Você está na página 1de 14

FACULTY :

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

OBJECTIVE
To examine the consistency of a sample of bitumen by determining the
distance in tenths of a millimetre that a standard needle vertically
penetrates the bitumen specimen under known conditions of loading, time
and temperature.

BACKGROUND
This is the most widely used method of measuring the consistency of a
bituminous material at a given temperature. It is a means of classification
rather than a measure of quality. (The engineering term consistency is an
empirical measure of the resistance offered by a fluid to continuous
deformation when it is subjected to shearing stress).
The consistency is a function of the chemical constituents of a bitumen,
viz. the relative proportions of asphaltenes (high molecular weight,
responsible for strength and stiffness), resins (responsible for adhesion
and ductility) and oils (low molecular weight, responsible for viscosity and
fluidity). The type and amount of these constituents are determined by
the source petroleum and the method of processing at the refinery.
Penetration is related to viscosity and empirical relationships have been
developed for Newtonian materials. If penetration is measured over a
range of temperatures, the temperature susceptibility of the bitumen can
be established. The consistency of bitumen may be related to
temperature changes by the expression ;
log P = AT + K . . . (1) where ;
P = penetration at temperature T
A = temperature susceptibility (or temperature sensitivity)
K = constant

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

A Penetration Index (PI) has been defined for which the temperature
susceptibility would assume a value of zero for road bitumens, as given by

The value of A (and PI) can be derived from penetration measurements at


two temperatures, T1 and T2, using the equation.

Research has shown that, for conventional paving grade bitumens, the
Ring-and-Ball Softening Point
temperature is the same as that which would give a penetration of 800 dmm. This, together with the penetration at 25 C, can be used to
compute A where
The nomograph as given in Figure 3 enables the PI to be deduced
approximately from the penetration at 25 C and the softening point
temperature. Typical values of PI are
Bitumen Type
Blown Bitumen
Conventional Paving Bitumen

PI
>2
- 2 to + 2

Temperature Susceptible Bitumen (Tars) <-2

PI values can be used to determine the stiffness (modulus) of a bitumen at


any temperature and
loading time. It can also, to a limited extent, be used to identify a
particular type of bituminous
material. One drawback of the PI system is that it uses the change in
bitumen properties over a
relatively small range of temperatures to characterise bitumen;
extrapolations to extremes of the behaviour can sometimes be
misleading.

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

APPARATUS

Penetration Unit

Time Measuring Device

PROCEDURE
The penetration apparatus (Figure 4) is specified in many standards throughout
the world but

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

has always the same basic requirements as ASTM D5.

1. Specimens are prepared in sample containers exactly as specified


(ASTM D5-97) and
placed in a water bath at the prescribed temperature of test for 1 to
1.5 hours before the
test.

2. For normal tests the precisely dimensioned needle, loaded to 100


0.05 g, is brought to the surface of the specimen at right angles,
allowed to penetrate the bitumen for 5 second measured by time
measuring device.

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

3. Reading are taken after needle are penetrate for 5 second.

4. The test was repeated foe three times to get the average value of
penetration. A clean needle is used for each determination. In making
repeat determinations, start each with the tip of the needle at least 10
mm from the side of the container and at least 10 mm apart.

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

RESULT AND CALCULATION


Number of penetration

Penetration ( mm )

78

76

79

Average

77.7

Table 8.1 : Penetration Test ( ASTM D5)


Highest penetration ( mm
)
79

Average penetration =

Lowest penetration
( mm )
76

Difference ( mm )

Penetration 1+ Penetration 2+ Penetration 3


3

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

=
=

78 mm+76 mm+79 mm
3
77.7 mm

Difference = 79 mm 76 mm
= 3 mm

DISCUSSION
a)

Sources of Bitumens
Bitumens.-Native substances of variable color, hardness, and
volatility,

composed

principally

of

the

elements

carbon

and

hydrogen, and sometimes associated with mineral matter. The


nonmineral constituents are largely soluble in carbon disulfide.

Coal.-A readily combustible rock containing more than 50 percent by


weight, and more than 70 percent by volume, of organic material
formed from the compaction or induration of variously altered plant
remains. Humic coals form from plant cell or wall material deposited

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

under aerobic conditions, whereas sapropelic coals form from


spores, pollen, and algae deposited under anaerobic conditions.

Crude oil.-A petroleum that is removed from the Earth in liquid state
or is capable of being so removed.

Kerogen.-The disseminated organic matter of sedimentary rocks that


is soluble in nonoxidizing acids, bases, and organic solvents. The
organic matter initially deposited with unconsolidated sediments is
not kerogen but a precursor that is converted to kerogen during
diagenesis. Sapropelic kerogens yield oil and gas on heating,
whereas humic kerogens yield mainly gas. Kerogen includes both
marine and land-derived organic matter; the latter is the same as
the components of coal.

Petroleum.-A

species

of

bitumen

composed

principally

of

hydrocarbons and existing in the gaseous or liquid state in its


natural reservoir. Although petroleum is a species of bitumen, it is
convenient to consider it as a separate commodity possessing many
of the attributes of bitumen; this practice is followed by most
geologists.

