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Communication Arts I | Module I

prepared by: Mrs. Josephine S. Valdez


NAME:

Cr/Yr/Sec:

Learning outcomes:
1.
2.
3.
Introduction

There are eight families in English grammar.


1.
2.
3.
4.

Noun
Verb
Adjective
Adverb

5.
6.
7.
8.

Pronoun
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection

9.
10. Noun a noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. A noun names one person or more than one person.
11.
12.
Gerlie one person
13.
Boys more than one person
14.
Daddy one person
15.
Sons more than one person
16.
17. A noun also names one place or more than one place:
18.
19.
City one place
20.
Highland one place
21.
Countries more than one place
22.
Holy land one place
23.
Homes more than one place
24.
25. A noun also names one thing or more than one thing:
26.
27.
Books more than one thing
28.
Cakes more than one thing
29.
Tire one thing
30.
Dog one thing
31.
Chairs more than one thing
32.
33. A noun can also name an idea:
34.
35.
Freedom an idea
36.
Kindness an idea
37.
Faith an idea
38.
Neatness an idea
39.
Love an idea
40.
Truth an idea
41.
Hope an idea
42.
Contentment an idea
43.
44.
45. TWO TYPES OF NOUN:
46.
47.
Common noun name any person, palace, thing or idea

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.

Proper noun name a special person, place, or thing

COMMON NOUN
Boy
Friend
Mother
Country
Ocean
Teacher

PROPER NOUN
Ben
Jonathan
Maria
Philippine
Pacific ocean
Mr. Custudio

EXERCISES:
In this paragraph, underline the common noun once and the proper nouns twice. -You will find 17 common nouns
and 12 proper nouns-

63.
64. All men desire freedom. Many fathers and sons have fought so that people might have the privilege to be free.
When the Declaration of Independence was signed in America on July 4, 1776, many bells were rung, including
what is now called the Liberty Bell. It can no longer be rung because it has a crack, but many visitors see it each
year. The Liberty Bell is now kept near Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Have you ever visited
that city? Words from the Bible are written on the bell. This unusual object is a symbol of freedom to all
Americans. God has blessed the country of America.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.

Nouns may be singular. Singular means one


Nouns may be plural. Plural means more than one
When a noun ends in s, x, sh, or ch, we add es to make it plural
When a noun ends with f or fe, we sometimes change the f or fe to v and add es
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.

79.
80.
81.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Example:
Leaf- leaves
Knife- knives
Self- selves
Loaf- loaves
Shelf- shelves

Exercise:
Calf Wharf Half Life Beef Wife Sheaf Wolf Elf Knife Leaf -

82.
83. When a noun ends in y with a consonant before it, we change the y to i and add es.
84.
85. Example
86.
87.
Story= stories
88.
Family= families
89.
Enemy= enemies
90.
University= universities
91.
92. Exercise:
93.
1. Capillary 2. Community 3. Missionary 4. Hatchery 5. Grocery 6. Factory -

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Story Country Spy Baby Ability Sky City -

94.
95. When a noun ends in y with a vowel before it, we add s to make it plural.
96.
97. Example
98.
99.
Monkey= monkeys
100.
Journey= journeys
101.
Bay= bays
102.
Alloy= alloys
103.
Boy= boys
104.
105.
Exercise:
106.
1. Key 2. Essay 3. Birthday 4. Tray 5. Buoy 6. Way 7. Decoy 8. Blue jay 9. Joy 10. Highway 11. Abbey 12. Donkey 13. Pulley 14. Day 107.
108.
To make some nouns plural, we must change the spelling.
109.
110.
Example
111.
112.
Write the plural noun for each of these singular nouns.
113.
114.
Child= children
115.
Man= men
116.
Ox= oxen
117.
Woman= women
118.
Mouse= mice
119.
Foot= feet
120.
Tooth= teeth
121.
Goose= geese
122.
Children 123.
Geese 124.
Feet 125.
Men 126.
Women 127.
Teeth 128.
Exercise:
129.
130.
Write the plural noun for each of these singular nouns.
131.
1. Mouse 2. Foot 3. Woman 4. Tooth 5. Man 6. Child 7. Goose 8. Ox 132.
133.
The spelling of some nouns is the same for both the singular and plural
134.
135.
Trout

136.
Sheep
137.
Deer
138.
Salmon
139.
Moose
140.
141.
A word which shows action is called verb.
142.
143.
For example
144.
She thought about a better time.
Ester loved her kind relative.
Ester received kindness from others.
He knows how to lead a person to the Lord.
We need to study hard.
145.
146.
LEARN THE RULE!
147.
148.
Most verb show action
149.
150.
-Example151.
152.
ran
153.
jump
154.
see
155.
love
156.
157.
Some verbs show state of being
158.
159.
-Example160.
161.
Am
162.
Is
163.
Are
164.
Was
165.
Were
166.
167.
Use am, is, or was when you speak about one person place, or thing.
168.
Use are or were when you speak about two or more persons, places, or things.
169.
170.
171.
Example of state of being verb
172.
1. Pleasant word are as an honeycomb.
2. The Christians were a witness everywhere.
3. The Lord is gracious and full of compassion.
4. I am a student.
173.
174.

