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Works Cited
Aalbers, Manuel B.. Big Sister Is Watching You! Gender Interaction and the Unwritten Rules of
the Amsterdam Red-light District. The Journal of Sex Research 42.1 (2005): 5462.
This article discusses how prostitution breaks down the varied gender roles that are found
in society. This idea that prostitution challenges the patriarchy because of all the bonds and
relationships that tie in to power, sex, and money. Women in the industry are exploited while
men also in this industry are seen as power and masters of sex due to social norms associated
with sex. With this article, the group would like to use the different apparent roles that women
have compared to the social norms of society. While these women may be exploited they still
have to be strong in order to defend themselves.
Aalbers, Manuel B., and Magdalena Sabat. "Re-making a Landscape of Prostitution: The
Amsterdam Red Light District." City 16.1-2 (2012): 112-28. Web.
This article helps take a look of the re-making of the red light district of from it was
before the policy was enacted. It gives a brief history of the times before and how things are
evolving now. Allows the reader to make comparisons between the past and future to conclude
which time was better before or after the policy.

Amsterdam: The Legality of Prostitution." Gaughand0. N.p., 04 Dec. 2012. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
This article will help analyze the attitude towards women in prostitution now and how it
was before It was made legal. We analyze the stigmas put on women in the profession and how

now a days it is becoming a normality to the people living in Amsterdam. This has helped build
their economy and create different jobs for people.
Amsterdam. The Seventeenth Century, 28(1), 112-114. Retrieved from http://0search.proquest.com.books.redlands.edu/docview/1530406220?accountid=14729
This article gives a good synopsis on the history of prostitution. It mentions what that
seamen and sailors were the most frequent visitors to brothels because of the location of the Red
Light District to the Port of Amsterdam were very close in proximity. It also lays out the levels of
a prostitution organization and who runs what, surprisingly the majority of the keepers of
prostitutes were women themselves. Finally it says what happened when changes needed to be
made in the rules and regulations of prostitution.
Brants, Chrisje. The Fine Art of Regulated Tolerance: Prostitution in Amsterdam. Journal of
Law and Society 25.4 (1998): 621635. Web.
This chapter gives a good history on who, when and how Amsterdam handled and
tolerated prostitution and other questionable hobbies throughout the years. Amsterdam
thinks under the regulationist perspective, meaning prostitution is socially accepted but
heavily regulated for not only the prostitutes safety, but for the public as well. There are
many complex rules that have to be followed for a prostitute not to get in trouble, for
example street walking is not allowed and no one can be coerced into becoming a
prostitute. Another regulation is that new brothels have to be on a probationary period for
a year before the government deems them suitable and legal.

Cruz, Joshua, and Swaan Van Iterson. "The Audacity of Tolerance: A Critical Analysis of
Legalized Prostitution in Amsterdam's Red Light District." Humanity In Action. Web. 29
Mar. 2016.
This source breakdowns how the new policy is affecting the lives of these workers, it
gives a look at the different sides of how people are reacting to the new policy. Opinions are seen
by unions and officials that work with these women and are trying to create change in their lives.
Cruz, Laura (2012). A Review of The Burgher and the Whore: Prostitution In Early Modern
Amsterdam. Seventeenth - Century News (Online), 70, 158-160. Retrieved from
This article really focuses on the subculture of prostitution. It uses more slang terms and
focuses on the tourism aspect of prostitution. It also defends the workers and their rights by
highlighting the fact that prostitutes pride themselves on being honest and not stealing and
upholding contracts and obligations.

Doezema, J. "Now You See Her, Now You Don't: Sex Workers at the UN Trafficking Protocol
Negotiation." Social & Legal Studies 14.1 (2005): 61-89. Web.
The UN signed the treaty Protocol to Suppress, Prevent and Punish Trafficking in
Persons in December 2000. This was only 2 months after the Netherlands legalized prostitution.
While there were many feminists groups lobbying for a womens choice to choose prostitution
and many against women working on the streets claiming it was a human violation. This article
showed the different side o the issue and how at the beginning, countries did not know what
oath to take. What was best for these women of the night? Soon enough, the world was going
to find a solution the problem.

Dutch Policy on Prostitution. Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2012). 1-18. Web.
This article provides specific details on the Dutch Policy on Prostitution. It also provides
information on human trafficking and the fight to end it, as well as other forms of forced
prostitution. In addition to information on policy, laws and regulations, the article provides
information on the rights of prostitutes as legal and documented workers. It is used to identify
these current policies on prostitution.
Jackson, Matthew. (2013). The Burgher and the Whore: Prostitution In Early Modern
Amsterdam. The Seventeenth Century, 28(1), 112-114. Retrieved from
This article gives a good synopsis on the history of prostitution. It mentions what that seamen
and sailors were the most frequent visitors to brothels because of the location of the Red
Light District to the Port of Amsterdam were very close in proximity. It also lays out the
levels of a prostitution organization and who runs what, surprisingly the majority of the
keepers of prostitutes were women themselves. Finally it says what happened when changes
needed to be made in the rules and regulations of prostitution.

