. For the period wt = ex to It, load current io flows through
RLE, Dl, source and TI and the load termina.l voltage 1)0 is of the same waveshap e as the ac
source voltage US' Soon after rot = It, load vol tage Uo tends to reverse as the ac source voltage
changes polarity. Jus t as Uo tends to r everse (a t wt = It T ), FD gets forward biased and starts
conducting. The load , or output, current ill is transferred from TI, DI to FD. As SCR Tl is
reverse biased at wt = 7t T through FD, T l is turned off at rot =It +. The waveform of current
iTt through thyristor TI is sh own in Fig. 6.11 (b). It flows fr om ex to It, 21t + ex to 31t and so on for
an interval ofCn  a) radian s. The load term l11.als are short circuited through FD, ther efore load,
or output, voltage tlo is zero during it < wt < (it ~ a). After WI. = It, during the n egative h alf cycle,
T2 will be for.vard biased only when source voltage is more than E . At CL'i =It + a, source voltage
exceeds E , 1'2 is therefore triggered. Scan after (It + a), FD is revers e biased and is therefore
turned off ; load cu rrent now shifts from FD to T2, D2. At wi =21t, FD is again forward biased
and ou tput current io is transferre d from 1'2, D2 to FD as explained before. The sourc e current
!J is pC3itive fr om a to it whe :1 T I , DI conduct :lnd is negative fr om (It + a ) to 27t when T'2, D2
cond uct, see Fig. 6.11 (b ).
27u
[An. 6.'1
During tn .:: Interv:.:al c to It, Tl an d. Dl conC1u..:t and ::.~. ".)urce ddiv.::r:: . ..:f.cr~y to the luau
'::lfCuit. T hl::i cn.:r:;y is partl iiUy "tofo::d In indu .::: t:in .:: ~ L, r..:...rtl:iUy ::,t vfi:C il:::. i::":":[L" l ~' 2r1c: rgy in
iUilCil.:lfCUlt I:mf E and parri'llly dissipated ;AS ~..::::J.t
....
",
'r I
In
"
",
",
.....T. i,
,,
,
, , r ... .,
,
For
V,~,
,,
i:i~micu n vl?rt c r ,
vo! . .
" ',
'
"
sin
:!.wt
L;'", ~ ;t
V.! .r
=.' I
,
:. IJ.. _.; .
......
CJ.)

W (     , :': !
"
:!
, 1.
, .. !
Y,
'r
n "
V ,,," =
,,
2vrr
,"
V:. = l J"'.
V~, sm we d (wt )
"
,,
:1:1: '
'.0'::
,,
,.
1 "'
,
V
VI/ = n L VII.::'lnwc d(oot)= ;" ~l .,.. t.:v"u)
= _ !.!.: '
..
,", ' .,
~
..
~ r.
[uU,.;vnvo.:rti:r:il.
::.,,'n ')'"
_..... j
Ct.)
'.
:  
::
"
Thl! vdriatiun of voltag!: acro::.s Tl and '1"2 i.::i abo dtlpn:to::d, in F ig'. 6 .11 ,bi. It i::. ",..:.:.:n irum
thl::::.e w;lvli:forms that circuitturn olf tim~ for the !)cmiconverter is
n(.(
t, = w
s~c
The variation of average value of converter output voltage as a function of firing angle a is
shown in Fig. 6.11 (c) for semiconverter and full converter,
6.3.2.3. Analy~is of twopulse bridge converter with continuous conduction. In this
part of th~ section, steady state analysis of singlephase twopulse converter of both the types
is presented.
S ~ miconv e rter . During c{Jnduction period, the voltage equation for the circuit of Fig, 6.11
(a ), b
.
dio
uo = u~ = R La TLdt +E
fo r
",(6,30)
Ct.<wt51t
dio
O=R io+LdtT E
for
It
".(6.3 1)
< wt S (1t + a)
Eqs. (6.30 ) and (6.31) can be solved in ti me domain if requir ed. Und er ste3dystate
co nditions, only average valu e of output voltage and current are requ ired, Therefore,
fr om these two 2quation ~, we get steadystate solution as
op ~ r ating
Va = Rio + E
",(6.32)
Pha..s~
Controlh:d
Vo = V m (1 T cos
where
I" =
0.)
"
3v~ragl! luad
wh~ r e
211
[AI"(. 6.3}
R~ctili~l"s
=r (..
f;. =1."
V. rJ
= "
or
Will
or
w /J;
"
_ (V,,/:c)( l
cos
QJ
_!..:.... T
K~
'"
= t
:.:: R~
\J
...\6. 33,
.:
lCL I,
i.i
di J
, L ",1:.'
t.!t
2 V'"
V\I =  ClIS Q
where
"
or
A comparison of the waveforms for iTt and ioJ in Fig. 6.10 (b ), fo r n singlephase full
converter,
n.:v~al::l
tha t in =
~ io tor continuous
I.,
.....
or
load current .
=21 I "
... \6 .351
~C:l'ia!iofl..s
Ie)
h {'cse Otltp :a current is cssu fr'.:! d cO.'1stcn t, fi nd the inpflt pljor bo th parts (a) and (bJ.
[An, 6.3)
Solution. (0) For E = 120 V, tn !: fu ll conv erter is opera ting as a contl'olled rcctiilcr.
" V
~co:sa=ETI;ft
or
"
.) . {2 . >30
or
"
= 53.208 = 53.2:1':
For a = 53.:2 1", power tlows from ac 50urce to de lllsci .
(b ) F or E =  120 V, the full converter is operating as a l ine comm uta t t!C1 mvertcr.
0.
:2 . v'2 . 230
"
or a = 124.075=: U4.1;;'
Cc.!)V
U = 12:4 .1;,
.... v:>
V 
2::s0 X 1u
" .:;
.:lv4 ... b o o
Example 6.8. (a; A :iinglephase full conuerter d~li vus p&wer co a resistive load R. Por ac
;source voltage V$' show that average output voltage Vo is given by
..f2V$
Vo =  (1 Tcas a )
"
Sketch the time variations of source voltage, output voltage, output current and voltage
across one pair of SCRs. Hence find therefrom the circuit tumoff time.
(b) For the converter of part (a), show that rms value of output current is giuen by
1,,=~ ("a)+~Sin2a}
Solution. Time variations of source voltage, load
voltage and load current are shown in Fig. 6 .12. At
wt = 1t , Vo = VI = 0 and for resistive load R,
iJ
v.
=R
vo
w.
= 0 and io = R = 0,
!
I
' :'1:
=1t J
Q:
v,
=   (1..,.
C0 3
a)
273
[Art. 6.3 ]
~ 1: (;
R ~ 1:
I" = [
=V [
sin oX
d(oX )
]'12
Solution. (a) F or the circuit of Fig. 6. 13 (a). output voltage waveform Vo is shown in Fig.
V
'!
~~~~\,",
~
ii I!
I,
io
TI
OI
~1+i
t,
03
, ,
i ,
~~+~~:~,~fa:
(b)
wI
i01H:
_
Fig . 6.13. (c) Ci rcui t di agrn::: for Ex nmple 6.9
,,
,
wI
Various
. H::)r"      I~'
<;
vo1t~ge
211'
J,
274
Power Electronics
(Art, 6,) J
6.13 (b ). The co nduction of various. comPQnents is also indicated. It is seen that awrage value
of
Vo
is given by
"
L"
1 ~~
=
(3 + cos al
in
Vo
(e)
'.
12 230
2
(3 + cos 45)
10 = i91.8~  100
o
Power delivered to battery
'
=191.88 V
= i8376 A
Example S.lU. A singlephase full converter feeds power to RLE load with R = 6 n,
L = 6 mH and E = 60 V . The ac source voltage is 230 V, 50 Hz . For continuous condtiction, find
the average value of load 'current for a {iring angle delay 'of 50_
In case one of the four SCRs gets ~pen circuited due to a fault, find the new value of avei age
load Cllrrent taking the outpllt current as continuous.
."
Sketch waueform for the ' new ' output 'volta'ge 'and
indicate the conduction of various SCRs.
vsl :....
Solution.
,'+'+,I;;t.;~
wt
2 Vm
212 , 230
Vo=  cosa=
cos 50"
= 133,084 V
'0
o
10 = V " E = 133,084  60
,R
6
= 12,181A
I
I
I
('71'+0)
I
I
. ( 311 +0: )
Vo =
f' " V
U
1223 0
In
_
cos ;)0 0
10 = 66,54:  60
27 [' (2:J
= 66.542 V
= 1.0903 A
It is scen t hat load current is reduced radically wit h one SCR getting open circui ted . It is
also observed t hat th:yri stor Tl remai ns on.
Phase
Controlled R ectifiers
[Act. 6.4 1
275
lIab
Ym
#_,f'''bO
",
' I E
wt
Ii
i,
,
,:
I:
TJt7I \;TlT2 :Y,__ T3T4 ~ !T ITZ
I No SCR J1 :
II :
0
II '
II ;
I',
t :~
II :
I conduc ts
(a ) rr < (3 < (rr t o ) II ;
i oWe...
