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(1) In

Beginning Calculus, we study functions of one variable


f x : R R

where the input and output are both real numbers.


(2) In Intermediate
variables such as

Calculus, we study functions of several

f x , y : R 2 R or g x , y , z : R 3 R
where the output is still a real number.
(3) In Vector Calculus, we shall study functions of several
variables and with outputs in vectors such as

F x , y : R 2 R 2 or G x , y , z : R 3 R 3

Sketching a surface in 3space


Plotting points not helpful
Common practice use CAS - a
network of mesh lines & colorizations
Trace mesh line obtained cut
surface with well chosen planes
Examine traces in planes parallel to
the coordinate axes: xy-plane; yzplane; xz-plane
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11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


EXAMPL 1
E

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Slide 6

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


Quadric Surfaces
The graph of the equation
in three-dimensional space (where at least
one of a, b, c, d, e or f is nonzero) is referred
to as a quadric surface.

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The
most
familiar
quadric surface is the
sphere
of radius r centered at
the point (a, b, c).
A generalization of the
sphere
is the
ellipsoid:
2
2
2

x
y
z
2 2 1
2
a
b
c

Two other types of


quadric surfaces are the
hyperboloid of one
sheet, given by an
equation
x 2 ofy 2the form:
z2

and the hyperboloid of


two sheets, whose
2
2 the 2form
equation
has
x
y
z

10

The elliptic paraboloid


is
another
type
of
quadratic surface, whose
equation has the form:
2

x
y
z 2 2
a
b

A
more
complicated
quadratic surface is the
hyperbolic paraboloid,
given by y 2
x2

11

The last type of quadric


surface is the elliptic
cone, which has an
equation of the form:
2
2
x
y
z2 2 2
a
b

12

11.7
EXAMPL 1
E

TECHNIQUES FOR SKETCHING


QUADRIC SURFACES
Sketching a Surface

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Slide 13

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


EXAMPL 1
E

Sketching a Surface

Solutio
nSince there are no xs in the equation, the
trace of the graph in the plane x = k is the
same for every k.
This is then a cylinder whose trace in every
plane parallel to the yz-plane is the parabola
z = y2.

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Slide 14

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


EXAMPL 1
E

Sketching a Surface

Solutio
nDraw the trace in the yzplane and then make
several copies of the trace,
locating the vertices at
various points along the xaxis.
Finally, we connect the
traces with lines parallel to
the x-axis to give the

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Slide 15

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Quadric Surfaces
The most familiar
quadric surface is the
sphere
of radius r centered at
the point (a, b, c).
A generalization of the
sphere is the ellipsoid:

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Slide 16

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching an Ellipsoid
EXAMPL 2
E
Graph the ellipsoid

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11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching an Ellipsoid
EXAMPL 2
E
Graph the ellipsoid
Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three

coordinate planes:
yz-plane (x = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
xz-plane (y = 0):
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Slide 18

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching an Ellipsoid
EXAMPL 2
E
Graph the ellipsoid
Solutio
n
We add the remaining two
traces to obtain the plot of
the ellipsoid.

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Slide 19

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching an Ellipsoid
EXAMPL 3
E
Graph the ellipsoid
Solutio
nWe could use technology to obtain this plot
by solving for z and plotting the two
functions

We could also plot the parametric equations


for this ellipsoid.
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Slide 20

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


EXAMPLE 3

SOLUTION

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11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Paraboloid
EXAMPL 4
E
Draw a graph of the quadric surface

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Slide 23

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Paraboloid
EXAMPL 4
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes.
yz-plane (x = 0):
xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
Consider traces in the planes z = k, k > 0.
(
)
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Slide 24

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Paraboloid
EXAMPL 4
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nPutting the traces together,
we get a surface called a
paraboloid.
Since the traces in planes
parallel to the xy-plane are
circles, this is called a
circular paraboloid.
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Slide 25

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Paraboloid
EXAMPL 4
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
2
2
Using
technology
to
graph
z
=
x
+
y
, we
n
may need to adjust the ranges on the
variables to obtain a reasonable graph.
We may also use parametric equations for the
paraboloid.

