Você está na página 1de 19

Ibarra 0

Daniel Ibarra
Mr. Cyr
English 12 (P1)
21 April 2014
Homeless Veterans: Americas Forgotten Heroes
In his Second Inaugural Address, in 1864, Abraham Lincoln promised to Americas Civil
War veterans, assistance in a more welcomed homecoming, stating, "To care for him who shall
have borne the battle and for his widow, and his orphan," (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) a
pledge said to still be honored nearly a century and a half later by the Department of Veterans
Affairs. The VA may honor Lincolns pledge however it is without question that many veterans
still remain homeless today. With all these programs and services available, youd think
homelessness among veterans wouldnt exist, or at least have extremely low numbers. The
unfortunate truth, according to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD),
is that 57,849 U.S. veterans lived homeless on any given night in January of 2013. Thats a
staggering number considering all the assistance supposedly out there, and all the grace and
appreciation supposedly tendered to these veterans as well. A complete prevention of
homelessness is fanciful, but extremely low numbers shouldnt be.
With as rich a nation as the United States, and as honorable an action performed by these
veterans, their lamenting return is shameful. In 2009, President Barack Obama and VA Secretary
Eric K. Shinseki enacted a five year plan that sought to terminate Veteran homelessness by the
end of 2015 (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs). Four years into the promise, homelessness

Ibarra 0
has continued to decline each year. As a result of the determined mindset of the President and the
VA, Between 2012 and 2013, veteran homelessness declined by 8 percent (or 4,770).
Homelessness among veterans declined by 24 percent (or 17,760) between 2009 and 2013
(Henry, Cortes, Morris, Abt. Associates: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development),
kindling a small light in the dark issue of poverty. A success indeed, but far from enough when
many veterans still roam weary from duty, and hungry for food. Research and information on
homeless veterans is vast and numerous due to the importance of the problem. Statistics can be
found by multiple organizations including The 2013 Annual Homeless Assessment Report
(AHAR) by Henry, Meghan, Dr. Alvaro Cortes, Sean Morris, and Abt. Associates, as well as the
2013 Hunger and Homelessness Survey by the U.S. Conference of Mayors own Smith, Scott,
Kevin Johnson, Stephanie Rawlings-Blake, A.C. Wharton, Jr., Helene Schneider, and Tom
Cochran. Reports with abundant facts on multiple subtopics pertaining to homeless veterans
offered new knowledge as well a new perspective on how wide an issue veteran homelessness
exists. These reports include The National Coalition for Homeless Veterans," and the U.S.
Department of Veteran Affairs. All other research is helpful in identifying homeless veteran
illnesses, movements, services, and comparisons to other veterans or the general homeless
population. Despite multiple services and programs already available, poverty, lack of support
networks, and dismal living conditions in overcrowded or substandard housing, disallows
homeless veterans the ability to exit their current situation.
Upon return, the lives of many U.S. veterans begin their downfall. It is an unfortunate
rollercoaster powered by many different reasons. In a film review by Judith E. Rosenstein on
Dan Lohaus When I Came Home, Rosenstein states When I Came Home chronicles the struggle
of Herold Noel, a black veteran of American Operation Iraqi Freedom, to receive support from

