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PART 2:Open Ended narrative is a piece of narrative

which has no real sense of ending and could technically

speaking continue forever. We usually see this with many
of the soaps available to UK television e.g. Coronation
Street, Hollyoaks, Emmerdale etc. Although this allows
the viewer to gain a more strong connection and
understanding of each character, the events which take
place can in many ways become very repetitive, so the
script writers job is to make each episode and series as
diverse possible in order to avoid repetition. It is quite
common for open ended narrative to contain more than
one storyline in order to keep the viewers intrigued. In
Open Ended Narrative time is more chronological and it is
more in tune with the real world in order to give as best a
performance as possible.

Closed Narrative contrasts strongly with Open Ended

Narrative. In this particular style of Narrative, the viewer
is watching and is constantly aware of a likely end

throughout. This often allows the viewer to make

assumptions about a certain character fate for example:
an untimely demise or perhaps two characters fall in love
and move away together. Closed narrative is most
common in films. The viewers often make verdicts such
as who is 'The Hero' and who is 'The Villain', although
these assumptions are made, viewpoints can often be
changed by the end of the film. This is achieved through
the implementation of a plot twist. An example of a film
with a 'Closed Narrative' is 'The notebook'. The end in
this film is made very clearly by the demise of both of the

A Serial Narrative is more common in literature than film.

However, Serial Narrative is when there is one large piece
of work and it is released in instalments, in film this is
achieved through the form of: sequels, prequels, trilogies

etc. For example a very famous form of Serial Narrative is

the Harry Potter Franchise. With 8 films released as part
of this franchise, we can see that is very popular and we
can also see that Serial Narrative is very affective. The
Harry Potter franchise was established as a famous series
of books before it was transformed into a reputable series
of films. This reinstates the fact that Serial Narrative is
much more common in literature.

- Crime Drama is one of the many sections of genres. It is
important to understand that within genres there are
specific rules and guidelines set in place and when these
'rules or guidelines' are broken, the piece enters into a
sub genre such 'Crime Drama'. In this particular genre it
focuses mainly on the life and inner workings of a

particular criminal, in this genre, the aim is to often delve

into the unhinged mind of criminals, how this is depicted
depends completely on the particular criminal; their
mannerisms, their crimes, their looks, their actions, their
particular benevolent behaviours. An example of a crime
drama is: The Godfather, this clearly depicts the life of
the leader of a Mafia and gives a brutally honest
portrayal of the lifestyle. In crime drama the criminal can
be either fiction or non-fiction.

The 'Comedy' genre is very vast and is often in very high

demand, with many different actors and comedians
leading the way and allowing this genre to be one of the
most popular styles of film in todays society. In comedy
films we see a very light hearted tone, with the main
intention of the film being to make the audience laugh,

comedy films are usually based towards a teenage

audience, depending on the maturity of the content of
course. Adam Sandler is a very well known comedy actor.
The film Grown Ups is a fine example of comedic film.
Viewers will laugh throughout the duration of this film.
Comedy films often use traits, such as sarcasm and
randomness to retrieve laughs from the viewers.

'Reality TV' is a highly criticised genre. It is ridiculed for

its lack of 'reality' as often many of the reality TV shows
are heavily scripted. However it may be argued that real
life is simply not as interesting as a script and pre
planned events, they also argue that it would be much
too boring and the viewers would struggle to remain
engaged. Reality TV is where real people and real lives
are documented to form a film or a television series,

purely for the entertainment of the public. There are

many 'Reality' TV shows available in the UK at the
moment: Made In Chelsea, The Only Way is Essex and
Geordie Shore. The Only Way is Essex focuses on a group
of people based in Essex, and the programme shows
there daily lives and their friendships between each
other. However it is often thought that many of the
friendships and relationships which are part of the show
are fiction and they are only created for the enjoyment of
the viewer. This is often heavily debated amongst

Analytical Approaches:
- 'Audience profiling' falls under the category of Analytical
Approaches. Audience Profiling is the process of

determining your target audience. Factors to pay

attention to while determining the target audience
include: Gender, age, sexuality, interests etc. There are
many other factors which can be included in this process,
but it is most commonly understood that the most
important contributing factors are: Age and interests.
Audience profiling is done before anything else in order
to determine the content of your film and also the age
rating. This is arguable the most important part of a
'Audience analysis' is rather similar to the process of
audience profiling. Audience analysis is the act of pre
determining your audience so that the content created is
suitable and does not show any biased which might
offend your audience. This is decided but looking at
factors such: ethnicity and gender.

Types Of Reading:
'Preferred Reading' is when the audience/viewers
respond to a product in a way which the
creators/producers wanted them to respond or how they
expected them to respond. This can be in a simple way
such as, they where expected to like the film and they

did. However it can be much more complex than this, it

can be the expectations of analytical film rating, too the
expectations of a possible debate or controversy which
stems from the creations of the product. Although
controversy is often not desirable, it can sometimes be
good as it draws publicity to the product which will
expand the audience which see's the product.
'Negotiated Reading' is when the audience somewhat
agrees with the product(documentary, film etc.), but they
see some issues in the overall piece which they believe
could be improved this could be: the choice of actor, the
script, the camera work etc.
'Oppositional Reading' is when the audience completely
disagree with the product and do not believe it is a good
piece of work. Usually when the member of the audience
feels this way they will give the film a low rating or they
will file a complaint or perhaps even write a review on the
film. This problem can sometimes occur when
controversial issues are tackles through the form of film,
there will usually always be a conflict of opinions when
dealing with real world issues or even sometimes fictional



Books from the NWRC Library

Specification on assignment brief

- Ronan McWilliams NDY1