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Protections and interlocks for 210 MW LMW turbines

P.Christopher, AEE / C&I / MTPS


TURBINE PROTECTIONS :
Condenser Vacuum very low.
Turbine lube oil very low.
Axial shift high.
These are the three main protections for 210 MW LMW turbines. All these tripping are emanating from
turbine relay panel.
1. Condenser vacuum protection:
Condenser vacuum is essentially required for creating a steam flow in the turbine and it keeps
the exhaust hood temperature under control. If vacuum drops below the set value , which may
cause increase in LPT exhaust hood temperature raise. The LPT blades are shrunk fitted with
the shaft. Due to the increase in exhaust hood temperature the LPT blades may get loosen and
starts vibrating and the LPT may get damaged. If vacuum decreases there may not be a
sufficient steam flow and hence the unit load cannot be maintained.
To avoid the turbine blades from failure, the vacuum protection is very much essential.
Normally the vacuum is maintained around 680 mm Hg.
If vacuum drops to 650 mm, vacuum low will be annunciated to alert the operator to take
necessary measures to improve the vacuum.
If vacuum further drops to - 540 mm , trip command will be initiated to trip the turbine
immediately.
To avoid freakish tripping, two out of three logic is adopted for ensuring the vacuum very low
condition. Normally pressure switches are being used for sensing the vacuum low and vacuum
very low.
By keeping the vacuum protection switch in the test position , the protection can be checked
during the unit is in running condition. If the protection switch is kept in test position the turbine
will not be trip for vacuum very low protection. vacuum protection out will be annunciated while
the protection switch is in test position.
The logics used for Vacuum protection in turbine relay panel is given below .For easy
understanding the logics are represented by flow chart block diagram.

Vacuum
low
<650 mm

Vacuum
low low
<540 mm

AR 4

AR 37

Vacuum
low
ANN.

Vacuum not low (AR4 DE)


Or
ESV/IV open( AR15A DE)
Or
MSSV open ( AR31 DE)

AR5A
AR5A

AR5B

De energised
AR5C

&
Vacuum
Prot.out
ANN.

test

If
Prot. SW
in

On
AR6

&
&

Unit
Syn.

AR 7
Vacuum
Low low
ANN.

Circuit of vacuum protection:


VACUUM PROTECTION

TLR-D
To trip the
turbine
( fig 1)

220v DC

PS1

PS2

AR4

AR31

AR15A

AR37
Reset

AR5C

AR5C

AR 5B

AR 6

AR37

AR4

AR5A

AR5B

( fig 2 )

Prot -out
sw.
AR7

AR5C

AR6

Unit Syn.

PS 1 Vacuum very low pressure switch,its contact get closes when vacuum drops to 540 mm of Hg.
PS 2 Vacuum low pressure switch, its contact get closes when vacuum drops to 650 mm of Hg.
AR 37 this relay get energized when vacuum drops to 540 mm of Hg through PS 1 contact ( derived by
2 / 3 logic in OPDR panel ).
AR 4 - this relay get energized when vacuum drops to 650 mm of Hg through PS 2.
Vacuum low will be annunciated through this relay.
AR 5B & 5C vacuum protection ready circuit.
AR 6 - vacuum very low protection relay, which will get energized through the contacts of AR 37 & AR 5C
relays.
Before vacuum pulling the relays AR 37 & AR 4 are in energized condition because there is no vacuum
in the condenser. AR 5A, 5B & 5C are in de energized condition. While vacuum pulling( the vacuum is raising
from atmospheric pressure to > - 650 mm of Hg ) relays AR 37 and AR 4 get de egnergised. The
annunciations Vacumm low and Vacumm protection out will get reset.While the unit is in tripped
condition and there is n vacuum in the condenser Vacuum very low will not be annunciated .The
annunciation for vacuum protection out is derived from one of the contact of vacuum protection out switch ,
which is in parallel with the N/C contact of AR 5A.Hence vacuum protection out will be annunciated though
the protection out switch is in ON condition.
When AR 4 get deenergises and through its N/C contact AR 5A & AR 5B get energise. AR 5B is a
timer relay VTT 11 ( delayed pick up ) its contact closes after a preset time. In our case it is set at 2 seconds
and hence , the contact of AR5B get closes after a time delay of 2 seconds. Through the contact of AR5B the
relay AR 5C get energise.AR 5C is a timer relay VTT12 ( delayed drop out ) its contacts closes immediately
after the supply extended to the relay and after supply cut out its contact opens after a pre set time delay. In
our case it is set at 2 seconds.
In the circuit (fig 2)AR31 is a N/C contact of AR31 relay which closes when MSSV is in open
condition and AR 15 A is the N/C contact of AR 15 A which closes when ESV & IV are in open condition.
These are parallel contacts .Once the rolling is started contact AR15A will get closes and before
synchronization contact AR 31 will get closes ( after opening of MSSV).

While unit is running the relays AR5A, AR 5B & AR 5C will be in energized condition. On energisation
the flag will be in fallen condition inAR5A & AR5B but in AR 5C the flag will be in reset condition.
48 v Ann. supply

220v DC
AR 6

AR 6

AR 5A

AR6

AR7

Prot.out
Sw.

TLR D
To energise
TTS

Vac.Very.Low
Annunciation.

Vac.Prot.Out
Annunciation.

( fig 3 )
If the protection switch is in ON condition and the closing of N/O contacts of AR 6 leads to
energisation of TLR D ( Turbine Lockout Relay ) and through its contacts TTS ( Turbine Trip Solenoid ) will
get energized to trip the turbine.
If the protection switch is in test position Vacuum Protection Out will be annunciated .If the AR 5A is
in deenergised condition also through its N/C Vacuum Protection Out will be annunciated.
Through the N/O contacts of AR 6 & AR 7 , Vacuum very low will be annunciated. AR7 is a manual
resetting relay, its flag and contacts have to be reset manually.