Ibarra 0
the U.S. Veteran's Association. Noel joined the U.S. Army as a way to escape the Projects (low
income housing units), but returned from war with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to
find that he was "fighting to get into the Projects" (Rosenstein 331). Rosenstein commemorates
Lohaus accurate depiction of a typical U.S. veteran. Having been characterized with PTSD,
Herold Noel, like all vets in the same circumstance, finds getting his life back on track an
immediate challenge. His PTSD retracts his professional abilities from all occupations. The
severity of the common post-war disorders isolates veterans as they are now considered a public
danger to society. It is health disorders incurred during service, along with other factors that
contribute to the great portion of veterans in the homeless population. In Traumatic Stressor
Exposure and Post-Traumatic Symptoms in Homeless Veterans, the claim is made that Posttraumatic symptoms and military and civilian traumatic stressors of all types should be assessed
in homeless veterans because they may be contributing to poor social and occupational
functioning (Carlson, Garvert, Macia, Ruzek, and Burling, 970). This journal studies the
potential risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and homelessness in veterans.
Trauma exposure and responses in data was tested upon 115 homeless veterans. The assessment
concludes that all post-traumatic symptoms and military/civilian traumatic stressors should be
evaluated as they may pose a potential contribution to poor social and occupational function in
homeless veterans. Further into the common health disorders among displaced veterans, in
Luther Goldsteins Factor Structure and Risk Factors for the Health Status of Homeless
Veterans a study conducted to find that main factors as to what can harm veterans the most
states that It was concluded that health status of homeless veterans is a complex condition, but
has a clear latent structure demonstrated by factor analysis. Scoring high or low on a particular
factor is associated with numerous historical and sociodemographic considerations, notably age,

Ibarra 0
ethnicity, and employment status (Goldstein , Luther, Haas, Appelt, and Gordon, 311). This
journal advises of the multiple health concerns linked specifically to homeless veterans.
Retrieved analysis composed a five factor analysis including Cardiac, Mood, Stress, Addiction,
and Psychosis factor. The journal found that scoring high or low on a particular factor is
connected with various historical and sociodemographic considerations, notably age, ethnicity,
and employment status. In Physical, Addictive, and Psychiatric Disorders among Homeless
Veterans and Nonveterans by Marilyn A. Winkleby and Diane Fleshin, results show that While
adverse childhood events did not distinguish veterans from nonveterans, there were significant
differences in adult medical disorders. Both groups of veterans were significantly more likely
than nonveterans to report excessive alcohol consumption before their first episode of
homelessness. Furthermore, combat-exposed veterans reported rates of psychiatric
hospitalizations and physical injuries that were 1.5 to 2 times higher than among nonveterans and
noncombat-exposed veterans (Winkleby, Marilyn A, Fleshin, Diane). This report teaches of the
physical, addictive, and psychiatric disorders among homeless veterans and nonveterans. As
described, veterans were more likely to report excessive alcohol consumption before their first
episode of homelessness than nonveterans, however this result is somewhat expected as those
who enter the military in the first place tend to have a more careless and rugged attitude as they
prepare to risk their lives and all they love in defense of their country. The interesting result was
the fact that combat-exposed veterans reported rates of psychiatric hospitalizations and physical
injuries that were 1.5 to 2 times higher than among nonveterans and noncombat-exposed
veterans (Winkleby, Marilyn A, Fleshin, Diane), proving that combat-exposed veterans are
given a definitive disadvantage upon their return among noncombat-exposed veterans and

Ibarra 0
nonveterans, in being likely to receive a job. This result shows the impact of battle on our
soldiers, and the necessity for us to help them upon return.
Homeless veterans differ distinguishably from the general homeless population. In
Richard Tesslers Comparison of Homeless Veterans with Other Homeless Men in a Large
Clinical Outreach Program, he and his associates found that As adults, homeless veterans are
also better educated than homeless nonveterans, less likely to have never married, and more
likely to be working for pay. On the other side of the ledger, there is more evidence of alcohol
dependence and abuse among the homeless veterans than among the homeless nonveterans
(Tessler, Rosenheck, Gamache, 114). Tesslers study provides that homeless veterans are
generally more productive in aiding their cause than the rest of the homeless population. They
are better educated and most likely working for pay. Yes, Tesslers group also claims veterans are
more prone to alcohol abuse however suppressing the gruesome views of war, encourages the
action. In no way should alcohol dependence be defended, however it should be understood as to
the reason homeless veterans become dependent of it. In Jack Tsai, Alvin S. Mares, and Robert
A. Rosenhecks Do Homeless Veterans Have the Same Needs and Outcomes as NonVeterans?, a study they conducted demonstrates their Results showed that veterans tended to
be older, were more likely to be in the Vietnam era age group, to be male, and were more likely
to have completed high school than other chronically homeless adults. There were no differences
between veterans and non-veterans on housing or clinical status at baseline or at follow-up, but
both groups showed significant improvement over time. These findings suggest that the greater
risk of homelessness among veterans does not translate into more severe problems or treatment
outcomes. Supported housing programs are similarly effective for veterans and non-veterans
(Tsai, Jack, Alvin S. Mares, and Robert A. Rosenheck). This report provides insight on the major

