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Delaney Brigman
UWRT 1103-015
Connie Rothwell
April 8, 2016
For this final draft of my bibliography, I changed just a few things. I first removed some
of the previous sources I had and added some other sources. I did this because I slightly changed
my topic. Instead of just focusing on college stress and its relation to psychological disorders, I
switched it to a more broad topic of causes and effects of stress. Because of this, I added a source
about eating disorders as well as low self-esteem.
I also added a little more content to the descriptions of my sources in my annotated
bibliography. When I was adding the new sources from the last draft, I tried to better describe
and annotate the article or website I am using.
Sources for Causes and Effects of College Stress
Maldonado, Marissa. "How Stress Affects Mental Health." World of Psychology. N.p., 2014.
Web. 29 Mar. 2016. <http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/02/25/how-stressaffects-mental-health/>.
This blog was written by Marissa Maldonado. Maldonado is an outreach coordinator who
has been working in dual diagnosis treatment centers for years. She also specializes in
finding mental health treatment for people at Sovereign Health Group. Physical and
mental health can be affected negatively when someone is under chronic stress. It is not

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good for our bodies to be in continuous chronic stress. There are many different sources
that can cause people to be in chronic stress such as work, school, relationships, and
much more. Because there are so many different things that cause us stress, it is hard to
find time to forget about all of the things that cause us stress. Stress is one of the biggest
health problems we face today.
This is a credible source because Marissa Maldonado is a professional outreach coordinator for
helping people find mental health treatment. She talks about different studies that have been done
by researchers.

When someone is under chronic stress, it begins to negatively affect his or her physical and
mental health. The bodys stress response was not made to be continuously engaged. Many
people encounter stress from multiple sources, including work; money, health, and relationship
worries; and media overload.
With so many sources of stress, it is difficult to find time to relax and disengage. This is why
stress is one of the biggest health problems facing people today.
Whitman, Neal, David C. Spendlove, and Claire H. Clark. Student Stress: Effects and Solutions.
Washington, D.C: Association for the Study of Higher Education, 1984. Print.
This book was written by Neal Whitman, David C Spendlove, and Claire H Clark. It also
was written and has information from ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education and the
Association for the Study of Higher Education. Stress is part of college life and is

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experienced differently by different students. There are many different forms of stress.
The book discussed the correlations between stress and how to cope with it and also the
difficulties in defining stress. It talks about the various solutions for stress and the way
the environment contributes to stress.
This source is credible because it is written by professionals and has information from
Association for the Study of Higher Education. It also talks about different studies and
researchers in the book.

Stresses experienced by college students at different educational levels are considered, along
with ways that colleges can help reduce destructive forms of stress. After discussing how stress
and coping are related, problems in defining stress and coping are considered, and models are
proposed for understanding stress. Following an overview on the way that stress and coping
relate to the role of student, descriptions are provided of environmental settings, sources of stress
are given, and solutions are presented for undergraduate students, graduate students, law
students, medical students, and medical residents. Solutions suggested for reducing distress in
students include: stress inoculation (e.g., informing students in advance of what difficulties they
might face); improving campus mental health services; organizing peer counseling and self-help
groups; improved orientation for new graduate students; greater flexibility in core requirements;
expanding the role of faculty advisors; giving earlier and more frequent exams for law students;
deemphasizing grades in law school; basing appointment to the law review on writing skills

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rather than class rank; improving orientation for first-year medical students and residents; and
better counseling and support groups for medical students and residents.

Cohen, Melissa. "Student Stress & Anxiety Guide | LearnPsychology.org." Psychology. N.p.,
2016. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. <http://www.learnpsychology.org/student-stress-anxietyguide/>.
This article was written by Melissa Cohen, a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who is a
certified coach in New York City. She has been in practice for over 20 years. Everyone
has some stress and anxiety in their lives. Some stress is good because it encourages us in
different ways. Constant stress and anxiety, however, is not good for our health. This
guide, written by Melissa Cohen, will help describe feelings of stress and anxiety and
how to control these feelings. She discusses different types of stress and ways to realize if
you may be having too much stress in your life. She also talks about what kind of stress
and what amount is good for us and normal and what is not.
This source is credible because it is not opinion based and is very factual. It is also written by a
credible clinical social worker who has had 20 years of experience. The article also brings in
statistics and information from the American Psychological Association.
Feelings of stress and anxiety are a part of life. Some levels of stress can actually be good for us,
as the right kind of stress encourages us toward change and growth. However, when stress and