/.l
oJ
"
I I, ':
t:
:, :
y /? I I, ..... ( 1' + 1:: ):
: ..... (2'1't OJ I :
1.
a'..
I :'
"0 ,
: ! :
ir!
.
,''
',:
'
"1 1
T3T4
+1
I1
I'
I I,
t
'I
~
rr
1[ 11'+/3 )
11
'!
2"
(b)
ti l:
1 I
wt
3JT
wt
4'11'
'"'
175
[A r .. 6A]
Und er some conditions, load current may become zero at wt =~ , \vhere ~ is less than It . It
is assumed here that V m sin P< E. At P, Vo jumps from Vm s in ~ to E . The waveforms for load
current io and load voltage Vo are shown in Fig. 6.15 (b). No SCR conducts from ~ to (n + Ct. )
and during this interval, therefore Uo =E.
From above , the following observations can be ma de :
(i ) Conduction period, a < oot < ~, Tl , T2 conduct and ~' o = u~ . Also
(Tt + <X) < wt It + P), T3 T4 conduct and u" = u$ and so on .
(ii ) Idle period, p < OJt < (n + <x), no circuit element conducts and Vo = E.
The output voltage during discontinuous current mode is less than given by Eq. (6.26). As
stated before, load performance during discontinuous conduction is impaired.
6.4.2. Singlephase Semiconverter with Discontinuous Current
For this converte r. power circuit diagram is given in Fig. 6.11 (a) . For this controlled 2pulst!
converter, when SCR Tl is triggered at rot = a, load current builds up from zero , rises to a
maximum and then decays to zero at ~ > 1t.
From a to Tt, Tl Dl conduct and Vo = vS' At Wi = 1t, as v, tends to become negative, FD is
iorward biased and starts conducting the load curren t. "Vhen FD condud~ fr:2ll\.1t to ~, Vo = O.
Y,
,:
Vm
"
",
"
.,
"h=
10
I"'
i
: ( a)
/J;,jI::
./""'"....i .
1:
...,. ,
,.....:\"
,{:r+/lJ
:
.,
I
Ii :
.~ I
I"
I' ~
I
"
"J!
[An_ 6.J]
277
From p to it + a, no circuit componen t condu cts, therefore l'O = F as shown in Fig. 6.16 (a ).
Du:ing ~ to it + a, as load current is zero, this makes the load cu:rent discontinuous. When
T2 is tr iggered at 1[ + a, io builds as shown. At 2it, FD is forwaru biased and starts conduc[.ing
till it +~. During the time FD conducts, lIo = O. From 1t + P to (21t + Ct) , no circuit component
conducts, t herefore LID= E. At l2n + a), T1 is triggered again and the above pmcess rcpeat.i .
Source current i J is also shown in Fig. 6.16 (a).
In case load current becomes zero before it , i.e. for P less than It, then the current and
voltage waveforrrs are shown in Fig. 6.16 (b). Here Vm sin P is assumed less than E. Duri ng p
to 7t + a, no cir:uit component conducts, therefore Uo =E .
From the waveforms for singlephase semiconverler, the following observations are made:
(0) When
It
<
P< It + a :
lIo
=E
(i) Conduction period, ex < cd < ~, T1D1 conduct and lIo = Vol' Also
for
7t
< wt < It + ex and 1t + ~ < Wi < 21t + a, no circui t elem e nt condu cts,
The output voltage during discontinuous conduction is not given by Eq. (6.28) . Th~ load
performance with discontinuous load current deteriorates as stated before.
Average output volt age and current. For single~phase full COTlverter. for P> 7t or ~ < It ,
the average load voltage VD, obtained from VDwaveform in Fi g. 6.15 (a) or (b ), is given by
V, =
[f
1
"
=Vm
It
where y =
p)J
[cosaCOSP) +E ( 1 1 )
It
P a = conduction angle
nR
......i th ~ > 7t , the average Quqmt voltage VD, obtained from vD\Va ... ;. ::.;.1 :: Fig. 6.16 (a), is given by
", =.!it
[r
Cl.
VO V
E(
, ,
lJ = R = r_R (l ) cos u:) + R 1 + ~ )
;)}
Power Electronics
[Act. 6.5J
278
i(t ) = a" +
/I '"
where
+ bn sin nwt )
1, 2, 3
a.
1 r"
=2
J
a,
=1.lto
i (I) d(",,)
itt)
cos nwt d
(wi)
and b, =1.
itt) .
sin nOlI. d
(wi)
fto
The performance parameters are now obtained first for singlephase fullconverter and
then for singlephase semiconductor.
6.5.1. Singlephase full converter
In Fig. 6.10 (b ), the variation of input current, or source current i~, from a to (rt + ex). from
(rt + ex) to (2rt + ex) is continuous but not constant. Here i l is assumed to be ripple free with
."
amplitude 10 during each half cycle. where 10 = constant load current.
a
i l (t ) =10 +
" '" I , 2, 3
where
Now
C, =
I . = 2 [
11
a"
11 .. 0:
=111 [J"a
1
0
0,
=_
0
nIt
J211: +CI
!t+ CI
41
=  0
n,
'
SInn
.
ex .........
forn
1. 3, 0 ...
[f'"
a
0,
n;*CI
=.!..
[ 1cosnOll 1,a a n1l:
l cDsn WI 1:'"1.... :1
41.
_
=  cos n ex .................. forn= 1, 3, 0 , ...
n.
r ~,:"
= tan 1 [ tan n o l = 
n(.(
[Ar' 6.51
Cl
'41
,'.
i. (t ) = ~ _ 0 sin (a wl  no)
279
na l ,J, S
n7t
... (6.36)
The rms value of nth harmonic input current, from Eq. (6.36), is .
410
2 >/2Jo '.
I  ..",...cc  In 
"2 .rite  .
n1t
...(6.300 )
I
  2>/2 . I.
Rms va ue of fund~ e~tal curren~, 1' 1== _ ' rr
= 0.,900,32 Ip
[I;.n]1I2 = 1
I
. Rms va ue of total input current, I. = . ~
Also 9 1 =:  a
,
Negative sign for 9 1 indicates that,.fundamental, current lags the sourc e voltage . The
various parameters are now obtained.
j'
_. "
;&':
 . 2..f2: ,
Power factor, PF = CDF x DF =   cos' a
n
Harmonic factor HF
it
1t
... (6.38)
.'. ' i
o~ THD =[ CDr
1~;' 1 .]'12
=[ (
r2 ]"2
SubstItutIng the values of V~fr6m' l!Iq , (6.27) apd V. fr0111 J;:q. (6. 26), we get
. [,.Y.:;nc.'"
1. '
 it
]'12
[2
1t
]"2
.. .(P9)
VRF= . . X ,
 1
~
1
2
~ ~ . cos 2 a
'
8 cos2 a
Active power input. Only ti:l,e.nns fundam ental component of input current contributes
to the active input power to the ci;nverter. 
Pi = 'rms
Vs .161 . cos 9 1
=V
...(6.4 0)
V.
=I
cos a
1t
1t
sin a = V I tan
00
C!
... (6.4 1 a )
.. .(6.41 0)
280
[Art. 6.5]
Power Electronics
I,
l
=2
[f'
1t
a. =.!
1t
I, . d (wt) 
Cl
If
f"
I, d (WI)]
11:+0.
II:+Q
Cl
= n~
=0
{I
2I, .
= ~ sm n a ....... .. .. .. for n = I, 3, 5, .. .
=0 ............ ..................... for n = 2,4,6, .. .
b.
=.!
1t
If
n+a
2/,
= I, 3, 5 ...
,
']'12
[ :~ ~in n a) + ( : ; (1 + cos n a) )
C. = (
2'fi
=   (1 + cos na)l/2
n"
e =2 cos2 ~e
2 "2 [
,n a
Cn =   2C08 n1t
]V2 =cos410
no.
2
nn
a.= at n 1[ :;;",sin",:,!n,",::" ]
B =an
t 1 bn
/I.
= tan 1
1 + cos no.
2 sin cos
2
. (/) = ;.
L
na sm
. ( nwt2"
n"
4 I,
no
2 co. l,
T ]=_ net
~cos2'
... (6.42)
n _ l . 3.5
2"2.1,
n
a
. cos 
. .. (6043 )
.J
[Art. 6 ..5]
l' (rc 
112
a)
TC
10 [
n:  a
l SI
11'
 n ]
9 1 = a2
Also,
CDF =
HF or THD
_,_I =
2 12 I
I,
=[.!,
r
2 12 cos !!2
cos .!!VTt
=
2 I , vn  a C1v~n"'(n_a;o
)
. 0
1 ]112
CDF
a)
 1 ]112
8 cos 2 ex
2
1]"2
n (n  a)
... (6.4 5}
4 (1 +cos a) .
'a
Powedactor
=[ n(n
2[
TC ( TC _
VRF=[ ( ~:)'
=
... (6.44 )
~m[(
27t
[[
a)
]112 cos22a
1
Jt 
a +
(n  a) +
Sin2a]
2
2 sin 2 a
TC ( TC _
a)
]"2
Jt2
. (1 + cos a)
x ~ (1 + cos a )2 
1 ]~.
