Você está na página 1de 9

27/02/2015

OpenYaleCourses
PRINT

MUSI112:LISTENINGTOMUSIC
Lecture10SonataAllegroandThemeandVariations[October9,2008]
Chapter1.Introduction[00:00:00]

ProfessorCraigWright:Allright.Letusbegin.Letuswe'llturndownthemusicofCharlesIves.We'll
comebacktothemusicofCharlesIves,butletusbeginwithourdiscussionofmusicalformcontinuing
ourdiscussionofmusicalform.
Lasttimewetalkedreallyaboutthreeforms.Wetalkedaboutverseandchorusinpopularmusicandwehad
awonderfulpresentationbyFrederickEvans.AndIhopeyoucameawaywiththefollowing:thatindealing
withverseandchorus,basically,youhavethesamematerialyouhavethesamemusicalmaterialcoming
backagainandagainandagain.Withthechorusweactuallyhavethesametextcomingbackagainand
againandagain.Butwiththeversesalthoughthemusicisthesame,thetextkeepschangingeachtime.We
getnewstrophesornewversesoftext.Sokeepthatinmind:verse,chorus,verse,chorus.Sometimes
thiscanstartwiththechorus.Sometimesthere'saharmonicchangeinherethatwewouldcallthebridge,
butessentiallyit'stherepetitionofthesamematerialoverandoveragainintermsofthemusicbutin
termsofthetext,yougetnewtexteachtimefortheverses.
Wealsotalkedaboutthesimplestofallofthesemusicalforms:ternaryform.Right?Andthatwassimply
thisideaofstatement,contrast,statementA,B,A.Verystraightforward,nottoomuchweneeddowith
that.
Todaywe'regoingtogoonandtalkaboutthemeandvariations,andwithregardtoallthreeoftheseI
shouldsaythatallthreeoftheseformsareveryold.IcouldgobackintotheMiddleAgesandgeta
responsoryoftheMiddleAgesthatisinABAform.IcouldgobackintotheMiddleAgesandbringupan
earlyfifteenthcenturyEnglishcarolthat'sinverseandchorusform.IcouldgobackintotheMiddleAges
andfindyouinstrumentalpiecesthatareinthemeandvariationform.Sothesethreeareveryold.
Now,thefourthonethatwetalkedabout,sonataallegroform,isadventitious.It'ssomethingconstructedin
theeighteenthcenturyadventitioustotheeighteenthcenturysoit'ssomethingputtogetherinsome
measurebyJosephHaydnandthenpassedontohisgoodfriend,WolfgangAmadeusMozart.Sosonata
allegroformthisbig,complexmusicalformisalittlebitdifferentthantheother.It'salotyounger.It'sa
lotnewerbeginningwiththeperiodofclassicalmusicMozart,Haydn,andBeethoven.
Chapter2.PartsoftheSonataAllegroForm[00:02:34]

Allright.Withthatbywayofanintroduction,let'sgobacktosonataallegroform.Wesaidthatwasthe
largest,themostcomplex,ofthesemusicalforms.Whyarewedealingwiththis?Well,nextaweekfrom
Saturdaywewillgotothisconcertandwewillsitthereandwelistentopiecesonthisconcert.The
openingpiecewillbeinsonataallegroform.ItwillbebyMozart.ThenwewillhaveapiecebyJohannes
Brahmsinthemeandvariationform.ThenwewillhaveasymphonybyBeethoveninfivemovementsit's
anexceptionandwe'llexplainwhywhenwegettoitinfivemovements.Butwithinthosemovementswe
haveacoupleofinstancesofsonataallegroform,acoupleofinstancesofthemeandvariationform,and
oneinstanceofternaryform.So[aknowledgeof]alloftheseformswillbenecessary.