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anxiety exist for an extended period of time, they can become a burden or even a health risk.
This guidebook will help you recognize and understand feelings of stress and anxiety and learn
how to manage them so that they dont become overwhelming.
Sreenivasan, Hari. "More Stress, Less Stigma Drives College Students to Mental Health
Services." PBS. PBS, 2 Sept. 2015. Web. 29 Mar. 2016.
This video is found on PBS and they interview Micky Sharma. Sharma is the director of
the Association for the University and College Counseling Center. He is also the director
of the Office of Student Life Counseling at Ohio State. Throughout the past decade,
depression and anxiety in college students have sky rocketed. Schools are trying to find
better ways for treatment. Hari Sreenivasan, Micky Sharma, and Jennifer Ruak talk about
the different ways that schools are handling student anxiety and depression. There are
different health services that students have access to and activities that students can
engage in in order to help relieve some of their stress and anxiety.
This source is credible because PBS interviews a counselor from Ohio State University. They
also talk to someone from the Chronicle of Higher Education.
Rates of anxiety and depression among college students in the U.S. have soared in the past
decade. In response, schools are trying to figure out the right course of treatment, counseling and
intervention. Hari Sreenivasan speaks to Micky Sharma, director of the counseling and

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consultation service at Ohio State University, and Jennifer Ruark of The Chronicle of Higher
Education about how schools are handling the situation.
Hudd, Suzanne S., et al. "Stress at college: effects on health habits, health status and selfesteem." College Student Journal 34.2 (2000): 217+. Academic OneFile. Web. 11 Apr.
This is an article by Suzanne S. Hudd, Jennifer Dumlao, Diane Erdmann-Sager, Daniel
Murray, Emily Phan, Nicholas Soukas, and Nori Yokozuka. All of these people are from
Yale University and Suzanne S. Hudd has her Ph.D. and M.P.H. This article discusses the
results of a survey that these people took of students around a university. They asked and
answers these questions in their article: 1) Are students in certain demographic groups
prone to experience higher levels of stress? 2) Is there a relationship between stress and
other health behaviors? And 3) Do stressed students possess lower levels of self-esteem
or perceive themselves as less healthy? The survey showed that female students and nonathletes find that they are more likely to be stressed than males and athletes. The article
discusses the entirety of the results of the survey and explains why the outcome of the
survey shows what it does. The article also discusses the difference between two different
types of stressors: life events and chronic strains and describes how each play a role in a
college students life. The importance of peer groups and college norms are also talked
about throughout the article.
This article is credible because the people that wrote and contributed to the article are from Yale,
one of them being noted as having her Ph.D. and M.P.H. The article also contains many different
statistics and surveys.

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The results from a random survey of students (N=145) are analyzed to address three questions:
Are students in certain demographic groups prone to experience higher levels of stress?
Is there a relationship between stress and other health behaviors? and 3) Do "stressed" students
possess lower levels of self-esteem or perceive themselves as less healthy? We find that females
and non-athletes are more likely to be "stressed," and that "stressed" students are less likely to
practice healthy behaviors and are more prone to practice bad habits (e.g., eating junk food).
Students under greater stress also exhibit lower levels of self-esteem and reduced perceptions of
their health status. The implications of these findings for stress reduction programs on college
campuses is discussed. ********** Literature Review Stress is an individualized phenomenon,
unique to each person and setting. Pearlin (1989) has suggested that there are two major types of
stressors: life events and chronic strains. Life events research considers the extent to which the
accumulation of a series of experiences can create a stressful impact. Stress from chronic strain
results in role overload: conflicting roles in an individual's life that produce competing, and
potentially conflicting, demands over time. Role conflict is a common part of the college
experience. College students must learn to balance the competing demands of academics,
developing new social contacts and being responsible for their own daily needs (e.g., nutrition
and clean clothing). In addition, while the academic workload requires that students face a series
of peak periods such as midterms and finals, there is a relatively constant underlying pressure to
complete an upcoming assignment. The transition to college creates a situation where regular
contact with traditional supports, e.g., friends from high school and family, may be reduced. The
ability of such social supports to mediate the effect of exposure to stress is well documented
(Ensel and Lin, 1991; Moss, 1973; Schutt et al. 1994; Thoits, 1995). College marks a period