Reset before cutting in of Vacuum protection

AR 6
AR 15A

AR 6

AR 37
o

Reset
AR 5C

Prot -out sw.

AR 6
Prot -out
sw.
TLR D
AR7

AR6

To energise
TTS
( fig 4 )
For an illustration .Keep the protection switch is in test position. AR 15A and AR 5C contacts are in
closed condition(ESV & IV are in open) .Reset switch is normally closed type, while resetting only it gets
open.Now the vacuum is dropping to 540 mm Hg. AR 37 will get energise and its N/O contact get closed
,as the AR 5C contact is already in closed condition AR6 will energise and the N/O contacts of AR 6 get
closed but the TLR D will not be energized and the turbine will not be tripped.
After making corrective actions the vacuum is raised to its normal value or more than 540mm AR 37
get deenergised , but due to self ceiling created by the N/O contact of AR 6 in series with reset switch the AR
6 will remain in energized condition and hence the contacts of AR 6 in series with protection out switch are in
closed condition. In this condition if we cut in the vacuum protection the unit will trip though the vacuum is in
normal vaue.
If we reset, the AR 6 get deenergised( due to the releasing of self sealing) and switch on the protection
switch, the unit will not trip. Hence always remember to reset before cut in the protection switch. This
procedure has to be followed for Lub oil and Axial shift protections also.

Causes for vacuum dropping:


Reduced gland steam pressure.
Failure of ejectors due to low PRDS steam pressure.
Very high Hot well level.
Failure of cooling water pumps.
Drains in vacuum system open to atmosphere & condenser( AS 3 &4).
Ingress of air to to vacuum system from loose flanges and instrument tapping points.
Failure of GC 1 ejector.
Failure of GC 1 ejector.
Failure of siphon to condenser.
Failure of gland sealing waterto valves with sealing arrangements.
Inadequate condensate flow through GC 1 and main ejectors.
Opening of vacuum breaker.

Failure of siphon to atmosphere of GC 1.

2.TURBINE BEARING LUB OIL PROTECTION.

Normally lubrication to the turbine bearings is provided with lub oil pressure of 1 Kg/cm 2 and
temperature of 40 0 C .

While the turbine is running more than 2880 rpm ,Main oil pump coupled with the turbine
shaft is supplying the oil to the bearings with required pressure of 1 Kg/cm 2.

While set is on Barring gear AC lub oil pump is supplying the lub oil with required pressure.

During start up ( rolling )Starting oil pump will supply the oil ( i.e., up to 2880 rpm)

Turning the turbine without lub oil will damage the white metal coating in the bearings and
subsequently damaging the turbine shaft.

Lub oil protection is designed such that if lub oil pressure is falling less than 0.6 Ksc the
ACLOP will come in to service on auto and lub oil pressure will be maintained..

If ACLOP fails to start or the pump is not developing the adequate pressure, the emergency
oil pump ( DCLOP ) will come on auto at the pressure of 0.5 Ksc.

If lub oil pressure dropping to 0.3 Ksc, tripping will be initiated to the turbine simultaneously
a command will be given to open the vacuum breaker to bring the turbine to rest quickly for
avoiding damage to the bearings.

If the set is on barring gear, command will be initiated to trip the barring gear motor.

To avoid freakish tripping two out of three logic is adopted for lub oil pressure very
low tripping.

OR

AR27

&

Lub oil
prot..relay

Lub. Oil
Pr. Low
< 0.6 Ksc

Lub. Oil
Pr. Low
< 0.5 Ksc

AR 8

D.C. LOP
START

A.C.LOP
START

ESV&IV
Open
(AR15A DE)

BG Motor
ON

AR28

Lub oil Pr.


LowANN.

If
Prot.sw
in

AR9A

If
AR47
test

De energised

Unit
s
y
n

&

energised

AR9B

Lub. Oil
Pr. V.Low
< 0.3 Ksc

Lub oil
Pro.out
ANN.

On
AR10

Lub oil
Pr.v.low
ANN.

&

To trip the
turbine
Stop
BGmo
tor

TLR-D
LUB OIL PROTECTION

&
(fig 5 )
Open

Vacuum
Bkr.

LUB OIL PROTECTION READY CIRCUIT


220 V DC

AR28

PS1

AR15A

PS1

X7

AR27

AR 8

X5

X6

AR27
AR28

( fig 6 )

PS Lub oil pressure switch in OPDR panel , which will act at 0.6 Ksc.
AR 8 , Lub oil pressure low relay , through this Lub oil pressure low will be annunciated and through its
contact ACLOP will get started at 0.6 Ksc.
X5 Contact pens in case of power supply failure to bearing gear motor and remain closed so long as power
supply is available.
X6 Contact closes at the moment of initiating barring gear motor start up and shall open in the event of
normal stopping of motor or stopping of motor by interlock.
X7 contact closes on energizing of barring gear contactor and opens in the event of normal stopping of
motor or auto stop.
PS1 Lub oil pressure switch contact, which will close at 0.6 Ksc pressure.
AR 8 Lub oil pressure low relay, through which Lub oil Pressure Low will be annunciated and ACLOP will
be started.
AR 27 Lub oil protection relay ,Lub oil pressure very low will be communicated through its contact from lub
oil pressure very low pressure switch to AR 9A and AR 9B relays. while the TG is on barring gear AR 27 gets
energized through X5 & X6 contacts with a self sealing of AR 28 & AR 27 contacts. Once the ESV & IV s are
opened this will energized through the contact of AR15 A. If the AR27 is not energized , Lub oil protection

may not act and hence Lub oil protection out will be annunciated through the N/C contact of AR 27 as shown
below.
AR 28 This is a delayed off timer relay.( VTT 12 ) This relay will get energized when the Barring gear motor
is in service.Lub oil protection is enabled through the contacts of AR 27 & AR 28 while the TG is on Barring
gear.

