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Annotated Bibliography on the Effects of Poverty in the United States


Abramsky, S. (2013). America's Shameful Poverty Stats. Nation, 297(14), 1-3.
Abramsky analyzes data related to poverty and income inequality in the United
States,

most notable data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau. A 2013 Census Bureau
Population Survey shows that 15 percent of U.S. citizens live at or below the poverty
line. The article states that the amount of people living in poverty was the same in

the

Regan administration as it was in the Bush administration, and both are far higher

than

the Johnson administration and its heavily-invested War on Poverty. Furthermore,

the

article mentions how despite a proper line of action taken against poverty issues
it is still somehow acceptable for the rich to pay capital gains taxes at a lower rate

than

that of the common American, many of whom do not even have a home. The data
supporting this article will serve as evidence that poverty is a major

problem even in a

first world country like the U.S.

Hadler, J. L., Yousey-Hindes, K., Prez, A., Anderson, E. J., Bargsten, M., Bohm, S. R., & ...
Chaves, S. S. (2016). Influenza-Related Hospitalizations and Poverty Levels United
States, 2010-2012. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 65(5), 101105.

The group responsible for this research is the Center for Disease Control

(CDC). Their reports show that there is a direct correlation between poverty levels and
hospitalization

due to influenza. Previous data supported that influenza-related

hospitalization occurred

much more frequently to persons living in areas that fell

below the federal poverty level.

To verify this data, the search criteria was widened to cover

a broader area. The changes

in search parameters produced results which not only

verified a link between poverty and

hospitalization due to diseases like influenza, but an

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ethnic-economic relationship with

influenza hospitalization as well. This research

shows that poverty can lead to a lack of

affordable medical treatment commonly

available elsewhere.
Howell, A. J., & Timberlake, J. M. (2014). Racial and Ethnic Trends in the Suburbanization of
Poverty in the U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1980-2010. Journal of Urban Affairs,
36(1), 79-

98. doi:10.1111/juaf.12030.
The journal authors analyzes the residing demographics of suburban areas.

Their research

states that the majority of the poor population residing in suburban areas

are comprised

of whites. Recent data shows that there is an increasing amount of

foreclosures occurring

in suburban housing, and the majority of the people having their

homes foreclosed were

ethnic minorities. Prior research will demonstrate that the

economically disadvantaged

have primarily resided in suburban areas. The authors data

shows that 1/3 of the nations poor population resides in the suburbs. According to the journal
entry, the reason for poor

people moving into these areas is that the older wealthy and middle

class inhabitants have relocated to further out suburban areas with higher property value. As such
these vacancies provide housing opportunities for the poor who cannot afford to live in higher
cost dwellings such as those in the cities which have become unaffordable. The data in
this journal entry will be used to show where the majority of the poor inhabitants of the
U.S. reside.
Duncan, G. J., Kalil, A., & Ziol-Guest, K. M. (2013). Early Childhood Poverty and Adult
Achievement, Employment and Health. Family Matters, (93), 27-35.
This article analyzes children of poor families and how their economic status
affects their

development. According to research, children from poor families preform

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worse

academically and behaviorally than children from higher income families.

As children of

young ages are more susceptible to environmental influence, stressful

factors within their

living conditions contribute to their development. Higher income families

are able to

purchase items such as healthy foods and learning materials, which

contribute to positive

mental, physical, and behavioral development. Low income

families are unable to

provide such resources and as such children in these

families will suffer in the future in

terms of health, behavior, and inability to function

effectively as a contributing member

of society. This data will allow me to demonstrate

the effects of poverty on children.


Gorey, K. M., Richter, N. L., Luginaah, I. N., Hamm, C., Holowaty, E. J., Guangyong, Z., &
Balagurusamy, M. K. (2015). Breast Cancer among Women Living in Poverty: Better
Care in Canada than in the United States. Social Work Research, 39(2), 107-118.
doi:10.1093/swr/svv006.
This article analyzes the healthcare in the United States as well as the healthcare
in

Canada by basing research around breast cancer patients. Research in this article

states that many poor citizens in the U.S. suffer from underpaying insurance, to having to
insurance at all. Further research shows that the wait times for medical treatment of poor
patients are longer in the U.S. than Canada. Furthermore, poor patients in Canada had
their breast cancer diagnosed far earlier than their U.S. counterparts. Poor women
undergoing breast cancer treatment in Canada also lived longer lives than those in the
U.S. This data will show how poverty affects medical treatment for the poor in the U.S.
Bailey, R. (2016). Poverty Is Deadly. Reason, 47(11), 16-17.
This periodical analyzes recent mortality rates in the United States. What is

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discovered is

that poorer demographics are living shorter lives on average than middle

and upper class

citizens. CDC data shows that mortality rates increase the farther one gets

from the

epicenter of metropolitan areas. One reason for this is that many poor, rural

citizens

rely on food stamps and remain in poor areas for financial reasons. Remaining in

these conditions leaves no way for self-improvement of ones life, such as higher education,
better income and better access to health facilities. Furthermore, retaining such an
impoverished demographic will prevent improvement for the community itself.
Businesses will tend to avoid establishing themselves in such areas as the local populace
will be unable to provide them with income from patronage as is necessary to sustain
operations in the area. The data from this periodical will demonstrate how poverty can
affect a community.
Leiner, M., Puertas, H., Caratachea, R., Avila, C., Atluru, A., Briones, D., & de Vargas, C.
(2012). Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United
States-Mexico border. Revista Panamericana De Salud Publica, 31(5), 411-416.
This article examines how poverty contributes to violence and how these two
factors themselves contribute to the growing issue of crime in impoverished areas. The research
of the authors shows that exposure to the amalgamation of violence and poverty appears
to have an adverse effect on the mental health of the younger inhabitants of poor
communities. Children exposed to both poverty and violence had higher problem scores,
as measured by the P+CBCL, than those exposed to poverty alone. Conclusions. It is also
noted that children and adolescents exposed to both violence and poverty will have a
more difficult time attaining treatment. Untreated mental health problems can lead to
violence, antisocial mentality, defiance to authority, and juvenile delinquency. Children

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and adolescents who succumb to these factors often find themselves in search of a
community where they can fit it and escape their personal problems. Ergo, such
individuals will find themselves joining gangs and other such groups which embody the
antithesis of what they perceive to be the causes of their misfortune. Such behaviors and
affiliations will often rub off on the younger siblings and close relatives of such
individuals, leading to further regression in social compatibility and an increase in
violence. This data will be used to demonstrate how poverty contributes to violence in the
U.S.