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2015

EEE 312
Electronic Circuits
BJT AC Analysis

Lecture 7
March 02, 2015

COMPLETE HYBRID EQUIVALENT MODEL

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COMPLETE HYBRID EQUIVALENT MODEL

Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


An operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a very high gain
differential amplifier with high input impedance and low output
impedance. Typical uses of the operational amplifier are to
provide voltage amplitude changes (amplitude and polarity),
oscillators, filter circuits, and many types of instrumentation
circuits. An op-amp contains a number of differential amplifier
stages to achieve a very high voltage gain.

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)

Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Double-Ended Output

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Common-Mode Operation

Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT

If an input signal is applied


to either input with the other
input connected to ground,
the operation is referred to as
single-ended.
If two opposite-polarity
input signals are applied, the
operation is referred to as
double-ended.
If the same input is applied
to both inputs, the operation
is called common-mode.

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT

In single-ended operation, a single input signal is applied. However, due


to the common- emitter connection, the input signal operates both
transistors, resulting in output from both collectors.

In double-ended operation, two input signals are applied, the difference


of the inputs resulting in outputs from both collectors due to the
difference of the signals applied to both inputs.

In common-mode operation, the common input signal results in opposite


signals at each collector, these signals cancelling, so that the resulting
output signal is zero. As a practical matter, the opposite signals do not
completely cancel, and a small signal results.

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT

The main feature of the differential amplifier is the very large gain when
opposite signals are applied to the inputs as compared to the very small
gain resulting from common inputs. The ratio of this difference gain to
the common gain is called common-mode rejection.

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (DC BIAS)

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (AC OPERATION)

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (AC OPERATION)

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (AC OPERATION)
Single Ended AC Voltage Gain

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (AC OPERATION)
Single Ended AC Voltage Gain

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT (AC OPERATION)
Double-Ended AC Voltage Gain

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Common-Mode Operation of Circuit

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Common-Mode Operation of Circuit

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Use of Constant-Current Source
A good differential amplifier has a very large difference gain
Ad, which is much larger than the common-mode gain Ac. The
common-mode rejection ability of the circuit can be
considerably improved by making the common-mode gain as
small as possible (ideally, 0). Larger RE, the smaller is Ac. One
popular method for increasing the ac value of RE is using a
constant-current source circuit.

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Current Mirrors (4.13)
The current mirror is a dc network in which the current
through a load is controlled by a current at another point in the
network. That is, if the controlling current is raised or lowered
the current through the load will change to the same level.

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Current Mirrors

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUITS (4.14)

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUITS
An ideal current source provides a constant current regardless of the
load connected to it. There are many uses in electronics for a circuit
providing a constant current at a very high impedance. Constant-current
circuits can be built using bipolar devices, FET devices, and a
combination of these components. There are circuits used in discrete
form and others more suitable for operation in integrated circuits.

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUITS
Bipolar Transistor Constant-Current Source

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUITS
Bipolar Transistor Constant-Current Source

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Basic Op-Amp

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Basic Op-Amp

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Basic Op-Amp

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Inverting Amplifier

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Noninverting Amplifier

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Unity Follower

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Summing Amplifier

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Integrator

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Summing Integrator

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


Differentiator

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Operational Amplifiers (Chapter 10)


DIFFERENTIAL AND COMMON-MODE OPERATION

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