Lub oil protection trip circuit:

Reset SW

220 V DC

PS 2

48V
Ann.Supply.
AR 9A

AR 27

on

test

test

test

AR 27

Prot.SW

AR 9A

AR 9B

AR 47

AR 10

Lub iol prot. Out


Annunciation

Unit
synchronised

( fig 7 )

PS 2 lub oil pressure switch ( 0.3 ksc) contact, arrived by 2 / 3 logic from OPDR panel.
AR 9A & 9B lub oil protection very low, relays.
AR 10 Lub oil pressure very low annunciation relay( manual contact and flag resetting)
AR 47 Lub oil protection out relay, If the protection switch is in test position ,AR 47 will get energized.
Reset Switch Normally closed when the switch is turned , the contact gets open.
Reset this switch before cutting in the lub oil protection as said for vacuum protection.

Turbine trip for lub oil protection:


220 v DC

AR 9A

AR 9A

110v AC

AR 9B

control

supply

AR 9B

AR 8
AR 47

AR 47

TLR D

AR 47

AR 47

AR 9B
( N/C)

AR 47

CA
6
contactor

To start
ACLOP

To stop
Barring Gear
motor

( fig 8 )

AR 9A & AR 9B - N/O contacts of AR 9A and AR 9B relays respectively.


AR 47 N/ C contacts of AR 47 relay
AR 8 N/O contact of AR 8 relay.It closes to start the ACLOP motor in the event of lub oil pressure drops to
0.6 ksc.
CA 6 vacuum breaker AC operated motorized valve,it gets opened for lub oil and axial shift protections to
bring the TG rotor to the rest position as quick as possible.
Tripping of turbine for lub oil pressure very low protection.
The protection is in ON condition, N/C contacts of AR 47 in closed condition. When the lub oil pressure
drops to 0.3 ksc AR 9A and AR 9B get energized. The closure of N/O contact of AR 9A in series with contact
AR 47 ( fig-8) leads to energisation of TLR D to trip the turbine.
The closure of N/O contact of AR 9B in series with contact AR 47 ( fig-8) leads to open the vacuum breaker.
If the TG is on Barring gear and the lub oil pressure drops to 0.3 ksc , by the opening of AR 9B N/C contact
the barring gear motor will trip.If the protection is in out condition , Barring gear motor wil not be tripped as
the parallel contact AR 47 N/O will get closed while the protection is out.
For both the cases the vacuum breaker gets opened.
Through the contacts of AR 8 ACLOP gets started at 0.6 Ksc of lub oil pressure.
At 0.5 ksc the DCLOP get started directly through the local pressure switch. There is no relay for DCLOP.

LUB OIL ANNUNCIATION


10

48 V Annunciation supply

AR 8

AR 9A

Lub oil Pressure


Low
Annunciation

AR 10

Lub oil Pressure very


Low Annunciation
( fig 9)

AR8 through this contact lub oi pressure low will be annunciated.


AR 9A & AR 10 through these parallel contacts Lub oil pressure low will be annunciated.

Reset before cutting in the protection switch ( refer fig 7 )


Let us take an incident . Protection switch is in test position. AR 27 contact is in closed condition .Reset
switch is normally closed type, while resetting only it gets open.
Now the lub oil pressure is dropping to 0.3 ksc. Due to the closure of PS 2 ,AR 9A and AR 9B will get
energise. The N/O contacts of AR 9A & AR 9 B get closed. Now due to the protection switch is in test position
the AR 47 get energized and its series contact with AR 9A & AR 9B get opened and hence the
TLR D will not get energized and the tripping of turbine will be avoided.
After developing the lub oil pressure ( above 0.3 ksc) PS2 gets opened .But the AR9A & 9B will
remain in energized state ( self sealing by AR 9A contact). In this condition if we switch ON the protection
switch, AR 47 get deenergised and through N/C contact of AR47 and AR 9As N/O contact (in closed
condition) the TLR D get energized and the turbine will trip.
Once the lub oil pressure is normalized, should not forget to reset before cutting IN of the protection
switch.

3.Axial shift protection


11

The Axial movement of turbine should be within permissible limits. If this limit exceeds there will be a damage
to the thrust bearing and in worst case turbine may get damaged severely .In design care is taken to keep the
turbine under balanced condition by admitting the steam flow in opposite directions. Due to some reasons
there is a chance of turbine shaft getting moved to either generator side (positive) or towards front pedestal
(negative)
If turbine shaft axially moves by 1.7mm negative or 1.2mm positive ,the turbine has to be tripped
immediately.Vacuum breaker has to be opened to bring the turbine to rest as quick as possible as said for
lube oil protection.
This protection can also be tested while turbine is in service by keeping the protection switch in test
position.
The logics used for axial shift protection is shown below.
Axial
shift
HI
If
Prot.SW

test

If
AR46

in

AR-2

&

Axial
Shift
Prot. out

DE

Unit
Syn.

AR-3

Axial
Shift
Hi.Hi

TLR-D

Fig - 10

&

Axial shift protection circuit

Vacuum Bkr.
Open

220v DC

12
AXIAL SHIFT PROTECTION

+ve Hi
1.2mm

-ve Hi
1.7mm

48V Annunciation
supply

Reset SW

AR 2

on

on

test
Protection

AR 3

out

testAR 3 on

test

switch

AR 2

Prot. Out
Annunciation

AR 46

Unit
synchronised
Fig - 11

+ ve High 1.2 mm & -ve High 1.7 mm contacts from turbo supervisory panel.
AR 2 - Axial shift protection relay( fr tripping & opening the vacuum breaker)
AR 3 Axial shift Annunciation relay ( Manual resetting relay )
AR 46 Axial Shift protection out relay.
Unit synchronized contact taken from 86 T , turbine lockout relay from GRP.
(Diode connected in series with AR3 is common for AR 7 & AR 10)
110V AC