112
n _ 1]
.. .(6.47}
2(1+cosa)2
Power input,
Pi = V,. Id cos 9 1
= V,.
2 12. I ,
It
cosZcos
a
Z
V, . I , . 12
1t
Vm
=Tt (1 + cos a) . 10 = Vo 10
Reactive power,
( 1 + cos a.)
.. .(6AS}
Qi = V, . l' l sin 9 1
10
ex. a Vm
= V, . 2 "2
COS sln "? =10.sma
TC
2
1!
~
AJ.s o,
... (6.46)
.. .(5.49
e)
Vm
Vo =  ( 1 + cos a )
or 
I( I
;
Q: = 1 + ttcosC
a S!n
VI
It
0. =
Vm
it
Vo
= .,"l+ cosa
. a
o tan "2
282
Power Electronics
[Art. 6';J
Example 6.11. A single phase full converter; connected to 230 V, 50 Hz source, is feeding a
load'R = 10 0 in series with a large inductance that mahes the load current r?pple free. For a
firing angle of 45 ~, calculate the input and output performance parameters of this converter.
Solution. From Eq. (6.26), V, =
2V
.!!!.
cos a =
2 x .[2 x 230
_
cos 40 = 146.423 V
10
V"
V,,=;n= V, = 230V
Output ac power,
'r"!
230
Fr = V, = 146.423 = 1.5708
2.[2
I" = 
x 14.6423 = 13.183 A
8, =a=45'
From Eq. (,.37),
1."  1]112 = [
1 t
CD,
0.9003
 1] = 0.48342
2Vm
=   10 SIn a
2.[2x230
.
x 14.6423 x sm 45 0 = 2143.963 VAr
Al so, from Eq. (6.41b), Q I = VJ, tan ex = 146.423 x 14.6423 x 1 = 2143.97 VAr
Example 6.12. Repeat E:co.mple 6. 11 for a singlephase semiconductor.
V
"ro x 230
Solution_ From Eq. (6.29), Vo = .!!!. (1 + cos a ) = (1 + cos 45) = 176.72 V
I = V, = 176.72 = 17672 A
o
R
10
.
F rom Eq. (6. 30).
V"
=V, [
H(.
'.
".
[MI. 6.6]
~ 230 [
l or
H( ~ )+
n
sin 90 } ]
2
283
~ 2193V
Pdo ~ V, I ,
Output ac power,
. P
Rectification efficiency
1.241
V, '176.72
VRFdFF'  1 _ )"1.""247:1"";1 ~ 0.735, CRF ~ 0
45'
2..[2
l sI =; x 17 .672 x cos 2= 14.697 A
~
I. ~ 17.672 'JT':4
~ 1'.304 A
.n
=cos 45
=0.9239
2
~ 0.9603
[ +~)]
PF ~ CDF x DF ~ 0.9603 x 0.9239 ~ 0.88721ag
[1
THD = CDIi' 1
Power input
Reactive power input,
]'12 =
[1
0.9603'  1
]11' = 0 .2905
Q, = 
10 sm a
2g~
Powe r El ectronics
[Act. 6.6]
I
i,
$",
T1
T2
".
~L
DI
D2
(a l
Fig. 6.1 7. Singlephase symmetrical semiconverter
(a )
(bl
circuit diagram and
(b )
waveforms.
From wi = 0 to rot = 0., let constant load current 10 free wh~el T2 Dl. Soon after wi = 0, T1
gets forward biased through T2. At a firing angle n, T1 is turned on. Load current shifts from
T2 to T1; thyristor T2 is therefore turned off. At Wi = 0, T2 is subjected to a reverse voltage of
Vm sin a which aids in the commutation of T2. Load current n oW flows through Tl, RL, Dl , b,
scurce u!' a and Tl and load voltage Uo = uab' At. rot =Tt, U, = O. Soon after wi = It, b becomes
somewhat positive with respect to a, D2 gets forward biased through D1; as a consequence, load
current now freewheels through Tl D2 fr om rot = It to (It + (X). At rot = (It + a), forward biased
T2 is tur n ed on, Tl is therefore, turned off. Current n ow fl ows through T2 D2 from
rot = (n + a ) to 2Tt and Vo = Vb' Soon after rot = 2 Tt, D1 is forward biased, therefore 10 now begins
to fre ewhe el through 12 D1 and so on. Various waveforms for voltages and currents are drawn
in Fig. 6. 17 (b ). During fr eewheeling periods, Vo = 0 be cause devices are considered ideal.
Wave form for un shows that circuit turnoff time tc is given by
n a
t, = OJ  sec
6.6.2. Singlephase asymmetrical semiconverter
For th is semiconverter, power ci rcuit diagram is drawn in Fig. 6.18 (a ) and th e relevant
wav eforms in Fi g. 6.18 (6). An exa minat ion of Figs. 6. 17 (0 ) and 6.1S (0 ) r ev eals th at in
5 in gl~  pha .5 e symm etrical semiconver ter of Fig. 6.17 (a) , the two ca thodes of S CRs T l and T2
are cO:l.:.ected togeth er, th es e ca thodes are, therefor e, at the same potential. As s uch. only one
trigge ring ci rcu it is suffirien t for this s emiconverter. Wh en si ngle gate pu l.;e is appli ed co both
the t:tyri3to:'s. the S CR \vh ich is for wardbiase d at th at instan t will get ~u rn e d on . I n
".
P h a.~e
Co n troll ed Rectifiers
285
[Art. 6.7J
asymmetrical semiconver ter of Fig. 6.18 (a ), however, two separate triggering circuits must be
employed.
The thoughtprocess, leading to the understanding of previous singlephase symmetrical
semicon verter, can now be extended to this converter configuration also.
For both symmetrical and unsymmetrical topologies, output voltage V" is given by Eq.
(6.28) and its rms value Vor by Eq. (6.29). The other perform ance parameters can be evaluated
as desi red.
0 ~r1~~~j~,~,,7'~C",~,
lrr
~~
: "~  '~
:1.
.,
01'
'.
~v.
"
c,
:.....110:
.01
II,
""
"0'1. I fI,
i.
02
/ 317
2.
""
"I
.,
""
"
>
12
C,
(a )
( bl
(a)
Singlephase semic on verter requires two SCRs and three (or tw o) diodes but a
singlephase full conver ter needs fr om SeRs. Singlephase semic onve rter circuits
are. therefore, cheaper.
(ii) Singlephase semiconverter offers onequadrant operation, whereas si nglephase
fu ll convertor can furnish twoquadrant operation .
(iii) Freewheeling action in semiconverter circu its render power factor better than its
value in fu ll conve rter ';ucuits.
(i)
Th e advantage3 of using thre eph ri3e cont rolled converters over singl e.pr.... se cont rolled
converters are the san e (13 pn5se'::;5ed by 3ph a3c diode rec tifiers over Iph ~1.5e diode r ::c tiE~rs
?!lumer.J.ted 1:1 f'..rt 3.9. It i:i ?olso discu.:;sed there why thr eephase deltust::1: tr anAu rm~r i.5
186
Power Elcctronks
[Act. 6.7]
empl oyed for delivering power to threephase converters . .~1 threephase controll ed converters
use linecommutation for the turningoff of thyristors.
Threephase thyristor conve rters may be classified as under :
Threepulse conver ters
Sixpulse converters
(c) Twelvepulse converters.
Sixpulse converters include 3phase full converters, 3phase semiconverters and sixpulse
midpoint converters . These are now described one after the other.
6.7.1 . Threephase Halfwave Cont rolled Converter
(a)
(b)
This converter is also called 3phase 3pulse converter or 3phase M3 converter. This is
now discussed with different types of loads.
6.7.1.1. Threephase M3 Converter with R load. Power circuit diagram of this converter is shown in Fig. 6.19 with resistive load R. A reference to the circuit of Fig. 3.29 and
waveforms of Fig. 3.30 is of considerable help. If firing angle is zero degree, SCR T 1 would
begin conducting from wt =30 0 to 1500 , T2 fr om wt =150 0 to 270 0 and T3 from rot =270 0 to
3900 and so 00. In other words, firing angle for this cont rolled converter would be measured
from rot = 30 0 for TI, from
= 150 0 for T2 and from wt = 270 0 for T3 as indicated in Fig. 6.20
(a). For zero degree firing angle delay, thyristor behaves as a diode and the voltage output
waveform Uo is as shown in Fig. 3.30 (e). The operation of this cqnverter is now described for
a < 30 0 a nd for a > 30 0
wt
u"
+
"
TJ
lu,
<0
t,
11
TJ
T
J
Firing angle < 30. The output voltage waveform uo' for firing angle less than 30 (say
around 150) is sketched in Fig. 6.20 (b ), where T1 conducts from wt =30o +Ct to
5~
.
.
wt = 150 0 + a =""""6 + Ct., T2 from 1500 + a to 270 0 + Ct. an d so on. Each SCR conducts for 1200
The waveform of load current
io
r,
Va.