175.
176.
177.
178.
179.
180.
181.
182.
183.
184.
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
190.
191.
192.
193.

Some verbs show ownership.


-ExampleHas, have, had
She has the character of a righteous person.
I have Jesus Christ living in my heart.
Verbs have two principal parts.
-PRESENT AND PASTPresent = action now it is also the simple form of the verb.
Past = action already completed it is also ends in d or ed
Present

Past
Pray

194.

Cook

195.

Preach

196.

Play

197.

Listen

198.
199.
200.
201.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.
209.
210.

Some helping verb


Shall
Should
Will
Would
Can
Could
Other two principal parts
PRESENT PARTICIPLE = always ends in ing and has a state of being helping verb

211.

PAST PARTICIPLE= ends in ed and always has have, or had as a helping verb

212.
213.
214.

Exercise: Complete this chart.


215.

PR
ESENT
PARTICIPL
E

216.

PAST

217.

PRESENT
PARTICIPLE
ANSWERI

218.

1. Answer

219.

2. Stay

222.

220.
NG
223.

221.
D
224.

3. Float

225.

226.

227.

4. Fix

228.

229.

230.

5. Share

231.

232.

233.

6. Farm

234.

235.

236.

7. Own

237.

238.

239.

8. Open

240.

241.

242.

9. Warm

243.

244.

245.

10. Need
249.
250.

246.

247.

248.

PAST
PARTICIPLE
ANSWERE

251.
When these verbs are helping verbs, they are singular.
252.
253.
Does
254.
Has
255.
Is
256.
Was
257.
258.
When these verbs are helping verbs, they are plural.
259.
260.
Do
261.
Have
262.
Are
263.
Were
264.
265.
-Example266.
1. Mother does pray for me each day.
2. Revival is visiting to our church!
267.
268.
PLURAL
269.
1. The boys have helped Mr. Thompson today.
2. The flowers do look pretty!
270.
271.
LEARN THIS RULE!
272.
273.
The personal pronouns used as subjects are called the subjective case pronouns. Learn the information
in this chart.
274.
275.
SUBJECTIVE CASE
276.
277.
Singular
Plural
278.
279.
First person
I
We
280.
Second person
You
You
281.
Third person
He, She, It
They
282.
283.
Example
284.
285.
She only needed two.
286.
They would be care by God.
287.
You can learn to be flexible too.
288.
We have learned to obey our parents.
289.
I enjoyed the story of the widow.
290.
291.
LEARN THIS RULE
292.
293.
These personal pronouns are not used as subjects. They are used after the verb or verb phrase. They
answer the questions what or whom. We say they are in the objective case.
294.
295.
Objective case
296.
297.
SINGULAR
PLURAL
298.
299.
First person
Me
Us
300.
Second person
You
You
301.
Third person
Him, Her, It
Them
302.
303.
LEARN THIS RULE!
304.
305.
These pronouns show that something belongs to someone or something. These pronouns are used in the
possessive case.
306.
307.
Pronoun - can take a place of a noun.
308.
309.
Example - they, it, she, he, and we.
310.
311.
These indefinite pronouns as subjects need singular verbs.
312.
313.
Each
318.
Somebody
314.
One
319.
Nobody
315.
Either
320.
Everyone
316.
Neither
321.
Everybody
317.
Someone
322.
Anyone

323.
325.
326.
327.
328.
329.
330.
331.
332.
333.
334.
335.
336.
337.

Anybody
324.
Each is giving a short testimony of salvation.
Everyone enjoys the special song service at Christmas.
One of the men talks and the other draws a Bible picture.
Does anybody know what time it is?
Neither young nor old is outside of Gods love.
Everyone has sinned.

Another

These indefinite pronouns are the subject of plural verbs.


Both
Few
Several
Any

338.
339.
340.
341.