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/754/musi112

1/9

27/02/2015

OpenYaleCourses

Wewillhavetounderstandhowtheseformsworkinorderforustoreallyengagethatparticularconcert.For
example,you'llbeaskedtowriteareviewofthatconcert.AndIwasthinkingthismorning,well,akindof
mediocrereviewwouldsay,"Well,inthemiddleofthefirstmovementoftheBeethovenpieceandwe
onceagain,wewouldn'tcallita'song'inthemiddleoftheBeethovenfirstmovementoftheBeethoven
symphonythingsseemtobedisorganized."WhatI'dliketohearthereis"Well,inthedevelopmentsection
inthedevelopmentsectionofthefirstmovementoftheBeethovensymphony,itseemeddisorganized
becausethecounterpointwasnotclear,becausetheimitativeentriesofthepartswasnotclearlyarticulated."
Andthatwouldbeamuchmorespecificsortofresponsetothemusic,amuchmoreeducated,ifyouwill,
responsetothemusic.Sothat'swherewe'regoingwithallthistogetyoutothinkaboutpreciselywhereyou
areandpreciselywhatshouldbehappening,andthen,isitreallyhappeningthewayitshouldbe.
Nowassaid,sonataallegroformisthemostdifficultofthese,andittakesalittleextratimetogetfamiliar
withit.We'regoingtobereviewingthisinsectionstartingthisevening.Anddon'tforgetwehavethismodel
ofwhatsonataallegroformis.Ididn'twanttoputthatupontheboardagaindidthatlasttimebut
you'vegotitonpageonehundredninetythreeofyourtextbook.Ifyouwantthatcomplexdiagram,one
hundredninetythreeofyourtextbook.Sogetfamiliarwiththat.Anddo,onceagain,bringyourbooksto
sectionthistime,'causewe'llreadtheminsectionthistime.
Sowe'vegotthiscomplexform.ndI'vefiguredoutovertheyearsthewaytosortofwrapyourarmsaround
thisorgetintothis,understandthis.Anditinvolvesthefactthatmusicintheclassicalperiodiswhatwe
wouldcallrhetoricalmusic.It'sdoingsomethingateverymoment.Itisdoing,asIseeit,oneoffourthings.
It'spresentingathemesowe'llhaveawhatwecallathematicfunction.It'smovingfrompointAtopoint
B.RememberwiththeBeethoven[playspiano]that'stheopeningtheme,andthenthesecondthemeis
[playspiano].Well,thoseareboththemes.That'sstatingsomethingthatwecansing,thatwecan
remember.
ButBeethovenhastogetfrompointA,theminor,topointB,themorelyricalmajor,sohewritesa
transition.Sothesecondfunctionaltypehereistransitionalmusic.Wewanttobeabletodifferentiate
thematicmusicfromtransitionalmusic.
Thentherearepassagesandinsonataallegroformit'sinthemiddleofthemovementthatare
exclusivelydevelopmental,whereyoutakethematerialandplaywithit.Youcouldmakeitexpanditand
changeitthatway.YoucouldshortenitasBeethovenoftendoesinworkingwithjustparticularmotives.It
tendstosoundverycomplex.There'salotgoingoninthedevelopmentsection.It'sthemostpolyphonic,the
mostcontrapuntalcounterpointandpolyphonysortofsynonymousthemostcomplexintermsofthe
counterpointand,aswesaidbefore,ittendstomovearoundalotbecausetheypassthecomposerswill
passthroughdifferentkeysinthedevelopmentsection.
Sowe'vegot,sofar,threeofwhatwecallthefourfunctionaltypesorwhatIhavecalledthefourfunctional
types:thematic,transitional,developmental.Andnowwehavetotalkaboutthelastone,whichisthe
simplestinsomeways:cadentialwherethecomposerwilljustthrowonalotofheavy,simpleharmonic
motiontoslowthemusicdownpsychologicallynotthetempoactuallybutpsychologicallysortofbring
ittoaclose,sowecansayaclosingfunctionaltype.Againtoreview:thematic,transitional,developmental
andcadential.Thoseareourfourfunctionaltypesthatwillshowupwithanymovementofsonataallegro
form.Question.
Student:Whatwasthelastone?
ProfessorCraigWright:Cadential,withwasthatit,Dan?It'sDaniel.Isthatright?

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/754/musi112

2/9

27/02/2015

OpenYaleCourses

Student:Yes.
ProfessorCraigWright:Yeah.
Student:Howdoyouspellthat?
ProfessorCraigWright:Well,justtakecadence,cadence,andturnitintocadential,tial.Idon't
knowifmyspellcheckerkicksthatwordbackornot,butweusethatterminmusicalot."Thiswasa
cadentialgesture,"suggestingthatwe'rekindofgettingtotheendofsomething.So,rememberwehad
cadencebeingtheendofaphrase.Well,it'sjusttheendofthesectionhere.Anyotherquestions?Thatwasa
goodquestion.
Chapter3.DistinguishingFunctionalTypeswithintheSonataAllegro[00:08:18]

