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# 1

(1) In

f x : R R

## where the input and output are both real numbers.

(2) In Intermediate
variables such as

## Calculus, we study functions of several

f x , y : R 2 R or g x , y , z : R 3 R
where the output is still a real number.
(3) In Vector Calculus, we shall study functions of several
variables and with outputs in vectors such as

F x , y : R 2 R 2 or G x , y , z : R 3 R 3

## Sketching a surface in 3space

Common practice use CAS - a
network of mesh lines & colorizations
Trace mesh line obtained cut
surface with well chosen planes
Examine traces in planes parallel to
the coordinate axes: xy-plane; yzplane; xz-plane
3

EXAMPL 1
E

Slide 6

## 10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE

The graph of the equation
in three-dimensional space (where at least
one of a, b, c, d, e or f is nonzero) is referred

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Slide 8

The
most
familiar
sphere
the point (a, b, c).
A generalization of the
sphere
is the
ellipsoid:
2
2
2

x
y
z
2 2 1
2
a
b
c

## Two other types of

hyperboloid of one
sheet, given by an
equation
x 2 ofy 2the form:
z2

## and the hyperboloid of

two sheets, whose
2
2 the 2form
equation
has
x
y
z

10

## The elliptic paraboloid

is
another
type
of
equation has the form:
2

x
y
z 2 2
a
b

A
more
complicated
hyperbolic paraboloid,
given by y 2
x2

11

## The last type of quadric

surface is the elliptic
cone, which has an
equation of the form:
2
2
x
y
z2 2 2
a
b

12

11.7
EXAMPL 1
E

## TECHNIQUES FOR SKETCHING

Sketching a Surface

Slide 13

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

EXAMPL 1
E

Sketching a Surface

Solutio
nSince there are no xs in the equation, the
trace of the graph in the plane x = k is the
same for every k.
This is then a cylinder whose trace in every
plane parallel to the yz-plane is the parabola
z = y2.

Slide 14

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

EXAMPL 1
E

Sketching a Surface

Solutio
nDraw the trace in the yzplane and then make
several copies of the trace,
locating the vertices at
various points along the xaxis.
Finally, we connect the
traces with lines parallel to
the x-axis to give the

Slide 15

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

The most familiar
sphere
the point (a, b, c).
A generalization of the
sphere is the ellipsoid:

Slide 16

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching an Ellipsoid
EXAMPL 2
E
Graph the ellipsoid

Slide 17

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching an Ellipsoid
EXAMPL 2
E
Graph the ellipsoid
Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three

coordinate planes:
yz-plane (x = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
xz-plane (y = 0):
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Slide 18

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching an Ellipsoid
EXAMPL 2
E
Graph the ellipsoid
Solutio
n
traces to obtain the plot of
the ellipsoid.

Slide 19

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching an Ellipsoid
EXAMPL 3
E
Graph the ellipsoid
Solutio
nWe could use technology to obtain this plot
by solving for z and plotting the two
functions

## We could also plot the parametric equations

for this ellipsoid.
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Slide 20

EXAMPLE 3

SOLUTION

Slide 21

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Paraboloid
EXAMPL 4
E
Draw a graph of the quadric surface

Slide 23

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Paraboloid
EXAMPL 4
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes.
yz-plane (x = 0):
xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
Consider traces in the planes z = k, k > 0.
(
)
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Slide 24

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Paraboloid
EXAMPL 4
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nPutting the traces together,
we get a surface called a
paraboloid.
Since the traces in planes
parallel to the xy-plane are
circles, this is called a
circular paraboloid.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Slide 25

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Paraboloid
EXAMPL 4
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
2
2
Using
technology
to
graph
z
=
x
+
y
, we
n
may need to adjust the ranges on the
variables to obtain a reasonable graph.
We may also use parametric equations for the
paraboloid.

Slide 26

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching an Elliptic Cone
EXAMPL 5
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Slide 27

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching an Elliptic Cone
EXAMPL 5
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes.
yz-plane (x = 0):
(lines)
xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
origin)

(lines)
(point

Slide 28

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching an Elliptic Cone
EXAMPL 5
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nPutting the traces
together, we obtain the
surface shown.
Since the traces in
planes parallel to the xyplane are ellipses, we
refer to this as an
elliptic cone.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Slide 29

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching an Elliptic Cone
EXAMPL 5
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nWe could use technology to obtain this plot
by solving for z and plotting the two
functions
We could also plot the parametric equations
for this elliptic cone.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Slide 30

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Hyperboloid of One Sheet
EXAMPL 6
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Slide 31

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Hyperboloid of One Sheet
EXAMPL 6
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes.
yz-plane (x = 0):
xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
Consider traces in the planes z = k, k any
real number.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Slide 32

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Hyperboloid of One Sheet
EXAMPL 6
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nPutting the traces
together, we obtain the
surface shown.
We call this surface a
hyperboloid of one
sheet.

Slide 33

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Hyperboloid of One Sheet
EXAMPL 6
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nWe could use technology to obtain this plot
by solving for z and plotting the two
functions
We could also plot the parametric equations
for this hyperboloid of one sheet.

Slide 34

## 10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE

EXAMPL 6.7 Sketching a Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Slide 35

## 10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE

EXAMPL 6.7 Sketching a Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface
Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes.
yz-plane (x = 0):
possible)

(not

xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
Consider traces in the planes x = k, k any
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Slide 36

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
EXAMPL 7
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
2
If
k
< 4, the equation
n
has no solution.
So, for 2 < k < 2, the
surface has no trace at
all in the plane x = k,
leaving a gap that
separates the hyperbola
into two sheets; we call
this surface a

Slide 37

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
EXAMPL 7
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nWe could use technology to obtain this plot
by solving for z and plotting the two
functions
We could also plot the parametric equations
(left
for this hyperboloid of two sheets.

half)
(right
half)

Slide 38

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Hyperbolic Paraboloid
EXAMPL 8
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Slide 39

## 10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE

EXAMPL 6.8 Sketching a Hyperbolic Paraboloid
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface
Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes, k any real number.
yz-plane (x = k):
xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):

Slide 40

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Hyperbolic Paraboloid
EXAMPL 8
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface
Solutio
nWe begin by drawing the
traces in the xz- and yzplanes.

## Since the trace in the

xy-plane is the
degenerate hyperbola
2y2 = x2, we draw the
trace in several of the
planes z = k.

Slide 41

## 11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE

Sketching a Hyperbolic Paraboloid
EXAMPL 8
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface
Solutio
nFor k > 0, the traces in z
= k are
hyperbolas opening
toward the positive and
negative y-direction and
for k < 0, the traces are
hyperbolas opening
toward the positive and
We
refer to
this surface as a hyperbolic
negative
x-direction.
paraboloid.
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Slide 42

Homework:
Read and understand Examples 1 6
from the text book.
Try some of the odd numbered
questions from Chapter 11.7

## Example 2 (text book)

Hyperboloid of one sheet

## Example 3 (text book)

Hyperboloid of two sheets

Elliptic cone

46

## Example 5 (text book)

Elliptic Paraboloid

47

48

Slide 50

Slide 51

Slide 52

Slide 53