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Faculty:

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering


Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Speed is the rate of movement of a vehicle, generally expressed in kilometers per hour.
A spot speed study is a study of traffic speed at one point or spot on a traffic way. It consists
of a series or a sample of observations of the individual speeds at which vehicles are
approaching an intersection or passing a point at a non-intersection location. These
observations are used to estimate the speed distribution of the entire traffic stream at that
location, under the conditions prevailing at the time of the study.
Spot speed studies can be used to study speeds at problem locations in order to determine
whether speeds are too high and if complaints received are justified, for accident analysis in
order to determine the relationship of speed to accidents which may help in developing
corrective measures, and for before-and-after studies in order to evaluate the effect of
some change in controls or conditions.
In relation with this study, there has been several complaints of vehicles speeding along
the UTHM-Fujitsu section of road. This poses a danger to motorists, pedestrians and
cyclists as there is a lot of activity in the area. Furthermore, there are plenty of right-turning
movements along this stretch of road, with no storage lanes provided for right-turners. This
is dangerous because the right-turners stop on the fast lane and have no protection.
2.0 OBJECTIVE
The objectives of this study are:
(a) To determine the speed characteristics of traffic at the location.
(b) To justify the problem of speeding at the location.

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
3.0

APPARATUS
1. Radar Gun

2. Forms SS1 and SS2


3. Graph Paper (3 nos)
4. Safety Vest

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
4.0

PROCEDURE
1. The spot at which the speed data will be collected is indentified.
2. The radar gun to measure the speed of vehicles is used according to their
respective vehicle class Class 1 (Motorcycles), Class 2 (Cars), Class 3 (Vans &
Medium Trucks), and Class 4 (Large Trucks & Buses).
[Make sure that the operator of the radar gun is not seen by the motorists]
3. All speed measurements recorded in Form SS1.
4. Based on Form SS1, determine the mean, maximum and minimum speed of vehicles
according to their class. Your findings are commented.
5. The data is transferred in Form SS1 to Form SS2.
6. The following are plotted:
(a) Frequency Histogram (Percentage of vehicles vs. Speed)
(b) Frequency Distribution Curve (Percentage of vehicles vs. Speed)
(c) Cumulative Frequency Distribution Curve (Cumulative percentage vs. Speed)
7. The following speed characteristics is determined:
(a) Mean speed
(b) Median speed
(c) Mode speed
(d) 85-th Percentile speed
(e) Standard deviation
(f) Pace

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
5.0

DATA ANALYSIS & RESULT


Form SS1
Location: Jejantas Parit Jelutong (Ayer Hitam to Batu Pahat)
Date: 10 January 2011

Time: 3.00 pm

Time
(3.00
-3.15)
pm

(3.15
-3.30)
pm

(3.30
-3.45)
pm

(3.45
-4.00)
am

22
56
34
26
15
42
32
28
22
26
46
38
42
61
26
21
48
36
30
58

1
44
38
50
53
67
60
57
49
52
55
30
32
62
45
26
57
46
25
49
27

50
47
14
77
13
54
30
69
91
46
58
47
63
22
78
44
11
70
36
10

44
44
37
48
38
42
30
48
50
56
37
41
42
49
38
29
38
40
46
40

Day: Monday

Weather: Fine

Spot Speed (km/h)


Vehicle Class
2
3
34
43
31
41
34
43
41
37
33
47
41
86
32
45
36
44
32
47
47
64
48
62
46
57
43
50
33
37
25
47
36
41
44
48
36
40
32
63
28
38
45
42
35
36
30
52
11
40
37
35
40
59
46
30
45
35
38
53
53
48
51
49
46
72
44
53
45
78
40
18
43
80
51
77
33
92
42
60
68
66

44
64
66
64
77
79
38
44
32
61
70
77
79
38
42
86
48
65
66
72

40
36
40
34
24
41
46
37
34
33
25
71
43
45
35
36
33
37
43
52

4
33
43
41
63
58
19
41
49
78
31
33
44
38
62
64
33
39
36
35
41

45
53
30
38
84
71
71
62
68
71
42
62
43
54
61
68
36
63
66
60

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
Number of Vehicles
SPEED
CLASS
(km/h)
10 14
15 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 29
30 - 34
35 -39
40 - 44
45 - 49
50 - 54
55 - 59
60 - 64
65 - 69
70 - 74
75 - 79
80 - 84
85 - 89
90 - 94

Vehicles Class
1
4
1
4
7
5
4
4
9
7
5
4
2
1
2

1
1
2
7
9
15
13
7
2
3
1

Note:
Vehicles class 1:

Motorcycles

Vehicles class 2:

Cars

Vehicles class 3:

Vans and medium trucks

Vehicles class 4:

Heavy trucks and buses

1
2
12
12
6
2
2
5
5
3
5
1
2
1

1
1
1
8
9
11
6
4
2
6
5
5
1

Total
5
3
5
11
22
34
42
34
20
11
18
12
9
8
2
2
2

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY

Speed
Class
Class
Class
Midpoint, Frequency,
(km/h)
x (km/h)
f
10 14
12
5
15 - 19
17
3
20 - 24
22
5
25 - 29
27
11
30 - 34
32
22
35 -39
37
34
40 - 44
42
42
45 - 49
47
34
50 - 54
52
20
55 - 59
57
11
60 - 64
62
18
65 - 69
67
12
70 - 74
72
9
75 - 79
77
8
80 - 84
82
2
85 - 89
87
2
90 - 94
92
2
n = 240
= 11215
= 100

fx
60
51
110
297
704
1258
1764
1598
1040
627
1116
804
648
616
164
174
184

Percentage
in Class,
(%)
2.08
1.25
2.08
4.58
9.17
14.17
17.5
14.17
8.33
4.58
7.5
5
3.75
3.33
0.83
0.83
0.83

Cumulative
Percentage
(%)
2.08
3.33
5.41
9.99
19.16
33.33
50.83
65
73.33
77.91
85.41
90.41
94.16
97.49
98.32
99.15
99.99

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
Speed
Class
(km/h)
10 14
15 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 29
30 - 34
35 -39
40 - 44
45 - 49
50 - 54
55 - 59
60 - 64
65 - 69
70 - 74
75 - 79
80 - 84
85 - 89
90 - 94
60 60

Mean speed
i.

Class
Class Frequency
Midpoint,
x (km/h)
f1
f2
f3
f4
f1.x
12
4
1
48
17
1
1
1
17
22
4
1
88
27
7
2
1
1
189
32
5
7
2
8
160
37
4
5
12
9
148
42
4
15
12
11
168
47
9
13
6
6
423
52
6
7
2
4
312
57
5
2
2
2
285
62
4
3
5
6
248
67
2
5
5
134
72
1
3
5
72
77
2
1
5
154
82
1
1
87
2
92
1
1
92
60
60 2538 2462 3145 2870

f2.x

f3.x
12

17
54
224
185
630
611
364
114
186
77

27
64
444
504
282
104
114
310
335
216
385
82
174
92

f x
n

Class 1: Motorcycles

iii.

f1 2538

n1
60

Class 2: Cars

f1 2462

n1
60
41.03 km / hr

Class 3: Vans and medium trucks

f1 3145

n1
60

42.3 km / hr
ii.

fn.x

52.42 km / hr
iv.

Class 4: Heavy trucks and buses

f1 2870

n1
60
47.83 km / hr

f4.x
17
22
27
256
333
462
282
208
114
372
335
360
82

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
6.0

CALCULATION & RESULT

(1).
i.

Class 1: Motorcycles

iii.

Class 3: Vans and medium

trucks
Mean speed

= 42.3 42 km/hr

Mean speed

= 52.42 52 km/hr

Maximum speed = 91 km/hr

Maximum speed = 92 km/hr

Minimum speed = 10 km/hr

Minimum speed = 11 km/hr

ii.

Class 2: Cars

iv.

Class 4: Heavy trucks and

buses
Mean speed

= 41.03 41 km/hr

Mean speed

= 47.83 48 km/hr

Maximum speed = 77 km/hr

Maximum speed = 84 km/hr

Minimum speed = 18 km/hr

Minimum speed = 19 km/hr

Comment:
From the data, we obtained the mean speed, maximum speed and the minimum speed for
motorcycles, cars, van and medium trucks and heavy trucks or buses. We are noticed that the
mean speed for class 1 (Motorcycle) is 42 km/hr, class 2 (Cars) is 41 km/hr, class 3 (Vans &
medium Trucks) is 52 km/hr and class 4 (Heavy trucks and Buses) is 48 km/hr. the highest
mean speed is car which is 52 km/hr. It has shown that many vehicle are obey the speed limit
which is 60 km/hr. However, the vans and medium trucks have the highest of maximum speed.
It was dangerous for all either motorist, pedestrians and cyclist. 48 heavy vehicles and maybe
more than that was trough along UTHM Fujitsu section of road for one hour. No protection
and storage lane provides can influence the accident occur.