Allright.Sotogetrollingwiththis,let'slistentosomemusicnow.Enoughtalkfromme.Let'sgetlistento
somemusic,andI'mgoingtoplayfourexcerptsheremostlyhereagainfromMozartfourexcerpts
andyouseeifyoucanidentifywhichofthefunctionaltypesisinplayhere[musicplaying]Okay.We're
goingtostopthere.Let'sreviewjustforamoment.
Howdoyoutellthesefunctionaltypes?Well,whatareyoulookingforhere,orlisteningfor?Withthematic,
youwanttobeabletokindofsingitoryourecognizeitassomethingthatyoucouldwalkoutofhere
humming.Sosomethingthat'sthatyoucansortoftakewithyou.Transitional:thisideaofalittlebit
unsettledandlotsofmotion.CadentialasIsay,that'sprobablytheeasiestbecause[sings],somethinglike
that,bringingittoanend.Anddevelopmentalisgoingtoberathercomplexlotsofcounterpointgoingon.
Solet'sgobacktothebeginning.[musicplaying]Okay.Sothat'snumberone.Here'sextractnumbertwo
[musicplaying]andexcerptnumberthree[musicplaying]andnumberfour.[musicplaying]Allright.Let's
gobacknow.Let'shear"one"onemoretimeandthenwe'regoingtoaskforavolunteertotakeastabat
whichofthefourfunctionaltypesyouthinkthisis.Okay.
Numberone,onemoretime.[musicplaying]Sowhatbravesoulwilltakethisoneon?Sorry.Carolyn,
please.Transitional.Thatiscorrect.Yes,that'scorrect.Nowwhatdidyouhearthere?It'shardtoplaythe
wholethingagain,butwhatwereyouthinking?Whatcamewhatwhydidyoujumptothatconclusion?
Student:[inaudible]
ProfessorCraigWright:Okay.Attheendofit,itdidkindofslowdown.Youhadasenseofarrivalthere.
Therewaslotsofmotion.Therewaslotsofmovement,andthenattheendasenseofarrival.Allright.We've
arrivedatanewandprobablyathemeisgoingtocomeinatthatpoint.Sothatis,infact,atransition.
[musicplaying]Whataboutthatone?Frederick,goahead.Youhadyourhandupfirst.
Student:Thatwasthecadentialversionbecauseitseemedalotofmonotony,kindof,inthebass,and
it'sreallyleaningtothedescending,morethesequenceofthemelodyandit'scomingtoaclosein
[inaudible].
ProfessorCraigWright:Okay.Well,Ithinkthekeythereisit'sverymonotonous.Youusedtheword
"monotonous."It'sverymonotonousinthebass,[sings]orsomethinglikethatasthemelodycascadesdown
againstit,butlisteningtothebassthereyoucantellthethat'sjustaverymonotonousharmonicpattern.
Soharmonicpatternsincadentialpassagesherecadentialfunctionaltypetendtobe,asFredericksays,
monotonous.Okay.Let'sgoontonumberthreenow.[musicplaying]Let'sjuststopitrightthereandqueue
thatoneagain.Sowhatdoyouthinkaboutthat?Name,please?
Student:Roger.
http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/754/musi112