Others
Many
Most
All

342.
343.
344.
Example
345.
346.
1. Both the pastor and the song leader were at the meeting
347.
2. Several do want to get saved.
348.
3. The others are coming back soon.
349.
4. Any of the children may come
350.
5. Few of the green plants grow in the desert.
351.
352.
REMEMBER
353.
354.
This indefinite pronoun may be use in singular verbs showing how much use a plural verb showing how
many.
355.
356.
Another example of pronoun maybe uses a singular or plural verb.
357.
1. Some - some of the water in the stream is dry.
2. None - none of the fruit was ripe.
3. All - all of the drink is gone.
4. Any - any of you are welcome to stay.
358.
359.
VERB AGREEMENT
360.
361.
RULE NO. 1. A singular subject takes the singular verb. A plural subject takes the plural verb.
362.
RULE NO. 2. Two singular subjects connected by or require a similar verb.
363.
RULE NO. 3. Two singular subjects neither connected by either or neither nor require a singular verb.
364.
RULE NO. 4. The number is a number if preceded by the number it takes singular verb.
365.
366.
If preceded by a number it takes plural verb.
367.
368.
Example 1: The number of cars in the city is increasing.
369.
Example 2: A number of the cars in the city are increasing.
370.
371.
RULE NO. 5. When a singular subject is connected by or to a plural subject, the verb to the nearest
subject.
372.
373.
Example: The book or the magazines were taken by the student.
374.
375.
RULE NO. 6. When a singular subject and plural subject is connected by either or neither/nor the verb
agrees to the nearest subject.
376.
377.
Example: Either those house or that mansion is owned by Mr. Perez.
378.
379.
RULE NO. 7. As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected
by and.
380.
381.
Example: The players and the coach celebrate their victory.
382.
383.
RULE NO. 8. Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by the words such as along with, as
well as, or not, ignore these. Expressions when determining whether to a singular or plural verb.
384.
385.
Example: The shepherd along with sheep walks along the road.
386.
387.
PREPOSITION - a preposition is a linking word that relates its object to another word in the sentence.
388.
389.
The word or word group that the preposition introduces is its object.
390.
The name preposition (pre plus position) means place before Prepositions usually comes before another
word, usually noun, pronoun.
391.
392.

393.
394.
395.
396.
397.
398.
399.
400.
401.
402.
403.
404.
405.
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411.
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416.
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418.
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450.
451.
452.
453.
454.
455.
456.
457.
458.
459.
460.
461.
462.
463.
464.

Example:
who did you talk to?
To whom did you talk?
I talk to Jolm.
Preposition in reference to place in, at, on
In- used before large places, country, state, city, district, and town.
In- is also used before very small places and for stationary location.
-in the car
-in the corner of a room.
In- is used when the location is inside or enclosed or within.
Example:
In the living room
In the office
On is used before middle size places street corner
Example
Coast
Train
Plain
On the bus
It is also used for position above or in contact with the surface of another object.
On the 2nd floor
On the TV
At- at is used before numbers in addresses and for general locations.
At the airport
At work
At school
Since - is used with an event that happens first sometimes or continuously after another time.
Example= I havent seen him since last week.
For - is used with particular durations
Example= I havent taken a shower for two days.
By - is used with an act completed or to be completed by a certain time.
Example= she expects to finish writing the book by August.
By - to go past a place or to be situated nearby
Example
By our house
By your side
Of= relationship between part and whole.
Example= half of the group.
Adjectives can describe noun or a pronoun.
Three degrees of comparison
1. Positive degree describes one person or thing.
2. Comparative degree compares two persons or things.
3. Superlative degree compares three or more persons or things.

465.
466.
467.
468.
469.

Example:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Fast

Faster

Fastest

470.

Mild

Milder

Mildest

471.

Dry

Drier

Driest

472.

Clear

Clearer

Clearest

473.

Clean

Cleaner

Cleanest

474.

Warm

475.

Large

476.

Safe

477.

Cold

478.

High

479.

Tall

480.

Wise

481.

Firm

482.

Cool

483.
484.
485.
486.
487.
488.
489.
490.
491.
492.
493.
494.
495.
496.
497.
498.

Write the degree of comparison on the blank.


Gray Older Noblest Flat Fuller Free Heavier Irregular Comparison
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Far

Farther

Farthest

499.

Little

Less

Least

500.

Bad/Badly

Worse

Worst

501.

Good/Well

Better

Best

502.

Much/Many

More

Most

503.
504.
505.
506.
507.
508.
509.
510.
511.
512.
513.
514.
515.
516.
517.
518.
519.
520.
521.
522.
523.
524.
525.
526.
527.
528.

Adverb usually describes verbs. It can also describe an adjective or another adverb.
The adverbs how, when, where, and why ask questions.
The word not is always an adverb.
Example:
When will the books that Mother ordered arrive?
Are you doing well in your school?
A letter came from the missionaries yesterday?
Jesus is honored when we obey quickly.
Why did God send a flood?
Racer let Lea get her drink of water first.
The tree limb snapped sharply.
I know the answer is here through Lea.
The lonely child sang joyfully when he remembered God loved him.
Interjections express strong or sudden feeling. They are not needed to complete a sentence.
A strong interjection is followed by an exclamation point and capital letter.
A mild interjection is followed by just a comma.
Example
Oops! I dropped the basket of eggs.
Aha, I knew it!