Ibarra 0
differences between the general homeless and homeless veterans in specific. According to the
report, homeless veterans were more likely to have finished high school than other homeless
adults, suggesting their derailment occurred as a result of their participation in war. If this is so,
why are they homeless and not receiving aid after having risked their lives for us? The thought is
astonishing.

Percentages
35
30
25
20
15
10

Percentages

5
0

On a positive note, the


amount of homeless veterans in America has been decreasing year by year. In the U.S.
Conference of Mayors 2013 Hunger and Homelessness Survey, data is presented that Last
years Point-in-Time count of homeless persons showed a drop of 7 percent in the homeless
veterans population between 2011 and 2012 the continuation of a positive year-to-year trend.
This year, as cited earlier in this report, HUD says a 24.2 percent drop in the number of homeless
veterans has occurred between 2010 and 2013 (Scott Smith, Kevin Johnson, Stephanie
Rawlings- Blake, A.C. Wharton Jr., Helene Schneider, and Tom Cochran- The U.S. Conference

Ibarra 0
of Mayors Hunger and Homelessness Survey 2013). If the rate at which homelessness decreases
by year continues to get greater as the years go by, veteran homelessness may one day see an
end. It is a source of joy in the confusion of homelessness to see actual results from dynamic
action. The 2013 Hunger and Homelessness Survey also provides information on the
characteristics of homeless adults within the surveyed cities (Figure 1). Since these are not
equally exclusive characteristics, the same person may appear in multiple categories.
There are many services and programs available for homeless veterans. The one that
provides the most assistance would have to be the Department of Veteran Affairs. It assists
thousands of veterans despite thousands left unassisted; the VA sponsors and supports national,
regional and local homeless conferences and meetings, bringing together thousands of homeless
providers and advocates to discuss community planning strategies and to provide technical
assistance in such areas as transitional housing, mental health and family services, and education
and employment opportunities for the homeless (Military.com). The VA has worked hard to
help the veterans with all the space theyve got. They continue to work with others in expanding
the assistance provided to these left over soldiers, On June 22, the U.S. Interagency Council on
Homelessness released Opening Doors: Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness,
which outlines the Obama administration's goal of ending homelessness in the United States
within five years... Members of the Governmental Affairs Office and the ABA Commission on
Homelessness and Poverty have participated in high-level meetings with the U.S. Department of
Veterans Affairs and the interagency council to determine the most effective role for lawyers in
addressing the issue (Mcmillion, ABA Journal). The teamwork has definitely paid off.
According to the LA Times in Helping the VA Help L.A.'s Homeless Vets, A new piece of
legislation, introduced by Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.), would clear the way for the

Ibarra 0
Department of Veterans Affairs to enter into long-term lease agreements with developers and
service providers to transform two vacant structures, known as Buildings 205 and 208, into
housing with therapeutic service (The Times Editorial). Assisting one another in assisting the
veterans has proved to be both effective and inspiring since action and progress is being notably
made.
Despite having the services available to them, some veterans choose not to use them.
Others simply dont use them because there are not enough. In Montgomery and Byrnes
Services Utilization Among Recently Homeless Veterans: A Gender-Based Comparison, they
found that Veterans experiencing homelessness who do not use VA homeless assistance services
are less engaged with preventative VA health and behavioral healthcare. Veterans who are
homeless but not identified as such by VA, particularly women, need additional engagement.
Ongoing study of gender-based differences in services utilization among homeless and at-risk
Veterans is needed (Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth, and Thomas H. Byrne). This journal compares
both veterans who do and do not use services available to them as well as comparing actions of
men and women veterans. Male and female veterans were equally as likely to use mainstream
and VA homeless services however there were greater differences among those who did and did
not use the services at all. In Nelson, Strakebaum and Riebers Veterans Using and Uninsured
Veterans Not Using Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care, research discovered that Veterans who
utilized the VA for all of their health care were more likely to be from disadvantaged groups. A
large number of veterans who could use VA services were uninsured. They should be targeted for
VA enrollment given the detrimental clinical effects of being uninsured (Nelson, Strakebaum,
and Rieber, 93). This journal analyzes the behavior difference between veterans using and
uninsured veterans not using the VA services. The study found that among veteran respondents,