3/9

27/02/2015

OpenYaleCourses

ProfessorCraigWright:Roger.Okay.Fireaway,Roger.
Student:Ithinkthat'sthematic.
ProfessorCraigWright:Thematic,right.Canyousingit?PlayitagainforRoger.We'rereallyputting
Rogeronthespotherethismorningbutlet'ssee.Youdon'thavetobe[musicplaying]AndI'llplayatthe
piano.[playspiano]Okay.Sothat'sit?Okay.RogersaysIjustplayeditsoallright.Sothatisamelody.
Andlet'squeuethatagainandjustwhilewe'reatthis,noticewhatMozartdoeswiththismelodyaftergiving
ittoussortofdoessomeveryinterestingIthink.Solet'shavethebeginningofthatsamenumberthree
again,please.[musicplaying]Sohere'sourlovelymelodymajororminor?Major:sweet,sounds
delightful.Nowwatchwhathedoeshere,justdropsathird,[musicplaying]justalittletwistinminorthere
samemelody,butjustloweringthatthirddegreeofthescale.Okay.Sothat'sagoodexampleofthematic
functionaltype.Hereisextractnumberfour.Whataboutthisone?[musicplaying]Okay,andwe'lljuststop
itthereandyoucangoontothenextone.Well,whataboutthatone?Yeah,gofortheobviousanswerhere.
It'sgoingtobename,please?Lana.Well,Ibegyourpardon?
Student:Developmental.
ProfessorCraigWright:Developmental,andwhy?Whatdidyouwell,yeah,becauseit'stheonlyone
left,etc.,etc.,butdidyoucouldyoutellussomethingthatyouheardtherethatsortofbacksthatupor
confirmsthatitisdevelopmental?
Student:Ithasmanythreadsweavinginandout.
ProfessorCraigWright:Yeah,manythreadsweavinginandout,[sings],andsomebodyelseisdoing
[sings],allsortofsimultaneouslymanydifferentideashappeningsimultaneously,typicalofthe
complexityofthedevelopmentsection.We'vegotsomeonthetapehere.We'renotgoingtogothroughthem
quitesoslowly.Let'splayonemore.Itcouldbeanyoneofthefour.Here'sanotherone,numberfive.[music
playing]Okay.Takersthere?Okay.Name,please.Ishouldknowittheyoungladyrightinfrontof
Thaddeus.Youhadyourhandupfirst.
Student:OhMaryPat.
ProfessorCraigWright:MaryPat,okay.
Student:Wasthattransitional?
ProfessorCraigWright:Itwastransitionalandinjusttheonehearingthat'sawfullygood,butyoucould
hearitkindofbuild[sings]andthenitstoppedasifithadarrivedattheendofthetransitionthemusical
journeywasover.Sothatwastransitional.Here'sanotherone.[musicplaying]Takersthere?Thaddeus.
Student:Developmental.
ProfessorCraigWright:Okay.Itwasdevelopmental.Excellent.AndIguessonceagainlotsofthings
goingonthere.Probablydevelopmentalandtransitionalmaysoundmostsimilar.They'reprobablythetwo
thataremostdifficulttodifferentiate.Thematic,yeah,youcankindofrememberthatasamelodycadential,
probablyprettystraightforward.Sothere'satendencywithtoconfusethetransitionalandthe
developmental.It'sjustthatthere'softentimeswithdevelopmentalalotmorecounterpointgoingon.
Allright.Onelastonehereandthenwe'llstopthis.[musicplaying]Sohe'sdrivingthatsuckerintothe
groundwithsortofasledgehammerofacadentialendingthere.Okay?Sothatshouldhelpyou.Whenwe
gettosectionsthisweek,we'regoingtobeplayingpiecesandhaveyoutrackalongwhereweareinsonata
allegroform.Let'sturnourattentionnow,unlesstherearequestions.Anyquestionsaboutthat?
http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/754/musi112

4/9

27/02/2015

OpenYaleCourses

Chapter4.ThemeandVariations[00:20:59]