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
(2).
(a)

Mean speed:

f x
n
11215

240
46.73 km / hr

mean speed

(b)

Median speed:

2 fL

C
median speed L
fm

240

2 122

5
44.5
34

44.21 km / hr

(c)

Mode speed:

(60 64) km/hr which 44 vehicles

(d)

Standard deviation:

(refer at graph 2)

Standard deviation

fx
( f x ) 2

n 1 n(n 1)
582775
(11215) 2

240 1 240(240 1)

49.37km / hr
Estimate standard deviation

P85 P15 74.5 46.5

14km / hr
2
2

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
MEDIAN SPEED

Speed Class
(km/h)
10 14
15 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 29
30 - 34
35 -39
40 - 44
45 - 49
50 - 54
55 - 59
60 - 64
65 - 69
70 - 74
75 - 79
80 - 84
85 - 89
90 - 94

Lower limit
(km/hr)
9.5
14.5
19.5
24.5
29.5
34.5
39.5
44.5
49.5
54.5
59.5
64.5
69.5
74.5
79.5
84.5
89.5

Class frequency,
f
5
3
5
11
22
34
42
34
20
11
18
12
9
8
2
2
2

Cumulative class
frequency
5
8
13
24
46
80
122
156
176
187
205
217
226
234
236
238
240

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

fL

fm

Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
MEDIAN SPEED
Speed
Class
(km/h)
10 14
15 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 29
30 - 34
35 -39
40 - 44
45 - 49
50 - 54
55 - 59
60 - 64
65 - 69
70 - 74
75 - 79
80 - 84
85 - 89
90 - 94
n = 240

Class
Midpoint,
x (km/h)
12
17
22
27
32
37
42
47
52
57
62
67
72
77
82
87
92
= 11215

144
289
484
729
1024
1369
1764
2209
2704
3249
3844
4489
5184
5929
6724
7569
8464
= 582775

Class
frequency,
f
5
3
5
11
22
34
42
34
20
11
18
12
9
8
2
2
2

fx

fx2

60
51
110
297
704
1258
1764
1598
1040
627
1116
804
648
616
164
174
184

720
867
2420
8019
22528
46546
74088
75106
54080
35739
69192
53868
46656
47432
13448
15138
16928

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY
7.0 DISCUSSION
From this spot speed study, we are known for traffic operation establishing speed limits,
determining safe speed at approaches to intersections. The road along Batu Pahat - Kluang
highway was very dangerous and must take action to avoid the accident. Looks on the
finding, Mean speed, maximum speed and minimum speed of each class is determined by
using form SS2. The speed limit of this two lane highway is 60km/hr. Each of the mean
speed of class vehicles gives the different speed. Which the class 1 is 63 km/hr, class 2 is 74
km/hr, class 3 is 60 km/hr and class 4 is 60 km/hr. The higher mean speed is at class 2 and
the lower mean speed is class 3 & 4.
Based on the mean speed for class 2 that we found, it seems the speed is over the speed
limit. There are cause by a few factor that can be influence such as, the road itself give the
access for drive fast. Since the lane is straight then there are less of traffic lights there and
the warning sign, so there is nothing to slow down the speed. Furthermore, the way of
pavement there is still in good condition without any distress or deformation so there are no
problem will be occurred when drive in fast. For the lower mean speed is class 3 & 4
because there are always must be take care of small vehicle like motorcycle. Like what we
known, they are main factor for accident occur at there. Since that, the driver of heavy
vehicles always is alert by driving carefully then slow down their vehicle speed. Base on
analysis we found that the standard deviation of this road according our observation we got
16.74 km/hr, estimate standard deviation is 14 km/hr and the pace were in range 59 km/hr
and 69 km/hr. The 85th percentile speed as obtained from the cumulative frequency
distribution curve shown is 74.5 km/hr. It means that is a good guideline for the appropriate
speed limit for that road and it indicates that the speed most of the motorists on the road to
considered safe and reasonable under ideal condition. So, we must follow the suggestion
that was told in comment part.

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY

8.0 CONCLUSION
The objectives of this survey are to determine the speed characteristics of traffic at the
location and to justify the problem of speeding at the location. From this experiment, we can
be concluded that speeding is a problem at this location and may have contributed to road
accidents which have occurred at this location.
This is supported by the results of the finding which show that mean, median, pace and 85 th
percentile speeds have all exceeded the 60 km/hr speed limit. In addition, about 27.5% of the
drivers drive at speed between 59 km/hr to 69 km/hr and 85% of them drive at 74.5 km/h or
below. All of this were above the maximum allowable speed and can be increased the
number of an accident. In addition, 50% of the driver we detected to have driven over the
speed limit.

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department :

Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering


Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY

9.0 REFERENCES

1. Traffic engineering and safety, BFC 2082 , Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
2. Nicholars J. Garber; Lester A.Hoel; Traffic & Highway Engineering (3 rd Edition),
University of Virginia, 1995.
3. Paul H.wright & Radnor J.Paquette; Higway Engineering (5 th Edition), Georgia
Institute of Technology, 1979.
4. Bent Tagesen; Highway Engineering & Traffic (1st Edition), Technical University of
Denmark.
5. www.wikipedia.com

Faculty:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Department :
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering
Title:
SPOT SPEED STUDY