220V DC

AR2

AR2

48v Ann..Supply

AR2
AR2

AR46

AR46
TLR D

Turbine Lock out Relays

AR3

AR46
Vac.Bkr. CA6
Axial Shift High
220V DC supply
Annunciation

Fig - 12

13

AR 29A

86 T

MFT

AR 2

AR 46

TLR D

AR 6

Prot.
SW

AR 9A

TLR D

AR 47

TLR D
TLR A

TLR B

TLR C

( fig-13)

TLR D Turbine Lock out relay D.Ffor any protection , either from external or internal this will get energized

first.Through this relay contacts TLR A , TLR B & TLR C get energized.The Turbine trip solenoid
will also get Energized through TLR D contacts.
CONTROL RELAY CIRCUIT (CR 1 & CR 2) :
GT
Bkr.closed

AR31
AR 15 B

AR 15A

CR 2

MSSV main and By


pass isolation
valves closed limit
switch contacts

CR 2
AR29A

CR 1
AR31
( fig- 14 )

CR 1, CR 2 control relays ( wipe out relays, having 2 coils, one for set and other for reset )

AR 31 MSSV close relay .AR 29 A ESV / IV close relay contact ( timer relay contact which closes immediately on
closure of ESV/IV and opens after a time delay of 5 seconds).

AR 31INTER
will energise
only after 180 seconds on receiving of closing command for
CR1 & CR2 RELAY
LOCKS
CR 2 contact
open to close.
MSSV from TLR . MSSV will take approximately
2.5 minutes
& minutes after tripping of turbine.
Hence CR 1 flag will get reset only after2.5
MSSV
and a time delay of 5
GT
Breaker
After opening of ESV & IV , AR29 A contact
will main
openopened
after
bypass
isolation
&
CR
12 wipeout
coil
seconds.
valves
closed
( AR31
ESVenergised
,IV closed
energised
) with
ESV
(15B
Flagenergised)
reset
- self
and IV closed

14

GT Breaker Closed
&
ESV ,IV Open
(15A deenergised)

CR 2 energised
Flag

CR 1 energised
( Flag )

( fig 15 )

ESV,IV,MSSV,CR 1 & CR 2 INTERLOCKS.


ESV(L)
closed

ESV(R)
closed

IV(L)
closed

IV(R)
closed

15

AR 11

AR 12

AR 13

AR 14

Any Two
&
AR 15B

AR 15A

AR 15C

AR 29 C
AR 29 A
AR 29 B

&

OR

IF15A

DE

&

reset flag

IF
G.T.Bkr Open
Close

AR 30 A
AR 30B
AR 30C

CR1 reset

CR2

flag

MSSV(L)
closed
MSSV(R)
closed

&

MSSV(L)
B/P-ISO
closed

AR
31

&

AR 29A
energised

MSSV(L)
ESV / IV interlock circuit.
B/P-ISO
closed
220 v DC

Fig - 16
48 v Annunciation supply

16

AR 11
ESV L

ESV R

IV L

IV R
AR 12

AR 13

AR 11

AR 12

AR 13

AR 14

AR 14

AR 11

AR 12

AR 13

AR 14

All ESV / IV
closed ANN.

Any ESV / IV
closed ANN.

Fig - 17

Limit switches of ESV & IV, these limit switches closes while
closure of the corresponding valves.
AR 11

- ESV Left close relay.

AR 12

- ESV Right close relay.

AR 13

- IV Left close relay.

AR 14

- IV Right close relay.

All ESV / IV closed Annunciation is derived by using the series contacts of AR 11, AR 12, AR 13 & AR
14,If any one valve fails to close this annunciation does not come.
Any ESV / IV closed Annunciation is derived by using the parallel contacts of AR 11, AR 12, AR 13 &
AR 14, If any one valve closes ,this annunciation will appear.
( while rolling both these annunciations should get reset, some times due to the mal function of limit
switches in any one of the valve Any ESV / IV closed annunciation may persists, this has to be attended to
immediately, otherwise this may lead to unit tripping while the other limit switch closes by any other reason)
ESV / IV CLOSE RELAYS
220 V DC

17

14

13

12

14

13

12

11

13

14

CR 1
ESV / IV INTERLOCK

AR 15
A

AR 15
B

AR 15
C

AR 29
C

AR 29
A

AR 29
B

AR 30
A

AR 30
B

AR 30
C

Fig 18
AR11,AR 12, AR 13 & AR 14 N / O contacts of AR 11, 12,13 & 14
AR 15A, AR 15B & AR 15 C ESV / IV close relays, these relays get energized when any ESV & IV closes
AR 29 C ESV / IV closing contactor used for switching ON the timer relays AR 29 A & AR 29 B.
AR 29 A & AR 29 B Delayed on drop out timer relays ( VTT 12 ) , while any ESV / IV closes these relays get
energized through the contacts of AR 29 C and their contacts closes immediately on energisation and opens with a
preset time delay after the deenegisation of its coil.
AR 30A, AR 30 B & AR 30 C are get energized during the closure of any ESV / IV with the condition that the unit must
be in synchronized ( i.e., CR 1 contact in closed condition)
AR 30 A & TLR A, AR 30B & TLR B and AR 30 C & TLR C are dual relays placed in the same casing.
Turbine tripped feed back is taken from AR 30C for tripping the GT breaker on Low for ward and reverse power
protections .Closing of ESV and IV is taken as turbine tripped feed back.