Ifnot,let'sturnourattentionnowtothemeandvariation.We'removingontothemeandvariationform,
whichwewillalsoneedforourconcertaweekfromSaturday.Herewhatwehaveisnotthissortofcomplex
organicmixtureofmanydifferentthemesfirsttheme,secondtheme,concludingthemeandthingslike
that.Wehaveonetheme,usuallyusuallyjustonetheme.Andwewillgetthattheme.Andthenwewillget
thatthemeagainwithsomethingchanged.Thenwewillgetthatmaterialagainwithsomethingchanged.
Andagainwithsomethingchanged.Sothinkofthisasakindofseriesofboxcarsonarailroadtrainor
somethinglikethatunitsmoreorlessthesamesize,buteachofthoseboxcarsisgoingtolookalittlebit
differentasitgoesbybecauseitmighthavealittledifferentlogoonitoralittlebitofdifferentornamental
materialonit.
Allright.Sowe'regoingtolet'ssee.Fortime,maybeI'llwe'llnotdotheIves.Weweregoingtowell,
maybewewillhavealittlebitofIves.Themeandvariations:again,itgoesallthewaybacktotheMiddle
Agesandittheytendtobewrittenonrathersimplethemes,particularlypatrioticthemes,maybeIwas
thinkingaboutthistheotherdaymaybebecausepatrioticthemesareprettysimple.Sothesimplerthe
theme,themorelikelythatthemeistobecomethebasisofasetofthemeandvariations.Maybeitgivesthe
composermorefreedomtopursue[variation].
NowIthinkIbroughtinsomevariationsofBeethovenon"GodSavetheKing."Yeah,herewego.Sohere's
Beethovenwriting"GodSavetheKing"andhereitstartsout.[playspiano].Allright.So,averysimpletune.
Andthenhewritesasetofvariations.Here'svariationone.[playspiano]Sothereisthattune.
NowinthelatenineteenthirtytwentiethcenturyYale'sownCharlesIvesIthinkhewasclassof
anybodyknow?Oh,1898,somethinglikethat.HeusedtobetheorganistintheFirstChurchontheGreen
here,sothisisYale'smostfamousclassicalcomposerwroteasetofvariationsonthissametune,butthey
soundalittlebitdifferentbecauseit'sclosertothemodernperiodandthey'reperformedhereonanorgan.So
CharlesIves,"VariationsonAmerica."[musicplaying]Boy,talkaboutalongreverberationtime,howlongit
tookthatorgansoundtoclearthatchurch,huh?SothatwaswrittenrighthereinNewHavenbyourown
CharlesIves.Butagainthepointisthatit'saverysimpleideait'sarathersimpletune.
Here'sanothersimpletunethatMozartused.Itsoriginaltitlewas"VariationsonAh!VousDiraiJe,
Maman,""Ah,letmetellyou,Mama."Andit'stheit'sastoryofayoungwomanwhohasgonetothebig
cityand,unfortunately,losthervirginity.ButweknowthistunenotwiththatFrenchtextthatMozartfirst
learneditwith,butthisway.[playspiano]Okay.Sothat'sthetunebutitoriginallywasakindofFrench
popularsonggoingbackintoatleasttheeighteenthcentury.Howmanydifferenttitlescanwegiveto
this?Whatdoyouknowthisas?
Student:"Twinkle,Twinkle,LittleStar."
ProfessorCraigWright:"Twinkle,Twinkle,LittleStar."Anythingelse?What?
Student:"Baa,Baa,BlackSheep."
ProfessorCraigWright:"Baa,Baa,BlackSheep."Didn't"SesameStreet"usedtodouseletterswithit,
"A,B,C,D,"[sings]andsoon.Soit'sgottenalotofitstractionovertheyears.Andhereisthemelody[plays
piano]andhereisthefirstvariation.Nowmyquestiontoyouisthis:withthemeandvariation,the
composercankeepthethememoreorlessexactlyasitisandchangethecontextaroundit,orhecanchange
thethemesowhichdoesMozartdointhefirstvariationhere?[playspiano]Thoughtsaboutthat?
Ishechangingthethemeorishekeepingthethemeexactlythesameandchangingstuffaroundit?Whatdo
youthink?Well,whathe'sdoingischangingthetheme.Thethemewouldgo[playspiano]butrightatthe
http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/754/musi112