Ibarra 0
6.2% reported receiving all of their health care at the VA, 6.9% reported receiving some of their
health care at the VA, and 86.9% did not use VA health care. Those who did not use the offered
service were notably at a disadvantage. Another comparison veteran use and disuse of available
services can be found in Tsai, Doran, and Rosenhecks When Health Insurance Is Not a Factor:
National Comparison of Homeless and Nonhomeless US Veterans Who Use Veterans Affairs
Emergency Departments, which explains that In a national integrated health care system with
no specific requirements for health insurance, the major differences found between homeless and
nonhomeless ED users were high rates of psychiatric and substance abuse diagnoses. EDs may
be an important location for specialized homeless outreach (or in reach) services to address
mental health and addictive disorders (Tsai, Jack, Kelly M. Doran, and Robert A. Rosenheck).
The comparison of veterans who do and do not use the VA services creates an actual value to the
VA, as it shows the outcomes of these veterans.
The VA does provide many services to homeless veterans however some flaws do exist
like spacing. According to the LA Times in Homeless Vets Deserve More, In a class-action
lawsuit filed Wednesday on behalf of four homeless veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress
disorder and other ailments, the ACLU claims that the department is violating the property's deed
by not providing the combination of housing and treatment that battle-scarred vets need. The
lawsuit is just the latest attempt by advocates for homeless vets to light a fire under the federal
government (The Los Angeles Times Editorial). This report concentrates on the misfortune
veterans must undergo, even at the locations that are supposed to help them. Not all veterans are
cared for due to a lack of space yet, more land is purchased incorrectly. The veterans themselves
have taken the matter into their own hands. According to John Weiners Homeless Vets vs. the
VA: An LA Story Continues | The Nation, veteran activists have teamed up in disagreement

Ibarra 0
with the way they are dealt. Weiner states Every Sunday afternoon for the last five years a group
of veterans have demonstrated in Los Angeles outside those locked gates, waving at the cars
going past on Wilshire Boulevard on their way to the beach, carrying signs that read Bring our
homeless veterans Home, and In the deed we trust. This article advises that veterans are
active in their post-war fight for VA services. Homeless veterans are not accepting the VAs poor
effort and are productive in establishing its correction. If the veterans themselves are putting up a
fight, that should provide enough inclination to get people to go out and act on behalf of these
old veterans just wanting what they deserve. Legislation has been passed regarding the topic of
veteran homelessness. According to the Southern California Association of Nonprofit Housings,
Support Proposition 41, the Veterans Housing and Homeless Prevention
Bond Act of 2014, The ballot measure is now Proposition 41 -- the Veterans Housing and
Homeless Prevention Bond Act of 2014: Veterans Housing and Homeless Prevention Act of
2014. If passed, Prop 41 will help address the growing need for affordable rentals for veterans,
especially those who are at risk of homelessness or are homeless and in need of services, such as
mental-health counseling, job training, and substance-abuse treatment (SCAPH). This report
tells of Proposition 41 and how California voters will decide this June whether to repurpose $600
million in unspent veterans bonds, allowing it to be used to create affordable apartments for
veterans. According to the report Proposition 41 is a fiscally responsible ballot measure that will
help put a roof over the heads of thousands of homeless veterans. This act doesnt create new
taxes or add new debt to California. If it does not create new taxes then whats holding us back
from giving these veterans an effortless hand of assistance. Legislation is enacted as a result of
the graveness of the issue. We are constantly bombarded by the media of how proud the U.S. is
of their soldiers, well now is the time to show it.