5:1
3
Average value of outpu t voltage, Va = 21t
where
Vn:p =
[Art. 6. 71
"
O:" ~
IX: 0 for T3
0::0 lor T2
lor TI
lor il
0:0
..~ ........ t
2S7
'Imp
lal
Ibl
wI
Ie}
I I
"0" 1 I
TJI~T l ~/I T 2
~No
SCR
,cndlJ~IS
",'~ "1
JOO'/I
,ITJ! 4
wI
Tl
Fig. 6.20 . Three phlise 3pulse converter with R load (a) line to neutral source voltages.
Load. voltage waveforms for (b) 0 < a < 30 e and (c) a:> 30 e
Vu
3 Vml
Average load current, I" = Ii = 21t. R cos a
... 16.5001
=[
3
2.
+ 5 ""
a+l't/6
v" = 3 V;., [ 1 wt
or
or
41t
3V~
=~
4.
[2.
+"" _I sin 22 wt
0.+,; / 6
.f3
]
+cos2a
3
1 3 .f3 cas2a
V or=Vmp [ 2+~
or
=.J3vmp
Rms Ioa d curre nt,
[1 .f3
]'"
S+81tcas2a
]t" =V [1 .f3
V"' [1S+8rtcos2a
.f3
]'"
[or = VO
R , =[f'
ml
'6+8ltcas2a ]'"
.. .(6.51)
... (6.5 1 a)
Firin g angle :> 30". When firing angle is more than 30", Tl would conduct from 30 ~ + a to
180",1'2 from 150" + a to 300" and so on a3 show n in Fig. 6.20 (b ). For R load, when phase
voltage v" reaches zero at rot = 180", current io = 0, '1'1 is th: refore turn ed off. Thus, Tl woul d
conduct from 30" + a to 180". Same i3 true for oth er SCR3. This show,; that each SC R, for firin g
angle:> 30", conducts for (150"  a) only. This also implies that for R load, m aximum pos.5ible
value of[iring angle is 150". Waveform ofia agrees with!l(J wav eform, Fig. 6.20 (e ). Average value
of load voltage,
288
Power Electronics
(Art. 6.7J
'
.
f
3
V' = 2
mD
=~
3
Rms value of output voltage, Vor = [ 2
r
:1. [(
~ = ';.
...(6.52)
( 1 +cos(a + 30') I
a +1tI6
mp
[( 5R
6
a )+
]112
~ sin (2 a n
/ 3) ]'"
... (6.530)
)+~
5 R a
sin (2a+R / 3)],"
... (6.53 b)
6
6 .7.1.2. Threephase M3 con vert er with RL load. In Fig. 6.19, load R is now replaced
by load RL . The load inductance L is large so that load current is continuous and constant at
10 as shown in Fig. 6.21. For firing angle < 30 0 , Vo and Vor are given respectively by Eqs. (6.50)
and (6.51). For the firing angle range of30 < a < 900 and 90 0 < a < 1800 , this converter behaves
differently as described here.
30 0 < a < 90 0 For firing angle in this range, let the firing angle be, say, 45 0 for which the various
waveforms in Fig. 6.21 are drawn. Note that T1 conducts from 30 + a to 150 + a, 12 from 150 + a
to 270 0 + a, T3 from 270 0 + a to 390 0 T a and so on. Thus, each SCR conducts for 120 0
vsl 0 &0 for T1
v,
v.,
w,
1. 225 V..,
195"
l.22 SVm
1..
21,0
fJvm=
315
' _O.t.t.8
Vml)
1.67 V,.. ..
Fig. 6.2 t.
Th r c~ pha 3e
M3 converter
wa~'efor:n3
C ~lrrer: ~
289
["I. 6.71
The waveform Un fo r voltage ac ross Tl, on the assumption of firing angle 45 0 can be d rawn
as und er ;
When
T1
is on, un = va
 u'a
AJso, at wt
= 315
=315
0
,
~IIIP
.~ hown
= 0.5 V mp 
0.5 V mp = 0
At Wi = 420 ~ , un = 0.866 V mp
At wi
=435
and also
un
=V mp sin 75
uTI = Ua  VII =
= 0.866 V mp
a = 0.866 Vmp
+ V mp sin 150 ~ 1.225 V mp
0 a nd so on.
Average and rms values of output voltage are the same as give n by Eqs. (6.50) and (6.51)
re5pecti vely.
90 ~ < a < 180". For firing angle in this r ange, let a be, say, 165. Under the assumption of
ripple free load current l a, the var ious waveforms are shown in Fig. 6.22. As the output voltage
wav eform u a is be low the reference line, average value of Uo must be negative . It is also eviden t
from Vo =(3 V m!/ 21t ) cos a that \yhen firing angle a is more than 900 , V o is nega tive . F o r. ~
a > 90 ~, threephase 3pulse converter operates as a linecommutated inverter which i:i possible
only if the load ci rcuit has a de voltage source of reve rse polarity. as in a singlephase full
converte, a lready discussed in Art. 6.3 .2. 1.
It is also seen from Figs. 6.21 and 6.22 that ave rage value of thyristor current. In.
\'201ue of so un: e curr ent, 1.. .4. = (1" x 120)/360 = 10/ 3.
o ~_ .~!.,~
,:".' . ,.; ..
t /
o. :,ourcecurran ,
_/
T.. 
_ [ J; x 120
~r 
360
11/2
fo
J ="\3
= average
290
Power Electronics
1M!. 6,7 1
V't
_o::lorT 2  
r'
0
!or
1.,
i1: \
\5'j~"!
..,
...
c:
!!
r rCl rOr i J  j
U~
...:_~_
1.(
..
v,
,~
':t"
13
"0
_ _
v,
v,
T2
T1
13
T2    " f   l J 
11
I',
'' ''L
w,
~_
w,
+2"/31
l: ~ 1,
,.
w,
\~:o',
IL!L_l''..L''''_;_;;_
I',
I"
I 2/rI J I
wt
Fig. 6.22. Threephase 3pulse converter waverorms ror 90 < Cl < 180 0 for constant load current.
Waveforms of i u , Lb, ic in Figs. 6.21 and 6.22 show that transformer windings have to carry
de current which is harmful to the transformer. Th e problem can, however, be sorved by using
deltazigzag connection instead of deltastar connection as shown in Fig. 6.23 .
I,
I~
~b
~J lQ~
I,p
I ,~
"
, I,
r1
v,
Ie '0e
I,
R
I QI 3
l
J,
f~~ di r: g .1
lJ
[A.t. 6.7J
291
A care fu l observation of zigzag winding in Fig. 6.23 reveals that same phase winding,
dividing into t wo halves as a , a l ; carries current 10/ 3 in both these J:uil.ves , but in opposite
directi on s. S a me is tru e for phase b, c windings . Since each h alf, "of the three secondary
windin gs , carri es direct current in opposite direction , their magnetic effects cancel each other.
As a resul t, t he core flux and therefore core loss and temperat ure rise remain unaffected . This
show s tha t a 3phase 3pulse converter can be used for energizing a dc load provid ed a
deltazigzag trans former is employed on its input side.
V .,.
Examp le 6. 13. A 3phase M3 conuerter is operated from 3phase, 230 Vi 50 Hz supply
with load resistance R =10 n. An auerage output uoltage of 50% of the maximum pos.ible output
uoltage is req uired. Determine (a) the firing angle (b) auerage and rms "Glues of load current
and (c) rectification efficiency.
So lution. (a) For R load, voltage is continuous when as 30 0 and average output voltage
is given by
3 Villi
V =   cosCt
,
2"
. um
Jts maXlm
bl e va I ue IS,
.. Vo m = ~
3 VmI = 31221C
x 230 = 15o.3 V
POSS l
3 Vml
V o =~ cos Ct = Y om cos
1
V o ="2 Vom
No\v
=~ Y om = 77.65 V
a
:. 0
= 60
.ra
3 Vm
3V
Vo = ~ [1 + cos (0 + 300 )J = 21C
..
[1 + cos (a + 30 )1
1
T3
[1 + cos (cu 30 )} = V
27t
Vo
1
x = =" 3 Vml Yom 2
a=67.7.J
! = V, = 77.65 = 7 765 A
o R
10
.
(b)
[.
!. =
1i~65 :
10.477 A
V, !.
77.65 x 7.765
0 493
493"
(c J R eC '~lIiler e ffi
llcle ncy = VorIlJr = 10. t 765 x 10.477 = .0
or o. 10
Exa mpl e 6.14. Deriue expressions for the auerage and rms outp ut uoltages for a 3phase
3plllse con trolled con uerter by using cosine /imctior. for the supply uoltage . A ssume continu ous
conduction.
Powe r Electronics
l.\ n. 6.7 J
=( ~ + a
rot = ( ~ a ) to
~c
,',
""'j',~'/:)+I
: ''''/3:i.'!p...L''''':~;'a::f~
instant 2
Ia! .
3 f,..
