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# Final Exam Study Guide -

Spring 2016

## Chapters 8 & 9 - Stoichiometry

1. How is molar mass calculated? What is it used for?
2. What observable changes indicate that a reaction has occurred?
Energy is absorbed or released as chemical energy
Production of gas
Formation of precipitate(solid)
Color change
3. Name and describe the five types of chemical reactions. Give an example of
each.

## Synthesis Reaction~ A+XAX

Decomposition~ AXA+X
Single displacement~ A+BXAX+B (or vice versa)
Double displacement~ AX+BYAY+BX (or vice versa)
Combustion~ CXHY+O2CO2+H2O

2K+I22KI
2H2O2H2+O2
3Fe+4H2OFe3O4+4H2
HCl+NaOHNaCl+H2O
C3H8+O23CO2+4H2O

4. Use the activity series to determine whether or not the following reactions will
occur. If they do, complete the chemical equation. If not, write NR.
a. _____ Ca(OH)2 + _____ HF
b. _____ Pb(NO3)2 + _____ K2CrO4
c. _____ AgNO3 + _____ Na2CO3
d. _____ C2H6 + _____ O2
5. Explain the concept of a mole ratio. Where do the numbers come from for this
ratio?
A amount in moles of any 2 substances involved in a chemical reaction
Use coefficients in in balanced equation.
6. Given the following chemical equation, determine the molar mass of each
substance:
Molar mass= mass of ONE mole of substance
Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 2NaOH
+ CaCO3
7. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) reacts with sodium hydroxide to produce sodium sulfate and
water.
a. Write the balanced equation for this reaction
b. What mass of H2SO4 would be required to react with 0.75 mol of NaOH?
c. What mass of each product is formed by this reaction?
8. How many oxygen atoms are there in 9.72 g of calcium carbonate?

9. For each reaction below, complete and balance the equation and determine the
limiting reactant:
a. 2 moles of Hydrogen chloride + 2.5 moles sodium hydroxide
b. 2.5 moles of Zinc + 6.0 moles of Hydrogen chloride
1

c. 4.0 mol iron (III) hydroxide + 6.5 moles sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
10.

## What is percent yield? How is it calculated?

11.
Calculate the missing value:
a. Theoretical yield = 20.0 g; actual yield = 15.0 g; percent yield = ?
b. Theoretical yield = 1.0 g; percentage yield = 90%; actual yield = ?
12.
The % yield of the reaction PCl3 + Cl2 PCl5 is 83.2%. What mass of PCl5 is
expected from the reaction of 73.7 g PCl3 with excess chlorine?
Chapter 11 - Gases
13.
What causes a gas to exert pressure?
Elastic collision- collision between gas particles and the walls of their container.
14.
What are the measurements of STP (standard temp and pressure) ?
1 atm and 0 celsius
15.
How are the measurements of mm Hg and torr related?
1 mmHg = 1 torr
16.
What is molar volume? Under what conditions is it used in calculations?
The volume occupied by 1 mole of any gas at STP
1 mole=22.4 L
17.
What is Absolute Zero (as a temperature, as related to degrees Celsius, and
as related to particle energy/motion)
273.15C = 0 K

18.
What is Daltons Law? How is it applied to gases that are collected by
water displacement?
19.
Write the formula, relationship between variables, and units required for each
gas law. (Boyles, Charles, Gay-Lussacs, Avogadros, Combined, and Ideal)
Pressure and volume : Boyle's law
Temp and volume : charles law
Volume and moles : avogadro's law
Pressure and temp : gay-lussac's law
Temp, volume, and pressure : combined gas law
PV=nRT ideal gas law
( P=atm V=litters T=kelvin R=0.0821[ideal gas constant]
n=mole)
20.
The volume of a gas is 115.0 L at 1 atm and 25 oC. What volume will it occupy
if the temperature is decreased to 5 oC and pressure is decreased to 0.50 atm?