TURBINE TRIP LOGICS


ESV &
IV closed

18

MFT

Turbine
protections

86 T
(GRP)

Unit synchronised
TLR
D

&

Energizing
Turbine trip
solenoid

TLR
A

Close MSSV(T)
Main & B/P valves
MFT

AR
30A

TLR
B

Close extraction
valves(FCN RV)
MFT

AR
30B

TLR
C

AR
30C
MFT
Open LP B/P valves& open
CA21&22( HPT evacuation)
Turbine trip contact for GRP(low
forward relay)

Fig - 19

TURBINE TRIP CIRCUIT


220 V DC
TLR D

1MFD

1..2K

1M

AR 15 C

Turbine trip
solenoid
AR 33

AR 16

19

AR 17A
TLR D

Hand trip
switch

AR 17 B

Fig 20
Protection tripping:

For any protection tripping ( including external trips) relay TLR D get energized , through its N/O
contacts in series with AR15C N/C contact ( while ESV / IV in open condition) and AR 16 the TTS get
energized and trips the turbine( CVSM,ESV and IV get closed).
As soon as the ESV / IV closed the AR 15C contact get open ( TLR D contacts remains in closed
condition),
1 M Ohm resistor and 1 M fd capacitor come in series with trip solenoid and AR 16. The voltage
across the trip solenoid discharged by the 1 M ohm resistance.As the high resistance is come in to
series the current flowing through the trip solenoid and AR 16 will also minimized. And hence the trip
solenoid and AR 16 coil get deenergised.The contact and fag have to be reset by manual.
Through the contact of AR 16 Turbine protection trip will be annunciated.
Hand trip from UCB :
For any emergency by turning the turbine hand trip switch in the control desk, 220 V Dc is directly applied to
the trip solenoid in series with AR 33 and AR 15 C contact and the turbine will get tripped.
Through the contact of AR 33 Turbine Hand trip UCB will be annunciated.
Turbine local trip:
The turbine can be tripped from local by pressing the plunger in the event of failure of electrical tripping.
During this tripping Turbine local trip will be annunciated through AR 32 relay.

TURBINE TRIPPED ANNUNCIATION


220v DC Supply

Annunciation Supply

AR 30 C

AR 16

AR 33

AR 32

AR 33
AR 16

20

Turbine
protection trip

Turbine
Hand trip
UCB

Turbine
Local trip

AR 32

AR 16 Turbine protection trip relay, for energisation of TTS through the contacts of TLR D the AR 16 get
energized and through its N/O contact Turbine protection trip will be annunciated.Resetting the relay by
manual the annunciation will get reset.
AR 33 Turbine hand trip from UCB. By hand tripping the turbine from UCB AR 33 get energized and through
its contact Turbine Hand trip ucb will be annunciated.By manual resetting the flag this annunciation wil get
reset.
AR 32 This relay get energized through the N/O contact of AR 30 C relay. Provided AR16 and AR 33 must
be in deenergised condition. For the closure of ESV / IV with unit synchronized condition relay AR 30 C will
get energized.

TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION :


1.2 K ohm resistance and AR 17 B are used for supervising the turbine trip circuit . While unit is in
service AR 17B is in energized state. The maximum voltage drop will be available across the relay AR 17 B
is around 198 V .When ever a open circuit occurred in Turbine trip solenoid or AR 15 C contact or in AR 16
relay coil , AR 17 B get denergised and through its N/C contact relay AR 17 A get energized and through its
N/O contact Trip circuit faulty will be annunciation .When the unit is in tripped condition AR 15 C gets open
and AR 17 B get e energized and Trip circuit faulty will be annunciated and get reset after opening of ESV
& IV..

UNIT PROTECTIONS
CLASS A TRIPPING.

Protections required immediate isolation of Generator / Generator Transformer / Unit Auxiliary Transformers
are grouped in t he Class A tripping. we can say as Emergency shutdown. For this protections trip impulse
is instantaneously given to the G.T. breaker through 86 G1, 86 G2& 86 G3 generator master relays and for
tripping the turbine trip impulse is given through the 86 T turbine master relay in GRP.
CLASS B TRIPPING.
This type of tripping is called as Normal Shut down or non emergency tripping. Protections of generator for
which immediate electrical isolation is not required ,Turbine protections and Boiler protections are grouped in
to this category.
Most of the Generator auxiliary protections are in class B tripping.
21

Class A protections
of the Generator.

Class B
protections of the
Generator.

Turbine
protections

Boiler
protections

86 G1,G2& G3(GRP)

86 T
(GRP)

To trip GT breaker,
UATs,Field
breaker, 6.6 KV
Tie change over
( station bus )

Turbine lockout
relay TLR D
in turbine relay
panel

MFT

Turbine trip
solenoid

To trip
Boiler

&
Closing of
ESV& IV

O
R

Low forward 0.5 sec


Reverse power 0.5 sec

LOW FORWARD POWER PROTECTION


Reverse
5 sec load on the generator until after the steam
Low forward relay is desirable to delay
trippingpower
of the electrical
has been tripped ( closure of ESV&IV) so that the steam entertained in the turbine is used in supplying the
electrical power rather than causing the set to over speed, that is the generator acts as a brake.
This feature is only provided for non urgent tripping ( class B) conditions.
The generator should not allowed to trip until the power out put of the generator falls below a small
preset value .
To provide the highest degree of security under all conditions the low forward relay contacts are arranged to
close when the generator power falls to 0.5 % of full load ( i.e., 1.25 MW ) with the time delay of 0.5 seconds.
Actuation of low forward protection along with the turbine trip leads to tripping of the generator

Closure of ESV & IV


(AR 30 B)
Low forward
Acted in GRP

Tripping of Generator
AND
22

Note : The turbine should not allowed to run in steam less condition for a period more than
4 minutes.
REVERSE POWER PROTECTION
The purpose of the reverse power relay is basically to prevent damage to the turbine.
If the driving torque becomes less than the total losses in the generator ( i.e., If the generator breaker not
getting opened even after tripping of the turbine ) and the turbine , the generator starts to work as a
synchronous compensator taking the necessary active power from the grid.
Reduction of steam flow reduces the cooling effect on the turbine blades and over heating may
occur.particularly the shrunk fitted LPT blades may get loosen .
The reverse power relay get actuated at - 0.5% of generator rated capacity i.e., - 1.25 MW .
The generator will trip with a time delay of 0.5 sec with turbine trip and with a time delay of 5 seconds without
tripping of the turbine.

