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Bran drain is a phenomenon from which many countries

around the world suffer. It is widely defined as the departure
of highly qualified, talented, skilled and capable people from
one country to another; usually from developing and underdeveloped countries towards developed, economically and
socially advanced countries. This kind of emigration
enormously affects Africa and Latin America and benefits
Europe and North America due to the lack of balance and
the huge gap between the two regions in terms of social,
technological and economic growth.
Many causes push competent people to emigrate their
homelands. Usually, social and political instability stand
behind the flying of many capable people towards more
stable countries. However, these are not the only reasons.
There are other causes underlying this phenomenon. In this
respect, we can mention inequality, poverty, joblessness,
law pay jobs and lack of scientific research and effective
educational programs. There are many creative and
innovative minds in under-developed countries; but, because
of the states ignorance of them, they leave their countries
toward richer and healthier environments. To our
disappointment, instead of addressing the real problems and
reclaiming the lost human capital, many under-developed
countries recruit competencies from abroad.
How can the affected countries address this problem?
Well, I think that there is much to do. Providing a safe and
stable political and social environment is a big step towards
eliminating this kind of emigration. Besides, those countries
should convince and encourage their qualified human capital
to stay in the motherland. This can be achieved by offering
more job opportunities, tempting salaries and a productive
environment. Additionally, developing and under-developed
countries have to reform their educational programs, invest
money on scientific research. Moreover, politicians and

decision makers should concern themselves seriously with

citizens welfare and well-being.
With the phenomenon of brain drain unaddressed, the
gap between rich and poor countries is in a state of increase
rather than decrease.

Broadly speaking, culture refers to the acquired style of life of a
certain group of people. By this definition, this includes all material things
such as buildings, eating and clothing habits; and all non-material things
such as language, religious practices, values, customs and traditions.
Thus, culture is the opposite of nature. All learned things in life are by
definition cultural. All the things we do without learning them are natural.
For example, eating as an action is natural and it is shared by humans
and animals alike but, the way we eat (etiquette) and the way we prepare
food is cultural and this is restricted to humans alone. So, human beings
have culture but animals do not have culture.
As mentioned above, culture includes the values in which a
particular group believe. Values refer to the super-ethics, ideals or beliefs
that are considered to be true and guide the other cultural practices
within the group. There are values that are particular to this or that group
and there are values that are universal. Universal values include respect,
tolerance, co-existence, freedom and cooperation. Concepts such as
these help spread other values as love, peace and stability.
As it can be inferred then, there is no one culture but there are a lot
of culture. Accordingly, there is no true culture but there are true
cultures. Cultures differ but that difference should not be a factor of
conflict or clash. As we say, variety is the spice of life. The richness of
humanity comes from its rich, different cultural practices taken together.
As a matter of fact, what might be true for some may not be true for
others but that does not mean that someone is wrong. After all, groups of

people should understand, recognize and respect each others beliefs and
cultural practices in order to avoid what is called culture clashes.
The set of cultural issues and values of a nation defines its being. We
cannot talk about a nation, whatever it is, without mentioning its defining
characteristics. When I think of America for instance, the first things that
come to my mind are hard work, freedom and the American dream. These
super-ethics stand behind the great achievements of America and
Americans. Accordingly, the greatness of nations is determined by their
super values and cultural practices. If the values and cultural beliefs do
not stand as a blocking force to creativity and progression, the nation
easily finds its path towards development. However, if the opposite
exists, development would stumble. In a word, cultural issues and values
count a lot.


The word youth refers to people between the age of fifteen and
twenty-four. No one can deny the gifts of this age on the human being.









characteristics are intrinsic and inherent to the age of youth but they
need to be awaken and activated. Their activation depends on the
environment in which the young person live. If that environment is
helping and suitable, those gifts flourish and the young person grow
healthier and stronger and become creative, resourceful and innovative.
However, if life conditions are bad, the personality of the young person
would lack balance and power. Actually, many psychological problems
from which people suffer have their origin in the childhood and youth
Consequently, young people should be taken care of, encouraged,
empowered and reinforced by adults. If given the chance, they can take
part fully in social activities and programs. They can be resourceful in
implementing programs and policies and decision-making. They are and

can be productive, responsible citizens. They can solve problems

effectively and create projects and enterprises. They constitute a
complete efficient group capable of achieving a lot. They can endure hard
situations and follow their dreams to the end. They can make it.

As a matter of fact, todays young people are tomorrows

leaders and nations builders. Following that, every country should
take care of its young human capital. Decision makers should be
aware of the impact of such a capital on the future of their nations.
Accordingly, they have to carry out programs that involve young people
on the economic, social and cultural levels: educate them effectively;
listen to them; take their attitudes and opinions seriously; accomplish
their needs and give them chances to work out their potential abilities.

As mentioned above, a lot of energy and flexibility

characterizes the age between fifteen and twenty-four.
Consequently, why not test such young people and put them in
real situations of decision-making and responsibility taking? In a
word, investing in youth means building civilization