5/9

27/02/2015

OpenYaleCourses

beginninginsteadof,Iget[playspiano]sothere'sonlyreallyonenotethat'sthatrelatestothetheme
thereandthen[playspiano]well,nowIget[playspiano]Sohe'ssortofchangingthethemebymaking
thenotesgoquicker,andornamentingaroundthosenotessothat'svariationone.Nowwhataboutvariation
two?Hashechangedthethemeordoeshejustchangeallthestuffaroundthetheme?[playspiano]Andso
on.Sowhat'shedoingthere?Carolyn.
Student:[inaudible]
ProfessorCraigWright:Changingwhat?I'msorry.Icouldn'thearyou.
Student:[inaudible]
ProfessorCraigWright:Changingthecontext.Thethemeintherighthandstaysexactly[playspiano]
thesame.Okay.Hereisthenextone.[playspiano]What'sthat?Well,itgoeswiththis.[playspiano]Sohas
hechangedthetheme?Yeah,he'schangedthethemeratherconsiderablythere.Indeed,[playspiano]we
wouldn'tknowthatthathadanythingtodowith"Twinkle,Twinkle,LittleStar"unlesswehadhadgiven
touspreviously,aswehavethemelody.[playspiano]Sowearehearinginourinnerear.[sings][plays
piano]Soweknowthat'sthebasisofthis.Andifhewantstodeviatefromthatwecanstillsay,"Oh,yeah,
that'srelatedtothat."That'sgettingratherfarawayfromtheoriginalbecausewesortoflockedinthe
originalinourmindinourearatthatpoint.Hereisoh,let'syeah,let'sskipthatone.Wedon'tneed
tohearit.Whathappenshere?Isthethemechangedorisitstillthere,andthecontextchanged.
AndwhatrhythmicdeviceisMozartusinghere?[playspiano]Sodidhechangethethemethere?Well,
basicallyno,exceptjustalittlebitbecausehewasdoingwhattoit?[sings]Usingsyncopationsohewas
syncopatingthetheme.[sings]Thatkindofthing.Andhedidoneotherlittlefilluphere,ifyouwill,inwhat
wemightcalltheBsectionofthetune.[playspiano]Thetuneoriginallywent[playspiano]andnowit's
going[playspiano]andthen[playspiano].Sowhat'shedonetothemelody?Anybodyhearthat?Hewent
[playspiano].Nowit'sgoing[playspiano].Oscar.
Student:[inaudible]
ProfessorCraigWright:Yeah.Hehasfilledinthenotesofadiatonicmajorscale[playspiano]with
[playspiano]theothernotestheblackkeyednoteshere,makingitachromaticscale.Sohe'senriched
italittlebitbymeansofchromaticism.
Allright.Let'sgoontoanothervariationbyMozarthere.What'sthetextureofthisvariation?[playspiano]
Whatdoyouthinkaboutthetextureofthat?Homophonic,monophonic,orpolyphonic?Polyphonic,yeah.
Wasitimitativeornonimitative?Here'sthebeginning.[playspiano]Imitative,right,sothisisactuallya
kindofthrowbacktothesoundofBach.Andthisiswhatwewillbeengagingwhenwecometothefugue.
It'slasifMozart'stryingtowriteinafugalwayhere,withlotsofimitation.Andwhathappenedtothemode
inthisvariation?[playspiano]Well,he'srunningitupasascalebutwhatkindofscale?Minorscale.
[playspiano]Okay.
Andthen,oddly,thefinalvariation.Whatdoeshedotothemeterinthislastvariation?[playspiano]What
happensthere?Weweregoing[sings][playspiano]Sowhat'shedonetothemeter?Well,letmestrip
awaythebass[playspiano]He'schangedittotriplebythrowinginanextrabaroffillerinbetweeneach
ofhisbasicduplebeats.Thenwecometo,maybeletmejustcuttothechasehere.Attheendofthis,he's
comingin[playspiano]What'sthisallthewaytotheendnow?Whatdowecallthisformally?[plays
piano]Wetalkedaboutthatwithregardtosonataallegroform.Itwasoneofthepartsthatshowsupalsoin
sonataallegroformhasnothingtodo,really,withthethemehere.Itisagoodexampleofacoda,right,
justsomethingthrownonattheendtosaythisisattheend[playspiano]andwhat'shedoinghere?
http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/754/musi112

6/9

27/02/2015

OpenYaleCourses

Whatisthis?Howcomplexisthis?[playspiano]It'sjustamajortriad.He'sjustornamentingamajortriad
soit'sagoodmorecadentialstuffsortofverysimplematerialattheend.
Chapter5.ExaminingThemeandVariationsinCorelli'sLaFolia[00:34:11]

Okay.Ourguestartistishere.Iseehimattheback.Kensho,comeonup.We'regoingtodoanotherpiecefor
youandwe'regoingtotalkaboutalittlebitaboutKensho,averyinterestingguy.Howmanyofyouknow
KenshoWatanabe?HaveyouseenKenshoaround?Okay.WhohasseenKenshoandinwhatcontext?
Student:He'sinmybiochemistryclass.
ProfessorCraigWright:Oh,"he'sinmybiochemistryclass."Allright.Yeah,cool.Sothatmeanshe
doeshardcoresciencesandyoumusttoo.Goodforyou.You'rebetterafarbettermanthanI.Allright.So
yeah,hardcoresciences.AnybodyelseknowKenshofromothercontexts?Yeah,Alana.
Student:He'sintheYSO.
ProfessorCraigWright:He'sintheYSO.WhatdoeshedointheYSO?Doyouseehimsittingalltheway
attheback?
Student:[inaudible]
ProfessorCraigWright:No.Youseehimsittingallthewayupatthefront.He'stheconcertmasterofthe
YSO.AnybodyelseknowKenshoinadifferentcontext?AnymembersofBerkeleyCollegehere?Anybody
fromBerkeley?NobodyfromBerkeley?That'sastatisticalimprobability,butyou'retheconductorofthe
oneoftheconductorsoftheBerkeleyChamberOrchestra.Right?Yeah.Sohe'saconductortoo,whichis
kindofastonishingbecausehe'snotreallynotaverygoodmusician.Hedoesn'treallyknowverymuch
aboutmusic.[playspiano]Kensho,whatnoteisthat?
Kensho:Idon'tknowA?
ProfessorCraigWright:Yeah.Whatnoteisthis?[playspiano]
Kensho:Fsharp.
ProfessorCraigWright:Whatnoteisthis?[playspiano]
Kensho:EandA.
ProfessorCraigWright:Yeah.EandanA.Youknowthatsohehasaverykeensenseofabsolutepitch,
whichreallyhelpsyououtifyou'reinmusic,needlesstosay.Wewillbewe'llbetalkingmoreaboutthis.
Onepersonintenthousandhasthisparticulargift,statistically,sohe'saveryimpressiveguy.Andhe'salso
inthefiveyearM.A./B.A.program.Right?
Kensho:Yeah,theB.A.
ProfessorCraigWright:Yeah,soattheendoffouryearshereinadditiontotakingalltheseheavyduty
scienceclasseshe'sbeencrossedthestreetandhe'sgoingtogetanM.A.inmusicatthesametime.Idon't
know.Hewasacoupleminuteslatetodayandhesaidhehadn'tgotmuchsleepandIcansureasheck
understandwhy.Allright.SowehavetheKensho,whatareuptothisyear?Everybodycancomeseeyou
onwhatwouldthatbe?The31 stofOctober[HalloweenConcert]?Go
Kensho:[inaudible]
ProfessorCraigWright:Yeah,yeah,sothatyoudon'twanttomiss.Right?
http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/754/musi112

