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Oxidation-Reduction

Reaction
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Oxidation-Reduction
Reaction
-Also known as redox reaction
- An electron transfer type of reaction
- In this reaction, an oxidation must
always be accompanied by a
reduction process, and all the
electrons released during oxidation
must be accepted during reduction.
Hence, this reaction is always
simultaneous.

Oxidation-Reduction
Reaction
Oxidation reaction refers to the
half-reaction that involves loss of
electron
Reduction reaction is a halfreaction that involves
gain of
2
electron
Example: 2Mg 2 + O
2MgO
2

2Mg
(oxidation)

2
-

2Mg + 4e

The substance that is oxidized is


called the reducing agent and the
substance that is reduced is called
the oxidizing agent.
Properties of Oxidizing and Reducing
Agents
Oxidizing Agent

Reducing Agent

Gains electrons

Loses electrons

Oxidation number
decreases

Oxidation number
increases

Becomes reduced

Becomes oxidized

Common uses of the terms oxidation and reduction


To combine with oxygen
Oxidation

To lose hydrogen
To lose electron
To increase in oxidation
number

To lose oxygen
Reduction

To combine with hydrogen


To gain electrons
To decrease in oxidation
number

Oxidation Number
Oxidation number, also called as
oxidation state, signifies the number of
charges the atom would have in a
molecule (or an ionic compound) if
electrons were transferred completely.
Oxidation numbers enable us to identify
elements that are oxidized and reduced at
a glance.
The elements that show an increase in
oxidation number are oxidized.

Oxidation Number

We use the following rules to assign oxidation


numbers:
In free elements, each atom has an oxidation
number of zero. Thus, each2 atom
in H ,B ,2 Na, Be,
2
4
K, O and P has the same oxidation number: zero.
For ions composed of only one atom, the oxidation
number is equal to the charge on the ion.
The highest oxidation number an element in
Groups 1A- 7A can have is its group number.
The transition metals ( Groups 1B, 3B-8B) usually
have several possible oxidation numbers.

Types of Redox Reaction


A combination reaction is a
reaction in which two or more
substances combine to form a single
product.
0
0
+ Example:
4 22
2
0
0
-3 S + O2
1 SO
3
2Al + 3Br
2AlBr
*Not all combination reactions are
redox in nature. The same holds for
decomposition reaction.

Types of Redox Reaction


Decomposition reaction is the
breakdown of a compound into two or
more components.
0
+2 0
Example:
2
2
2HgO
2Hg + O
Combustion reaction is a reaction in
which a substance reacts with oxygen,
usually with the release of heat and
light to produce a flame.
Example:
3 8
2
2
2
C H + 5O
3CO + 4H O