Ibarra 0
To involve the community, I interviewed a VA employee who asked to remain
anonymous in this research. She worked 8 years as a VA Eligibility Clerk and is now currently a
claims clerk. Upon asking why some veterans do not receive aid, she replied Many veterans are
too prideful to take it. They feel they are fine when they come back and they dont want to take
advantage of the benefits available to them, so they never file a claim and by the time they do
want the benefits when theyre older, they have to go through the whole process of filing a claim
and confirming acceptanceNow by law, if veterans arent service connected meaning injured
in the military, their granting of benefits is determined by there income which must be at almost
poverty level thresholds. Many of these veterans are working when they ask for their benefits

Ibarra 0
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Never
Rarely
Always

and no

longer qualify

because their income is too high Spacing is also an issue but whenever the VA does have a
doctor or ability to see patients, they see them out to other doctors and the VA tells them theyll
pay for the patient (Anonymous VA employee). I also conducted my own experiment consisting
of a survey of five questions evaluating the willingness of society to act on issues that disregard
themselves. These issues can consist of bullying, community service, and even donating to the
homeless. My participants were selected at random as I asked whoever would give me the time
to survey them. I ended up with a total of 17 participants and their results were quite fascinating
(Figure 2). The questions were as follows:
1.

How often do you donate money to the poor?

Always
2.

Never

How often do you throw away a piece of trash on the floor?

Always
3.

Rarely

Rarely

Never

Do you ever feel like the homeless use your money on unnecessary items?

Ibarra 0
Always
4.

Never

Do you ever feel the homeless are homeless for being lazy?

Always
5.

Rarely

Rarely

Never

How often should we go out of our way for others?

Always

Rarely

Never

Multiple proposed solutions exist however processing their enactment is difficult due to
the great need of involvement. According to The National Coalition for Homeless Veterans,
Veterans need a coordinated effort that provides secure housing, nutritional meals, basic
physical health care, substance abuse care and aftercare, mental health counseling, personal
development and empowerment. Additionally, veterans need job assessment, training and
placement assistance. The National Coalition for Homeless Veterans also adds five steps that
one could do to help reduce veteran homelessness including determining the need in your
community, involving others, participating in local homeless coalitions, making a donation to
your local homeless veteran service provider, and contacting your elected officials.
At times it may be difficult to not be stereotypical on the use of donated money to
homeless individuals. According to reporter with the Dutch-language online outlet De
Correspondent, Rutger Bregman, in an experiment composed in May 2009 in London, 13
homeless men were granted about 4,500 dollars each, to spend as they pleased and None of the
men wasted his money on alcohol, drugs or gambling, proving how unlikely the misconception
many like Rebeccas mom believe, will occur. Bregman adds that A year later, 11 of the 13 had
roofs over their heads. This experiment not only resulted in the redemption of these homeless

Ibarra 0
men through a second chance but also in the salvation of the tax dollars that would have been
spent on them through food stamps and other necessities. A guarantee that every homeless man
would not have used the money on drugs or alcohol however, is not applicable through this
experiment as well as it is not believable. Not everyone is wise enough to spend the money on
useful items like the 13 homeless men in London did, though this experiment does give reason to
offer the homeless more trust than given before as well as to feel more comfortable that they are
one of the many who will use it productively and not one of the few who will abuse it.
Imagine this scenario, a typical Sunday morning, six year old Rebecca and her mother
board the foggy windowed car outside their home on their way to the neighborhood grocery store
down the slightly moist street. Upon entering the market, Rebecca and her mother come across a
sight theyve become all too familiar with, a homeless man sitting against the store wall,
pleading Spare change? It is an uneasy situation as always; Rebecca looks at the man with eyes
of sorrow and kindness, while her mom guides her away and into the store as she attempts to
alienate the man from their visit. Mommy, why dont we help the man outside? Rebecca asks
as always. Her mother knows it is difficult to give her daughter a reason for not attending one in
need. For the past month, she has been delaying a response to Rebeccas question. She is
uncertain of how to explain to her daughter that the man outside in need of money to survive
may instead use it on substances that further harm him. It is a guilty fear she possesses, her hard
earned money donated only to be spent on drugs and alcohol. This has kept her from attending
the beggar as well as answering her daughters question. Rather, she distracts Rebecca saying
Look honey they have balloons for a dollar. On a visit to the market, finding a homeless
person fatigued by malnutrition and tarnished by poor hygiene is just as common as finding carts
with swerving wheels and security guards standing in wait of the end of their shift. It is an