Refiners

petroleum

as

the

(Neumann
liquid

and

mixture

Rahimian,
of

1984)

hydrocarbons

define
and

nonhydrocarbons in a reservoir and define crude oil as the


recovered petroleum at the surface; crude oil serves as the
feedstock for refineries. In legal terms, Williams and Meyers (1964)

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

defined

petroleum

as

complex

mixture

of

hydrocarbon

compounds, oily and inflammable in character. They defined crude


oil, or crude, as liquid petroleum as it comes out of the ground, as
distinguished from refined oils manufactured from crude.

b)

Types of Bitumens

Cutback bitumen
Normal practice is to heat bitumen to reduce its viscosity. In some
situations preference is given to use liquid binders such as cutback
bitumen. In cutback bitumen suitable solvent is used to lower the
viscosity of the bitumen. From the environmental point of view also
cutback bitumen is preferred. The solvent from the bituminous
material will evaporate and the bitumen will bind the aggregate.
Cutback bitumen is used for cold weather bituminous road
construction and maintenance. The distillates used for preparation
of cutback bitumen are naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil, and furnace
oil. There are different types of cutback bitumen like rapid curing
(RC), medium curing (MC), and slow curing (SC). RC is recommended
for surface dressing and patchwork. MC is recommended for premix
with less quantity of fine aggregates. SC is used for premix with
appreciable quantity of fine aggregates.

Bitumen Emulsion

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

Bitumen emulsion is a liquid product in which bitumen is suspended


in a finely divided condition in an aqueous medium and stabilised by
suitable material. Normally cationic type emulsions are used in
India. The bitumen content in the emulsion is around 60% and the
remaining is water. When the emulsion is applied on the road it
breaks down resulting in release of water and the mix starts to set.
The time of setting depends upon the grade of bitumen. The
viscosity of bituminous emulsions can be measured as per IS: 88871995. Three types of bituminous emulsions are available, which are
Rapid setting (RS), Medium setting (MS), and Slow setting (SC).
Bitumen emulsions are ideal binders for hill road construction.
Where heating of bitumen or aggregates are difficult. Rapid setting
emulsions are used for surface dressing work. Medium setting
emulsions are preferred for premix jobs and patch repairs work.
Slow setting emulsions are preferred in rainy season.

Bituminous primers
In bituminous primer the distillate is absorbed by the road surface
on which it is spread. The absorption therefore depends on the
porosity of the surface. Bitumen primers are useful on the stabilised
surfaces and water bound macadam base courses. Bituminous
primers are generally prepared on road sites by mixing penetration
bitumen with petroleum distillate.

Modified Bitumen

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

Certain additives or blend of additives called as bitumen modifiers


can improve properties of Bitumen and bituminous mixes. Bitumen
treated with these modifiers is known as modified bitumen. Polymer
modified bitumen (PMB)/ crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB)
should be used only in wearing course depending upon the
requirements

of

extreme

climatic

variations.

The

detailed

specifications for modified bitumen have been issued by IRC: SP: 531999. It must be noted that the performance of PMB and CRMB is
dependent on strict control on temperature during construction. The
advantages of using modified bitumen are as follows .

Based on the reading results, it measures the hardness or softness of bitumen by


measuring the depth in tenths of a millimeter to which a standard loaded needle will
penetrate vertically in 5 seconds. To get the accurate reading, repeat the experiment for 3
times to get the average reading for the whole experiment . BIS had standardised the
equipment and test procedure. The penetrometer consists of a needle assembly with a
total weight of 100g and a device for releasing and locking in any position. The bitumen
is softened to a pouring consistency, stirred thoroughly and poured into containers at a
depth at least 15 mm in excess of the expected penetration. The test should be conducted
at a specified temperature of 25

C. It may be noted that penetration value is largely

influenced by any inaccuracy with regards to pouring temperature, size of the needle,
weight placed on the needle and the test temperature.

c) Highest Penetration = 79mm


Lowest Penetration = 76mm

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

Difference = 3mm

The difference of reading in this experiment may be due to human


error during reading results or due to roughness of the specimen
use. Since the differences between highest and lowest reading
penetration is still in range of requirement, so the reading is
acceptanble.

d) The average penetration is almost same with the manufacturers


quoted range, so it can be accepted.

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

e) Based on results ;

ASTM softening point : 46.5c


Penetration at 25c : 77.7 mm

log ( pen at 250 c ) log800


A= 25 ASTM softening point

log ( 77.7 )log 800


A=
2546.5

A= 0.047

20 (125 A)
PI =
1+50 A

PI =

20 (125 A)
1+50(0.047)

FACULTY :
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
TITTLE:
PENETRATION OF BITUMEN

PI = -1.044 , bitumen type conventional.

CONCLUSION
Based on the results above, we can conclude that the bitumen we used is
conventional paving bitumen. This is because the average of penetration
we get is 77.7mm and the PI value is -1.044. Furthermore, the difference
of the penetration is less than 4mm which is 3mm so this experiment is
consider succeed.

REFERENCES

ASTM (1998). ASTM D5-97 Standard test method for penetration of


bituminous materials.1998 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume
04.03, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia

19103-1187
Whiteoak, D. (1990). Shell Bitumen Handbook. Shell Bitumen UK,
London.