3V
V.=2" J ~ [ i_"(mpCOSWld(WI)= 2;P
fa;"'"
3..J3vmp
 sinWi
l'j[~. l
3Vml '
cos a =   cos a
2 7t
.. .(6.50)
27t
.,
3 rl ~ o.
V"r = 27t J
v'2 _ 3 V~p
IIr  ~
sin 2rot
wt +
or
I~
H,
 ( ~o. )
,11'
1,f3
1,f3
=Vmt [ S+S1tcos2a
"./'"
]11'l
, .. (6.51 )
E x amp le 6.15. A 3phase halfwave controlled converter is fed from 3phase, 400 V, 50 Hz
sou rce a nd is connected to load taking a constant cu rrent of 36 A. Thyristors hatle a voLtage
drop of 1,4 V. (a) Calculate average vbalue of load lJoltage for a firing angle 0(30 0 and 60=, (b)
Determine average and rms current ratings as well as PN of thyristors. (c) Find the auerage
p ower dissipated in each thy ristor.
Sol ution . Here, average output voltage,
Vo = 3?Vm1 cos a _ !.I T; Vml = \'2 X 400 V and
Ct
= 60 0 ,
."
VII = 3 ~ x 400 cos 30  1.4 = 232.474 V
."
3 \ 400
VII
;<
R
1':15 curr ent
r:l t mg
a rSCR .
cos 60 0
vT
= 1.4 V
1.4 = 133.63 V
I II 36
'3
= 3 = 12 A
I Tr !!.~?08
 \'3  ./3   . 1 ;)
'
_"'\
PIV of SCR
= ,f3 V m, = Vml = V2 x 400 = 565.6 V
tc .\n~rag'e powe r dissi p<l ted in each SCR = IT.~ I;T = 12 x 1,4 = 16.8 W
[Art. 6.iJ
~ Example
293
6.16. A 3phase 3pulse con verter; fed from de ltastar transform er, is con nected
to a load requiring ripple free current. A freewheeling diode is connected across the load. Shetch
waveforms for sou rce voltage, output voltage, load current, line current and free wheeling diode
current. Obtain expressions for average and rms value of output voltage. thyristor cu rrent and
freewheeling diode current.
Solution. A 3phase 3pulse converter feeding RL load and with freewheeling di ode across
RL is shown in Fig. 6.25 (a ). For firing angle < 30, free wheeling di ode does not come into play.
So here, fir ing angle is taken , say 60, just to illustrate how freewhe eling diode comes into
playana to examine its effect on the performance of the converte r.
At cot = Jt, as phase voltage Va tends to go negative, freew heeling diode gets forward biased
through Tl. Therefor e, freewheeling diode starts conducting from rot = Jt till 1'2 is turned on
at rot = 150 + cx. Similarly, when Vb and ve tend to go negative, freewheeling diode comes in to
play, as shown in Fig. 6.25 (b) . Note that each SCR conducts for (150  ex) and .freewheeling
diode for (a  30).
i.
11
Iv.
~
i,
~Tv.
T2
( 0''
FO
L_"'~ J
Bo     J
I.
TJ
l'd
(a)
v. ~
O ~ ~v~~ ~
LTJl FD L.
i i l FO L.T 2
"I
ll:~ !
r 15O  et
01
i:!
WI
II,
"'

II I', I
n
I
1CE:O~
,,,
1\ 1
2  )...J
wI
..
(,
Fii 6.25. Tr...:ee pr.:u<:l M'; con . . erte: Ca ) circuit (b ) wevefo ..m E:ulmple ~ .0.
2 9~
[Art. 6.7)
3
Average value of output voltage, V" = 2
It
(!.
ru
[(5n
6  a )+"21
V ml
Vor = 2"1Tt
I TA
V mp sin wt . d (wt)
... (6.52 )
2n
S in
.
(20 + 1t/ 3)
]';2
... (6.53 b)
6a.
1"
Average thyristor current,
:t/ 6
3 V mp
[1 +OOS (CL + nI 6))
Similarly.
2Tt
I"
I" = 2n
1" 51t
=21t[ 6  CL]
]"2
{sCL l
5n:
I, [ 2n
{sCL lJ
51t
112
Average va lu e of FO current,
C"lL____~+____~:__ L! "
V[s
[Arl.6 .7J
295
"t T1
"0
vb
13
Vmp
v,
T5
" TJI
Tl
I
E
wI
0=0'
j
T4
T2
T2
T6
f120o~
(al
ITS
v,
I T6
TI
T2
T3
T4
T3
T'
T6
TI
+~e
T2
_~e
GrOllp
Gro up
TI
T'
O~4U~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~+~~~~W~1
lSVmp
1.5'v'mp
T3
T2
1
T6
T4
T5
T4
T2
I
T6
T1
.,.V(Z GrOllp
I ~e Group
Fig. 6.27. Voltage waveforms and conduction of thyristors for a 3phase full converter.
Note that positive group ofSCRs are fired at an interval of 120. Similarly, negative gl:uup
of SCRs are fired with an interval of 120 amongst them. But SCRs from both the groups are
fired at an interval of 60. This means that commutation occurs every 60, alternatively in
upper and lower group of SeRs. Each SCR from both groups conducts for 1200 At any time, two
SCRs, one from the positive group and the other from negative group, must conduct together
for the source to en er gise the load. For ABC phase sequence of the three ~phase supply,
thyristors conduct in pairs; TI and T2, T2 and T3, T3 and T4 and so on .
The sequence of events in Fig. 6.27 can also be shown more conveniently ifline voltages, instead
of phase voltages, are considered. In Fig. 6.28 (a) are shown line voltages Uab, uoe Ubc , Uba etc. For
a = 0, SCRs TI, T2, ....T6 behave as diodes and the output voltage waveform is as shown in Fig.
6.28 (a ) by tlab Ucc , Ubc etc. In this figure, for ex = a, Tl is t1..1l1lJa. on at o..'l = 60 0 , T2 at wt = 120, T3
at wt = 180 and so on. In Fig. 6.28 (a), therefore, firing angle is measured from wt = 60 for T1, from
wt = 120 0 for 1'2, from wt =180 0 for T3 and so on.
The question may arise in the minds oi the readers as to why TI, for a = 0, conduct.s from
wt = 60" and not from wt = 00 H ere the use of subscripts 06, ac , DC, ba etc corne to the rescu e of
readers. As observed, the subscripts in sequence appe(,'r twice. When first subscrip t ap pears
twice, the SCR in the positive group pertainin g to that line conducts for 1 20 ~ . Likevris e, when
second subscript comes twice, the SCR in th e negud ve group pert aining to th at line conduct.s
for 120. For example, first subscript 'a' appe ars hvice in tl ab Uae ; th erefor e SCR from positive
296
Powe r
[Art. 6.7J
El~ctronics
group T1 will begin conduction when Uab appears i.e. at cot = 60". In uue ' uk second subscript 'C'
appears twice, the refore SCR fr om negative group T2 will begin conductioQ..w hen va,' appears
i.e. from cot = 120" in Fig. 6.28 (a). Similarly, first subscript 'b' appears twice in uk ub", so SCR
from positive group T3 will begin conduction when Vbc appears i.e. from cot = 180 0 in Fig. 6.28
(0 ).
For a = 60, T1 is turned on at cot = 60 + 60 = 120, T2 at cot = 180'\ T3 at cot =,240 and so
on. When T1 is turned on at rot 120, T5 is turned off. T6 is al ready conducting. As 'P and T6
are connected toA and B respectively, lo ad voltage must be u"b as shown in Fig. 6.28 (b). ';Vhen
T2 is turned on, T6 is commutated. As T1 and T2 are now conducting, the load voltage is u"c'
Fig. 6.28 (b). In this manner, load voltage waveform can be drawn with the turning on or. off of
uther SC Rs in seque nce. For a = 90, the load voltage is symmetrical about the reference line
wt, therefore its average value is zero. In Fi g. 6.28 (el, load current waveform i" is drawn on the
<Il~ OO
"<
I
a ~O
.r
10
cr2~Oft
T\
T2
t ",b I
TI
T2
"'cb ~
"'oe ~
JI7
la)
TI
a,90'
Ie)
wt
llokbO~CO ~Cb
l ~~v
r '~L,
+ve grouo
_ve grour
wi
~V~\
)0"]
wi
= 150C~
>0",50'"
v,
wi
o. :1 5
0"iI
~Q: , = 15 0   1
d.
~l t b r.
t!)O
lee
itO
I
Cl:
6 =15 0 0'lj
loa
ico
c ____________________________________
i}
Id )
lob
I"
~
,
WI
c ,~,~~~~~~
~
c:.;::::::::J wi
loa
lcc
Fig. 6.23 . Volt3 ge and current waveforms for a 3phase rull conwrter for different fir ing i!ngles .
i boJ
ita
[Art. 6. 71
297
assumption that load is pure L . When v cu is peak positive, slope dio /d t is maximum positive so
t ha t L. (dio/dt) equals peak positive ucn ' Similarly, dioldt is maximum negative wh en U ea iii peak
negative. When current io has peak value, dio(dt is zero and likewise Ucu is zero as shown in Fig.