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where new systems of social support are being created. This process can, in and of itself, be
stressful. Research has shown that events which might otherwise serve to reduce stress, e.g., peer
events and social activities, can actually increase feelings of stress during college (Dill and
Henley, 1998). New peer groups that form in college can influence patterns of thought and
behavior. Lau et al. (1990) have shown that there is substantial change in the performance of
health behaviors during the first three years of college, and that peers can have a strong impact
on the types and magnitude of these changes. It seems reasonable, then, that peers may also
influence the perception of and reaction to stress. College norms that define certain types of
behavior as "appropriate" under certain conditions, e.g., staying up all night to study for an exam,
may be stress inducing and may lead to less healthy practices. Stress has been associated with a
variety of negative outcomes in the adolescent population including suicide ideation (Hirsch and
Ellis, 1996); smoking (Naquin and Gilbert, 1996);...
Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2016. <http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/stress>.
There is no specific author for this website because many different people contribute to
the writing of the Merriam-Webster dictionary. This website displays the different
definitions of stress, as well as, provides you with examples of the word in a sentence.
It also provides the origin of the word, synonyms and antonyms and words that relate and
rhyme with stress.
This website is credible because it is the website of the very well-known and used dictionary,
Merriam-Webster. This dictionary has been around since 1828 and is used widely through

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Simple Definition of stress

: a state of mental tension and worry caused by problems in your life, work, etc.

: something that causes strong feelings of worry or anxiety

: physical force or pressure

Farrar, Tabitha. "Eating Disorders in College." RSS 20. N.p., 2014. Web. 11 Apr. 2016.
This article was written by Tabitha Farrar who is an editor for the website Mirror Mirror.
Farrar had suffered from anorexia at a young age and began to treat herself. This article
Eating Disorders in College talks about some of the different eating disorders, such as
anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. It provides links to signs
and symptoms of all of these eating disorders and describes the difference between the
three. The article also goes on to talk about the idea of body image in college and how
this is more of a problem for women than it is for men but it is, however, still a problem
for men as well. Treatments for these eating disorders for college students is also
discussed. They suggest health and counseling services along with other services that
students can get from other places not on campuses.
This website is credible because Tabitha Farrar has written a book called Love Fat that was
published in 2015 and she works as a public speaker, writer, and a guide for others who suffer
from eating disorders. This website is dedicated specifically to facts and knowledge about eating

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Eating disorders are prevalent among college students. The transition from home to college is
characterized by the loss of direct parental support and decreased structure. For some individuals
this will provoke feeling of stress, which, depending on the individual, will be expressed in
different ways.
Feelings of loneliness, uncertainty about the future, and fear are all a part of growing into
adulthood. However, for youngsters who are genetically predisposed to suffer from an eating
disorder, these stressful events can act as the environmental trigger needed for the eating disorder
to develop.
For a student who suffered from an eating disorder prior to college, the lack of external guidance
away from the home environment can be detrimental to recovery. Without strict recovery
protocols in place, eating disorders can flourish and for some, the potential for relapse is high.
Here is information on going to college when in recovery from an eating disorder.
"Stress Less for the Holidays." Touch of Earth LLC. N.p., 25 Nov. 2014. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
Farrell, Courtney. "Stress." Emaze Presentations. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.

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"Merriam-Webster." Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
Terrell, Arnesia. "Depression: Escaping The Demons Within." Odyssey. N.p., 15 Mar. 2016.
Web. 16 Apr. 2016. <http://theodysseyonline.com/webster/depression-escaping-thedemons-within/350589>.
"Merriam-Webster." Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
Pictures-base.com - Types Of Eating Disorders." Pictures-base.com - Types Of Eating Disorders.
N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2016. <http://pictures-base.com/types-of-eating-disorders.html>.