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Slide 26

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching an Elliptic Cone
EXAMPL 5
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

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Slide 27

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching an Elliptic Cone
EXAMPL 5
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes.
yz-plane (x = 0):
(lines)
xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
origin)

(lines)
(point

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Slide 28

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching an Elliptic Cone
EXAMPL 5
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nPutting the traces
together, we obtain the
surface shown.
Since the traces in
planes parallel to the xyplane are ellipses, we
refer to this as an
elliptic cone.
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Slide 29

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching an Elliptic Cone
EXAMPL 5
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nWe could use technology to obtain this plot
by solving for z and plotting the two
functions
We could also plot the parametric equations
for this elliptic cone.
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Slide 30

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Hyperboloid of One Sheet
EXAMPL 6
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

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Slide 31

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Hyperboloid of One Sheet
EXAMPL 6
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes.
yz-plane (x = 0):
xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
Consider traces in the planes z = k, k any
real number.
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Slide 32

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Hyperboloid of One Sheet
EXAMPL 6
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nPutting the traces
together, we obtain the
surface shown.
We call this surface a
hyperboloid of one
sheet.

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Slide 33

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Hyperboloid of One Sheet
EXAMPL 6
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nWe could use technology to obtain this plot
by solving for z and plotting the two
functions
We could also plot the parametric equations
for this hyperboloid of one sheet.

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Slide 34

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


EXAMPL 6.7 Sketching a Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

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Slide 35

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


EXAMPL 6.7 Sketching a Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface
Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes.
yz-plane (x = 0):
possible)

(not

xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):
Consider traces in the planes x = k, k any
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Slide 36

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
EXAMPL 7
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
2
If
k
< 4, the equation
n
has no solution.
So, for 2 < k < 2, the
surface has no trace at
all in the plane x = k,
leaving a gap that
separates the hyperbola
into two sheets; we call
this surface a

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Slide 37

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
EXAMPL 7
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

Solutio
nWe could use technology to obtain this plot
by solving for z and plotting the two
functions
We could also plot the parametric equations
(left
for this hyperboloid of two sheets.

half)
(right
half)

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Slide 38

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Hyperbolic Paraboloid
EXAMPL 8
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface

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Slide 39

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


EXAMPL 6.8 Sketching a Hyperbolic Paraboloid
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface
Solutio
nDraw the traces in the three coordinate
planes, k any real number.
yz-plane (x = k):
xz-plane (y = 0):
xy-plane (z = 0):

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Slide 40

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Hyperbolic Paraboloid
EXAMPL 8
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface
Solutio
nWe begin by drawing the
traces in the xz- and yzplanes.

Since the trace in the


xy-plane is the
degenerate hyperbola
2y2 = x2, we draw the
trace in several of the
planes z = k.

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Slide 41

11.7 SURFACES IN SPACE


Sketching a Hyperbolic Paraboloid
EXAMPL 8
EDraw a graph of the quadric surface
Solutio
nFor k > 0, the traces in z
= k are
hyperbolas opening
toward the positive and
negative y-direction and
for k < 0, the traces are
hyperbolas opening
toward the positive and
We
refer to
this surface as a hyperbolic
negative
x-direction.
paraboloid.
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Slide 42

Homework:
Read and understand Examples 1 6
from the text book.
Try some of the odd numbered
questions from Chapter 11.7

Example 2 (text book)


Hyperboloid of one sheet

Example 3 (text book)


Hyperboloid of two sheets

Example 4 (text book)


Elliptic cone

46

Example 5 (text book)


Elliptic Paraboloid

47

48

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


Summary of Quadric Surfaces

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Slide 50

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


Summary of Quadric Surfaces

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Slide 51

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


Summary of Quadric Surfaces

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Slide 52

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


Summary of Quadric Surfaces

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Slide 53

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


Summary of Quadric Surfaces

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Slide 54

10.6 SURFACES IN SPACE


Summary of Quadric Surfaces

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