6.28 (c) . For CJ. = 150, T1 is triggered at wi = 210 T2 at 270 and so on . T he output voltage
waveform is shown in Fig. 6.28 (d ). It is seen from this figur e that average voltage
is reversed
,
in polarity. This means that de source is delivering power to ae so urce; this is called
linecomm utated inverter operation of the 3phase full converter bridge . It may be seen from
above t h at for a = o ~ to 90, power circuit of Fig. 6.26 works as a 3phase full converte r
delivering power from ac source to dc load a nd for a = 90 to 180, it works as a lin ecommu tated
inverter delivering powe r from dc source to ac load. It can work in th e inverter mode only if the
load has a direct emf E due to a battery or a dc motor. It should be noted that direction of current
for both converter and inverter ope rati ons r ema in s fixed but the polarity of output voltage
reve rse!';.
Q
Source current iA in phase A is als o draw n in Fig. 6.28 (d) for 0.= 150 e . For the a rrow
directi on indi cated in Fig . 6.26, iA is t reated as positive. Therefor e iA is positiv e wh en T1 is
conducting , i.e . when first subscript for voltages or currents is 'a'. Likewise iA is negative when
T4 is conducting, i.e. when the second subscri pt for voltages or currents is 'a' . Source current
waveforms for other two phases can al so be drawn accordingly. For other fir ing angles , so urce
currents can be drawn similarly.
Expression for the a~e ra ge output voltage Vo
v,
ca n be obtained by referrin g to Fig. 6.29 where
uab' v a,: etc. are sketched from Fi g. 6.28 ta) fo r ii ring
anglo: de lay Ct. < 30. Note that peri odicity of output
vo ltage is it / 3 r ad ian s. Average va lue of output
voltage is ob tained by finding the dashed area
wI
I
I 11 i
abed ov e r a pe r iodic cycle , Fi g. 6.29. and then l 1 . , ....,0 ct +ttl
dividin g it by the pe riodic tim e. With 00' as the
Fig. 6.29. Output voltage waveform for a
ori gin a t the maximum value of Ul.lb. Vo is given by
3ph ase full co nverter.
(~ ." J
Vo =~
Vm 1coswtd(wt )
(~ .
~
ml
. ( 0.+'6  sm
3Vn [ sm
... (6.54)
Ct.
wt = o.
uub
=V rnl sin wi
2:'1
'J+a
Vo = ~
l,lml
si n (,:)/;. dt wt)
!.'.  a
3\lm l
r (l 3"2.  (( ,)
~   ,  _ C,j S
C0 5
3Vml
'1  a l~~ =;:CO.5 a
( n
because
Vub
a at
298
[ Ac <. ~ . 7J
P ower Electronics
VM=[.:!.n: J
Y"' v;.,si n' wid (wi ) ]"2
(1
a v_
~ .2
V!. :  2 ml
n
or
2.'1:
~  o
J; .. u
(1 
3 [3"+2cos2a
n ,f3
]112
...(6 .54a )
Vor=Vml "' fn
It is observed from Fig. 6.28 th at source cu rrent fo r phase A, i.e. iA (or fo r any other phase)
flo ws for 120 0 fo r every 180 0 Th erefore, in case outpu t current is assumed constant at / 0' the
r ms va lue of source current is
I =  II , 2n x l = 1  ~
J
\J o a it
0" "3
Each SC R co ndu cts for 120 0 for every 3600 Therefore, the rms value of thyristor curren.t is
ITI, :
_I
2 2.
\J I O T
1
X
2n:
_ It
=Io\J a
'0
'.
YTI
'I;
[Art. 6.7 1
Vo
Q:
e::O
0. : 0
T1
T2
0:0
TJ
2 ~9
0" : 0
TI
(a)
0;,'
...
Vo
....,,/
Tl
12
1Q
"v
' v '
..
'.
".
TJ
WI
1Q
Q: IS
I b)
WI
tJ
i'e
"
OI
OJ
"
01
1
1
~ 120+I
.....
T1
.
" 1 1"
...
TJ
T2
. 'H I group
"(l I;jroup
01
02
Tl
V~ Q W ~ ~ ~ ~'
WI
.L~
Ie)
Id )
WI
Ie)
01
Q2
rr
,
0
wI
! I b'.
21'l'
I! I
fl
02
I:, I
3n
WI
rig . f~31. Vol t3ge and current wa\'eforms for a 3phase semiconverte r for different firing .mg!e:;.
Similarly, t:bc. (..'bu indicate that T2 conducts for 1 20 ~ and it begins to conduct at wt = 18 0~ for
Ct. = O~ . An SCR with zero degree firing angle behaves like a simple diode. Thus, as per the
definit ion of firing angle, it should be measured from wt = 50 ~ for T1 . from wi = I BO for T2.
fro m Wi = 300 ~ for T3 and so on.
For Ct = 60\ Fig. 6.3 1 (c ), the thyristors are fired so that current retu:ns through on e diode
d'J.!'ing each 121.1 conduction period. For voltage l'" " Tl and D3 c on dll c~ si multaneou.:;iy for
I:.W; as show n. Si milarly, other elements conduct. P'O does not COr:1 ? into play even fo r
n = 60' . Fu:[her note that .... oltage pu i:5es (Ja il. (..'be l",:o clo not appenr in the output voltage
w;1 :eform for Ct. = 60. It will be seen tha t for ex 2: 60;, \'oltag::! pu13es ~'ab ' t':", L'e:: are eli minated.
Tr.;, l o ~ ..1 C1.1!'rent, assumed co ntinuous for a = 50'> , i.:i not :5nown in Fi g ".31 <('1.
Q
300
[Ar!. 6.7J
Power Electronics
For firin g angle delay 0[90, voltage , and current wave forms ar e shown in Fig. 6.31 (d ). Th e
output voltage Vo 15 discontinuous . As Vo made up of ucb. v ue, ubo' ut/,.. .. , tends to become negative
at c.ct = 12 0 ~ , 240 e , 360 ~ , FD gets forward biased . Therefore, for each periodi c cycle of 120",
output voltage is equal to line voltage for only 90" and for the r emaining 30, when FD conducts,
Vo = O. F or a = 90", conduction angle of SCRs and diodes is seen to be less than 1200 for every
output pulse. In other words , conduction angle for both positive and negative group elements is
90 n and for the remaining 30". current completes its path through FD as shown in Fig. 6.31 (d )
for a = 90. Voltage pulses uab. v b<; , Un are absent from output voltage Vo for this firing angle as
well. Withou t FD, .after load voltage Vo reaches zero, a diode from negative group would begin
to conduct reducing U o to zero till next SCR in sequence is triggered . For example, at wi = 120",
Uo = u cb = 0 and without FO, 03 from negative group would start conducting through T3 from
wt = 120" to 1500 when 'SCR Tl is gated. This means that without FO, T3 would conduct for
120 from wt = 30 to 150, 02 for 90" from cot = 30" to 120 0 and 03 for 3~ '' from wt = 120 to
150 ~ for thi s periodic cycle of 120 extending from cot = 30 to 150.
For firing angle delay of 120, the voltage and current waveforms are shown in Fig. 6.31 (e).
The load current is now assumed discontinuous. For each periodic cycle of .120, Uo is seen to
have three components . When an SCR is gated, thyristor and diode conduct for 60 only. As Vo
re aches zero and t e nds to become negative, FO gets forward bias ed and therefore starts
conducting for some angle and holds the load voltage to zero. When aU ,the energy stored in
ind uc tance is discharged, FO stops conducting and as a result, load voltage rises to load counter
e mf E. When Vo = E, n one of the elements of semiconverter bridge is conducting, this is
indicated by 0, 0 in Fig. 6.31 (e).
It may be s een from above that in a 3phase semiconverter, SCRs are gated at an in terval
of 120:0 in a proper sequence. In a single phase semiconvertt:r, SCRs are fir ed at an inte rl<~ : of
180. In ord er to obtain full control of the dc output voltage vo, the range of firing angle is:i
A" t o 180". A threephase semiconverter has the unique feature of working as a ' sixpuls~
conuerter for a < 60 ~ and as a threepulse con uerter for a 2: 60, a careful obser.ation of Fig. 6.31
rev eals thi s.
For
.
11 ".
Vo = ~ ( 1 + cos a )
or
."
IS
put
(~
.OCIOU
 ( "6"  a Ij ;:' lm l'1 nr'lj', r.11:1.
. J:i 5 .l gn 15
. pu t b elore
'
n
S.
1
.. .(6.55)
Voltage u(.!b
=0
at rot
) 01
[Ar!. 6. 7J
= 0 and Vc..: = 0
at wt
=~
obtained as
3
V O= 2
It
[fn
f3",
3' + u
nl 3
 +0.
3
nl 3
Vmsin wt d (wt )
3 Vrnl
=2n ( 1 + cos 0 )
Rms valu e of output voltage
It
v'or :
or
Von
V. , : 23
... (6.55)
{f'" ,
('
_  a
r...