7/9

27/02/2015

OpenYaleCourses

Kensho:Yeah.
ProfessorCraigWright:Andyoukindofhavetoputthattogetherandmaybethat'swhyyouhaven'tbeen
gettingmuchsleep.Soyou'reputtingthattogetherandtellandIknowthatyou'vegotaconcertcomingup
andifforsomereasonGodforbidwecan'tmakeittoourconcertontheeighteenth,ourmakeup
concertcouldverywellbetheoneonthenineteenth.Don'tyouhaveaconcertonthenineteenth?
Kensho:Yes,wedo.TheBerkeleyCollegeOrchestrawillhavetheirfirstconcert.
ProfessorCraigWright:SoifyouwanttohearKenshoconduct,youcoulddothatonthenineteenthof
October.Allright.Sowe'vegotapiecehereandIdon'twanttogettoofarbehind.It'sapiecebyCorelli.
It'sbasedonamelodyandabasspatternmelodyandabasspatternandwe'llplaythroughlittlebitsof
ithere,andthenwe'regoingtoplaythewholething.Doweneedtotuneagain?Whatdoyouthink?
Kensho:Yeah.
ProfessorCraigWright:Yeah.Okay.[playspiano][violinplaying]Okay.We'vetunedthefourstringsof
theviolinandwe'llplayjustalittlebit.We'regoingtotakethissectionbysection.Jacobhere,he'sgoingto
pointthingsoutaswegoalongalittlebit.[musicplaying]Okay.That'sthemelody.Isn'tthatthemost
gorgeoussoundyou'veeverheardinyourwholeit'samazing,butdoyouhaveanyideahowlongittakesto
produceasoundlikethat,howmanyyearsofjustsittingthere?Whendidyoustartplayingtheviolin,
Kensho?
Kensho:IstartedwhenIwasalmostthree
ProfessorCraigWright:Almostthreesoyouwerealatebloomer,then.[laughs][laughter]Andyou
wereprobablysobusywithotherthingsbutwhenyouwerereallyfocusingexclusivelyonthis,howmany
hoursadaydidyoupractice?
Kensho:WhenIwasreallyfocusing,probablythreehoursaday.
ProfessorCraigWright:Themaxthreehours.Thenifyouweregoingconservatoryit'sbecause
yougotsomanyotherdemandsonyourtime.Areyouplayinganysolosaroundherethisyear?Ishouldhave
askedthatquestion.
Kensho:Notsomuch
ProfessorCraigWright:That's
Kensho:recitalsecondsemesterbut
ProfessorCraigWright:Allright.We'llkeepoureyeoutforthat.Allright.
Sothat'sthethemeandthenoninvariationtwo,thepianowillplaythe[playspiano]downbeat,andthe
violinplaysoffthebeat.Ithinkforreasonsoftime,wewon'tdothatonethough,Kensho.
Let'sgotothenumberthreewherewegetagoodexampleofstaccatointhemusicsortofshort,pointed
notes.[musicplaying]Okay.Sowe'llstopthere.SowhenyouhearKenshoplayingstaccatothenyouknow
thatweareinvariationthree.
Variationfour,we'vegothe'splayingsixteenthnotes,soit'sgoingtogofairlyfasthere,Iguessor
maybenotbuthe'sgotalottodohereinvariationfour.[musicplaying]Okay.Sohe'sreallythisis
goingtobeaworkoutforme.IhopeIcankeepupwiththisladtoday.Allright.
Then,yes,theonethatsortofscaresmeisvariationfive,becausethenheplaysthethemeandIhaveallof
http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/754/musi112