Kilvington, Judith, Sophie Day, and Helen Ward. Prostitution Policy in Europe: A Time of
Change?.Feminist Review 67 (2001): 7893. Web
One of the main issues with the legalization of prostitution is the increasing number of
prostitutes who still practice their work illegally. The article discusses that while new laws to
normalize the practices and try to bring more health benefits and regulation as any other jobs,


these new laws do not erase the social stigma. Many prostitutes turn to the illegal practices in
order not be reported to the authorities and keep their records clean. If their records state about
their nigh time activities that makes it harder for these women to find other jobs. We will use this
article to talk about the consequences of legalizing prostitution. While, adopting these new laws
try to make prostitution a safer option, the truth is that the legalization make women choose the
illegal pathway.
Lindner, Christoph, and Andrew Hussey, eds.. Paris-amsterdam Underground: Essays on
Cultural Resistance, Subversion, and Diversion. Ed. Christoph Lindner and Andrew
Hussey. Amsterdam University Press, 2013. Web...
Gives an idea of how prostitution was before it was made legal in Amsterdam in 2000.
This also explains how women worked back then and how once it was made legal the business
had to leave the position of being underground and work out in the open. It analyzes stories of
women who have used this industry to get through school as well as others who use this to make
a living for years.
Outshoorn, Joyce. "The Political Debates on Prostitution and Trafficking of Women."Social
Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 12.1 (2005): 141-55. Web.
There is much controversy and complications with the ideas of prostitution, making the
UN (United Nations) and the EU (European Union) have debates and conversations on
exploiting women, The article talks about the Netherlands and other nations and their regulations
and policies are and have changed over time. The line of allowing a woman to freely choose her
work and preventing the exploitation of women can be tricky to see. This article specifically
helps our group because it discussed how prostitution can deal with immigration. For example


those who come to Amsterdam for job opportunities, Amsterdam provides temporary resident
permits who those who are willing to testify against their traffickers. Overall, each nation takes
their perspective on the issue.
Pol, Lotte Van De. "Poor Women's Migration to the City: The Attraction of Amsterdam
Health Care and Social Assistance in Early Modern Times." Journal of Urban
History 32.1 (2005): 44-60. Web.
This article gives very specific statistics on how many prostitution cases and convicted
prostitutes there were in the 16 and 1700s. It was made sure that where the prostitute was from
was written in the court document, to prove that these women were not originally from
Amsterdam. After being displaced and left with no home or family, girls would often immigrate
to Amsterdam because there was nondiscriminatory and free healthcare.
Rae, Lily. "Why Amsterdam's Prostitution Laws Are Still Failing to Protect or Empower
Women." International Business Times RSS. 30 Sept. 2014.
This article is about whether or not the rules and regulations are actually working. It is
said that the regulation and legalization help to empower women, but is that really true?
Although a prostitute may be safer and healthier, working in the Red Light District is expensive,
paying high rent and taxes. Although it is very regulated, there is still a huge problem with pimps
and trafficking and having women alter their body such as surgery, tattoos, and sometimes even
forced abortion. The largest successful sting operation, arresting a total of 8 men for trafficking
nearly 150 girls ages 14-23 happened in 2008 and 2009, not that long ago. So clearly some
things need to change and regulations and inspections need to be tighter.


San, Marion Van, and Frank Bovenkerk. "Secret Seducers." Crime Law Soc Change Crime, Law
and Social Change 60.1 (2013): 67-80. Web.
While the focus of prostitution is always on the women themselves, a article is finally
written about the pimps who run and regulate the Red Light District of Amsterdam. The article
touches on not only how the behind the scenes work, but also provides some examples on how
some pimps are able to convince women to become prostitutes. The role of a pimp has a major
influence, easily prostitutes can lose their windows and sacrifice their safety and well being
every day. The workers are verbally, physically, and sexually assaulted by the pimps and must
deal with feeling that there is nothing they can do to change their status. While women rule the
streets in the Red Light District, it is the pimps have the full power.
Scoular, J. (2010), What's Law Got To Do With it? How and Why Law Matters in
the Regulation of Sex Work. Journal of Law and Society, 37: 1239.
This article talks about sex work in general and briefly sex work in the Netherlands and
Sweden. Scoular brings up different approaches to sex work by society and by law, including
legalization and abolitionism. This article will also be used to help with information on laws and
regulations. It may also help when considering if laws actually matter or not in regards to
prostitution and benefits for sex workers and the sex industry.
Vanderstok, Sammi. $ex: The Effectiveness of the Legalization of Prostitution in the
Netherlands. National Collegiate Honors Council Student Interdisciplinary Research
Panel. (2010). Retrieved from http://nchchonors.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/11/Vanderstok-Sammi-Final-Paper.pdf


This article actually helped the group to have a better understanding of the 2000 policy
that the Dutch passed. While there were many benefits to the law, the cons outweighed the pros
and this essay focuses on both sides of the spectrum. Also, the essay provided examples of other
nations and their path to deal with prostitution. Reading this article helped to inspire the group
with the idea to encourage these women to speak up and have their voices be heard for once. The
law was supposed to protect and improve working conditions, but in reality traps the workers and
creates a tense and competitive environment. It seems that the idea of the policy was built on
good intentions, but in reality failed the workers.
Weitzer, R. "The Social Ecology of Red-Light Districts: A Comparison of Antwerp and
Brussels." Urban Affairs Review 50.5 (2013): 702-30. Sage Journals. Web.
This helps take a look at different red light districts in surrounding areas. Helping create
connections between the policys that are used in Amsterdam compared to those in other
countires. Allows us to analyze what is working better for these women which country is better
assisting the needs of these workers.
West, J Prostitution: Collectives and the Politics of Regulation. Gender, Work &
Organization, 7 (2000) : 106118. Web.
The article is about prostitution in various places including the Netherlands. It focuses on
prohibition of prostitution and legalization. Trafficking has been a problem for the sex industry
in the Netherlands for quite some time but with legalization of brothels authorities are able to
regulate the industry. Furthermore the article brings up health and safety issues and the pressure
put on the Dutch government to enforce health and safety measures.