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3-Correlate prenatal and postnatal conditions with development

Biological beginnings focus on evolution, genetic foundations, challenges and

choices regarding reproduction, and the interaction of heredity and the
environment. Humans have at least 20,000 protein-producing genes in our bodies. I
learned from Chapter 2 of Children there are three major approaches to gene
identification and discovery that are used today. They are:
1) Genome-wide association method-which identifies various links to a particular
disease such as obesity, cancer, or cardiovascular disease.
2) Linkage analysis-The goal is to discover the location of a gene in relation to a
marker gene. The gene involved in a disease tend to be in close proximity to
the marker gene.
3) Next generation sequencing-This deals with understanding that a human
gene will require examination of many individuals.
Genes pass from generation to generations through three processes; mitosis,
meiosis, and fertilization. Mitosis is the cellular reproduction in which the cells
nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed, each containing the same
DNA as their parent cell. Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division that occurs to
form egg and sperm. Fertilization is a stage in reproduction when an egg and a
sperm form to create a single cell, called a zygote. I learned from Chapter 2 of
Children the Y chromosome is responsible for a child being a male or female.
Every individual carries DNA variations that might be predisposed to a serious
physical disease, but not all will develop the disorder. The knowledge of human
development opens up choices for prospective parents, some of these choices
raises ethical questions. Here is a list of prenatal diagnostic tests:

Ultrasound sonography
Fetal MRI
Chorionic villas sampling
Maternal blood screening
Non-evasive prenatal diagnosis
Fetal sex determination

There are benefits and risks to prenatal testing. Prospective parents should take
steps to avoid hazards to fetal development. I learned from the power point
Prenatal influence that a teratogen is a toxic agent in the environment that are
capable of causing developmental abnormalities or birth defects. Conception occurs
after a single sperm cell from the male unites with an ovum in the fallopian tubes in
a process called fertilization. I learned from Chapter 3 of Children over the next
few months the genetic code directs a series of changes in the fertilized egg, but
many events and hazards influence how the egg develops. Prenatal development
begins with fertilization and ends with birth. Prenatal development is divided into
three periods:
1) Germinal-This period takes place in the first two weeks after conception.

2) Embryonic- This lasts 2-8 weeks after conception.

3) Fetal-This period lasts the last 7 months of pregnancy.
Every body part develops from the endoderm, mesoderm and the ectoderm. While
organs are being formed they are especially vulnerable to environmental changes.
There are three trimesters of development. This is different than the three periods.
During the first trimester, which is from 1-3 months, both the germinal and
embryonic periods occur. The end of the first trimester as well as the second and
third trimester are part of the fetal period. The brain develops in the prenatal
period. I learned from Chapter 3 of Children the mothers nutrition has a strong
influence on the development of the fetus. Prenatal care is important to the
developing fetus. Prenatal care includes medical care for the mother and screenings
for manageable conditions and treatable diseases, comprehensive education, social
and nutritional services. How expectant mothers behave during pregnancy may
depend, in part, on the prevalence of traditional home-care remedies, folk belief,
the importance of indigenous healers, and the influences of health care
professionals in their cultures. Teratogens can cause birth defects, alter brain
development, and influence cognitive and behavioral functions. There are so man
teratogens, that almost every fetus is exposed to at least one. In the third trimester
of pregnancy the pelvic joint starts to relax. I learned from the power point Stages
of labor that labor is split into four stages; pre-labor, labor, birth, after-birth. When
a woman goes into pre-labor the baby drops. I learned from the power point Stages
of labor the average labor lasts for 12 hours and the cervix needs to dilate to 10
centimeters so the baby can fit into the birthing canal. The birth is when the mother
pushes the baby through the birthing canal and the umbilical cord is clamped. The
afterbirth is when the placenta is delivered and this lasts around 30 minutes.
Maternal chronic medical conditions, like postpartum, infectious diseases,
psychiatric conditions, parental and environmental exposures, and psychosocial
stresses have an established impact on fetal and neonatal health.