21.
If I have an unknown quantity of gas at a pressure of 782 torr, a volume of
20.5 L and a temperature of 35 oC, how many moles of the gas are there? If the gas
has a molar mass of 98 g/mol, what is its total mass?
22.
A sample of gas is collected over water at 25 oC when the barometric pressure
reading is 770 mm Hg. What is the partial pressure of the dry gas? (vapor pressure
of water at 25oC = 23.8 torr)
Chapters 12 & 13 - Solutions
23.
List and differentiate between the three types of mixtures.
Solution-homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances
Colloid -particles that intermate
Suspension-forms when large particles of a solute are suspended in the solvent
24.
Differentiate between unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated
solutions.
unsaturated

saturated

supersaturated solutions

## Less than max solute

under same conditions

conditions

## More than max solute

under same conditions

25.
What three factors influence the rate at which a solute dissolves in a
solvent?
Surface area
Agitation
Heating
26.
Explain the rule of like dissolves like in terms of polar and nonpolar
substances.
Predicts whether a solute will dissolve in one another
Depends on:
Type of bonding
Polarity dissolves in polar things /nonpolarity dissolves in nonpolar thing
Intermolecular forces between solvent and solute
27.
How many grams of water would I need to make a saturated solution with
18.0 g of KNO3 at 20 oC. The solubility of KNO3 is 31.6g/100g H2O at 20 oC.
28.
What is the Molarity of a solution that contains 25.0 g of NaCl dissolved in
0.75 L of water
29.
What are colligative properties? Give four examples.
Properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but their identity
Properties:
Vapor-pressure lowering
Freezing point lowering
Boiling point elevation
3

Osmotic pressure
30.
a. Write
b. Write
c. Write

Aqueous solutions of potassium phosphate and lead (II) nitrate are combined.
the balanced chemical equation for this reaction
the overall ionic equation for this reaction.
the net ionic equation for this reaction.

31.
If 10.0 g of a solute that has a molar mass of 121.25 g/mol were dissolved in
50 g of camphor, what would be the resulting freezing point of the solution? The
normal freezing point for camphor is 178.8 oC and the Kf = -39.7 oC/m.

32.
Why do electrolytes have a greater influence on colligative
properties?
More moles of dissolved particles are produced and there is a higher concentration
33.
How many moles of ions are formed by the dissolution of the following
compounds:
a. NaBr
b. MgI2
c. Li3PO4
d. (NH4)2CO3
Chapters 14 & 15 Acids and Bases
34.
What are the general properties of acids and bases?
acids : sour taste, react with active metals and releases hydrogen gas
Base: bitter taste, slippery feel
Both: change color in a acid-base indicator,conduct electric current, produces salt
and water
35.
Differentiate between oxyacids and binary acids and explain the rules used
to name them.
Oxyacid-compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element
Root ending

-Ide
-ate

-ic acid

-ite

-ous acid

## Binary acid- contain 2 elements (HCl)

hydro-_______
36.
What formulas are used to calculate each of the following:
a. molarity from [H3O+] or [OH-]
b. pH from [H3O+]
c. [H3O+] from pH
d. [H3O+] from [OH-]
4

37.
If an HBr solution has a [H3O+] of 2.4 x 10-4, what is the pH? What is the
molarity of the solution?

38.

## What is the pH of a NaOH solution with a concentration of 0.10 M?

39.
Differentiate between the three acid-base theories Arrhenius, BrnstedLowry, and Lewis. Include their definitions for acids and bases and examples.
Acids

base

Arrhenius

A compound that
increases the
concentration of H ions in
an aq solution

A compound that
increases the
concentration of
hydroxide ions OH in an
aq solution