Ibarra 0
overlooked sight by many determined to go on with their day unbothered by the invisible
strangers asking for help.
What ever happened to the good neighbor, the one that greeted you as you passed by, and
offered a helping hand when your own two werent enough? You needed assistance on
something, well go as far as the next American and youd get it. Today it seems as though weve
grown into an individualistic society. Weve become independent, and when dependence occurs,
we tap at our new fellow American, handheld devices. Its without question that having each
others backs has disappeared; at least it has for one of the two people. Our nations heroes are
still there enforcing the law, taming the fire, and fighting off our enemies; yet when they fall
were too busy to pick them up. A great portion of society view police officers negatively,
however the noble officers still put their lives at risk when the lives of that portion are at risk. An
even graver story is that of the retired soldier. Having offered his life for the lives in his
homeland, his return can be devastating and difficult, with the lives he protected indifferent to his
potential begging palms. The issue of poverty has grown to be one of worldwide significance.
Among every nation, beggars roam streets while pleading assistance for food, but really survival.
When you imagine the homeless, you envision the people are there because of their own errors
and lack of production. Rarely would you think a soldier who risked his life for a nation, would
be among the homeless picture too. The unfortunate truth is that war veterans make a great piece
of the homeless picture, and it is left to people like you and I to make a difference. My research
suggests that as a result of the declining homeless veteran population rate, the issue may soon be
resolved but within that time span, veterans are still left hungry in wait. As of right now these
veterans are impecunious as a result of the inadequacy in spacing and living conditions provided
by services like the VA. They do not all have the assistance through services and programs to exit

Ibarra 0
their current situation despite their numbers decreasing. Our action can make a difference, and
extend even beyond the homeless veterans and into the homeless population in general. We must
at least however, have the decency to rest the veterans who tirelessly fought for our protection
while we laid in rest.

Survey:
1. How often do you donate money to the poor?
Always
Rarely
Never
2. How often do you throw away a piece of trash on the floor?
Always
Rarely
Never
3. Do you ever feel like the homeless use your money on unnecessary items?
Always
Rarely
Never
4. Do you ever feel the homeless are homeless for being lazy?
Always
Rarely
Never

Ibarra 0
5. How often should we go out of our way for others?
Always
Rarely
Never

Sources:
1. Bregman, Rutger. "Free Money Might Be the Best Way to End Poverty." Washington
Post. The Washington Post, 31 Dec. 2013. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.
2. Carlson, Eve B., Donn W. Garvert, Kathryn S. Macia, Josef I. Ruzek, and Thomas A.
Burling. "Traumatic Stressor Exposure and Post-Traumatic Symptoms in
Homeless Veterans." Military Medicine 178.9 (2013): 970-73. Academic Search
Premier. EBSCO, Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
3. Goldstein, Gerald, James F. Luther, Gretchen L. Haas, Cathleen J. Appelt, and Adam J.
Gordon. "Factor Structure and Risk Factors for the Health Status of Homeless
Veterans." Psychiatric Quarterly 81.4 (2010): 311-23. Academic Search Premier.
EBSCO, Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
4. Henry, Meghan, Dr. Alvaro Cortes, Sean Morris, and Abt Associates. The 2013 Annual
Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress. Rep. The U.S. Department of
Housing and Urban Development, Nov. 2013. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
5. Mcmillion, Rhonda. "LINGERING WOUNDS: The ABA Enlists in Efforts to Help
Homeless Veterans Deal with Their Burdens." ABA Journal 96.10 (2010): 66.
JSTOR. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.
6. Military.com "Homeless Veterans Programs | Military.com." Homeless Veterans
Programs | Military.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Apr. 2014.
7. Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth, and Thomas H. Byrne. "Services Utilization Among
8. Recently Homeless Veterans: A Gender-Based Comparison." Military Medicine NCHV.
"National Coalition for Homeless Veterans." National Coalition for Homeless

