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PATRIMNIO IMATERIAL:

FORTALECENDO O SISTEMA NACIONAL


AULA 6: PARTICIPAO SOCIAL E GESTO DO PATRIMNIO IMATERIAL
PROFESSORA: LETCIA COSTA RODRIGUES VIANNA

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Identificao, Registro, salvaguarda e participao social


A poltica para o patrimnio imaterial que vai se estruturando no Iphan tem sido a
proposio de um dilogo - um movimento de interlocuo entre Estado e segmentos sociais no
sentido de produzir e sistematizar conhecimento sobre os universos culturais em questo;
promover a mobilizao dos segmentos sociais no debate sobre aspectos e razes do interesse
em um processo de patrimonializao; identificar demandas executar aes de salvaguarda.
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
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muito importante a

identificao dos atores envolvidos sejam eles pessoas, grupos,

comunidades, segmentos sociais e instituies e das tenses sociais mais evidentes em relao
ao bem cultural e o segmento social que o pratica. O esforo no sentido de construir um
consenso em torno do que e como expresses culturais devem ser patrimonializadas. Esse
consenso no natural, dado, mas construdo entre os segmentos ou atores da poltica.
Ao longo desta ltima dcada observou-se que para alm da pesquisa, aplicao de
metodologia de inventrios e produo de conhecimento sobre as referencias culturais
significativas para grupos e comunidades uma forma clssica de salvaguarda, digamos assim o processo de identificao, quando envolve os detentores no processo ,
potencial para

a ampliao e efetivao da mobilizao de mais

tem um enorme

detentores e parceiros,

contribuindo para a formao de quadros entre detentores e parceiros para implementao e


acompanhamento dos projetos. A identificao um procedimento para produzir e sistematizar
conhecimento, promover mobilizao, mediao e interlocuo, fruns de discusso,
de modo a catalisar a construo das polticas de salvaguarda de modo participativo,
sustentvel e favorvel aos grupos e comunidades envolvidas.
A pesquisa deve derivar em aes de salvaguarda, e assim, a implementao de polticas para
o patrimnio imaterial , de modo ideal , de mdio e longo prazos e s tm sentido se levada a
cabo pelo Estado e segmentos sociais incorporadas no modus vivendi dos grupos em questo.
No impostas, mas propostas e incorporadas pelo coletivo. Essas aes foram sistematizadas
pelo Iphan em treze tipos que vo de oficinas para transmisso de saberes tradicionais no mbito
dos grupos e comunidades; oficinas de capacitao para gesto de projetos; soluo de matrias
primas; adequao de espao fsico, pesquisa e documentao feitas pelos prprios detentores;
edio e difuso de resultados de pesquisa e outros contedos .... etc...4Ou seja , a pesquisa e
documentao no so bastantes , necessariamente, mas idealmente servem de ponto de partida
para aes de salvaguarda.
Um dos outros instrumentos organizadores e relevantes da poltica para o patrimnio
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
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imaterial no Brasil o Registro - ato anlogo ao tombamento dos bens materiais. Desde sua
gnese o Registro no cria direitos, como ocorre no tombamento. Mas idealmente pode
promover a mobilizao da sociedade em torno do valor e da salvaguarda de processos
culturais. ato declaratrio do Estado de reconhecimento da relevncia patrimonial de
expresses culturais. No cria direitos, mas pode subsidiar decises e jurisprudncias sobre
direitos relativos aos bens culturais registrados.
A instruo de um processo de Registro requer pesquisa documental e de campo,
mobilizao e consenso social sobre motivaes e propsitos; argumentao do valor
patrimonial de uma expresso cultural; diagnsticos sobre a vulnerabilidade e recomendaes
para a salvaguarda do bem cultural. Trata-se tanto de um processo administrativo quanto de
um verdadeiro processo social de mobilizao; o qual culmina com uma inscrio em um dos
livros especficos do patrimnio imaterial: Celebraes, Lugares, Saberes, Formas de
Expresso.
O Registro , assim, uma culminncia de um processo jurdico-administrativo e de um
processo social que espera-se deve ter desdobramentos e tantas outras culminncias com a
continuidade da dotao oramentria e mobilizao institucional e social em torno da
salvaguarda do bem cultural em questo. previsto uma reavaliao do registro a cada dez
anos.
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Hoje, ento, nem todos os bens registrados possuem planos de salvaguarda e comit
gestor, a maioria deles objeto de aes pontuais ou nenhuma ao por no haver mobilizao
ou consenso de ambas as partes , detentores e Iphan . Por outro lado, observam-se, claramente,
experincias extremamente bem sucedidas no sentido de mobilizao e encaminhamento de
plano de salvaguarda e consolidao da proposta de

gesto participativa. Os casos so

diversos, dependendo da conjuntura de cada bem, encontramos uns com maiores dificuldades e
entraves nos processos.
O fato desafiador que nem o Estado e os poderes pblicos, nem a sociedade civil
estavam e esto plenamente preparados para o dilogo e a gesto compartilhada. A experincia
tem demonstrado que h muitos problemas no sentido de o Estado simplificar e esclarecer
procedimentos de modo a incluir a base social na gesto de seu patrimnio. Por outro lado h
muitas dificuldades da base social em apreender os cdigos e procedimentos normativos que
condicionam a poltica pblica. H um caminho nesse sentido a percorrer.
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