Closure of ESV & IV AR30B


&

OR

Generator trip

Reverse power
Time delay 0.5 sec
Reverse power
Time delay 5 sec without turbine trip

TURBINE RELAY PANEL


Turbine protections and turbovisory annunciations are emanating from turbine relay panel. Various inter locks
are derived from this panel .This panel is providedAR
with
42220 v DC and 240 v AC power supplies.
Duplex 240 V AC power supply:
A/C
Normal
supply

AR 43

AR 42

AR 42
AR 43

A/C
Reserve
supply

240V
A/C
supply

23
AR 43

AR 50

AR 43

AR 42

The normal AC power supply is feeding from N/E switch gear and the reserve AC power supply is feeding
from unit service switch gear.If the normal power supply fails the reserve supply will come in to service
automatically.If the normal supply resumes it will be ready and come on auto on failure of reserve supply.The
availability of reserve supply can be monitor by the relay AR 50.i.e., the flag should be in fallen condition.
The failure of normal or reserve supply will be annunciated.
From the 240 V AC power, Suppy for speeder gear motor, supply for Differential expansion relays,supply for
Vibration and speed relays & supply for MOT oil level relays are taken.For MOT oil level vibration relays 24 V
AC power is being used through a separate 240/24v transformer.
For speeder gear motor a separate 240 / 220 / 36 v transformer is used.
Turbine relay panel cubicle lighting supply is taken from 240v AC.

Duplex 220 V DC power supply:


AR 44

DC Normal
supply

AR 45

AR 44

AR 44

220V
DC supply
AR 45

A/C
Reservesup
ply

AR 44

24

AR 45

AR 45

AR 51

The normal DC power supply is feeding from unit battery room and the reserve DC supply is feeding from
station battery room.In some of the units the reserve supply is also taken from unit battery room from the
different module.If the normal power supply fails the reserve supply will come in to service automatically.If
the normal supply resumes it will be ready and come on auto on failure of reserve supply.The availability of
reserve supply can be monitor by the relay AR 51.i.e., the flag should be in fallen condition.
The failure of normal or reserve supply will be annunciated.
The 220v DC is used for all the protection relays and for field contacts. If there is no 220V DC supply for
relay panel , the turbine may not trip for any protection.

ARRANGEMENTS OF AUXILIARY RELAYS:

TLR A/
AR30A

CR1
VAJC
11

AR15A

VAA2
1

TLR B/
AR30B

TLR C/
AR30C

VAA2
1

VAA2
1

VAJC
11

AR46

VAA1
1

AR51

AR37

AR41

AR3

AR19

AR16

AR47

VAA2
1

VAA1
1

VAA1
1
AR40

CR2

VAA1
1

AR15B

VAA2
1

AR10

AR2

AR32

AR7

VAA2
1

AR33

25

VAA1
3
AR20

VAA1
3
AR21

VAA1
1
AR5A

VAA1
3
AR22

VAA1
1
AR11

VAA1
1
AR5B

VTT
11
AR 6

AR24

VAA1
1
AR12

VAA1
1

AR50

VAA1
1

VAA1
1

AR17A

VAA1
1
AR38

AR 61

AR4

AR1

VAA1
1

VAA1
1

AR29A
VTT
12
AR39

VAA1
1
AR 62
VAA1
1

CAA
13
AR15A

VAA1
1

AR26

VAA1
1

VAA1
1

VAA1
3

VAA1
1

AR 31

VAA1
1

VAA1
1

AR25

VTT
VAA1
12

AR 9B

AR 60

VAA1
3

AR28

VTT
12

AR 9A

VAA1
1

CAA
13

AR14

VAA1
1

VTT
12

VAA1
1

AR35

AR13

VAA1
1

VAA1
1
AR 27

VAA1
3

VAA1
1

AR5 C

VTT
11
TR 2

VAA1
3

VAA1
1
AR 63
VAA1
1

VAA1
1
AR18
VAA1
1
AR29B
VAA2
VTT
112
NVR 2
VAG
21
AR 64
VAA1
1

Relay Labeling
Sl
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Relay No.

Label

CR 1
AR 30 A / TLR A
AR 30 B / TLR B
AR 30 C / TLR C
AR 2
CR 2
AR 15 A
AR 15 B
AR 37
AR 51
AR 46
AR 40

GEN SYNCH & MSV OPEN


AR 30 A / TLR A
AR 30 A / TLR B
AR 30 C / TLR C
AXIAL SHIFT
GEN SYNCH & ESV / IV OPEN
ESV / IV CLOSED
ESV / IV CLOSED
VAC < 540 mm Hg
RESERVE DC SUPPLY ON
AXIAL SHIFT PROT. TEST
10% OVER SPEED

26

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

AR 41
AR 3
AR 19
AR 16
AR 32
AR 7
AR 33
AR 20
AR 21
AR 24
AR 35
AR 50
AR 4
AR 8
AR 5A
AR 11
AR 12
AR 13
AR 14
AR 38
AR 26
AR 1
AR18
AR 5 B
AR 5 C
AR 17A
AR 28
AR 29 A
AR 29 B
TR 2
AR 9 A
AR 9 B
AR 31
AR 39
NVR 2
AR 6
AR 27
AR 22
IL R1
IL R2

16% OVER SPEED


AXIAL SHIFT PROT. OPERATED
E H T ENERGISED ( not in service )
TURBINE PROTECTION TRIP
TUEBINE LOCAL TRIP
VACUUM PROTECTION OPERATED
TURBINE HAND TRIP U C B
HPT Diff. Expansion Hi
IPT Diff. Expansion Hi
LOAD LIMIT ( not in service)
AUTO FAST REVERSE ( not in service)
RESERVE AC SUPPLY ON
VACUUM < 650 mm Hg
LUB OIL PRESSURE < 0.8 Ksc
CONDENSER VACUUM
ESV ( L ) CLOSED
ESV (R ) CLOSED
IV ( L ) CLOSED
IV ( R ) CLOSED
TG VIBRATION HIGH
MOT LEVEL LOW
VAC < 540 FIRE ON
E.H.T ( not in service)
CONDENSER VACUUM
CONDENSER VACUUM
TTS CIRCUIT CHECK
BARRING GEAR MOTOR ON
ESV / IV CLOSED
ESV / IV CLOSED
E H T ( not in service )
LUB OIL PROTECTION
LUB OIL PROTECTION
MSV CLOSED
SPEED / CVSM SELECTION (not in service )
N VOLTAGE RELAY
CONDENSER VACUUM
UB OIL PROTECTION
LPT DIFF.EXP. HIGH
AC ON
DC ON