Ibarra 0
Veterans. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.
<http://nchv.org/index.php/news/media/background_and_statistics/>.
179.3 (2014): 236-39. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO, Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
9. Nelson, Karin M., Gordon A. Strakebaum, Gayle E. Rieber. "Veterans Using and
Uninsured Veterans Not Using Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care." Public Health
Reports (1974-) 122.1 (2007): 93-100. JSTOR. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.
10. Rosenstein, Judith E. "Review: When I Came Home." Teaching Sociology 37.3, Special
Issue on the Sociology of the Classroom (2009): 331-32. JSTOR. Web. 06 Apr.
2014.
11. SCANPH. "Support Proposition 41, the Veterans Housing and Homeless Prevention
Bond Act of 2014." Southern California Association of Nonprofit Housing
(SCANPH). N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2014. <http://scanph.org/node/3735>.
12. Smith, Scott, Kevin Johnson, Stephanie Rawlings-Blake, A.C. Wharton, Jr., Helene
Schnieder, and Tom Cochran. 2013 Hunger and Homelessness Survey. Rep. The
U.S. Conference of Mayors, Dec. 2013. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
13. Tessler, Richard, Robert Rosenheck, and Gail Gamache. "Comparison of Homeless
Veterans with Other Homeless Men in a Large Clinical Outreach Program."
Academic Search Premier. EBSCO, June 2002. Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
14. The U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs. "Homeless." Office of Public and
Intergovernmental Affairs. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.va.gov/homeless/>.
15. The Times Editorial Board February. 10. "Helping the VA Help L.A.'s Homeless Vets."
Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 10 Feb. 2014. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.
<http://www.latimes.com/opinion/editorials/la-ed-veterans-homeless-housing20140210%2C0%2C7327444.story#axzz2y51AoX35>.
16. The Times Editorial Board. "Homeless Vets Deserve More." Los Angeles Times. Los
Angeles Times, 09 June 2011. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.
<http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jun/09/opinion/la-ed-va-20110609>.
17. Tsai, Jack, Alvin S. Mares, and Robert A. Rosenheck. Do Homeless Veterans Have the

Ibarra 0
Same Needs and Outcomes as Non-Veterans? Military Medicine 177.1 (2012):
27-31. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO, Web. 6 Apr. 2014.
18. Tsai, Jack, Kelly M. Doran, and Robert A. Rosenheck. "When Health Insurance Is Not a
Factor: National Comparison of Homeless and Nonhomeless US Veterans Who
Use Veterans Affairs Emergency Departments." American Journal of Public
Health 103.S2 (2013): S225-231. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO, Web. 06
Apr. 2014.
19. Weiner, John. "Homeless Vets vs. the VA: An LA Story Continues | The Nation."
Homeless Vets vs. the VA: An LA Story Continues | The Nation. N.p., n.d. Web. 06
Apr. 2014. <http://www.thenation.com/blog/173498/homeless-vets-vs-va-la-storycontinues>.
20. Winkleby, Marilyn A, Fleshin, Diane. "Physical, Addictive, and Psychiatric Disorders
among Homeless Veterans and Nonveterans." Public Health Reports (1974-)
108.1 (1993): 30-36. JSTOR. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.

Appendix:

Figure 1, U.S. Conference of Mayors, 2013 Hunger and Homelessness Survey


Figure 1 is a graph of the characteristics of homeless adults within the surveyed cities.
Figure 2, Daniel Ibarra's Survey, 4-15-14
Figure 2 is a graph of a five question survey I conducted on 4-15-14.