529.
Three types of perfect tenses of verb
530.
531.
The Present perfect tense shows action that started in the past but is completed in the present.
532.
533.
Example
534.
535.
We have walked to Church.
536.
537.
The past perfect tense shows action that was completed by a certain time in the past.
538.
539.
Example
540.
541.
I had walked to church
542.
543.
The future perfect tense shows action that will be completed by a certain time in the future.
544.
545.
Example
546.
547.
They will have walked to church.
548.
549.
Activities
550.
551.
Draw two lines under the verb in each sentence. On the blank write present perfect, past perfect or
future perfect to indicate the tense of the verb.
552.
1. God has given boys and girls different talents.
2. He had inspired the inventors with new ideas.
3. Hopefully we shall have learned from their examples.
4. Have you noticed the courage of inventors?
5. Many times the public has laughed at them.
6. Scoffers had called Fultons steamboat Fultons Folly.
7. Successfully inventors will have profited from criticism.
8. They will have attempted the seemingly impossible.
9. Had the Wright brothers expected their plane to fly?
10. Had Samuel Morse believed in sending words by wire?
553.
554.
REMEMBER
555.
556.
Adding s or es to a noun makes it plural, adding s or es to a noun makes it plural, and adding s or es to a
verb makes it singular.
557.
558.
Example of adding s or es to a verb makes singular.
559.
1. Lydia smiles at her friend
2. The student asks a question to the teacher.
560.
561.
Adding s or es to noun makes it plural
562.
1. Plants need sunlight to grow strong.
2. The children grow in the farm.
563.
564.
Underline the subject noun once then underline all other nouns twice.
565.
1. The letter was read by the president of the Philippines.
2. Great sorrow filled his heart that day
3. A thought their came to the mind of the believer.
4. Only God could heal the heart of a person.
5. Pres. Aquino is the leader of our country.
566.
567.

568.
Write sentences using these words. Listed below are the subjects nouns.
569.
1. Wisdom 2. Love 3. Parents 4. Joy 5. Home 570.
571.
There are two lines under the verbs in each sentence. On the line write action if it is an action
verb. On the line write state of being if it is a state of being verb.
572.
1. We are to love one another.
2. A righteous man hates lying.
3. My son hear the instruction of thy father.
4. A mercy heart makes a happy face.
5. The law of the wise is a foundation of life.
6. The Lord gives wisdom.
7. The Lord knows the thoughts of man.
8. Who was the first President.
9. I am a soul winner.
10. We were to serve others.
573.
574.
Underline the correct form of the irregular verb in each sentence.
575.
1. Mother is (tell, telling) her daughter a cartoon story.
2. She has not (told, tell) it before.
3. My classmates has (wore, worn) her new dress.
4. She (wore, worn) it yesterday.
5. Is she (wearing, wear) it now?
6. Carlo (rode, ridden) a bike today.
7. Carlo (rides, ridden) horses often.
8. He is (ride, riding) now.
9. He has (eaten, ate) all the food.
10. Jesus (gave, given) his life to us.
576.
577.
In the following sentences underline the subject noun once and the verb twice. Write singular if
the noun and verb are singular, write plural if the noun and verb are plural.
578.
1. Grandma lives on a dairy farm.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Caterpillars sometimes turn into butterflies.


Buses carry heavy loads in the desert.
Ben does each task joyfully.
The men were discussing the lesson.
Are the girls taking those flowers?
The old woman is visiting her grandchildren at their home.
A woman lost her ring.
Mother has homemade bread in the oven.
Our bodies are temples of the Lord.

579.
580.

581.
Draw two lines under the verb in each sentence. On the blank write present perfect, past perfect
or future perfect to indicate the tense of the verb.
582.
1. He had given boys and girls different talents.
2. Hopefully we shall have learned from their example.
3. They will have attempted the seemingly impossible.
4. God has given us special talent.
5. Many times the people has laughed at them.
6. Had Samuel believed in sending word by were.
7. Have you experienced a serious problem.
8. Successful inventors will have profited from criticism.
9. Who has ever turned a problem into an opportunity.
10. Had the wright brothers expected their plane to fly.
583.
584.
A word has been underlined. On the line write pronoun or adjectives to identify its use.
585.
1. Every night fathers calls us for family devotions.
2. All of us are learning about life from Gods point of view.
3. Father carefully explains several principles.
4. We discuss those that we dont understand.
5. Just a few minutes in Gods word are blessing.
6. Most of the time we kneel to pray.
7. We tell the Lord exactly what promises to claim.
8. Many of our problems disappears as we pray together.
9. No one wants to miss even one devotion time.
10. We are learning which promises to claim.
586.
587.
588.

589.