V~,
]'12
~2
3  [ .1 rot + :
,.si"n wi 1""
4It
2
.."
sin 2wI
+ ..u..+
(~. )
/aI[
V;. , cos0 wt d( wt )}
6 "'0
Vml 2. ..f3
=2""
"'" ~ I 3 + 2 (1 + cas 2 a )
Vo!'
nl 6
 :"'.16
]"2
... (6.56 )
For a ~ 60. For a ~ 60, the output voltage waveform is drawn in Fig. 6.32 ( b ) for a firing
angle 60 0 < a < 90) for convenienc e. With 0 0 ' as the origin in this figur e, the ave rage output
voltage Vo is given by
3
Vo : 2. [Area abedaJ.
: 23
It
Voltage
VOl:
=0
at rot
[J' "[It'
"2 
V ml cos
=~ and a
ml
3V (1 + cos O J
wt . d(wt ) =2It
=r.: / 3
as sho\vn
... (6.5 5)
In
Fig. 6.3:2 (b ).
J'
U
3 V ml
= ~
0 '
V m/ sin
( 1 + cos 0 )
"
~ \.."+r~ '.j'X ~
"[ 0
' I, "
A
i.
wt d (wt )
... (6.55)
w,
liJ t
_ _ 21t / 3 _
(a)
Fig. 6.32. Ou tput \'altage
(b )
w n'/efor.n ~
<:
302
[Act. 6.7J
Power Eleclronks
It is se en from above that express ion for average ou tput voltage is the sam e for both
sixpulse and threepulse operating modes of a 3phase semi converter.
Rms value of output voltage Von for a > 60 is given by
V" = [
= V;' .
..y ~ [
(n _ a ) +
d (WI )
.. ,(6.57 )
Example 6.17. (0) .4. 3phase full converter charges a battery from a threephase supply of
230 V, 50 Hz. The battery emf is 200 V and its internal resistance is 0.5 .n. On account of
inductance connected in series with the battery, charging current is constant at 20 A. Compllte
the firing angle delay and the supply power factor.
(b) In case it is desired that power flows from dc source to ac load in part (a ), find the 'firing
angle delay for the same current.
But
For constant load current of 10 = 20 A , Fig. 6.28 (d ) reveals that supply current i.\ is of
rectangular (or square) wave of amplitude 20 A. It is also seen from this figure that iA flows
for 120" (or 27t/ 3 radians) over every half cycle of 180e or 1t radian s.
Rms value of the supply current I. over
1t
radians is
2l't]112 = 20 ~
_f2
3 = 16.33 A
1
2
I , = [ ;; (20) 3
3 Vml
  cos a =  190 V
n
or
a  cos
[Art. (j,7]
303
Examp le 6.18. For a 3phase full converter, sketch the time uari~tlo~,s of input uoltage and
the voltage across one thyristor for one com plete cycle for a fir ing angle dela y of (aJ
0" and (b) 30~.
For both the angles, find the magnitude of reverse uoltage across thi::; SCR a nd it s
commutation time for a threephase supply uoltage of 230 V 50 Hz.
J
Solution_ (0) The threephase input vo.ltage waveform is shown as vab , v ac, Ubl.' vb" etc. in
Fig. 6.33 (a ). A conducting SCR has zero voltage across it. Let the variation of voltage across
SCR T l belonging to positive group of Fig. 6.26 be plotted in Fig. 6.33 (a).
"0. "A
Q:;OO "ab
'"
' be
"0
' bo
' ,b
'ob
' 0'
"::Ie
"0
wI
'00
Ca)
"0' " A.
'"
..=:CI=300
'"
'00
'be
'bo
wI
' ob
C b)
'"
For voltages vab . v ClC ' SCR Tl conducts, therefore voltage across this SCR is VA = V,:  Va = 0
for a peri od of 120", i.e . from Wi = 0 to wt ::: 120 as shown. After Wi = 1 2 0 ~ , SCR T3 conduc ts for
120 0 wi th uk vb as the outp ut vo ltages. Now cathode of Tl is connected to supply term ina l B
through T3 for a period of 120 ~ and its anode to supply terminal A. Therefore, voltage across Tl
from wl::: 120" to 240 is VA = Va  Vb' This voltage reverse biases T1 and it is shown as Va b below
th e reference line in Fi g. 6.33 (0) .
..\Iter Wi = 240 ~ . fo r voltages U CQ Vcb; SCR T5 conducts for 120 0 and therefore cathode ofTI
is conn ected to terminal C th rough T5. Thus, voltage across T1 is VA = L':.!  Ve = Va , below th e
r efe rence line for a period of 120 0 from CJJt =240. At Wi = 21t, T1 is aga in gated and voltage
vA = 0 as shown.
For firing angle delay of zero degree, each SCR is revers e biased for 240 0
:. Com mutatio n time available for SCR turnoff = circuit
~1t
;rld.
x 1000
.
x ?_ l't x ~ 0 = .13.33 msec.
4l't
= 3
( b ) For a = 30\ the output voltage waveform and \'oltag{' v...I. ac ross SCR Tl a re ;;l1own !n
Fig. 6.33 (b). At wi ::: 150\ when SCR T1 stops conducting, \'ol t::tge ac r053 T1 mu "t foll ow u,,/J
cu r ve fo r 1 20~ a~ d i.::i cussed in part (a) a b ove. The r efo re , VA j ump:; fr om zero [0
[An. 6.7]
JIl.J
I' ow ~r
Elcctronil.'S
Fill/si n 30 = 0.5 VItII as shown. A 3 '1'3 r emains on for 120", VA foll ows uu b curve be low the
reference li ne for 120. At cot = 270", when T5 is gated, VA follows IJ lle for 120 0 till '1'1 is gated
again, Fig. 6.33 (b ). This figure reveals that each SCR is reverse biased for (2400  a) .
Commutation time avail a ble for SCR turnofT = Circuit turn*off time ,
t, =
4J't/ 3  a
=[
sec
! 5~1
x
In case a ~ 60, it would be obs e rved that rotc =1t  u . For both the parts , i.e. for
a = 0" and 0. = 30", the peak rever se voltage across the SCR is ~ . 230 = 325.22 V.
Example 6.19. (a) A 3phase fullconverter feeds power to a resistive load of 10 n. For a
firing angle delay of 30, the load takes 5 k W. Find the magnitude of per phase input sllPply
IJoltage.
(b) Repeat part (a) in case a large reactor in series with load renders the load current ripple
free.
Solution. (a ) For a resistive load , output current waveform is of the same shape as that of
the output voltage wave . It is seen from Fig. 6.28 that for a > 60, the output vo ltage and output
current would be discontinuous for resistive load. However, for a $ 60, output voltage and
current are continuous. Rms valu e of output voltage is already obtained, for u < 60, in Eq.
16.540 ).
V~r
_r;::
" 2"
3 ["
13
]
2 .v;
3+2cos60
V"
 ._
=5000 x 10
V, = 188.08 V
or
V ph
V,
=13 = 108.591 V
For a constant load current, average loa d current 10 =rms load current,
1Dr
ml
=[3V
1tcos ex
J1
R
=5000 W
or
Vph = 110.40 V.
Example 6.20. (aJ A 3phase semiconverter feeds power to a resisti ve load of 10 n. For a
firin g angle d eLay of 30, the load takes 5 k W. Find the magnitude of per phase i npll t supply
voltage.
(b) Repeatpart (a) in case load current is m ade ripple free by connecting an ind uctor in series
[Art. 6.7]
305
Solution. It is seen from Fig. 6.31 that for ex < 30, the output voltage is continuous. For
a resistive load, output current is also continuous. R~s valu e of output voltage, for ex < 30 is
already obtained in Eq. (6.56).
Q
2V;~2'.f3
;{"3 +"2 (1 + cos 60)] = 5000 x 10
... F or
a = 30', 4
or
(a )
Vo
For constant load cu rrent, l or = ave rage load current; 10 =Ii
or
3 Vml
xR =   ( I +cos30')
21t
.,
or
3V
m
=~
(1 + cos ex) R
' =5DOOW
1
10
Vph
= 102.45 V
Solution. (a) F ig. 6.31 shows that for ex = 90 0 , the output voltage is discontinuous. For a
resistive load, output current is also discontinuous, for ex > 60, rms value of output voltage is
already obtained in Eq. (6.57).
: . For ex
= 90
Q
,
~[
4V; n
2 .
1t  
V, = ~50000 x
or
and
V ph
1 10
x  1 = 5000 W
= 298.14 V
= 172 .14 V
Vo =[3V
ml
=10 = Ii
"""2n
(1 + cos a) ]
. [3
I~r
xR=
x R1
.,
or
Example 6.22. Repeat part (a) of Example 6.17 in case 3 phase full conuerter is replaced
by a 3phase semicoltuerter. .