Bronsted-lowry

A molecule/ion that is a
proton donor

A molecule/ion that is a
proton acceptor

lewis

An atom,ion, or molecule
that except an electron
pair to form a covalent
bond

An atom,ion, or molecule
that donates an electron
pair to form a covalent
bond

40.
Write the reaction equation between hydrofluoric acid and water to form
fluoride and hydronium ions. Identify the Brnsted-Lowry acid, base, conjugate
acid, and conjugate base.
41.
Write the formula equation for the synthesis of potassium ions and nitrate
ions. Identify the Lewis acid and base.
42.
Write the formula equation for the reaction of ammonia and water. Explain
why ammonia is both a Brnsted-Lowry and an Arrhenius base in this example.
43.
Why is water an amphoteric compound? Write equations to show this.
amphoteric : and species that can react as either an acid or base
44.
Write the formula equation and net ionic equation for the neutralization
reaction that occurs when HCl and KOH are combined.
45.
How is the strength of acids and bases related to their strength as
electrolytes?
Strong acids: ionize completely in aq solutions
Strong Base: dissociate completely (strong electrolytes)
5

## Chapter 16 Reaction Energy

46.
What is thermochemistry?
Study of the transfers of energy as heat that accompanies chemical reactions and
physical changes
47.
What two factors allow chemists to make predictions about whether a
reaction will occur spontaneously or not?
Change in energy
Randomness of the particles
48.

## When is a chemical change most likely to occur?

49.
Distinguish between temperature and heat.
Temp:measure of average kinetic energy
Heat: energy transferred between objects
50.
Write the formula for calculating the energy required to increase the
temperature of a substance.
51.
If 73.2 g of water [specific heat = 4.184 J/(goC)] at 25oC absorbs 592 J of
energy, what will its final temperature be?
52.
Calculate the energy needed to raise the temperature of 180.0g of water from
0.0oC to 100.0oC.
53.
Aluminum has a specific heat of 0.900 J/(g oC). How much energy in kJ is
needed to raise the temperature of a 12.5 g sheet of aluminum from 20.2oC to
65.0oC?
54.
What enthalpy values are associated with endothermic and exothermic
reactions?
55.
The products in a reaction have an enthalpy of 458 kJ/mol, and the reactants
have an enthalpy of 658 kJ/mol. What is the value of H for this reaction? Is this
reaction endothermic or exothermic?
56.
The enthalpy of combustion of acetylene gas is -1301.1 kJ/mol of C2H2. Write
the balanced thermochemical equation for the complete combustion of C2H2.

57.
For the following reaction: C (s) + 2H2 (g) CH4 (g) + 59.0 kJ
a. identify the H
b. Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic?
58.
Rewrite the equation with the H value included with either the reactants or
the products, and identify the reaction is endothermic or exothermic.
6

## 3CO (g) + Fe2O3

59.

(s)

2Fe

(s)

H0 = - 24.7 kJ/mol

+ 3CO2 (g)

## What is Hesss Law?

60.
What is entropy? Explain by relating entropy to energy changes and the
kinetic molecular theory by describing the entropy level of solids, liquids, and gases.
A measure of the degree of randomness of the particles in a system
@ absolute zero enthalpy is 0
Solids: low enthalpy
Liquids:higher enthalpy
Gas: highest enthalpy
61.
Give several examples of increases in entropy.
Forming solutions= increasing enthalpy
62.
Write the formula for determining free energy and explain what factors
influence the spontaneity of a chemical reaction.
negative=spontaneous
Positive=spontaneous

Exothermic (-)

Always negative

Exothermic (-)

Endothermic (+)

## Negative at higher temps

Endothermic (+)

Never negative

63.
Calculate the free energy change for the following equation for the
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at 25oC and identify the reaction as
spontaneous or nonspontaneous.
2H2O2 (l) 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)
H = -196.0 kJ/mol
S = +125.9 J/(molK)
64.
For a certain process at 300.0 K, G = -98.0 kJ/mol and H = -103.9 kJ/mol.
Find the entropy change (S) for this process.
65.
For the vaporization of bromine, H = 31.0 kJ/mol and S = 93.0 J/(molK).
Write the thermochemical equation for this process. At what temperature will this
process be spontaneous?