ARRANGEMENT OF CONTACTORS , MCBS AND TRANSFORMERS( inside of the relay panel)

Resistors forAR5A,5B,5C,
29 A,29B,17A & TR2

27

DC Volt meter

Fuse
switches
230VAC

220VDC

AR
44

AR
45

AR
3A

AR
4A

TLR
D

AR
34

AR
35

CB
2B

AR
42

AR
43

AR
15C

AR
29C

AR
17B

MCBs
230VAC

220VDC TTS
supply

SGr.motor
field rectifier

Plug point

Sp.Gr.Tr
Blocking
Diodes

SGr.motor
armature
rectifier

TTS sup.resistor&
disch.resistor

230 / 24vTr.
SGr.motor armature fuse

Alarms from relay panel


The following alarms are emanating from the relay panel.
1. Axial shift high.
2. Axial shift protection out.
3. Lub oil pressure low (0.6 ksc )
4. Lub il pressure very low ( 0.3 ksc )
5. Lub oil protection out.
6. Vacuum low ( - 650 mm )
7. Vacuum very low ( -540 mm )
8. Vacuum very low and fire ON.
9. Vacuum protection out.
10. Any ESV / IV closed.

28

11. All ESV & IV closed.


12. 220 V DC suppy failure.
13. 220 V DC normal supply failure.
14. 220V DC reserve supply failure.
15. 240 V AC suppy failure.
16. 240 V AC normal supply failure.
17. 240V AC reserve supply failure.
18. Turbine trip circuit faulty.
19. Turbine trip solenoid energized.
20. Emergency turbine trip.
21. 10% over speed.
22. 16% over speed.
23. MOT oil level low.
24. MOT oil level high.
25. HPT differential expansion High ( - 1.2 mm & + 4.0mm)
26. IPT differential expansion High ( - 2.5 mm & + 3.0 mm )
27. LPT differential expansion High ( - 2.5 mm & + 4.5 mm)
28. Bearing vibration High ( 40 micron )
29. CVSM closed.
External trips for turbine
Apart from the turbine protections the turbine will trip for the following external trips.
1. Generator trip ( from 86 T in GRP )
2. Boiler trip ( from MFT )
NOTE :
1.There is no direct trip from boiler to generator or from generator to boiler.
2.There is no direct trip from turbine to generator. Turbine trip and actuation of low forward or reverse
power relay leads to generator tripping

29

AXIAL SHIFT PROTECTION


Relay
No.

Type

Contact
Resetting

Flag

N/O

N/C

Rating

AR 2

VAA 21 BF 8055 F(M)

Self

Yes

(1,2)

220 V DC

AR 3

VAA 13 YF 11F

Self

Yes

(3,4),(5,6),(7,8),(11,12),
(13,14),(15,16),(17,18)
(19,20)
(1,2),(3,4)

(5,6),(7,8)

220 V DC

AR 46 VAA 21 BF 8057 F(M)

Self

Yes

(11,12),(13,14),(17,18)

(1,2),03,4),(5,6),(7,8),
(9,10),(15,16)

220 V DC

Type

Contact
Resetting

Flag

N/O

N/C

Rating

Sl.
No.
1

Remarks

CONDENSER VACUUM PROTECTION


Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4

Relay
No.

VAA 11 YF 19 F

Self

Yes

(5,6),(7,8)

(1,2),(3,4)

220 V DC

AR 4
AR 37

VAA 11 YF 38 F

Self

Yes

(3,4)

(1,2)

220 V DC

AR 5A

VAA 11 YF 38 F

Self

Yes

(3,4)

(1,2)

220 V DC

VTT 11

Self

Yes

(7,8),(11,12)

(1,2),(3,4)

220 V DC

VTT 12

Self

Yes

(3,4),(5,6),(7,8)

(1,2)

220 V DC

Yes

(3,4),(5,6),(7,8),(11,12)

(1,2)

220 V DC

Yes

(1,2),(3,4)

(5,6),(7,8)

220 V DC

AR 5B

AR 5C

AR 6

AR 7

VAA 11 2 G 8075 Self


F(M)
VAA 13 YF 11F
Hand

Remarks

Flag will fall in


energized
condition
Flag will fall in
deenergized
condition

30

LUB OIL PROTECTION


Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Contact
Resetting

Flag

N/O

N/C

Rating

AR 8
VAA 11 YF 19 F
AR 10
VAA 13 YF 11 F
AR 9A & VAA 11 ZG 8075
AR 9B
F(M)
VAA 21 BF 8057
AR 47
F(M)
VAA 11 ZG 8075
AR 27
F(M)

Self
Hand

Yes
Yes

(5,6) ,(7,8)
(1,2),(3,4)

(1,2),(3,4)
(5,6),(7,8)

220 V DC
220 V DC

Self

Yes

(3,4),(5,6),(7,8)

(1,2)

220 V DC

Self

Yes

(11,12),(13,14),(17,18)

(1,2),(3,4),(5,6),(7,8),
(9,10),(15,16)

220 V DC

Self

Yes

(3,4),(5,6),(7,8)

(1,2)

220 V DC

AR 28

Self

Yes

(3,4),(5,6),(7,8)

(1,2)

220 C DC

Relay No.