Solution. The battery terminal voltage is
But
Vo
3 Vml
{ 210x2,
acos l3.'12,230
1] 6937'

An ex aminati on of Fig. 6.31 rev eals that fo r fir ing angle a> 60 each SCR conducts for
180  a. So, in this example, each SCR conducts for (180  69.37) =110.63 0 For constant load
Q
306
P ower Electronics
[M" 6.7J
curr ent of 10 = 20 A, supply cu rrent iA is of squ are wave of amplitude 20 A. As iA flows for
110.63 '01 over eve ry h alf cycl e of 180", t he rm s value of supply current I , is given by
xn]ll2
=[!
"n
=15.68 A
Example 6.23. A 3phase full conuerter; fed from deltastar transformer, is connected to load
RL requiring ripple free load curren t. For a firing angle delay of around 45, sketch waveforms
{or (a) inp ut voltage u(l b. ua c ubc etc. (b) load uoltage, load current, thyristor Tl and T4 currents
and phase a , b, c cu rrents.
In case ac supply is 3phase, 400 V, 50 Hz, leuelload current = 15 A and a =45, calculate
rec tification effic iency, TUF and input power factor.
Sol ution. Th e power circu it diagram of 3phase full converter, fed from threephase
delta s t ar trans form er, is shown in Fig. 6.34 (a).
etc. is sketched in Fig. 6.34 (b ) with Ua b zero at
wt = O. The ma.ximum value of uab , Lla c or u bc isVml ' where Vm l = maximum value of line voltage
V I = ..J3 V ,"p ' Note that uab ' u oc ' ubc: etc. are displaced from each other by aD. angle of60.
(a ) The input voltage waveform Llab' Va e'
Ll bc
in
+
A 0"
TJ
TI
Iv.
T5
I,
"
R
i.
",
L
c o_V"
T2
Bo_'
Fig. 6.34 (a ) Pertaining to Example 6. 23 .
120
I,
15
= ~ I; x
'*
~~~ =t =
= B.66 A
v,
JU7
fArl . 6.7]
Tl
12
Ia~
:0'.1
i: v~ :
l 11a~
o~~
~ ._
iO' .~~II,
wi
wI
c=
wI
wI
;
Fig. 6.34
(b)
~
IX )
to (
( ~a ) 0'
v,
0 ."
=2
PO D :
WI
~~~
'\
11'
1,. _11 ......'
WI
fr(' 1V mp cos
p'a
wi. d (wt )
V
mp'
I
I
=
"
.(L
(1'. ) . (!! )
p . Vm o
Sin
it
s m Cllt
.COSet
C a
p
a )
.
]112
=
..E..... r; V: cos 2 CJ.U d (wi )
or
".
p
 ."  .1
[ 9 "
Jr: \ . .
0.
for
,'.(6.58)
.lOS
(Art.6.7(
, =
p. V;
2,
]
Vo
 [ +2sin
2,
r 21 t p
p cos2a
V,, =
or
v.[1 +(1;;
Vo
Here ,
From Eq . (6 .54a ),
~ I; x ~~~
3 V ml
= n
...(6.59)
6, therefore,
=
cos a =
V,,=12 x 400 x
~, } cos 2ar
}in (
10
~= 15. ~
3 12 x 400
,
12.25 A
_
cos 40 = 381.972 V
~ ~+ ~cos 90 ]= 400V
0
P d, = Vo I, = 381.972 x 15 = 5729.58 W
cur re:!1~)
Pd,
5729.58
067"1 67  1%
TUF = input
VA  ,f3 x 400 x 12.25 = . 0 or .0
P~
6000
Input pf= inputVA ='J3 x 400 x 12 .25 =0.707 lag.
__
(6) (')
Vo=m
V P 1t
V,, = V. [ 1
=V, [
sin 6
+(:,
)sin
.
m
cos a = ..:......:...!!
3V
1t cos a
( ~' ) cos 2a
,f3
1 +4~coS2
a ]"'
V, = Vmp '
IAn. 6.S1
301)
1/ 2
]1/'
3
=Vl1+;cos2a
[
In a 6pulse converter, 'Nith resistive load, continuous conduction occurs for 0 < a < 60 and
di scon tinu ous co nducti on for 60 < a s: 120". The maximum possible firin g angle is therefore,
120.
In a 12pulse converter, with resistive load. continuous conduction occurs for 0 < a < 75
and discontinuous conduction for 75 < a S 105. The maximum possibl e firin g angle is 105.
6.8. PERFORMANCE PARAI\1ETERS OF 3PHASE FULL CONVERTERS
Here the performance parameters of 3phase full converter are derived from the va rious
waveforms sketched in Fig. 6.36. In a 3 phase system, powerfactor angle is defined a5 the
angle between phase voltage and phase current. This is the reason for showing the phase
voltage Uti, ub, Uc in Fig. 6.36. Line voltage lJab, Uac1 Uk etc. fac ili tate the sketching of ou tp ut
voltage waveform uo so these are also shown in Fig. 6.36. As before, load current is assumed ,.
rippl e fr ee.
Th e source current is is given by
I, (I) ~ I, +
II '"
C"
t . 2. 3
sin
(nwl + 8")
Here, 1a = 0, because positive and negative half cycles of source current is, about the
reference line OJt , a re identi cal in Fig. 6.36. Further, waveform of source cu rr ent i, reveals that
( H7nto(a+I~n}
l[rt ,5
s"
all=~
0.+::
Ia [
= n .1t
For n = 1,
al =
4:
(a+~ )to ( a +
Isinno"'Ill
[  sin CL.
0.
+ 51t1S
a+~S
rTl~.""I: 1a cosncot
0. +
j sinnwtl
'i]
5; )
,
0.
d(cot)
+ llrJS ]
a+7::1S
n Tt
.,.
1 3 I n genera,I all =  410 . sm
n a . sm 3 ..... ror n. = , ,Q.
nn
~
bll
=1.
1t
rr+ ,
cr. 
= :~[
I cosn cot
r,
+::
c.tt
la +S1tI6 u .'tIS
+
I  cosncot
la+~L::S ]
a.,. n: / o
({~t) j
310
[A rt. 6.8 ]
U.
U,
Ub
.u,
lIe
"to '
.;
I  0. ~ ! QJ
) v~~ . 'v~~ '., " v~~ .
~'
"
,'
,....... . . . . . ,
.'
"""',':
o ..i'"  1:.~ ~.. __"..',._;.':C''. "_+""'_""_.;,
" _+,,_ _ ' ;;,
' wI
i'lL
!. i.i
0:
u'
i '0'
1,_;_ _ ,"
r" ,
  '  fc:c:
u'
LI
"~nLL
~ '_;:L~L,_ """WI
S
a+ 1f
cr.+...:!!
1
.

;
" 
[ u,
Fig. 6.36. Waveforms for 3phase full converter with
tic!
= 0 when
wt '"' O.
410
mt
=   cos n a . sm 3 ...... for n = 1,3,5, ..... .
nn
=0
nn)'
4 f" .
.
en =[ [ ;;;.
SlIlna. sm
3
410 mt
=  sm nn
3
eo = tan" (
is (t) =
[410
. nn )'
nn ' cos nil. sm
3
~: )= tan"
( tan nIX) = 
mt .
L.. 4nnf a . sm. 3
SlIl (nrot 
nIX
... (6.60)
flex)
n " 1,3,5,
410 nn
I Jn = T22. nn sm 3
2"2 I ,
Rms value of fundamenta l current, 1d = l't sin 600
is
=Ii
... (6.61}
(I
[Art. 6.8]
~ ~I0\1~
3
1t
23
311
... (6.62)
fa
1 'I';; ~ 3 ~0 . 955
10 2 ft
3
CDF x DF ~  cos a~ 0.995 cos a
I, I,f6
I,
1t
CDF~  ~ . I,x.
PF ~
... (6.63)
V~ ~ V ml
J"3[
is.cos 2 a ]"'
'\1 2;; "3 + 2"
VRF [ (
21t
';co.2a
.
.
ActIVe power mput,Pj
=3
V,
,f6
V,
l si_COS 9 1
3Vml
= 3  T3' ~ , 1
+ is cos 2<>
n'
2
} 9. V~II . cos2a
cos ex
line voltage, VI
"l3
... (6.64)
... (6.65)
where V$ =
_ 1]112
V,
,f6
T3 Tt 1
0,
3Vml
sm ex =  .  10 , sm (X
..(6 .66 a)
3Vml
3Vm1
Vo
=cosaor ~o
1t
1t
cos
But
,.
V,
.
Q i = cos (x ' 10 , sm a. = V o1o tan
Ct .
...(6.66 b)
Example 06.24. A 3phase full converter delivers a ripp le free load cu rrent of 10 A with a
firing angle delay of 45. TM input voltage is 3phase, 400 V, 50 Hz.
(a) Express tM source current in Fourier series.
(b) Find tM DF, CDF, THD and PF.
(c) Calculate the active a reactive input powers.
Solution. It is seen from Eq. (60GO) that source current for a 3phase full converter is given by
.
l$(t) =
I... 41
nn
n1t ,
sm 3 sm (nwt  n. o)
""" I, 3, 5
3n
Power Electronics
IArt. 6.8J
312
For n = 5,
x.