8/9

27/02/2015

OpenYaleCourses

thisfaststuffunderneath.Let'sjustdoalittlebitofthat.[musicplaying]Okay.Sothat'showthathasa
lovely,lovelythemethere.
Nownumbersixissortoffunbecausetheinteresthereisinthebassofthepiano.It'sagoodexampleof
somethingwe'llbetalkingalotaboutinourcourse:walkingbass.Sothenotesareallforthemostpart
contiguousandtheyallcomeinthesamenotevalueinthiscasetheeighthnote.Sothehereisthebeat
andthe[playspiano]andthenheplaysthemelodyagainstthat.
Innumberseven,wehavetheviolinplayingarpeggios.We'vetalkedaboutthat.Soherearesomearpeggios
intheviolin.[musicplaying]Okay.That'llgiveyouasenseofthat.
Numbereightisatrickyoneforus,thekeepingittogetherbecauseofthetripletpattern.Solet'sdoa
littlebitwiththat.[musicplaying]
Andthenninewehavesortofaninterlude.It'slikeatransition.
Tenwe'renotgoingtodoanythingwithrightnow.Theviolinplaysharmonywhilethere'sakindoffast
patternunderneath.
Eleventhere'salotofoh,elevenissortofmyfavoritebutit'satrickyonebecauseofthesyncopation
betweenthetwoinstruments.[musicplaying]Sothat'skindofafunone.Andlet'ssee.Weneedtotellthem
alsoIlike
Maybenumberthirteenisreallymyfavorite'causeIgotaverysimplethemetoplayandhehastoworklike
crazy.Andtowardtheendofthathe'splayingtriplestops.It'snotthattheviolinjustplaysoneline.The
violincanplaytwonotesatthesametime,itcanplaythreenotesatthesametime,andifyoureallyrip
acrossandshiftquicklyorjustmoveyourbowquicklyacrossthestringsyoucangivetheimpressionoffour
pitches,buttheyallfourhavetobeintunesoyougottohavefourfingersusuallyinfourdifferentspots
andthat'shardtodo.Doyouwanttoplayaquadruplestopforthemtherejusttoanywhere,or
Kensho:Yeah.[playsviolin]
ProfessorCraigWright:Sowhenyouhearthosechords,aviolinplayingchords,well,that'seasyon
thepiano[playspiano]orwhateveritis[playspiano]that'seasyonthepiano.That'shardonthesestring
instruments'causeyou'vegottogetfourdifferentfingersinfourdifferentspotsthere.Eachofthosenoteshas
tobeadjustedjustfractionallyjustrightforittostayintune.Whenhedoesit,youthinkit'sverysimple,
right,easytodo.Ittakesyearstobeabletodothat.Questionsbeforewelaunchintothis?Anyquestions?
Sowe'regoingtodothewholethingforyou.Nowbepatient.We'regoingtorunoverjustalittlebittoday
but,believeme,theparticularlytheendyou'lllikeit.So,KenshoWatanabeplayingthemeand
variationsonCorelli'stuneandbass"LaFolia."[musicplaying]Sorry.WehadthewrongpageuphereandI
wasfilling.Sorry.Okay.Ithinkweneedokay.Nowwearebacktoit.ItmustbeIhadthewrongpage.
I'msorry.[musicplaying]Sorry.Westilldon'thaveI'mverysorry.Wefoundit.Okay.Wehavejust
haveallthesepagesandtheygoawrysometimes.Sorry.Okay.[musicplaying]
Bravo.ThankssomuchKensho,it'sagreattreatformejusttobeabletoplaywiththeguy.Imean,whata
luxury.Thankyousomuch,thankyousomuch.Beautiful,beautifulmusic.
[endoftranscript]
Top(#navigationtop)

http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/754/musi112

9/9