Type

VTT 12

Remarks

Flag will fall in


deenergized
condition

ESV , IV & MSSV INTERLOCKS


Relay
No.

Type

Contact
Resetting

Flag

N/O

N/C

Rating

AR 11
AR 12
AR 13
AR 14

VAA 11 YF 19F
VAA 11 YF 19F
VAA 11 YF 19F
VAA 11 YF 19F

Self
Self
Self
Self

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

(5,6)(7,8)
(5,6)(7,8)
(5,6)(7,8)
(5,6)(7,8)

220 V DC
220 V DC
220 V DC
220 V DC

AR 15A

VAA 21 BF 8056 F(M)

Self

Yes

(5,6)

(1,2),(3,4)
(1,2),(3,4)
(1,2),(3,4)
(1,2),(3,4)
(1,2),(3,4),(5,6),(7,8)
(11,12),(13,14),(17,18)(19,20)

AR 15 B

VAA 11 BF 21 F

Self

Yes

(17,18)

220 V DC

7
8

AR 15C
AR 29C

3 TA 61
3 TA 61

Self
Self

No
No

(1,2),(3,4),(5,6),(7,8)
(19,20)
(1,2),(3,4),(5,6),(13,14)
(1,2),(3,4),(5,6),(13,14)

(15,16),(19,20),(23,24),(27,28)
(15,16),(19,20),(23,24),(27,28)

220 V DC
220 V DC

AR 29 A

VTT 12

Self

Yes

(3,4),(5,6),97,8)

(1,2)

220 V DC

Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4

Remarks

220V DC

Flag will fall in


deenergized
condition

31

10

AR 29 A

VTT 12

Self

Yes

(3,4),(5,6),97,8)

(1,2)

220 V DC

11

AR 31

VAA 11 G 8002

Self

Yes

CR 1

VAJC 11 BF 33A

Self

Yes

(1,2),(3,4)
(13,14),(15,16)

220 V DC

12
13

CR 2

VAJC 11 BF 33A

Self

Yes

(5,6),(7,8),(11,12)
(17,18),(19,20),(1,2)
(3,4),(5,6),(7,8)
(17,18),(19,20),(1,2)
(3,4),(5,6),(7,8)

Flag

N/O

N/C

Rating

Yes

(1,2),(3,4)

(5,6),(7,8)

1 A DC

Yes

(1,2),(3,4)

(5,6),(7,8)

1 A DC

Yes

(1,2),(3,4)
(5,6),(7,8)
2 set ( 1,2),(3,4),(5,6),
Nil
(11,12),(17,18),(19,20)
[(1,2),(3,4),(5,6),(11,12)
(17,18)] for AR 30B &
Nil
[(1,2),(3,4),(5,6),(19,20)
for TLR B
[(3,4),(13,14),(17,18),
(1,2) for TLR C
(19,20)] for TLR C &
[(5,6),(11,12),(15,16)]
for AR 30C

(13,14),(15,16)

220 V DC
220 V DC

Flag will fall in


deenergized
condition
Wipeout
contact
Wipeout
contact

TRIPPING CIRCUIT & LOCKOUT RELAYS

Sl.
No.

Relay
No.

AR 16

AR 33

AR 32
AR 30A/
TLR A

Type

Contact
Resetting

CAA 13 YF 8009
Hand
B(M)
CAA 13 YF 8009
Hand
B(M)
VAA 13 YF 11F
Hand
VAA 21 BF 8052 F(M)

AR 30B/
TLR B

AR 30C/ VAA 21 BF 8054


TLR C
F(M)

Self

Yes

Self

Yes

VAA 21 BF 8053
F(M)
Self
Yes

Remarks

220 V DC
220 V DC
220 V DC

220 V DC

32

BOILER PROTECTIONS
1.

Both ID Fans trip

2.

Both FD Fans trip

3.

Flame failure trip

4.

Loss of all fuel trip

5.

Emergency trip

6.

Furnace pressure very high

7.

Furnace pressure very low

8.

Drum level Hi Hi

9.

Drum level Lo. Lo.

10. Air flow less than 30%


11. Reheater protection acted
12. Loss of critical power for more than 2 seconds.

GENERATOR PROTECTIONS
I.

CLASS A
1.

Generator inter winding protection

2.

UAT A Over current

3.

UAT B Over current

4.

Generator reverse power

5.

Stator stand by earth fault

6.

Overall differential protection

7.

Generator over voltage

8.

Pole slip

9.

Generator differential protection

10. G.T. Over fluxing.


11. Rotor earth fault stage II
12. Low forward
13. UAT A differential protection

14. UAT B differential protection


15. G.T. restricted earth fault protection
16. Stator 95% earth fault
17. Local Breaker Backup / Bus bar protection
18. Emulsifier
19. G.T.Bucholz
20. G.T. pressure relief
21. G.T. OLTC Bucholz
22. UAT A instantaneous over current
23. UAT B instantaneous over current
24. UAT A Bucholz
25. UAT B Bucholz
26. Failure of 48V DC supplies ( AVR )
27.

Excitation Transformer instantaneous over current ( AVR )

28. Excitation Transformer over current delayed stage II ( AVR )


29. Rotor over voltage ( AVR)
30. Failure of three or more thyristor blocks ( AVR)
II.

CLASS B
1.

Generator backup impedance

2.

Loss of excitation and under voltage

3.

Negative sequence 19 sec

4.

GT Backup impedance

5.

Stator water flow V.Low (2 min)

6.

Stator water conductivity V.High

7.

Damper tank level emergency

8.

GT backup earth fault relay operated

9.

GT winding temperature very high

10. GT oil temperature very high


11. UAT A winding temperature very high
12. UAT A oil temperature very high

34

13. UAT B winding temperature very high


14. UAT B oil temperature very high
15. Regulator supply fuse failure (AVR)
16. Thyristor fan supply failure MCB trip (AVR)
17. Excitation transformer over temperature stage II (AVR)
18. Manual channel failure (AVR)

35