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Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

Instruction: Choose the most correct answer for each question. Answer the

questions in the OMR sheet provided.

1.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

2.

to collect and analyze data

to test hypothesis

to identify and select factors

to highlight a problem

A. A data frame that consists of all experimental units

B. A group of individuals that are similar in some way

C. A randomization procedure

D. A condition or intervention which is applied to individuals

E. A measurement of response

3.

each has ___ levels resulting in ____ treatments.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

4.

9, 3, 3

3, 3, 9

2, 3, 9

1, 1, 3

2, 3, 6

that

A. the variation among the groups is large relative to the

variation within the groups

B. the variation among the groups is small relative to the variation

within the groups

C. the variation within the groups is large relative to the variation

among the groups

D. the variation within the groups is equal to the variation among

the groups

E. error variance is larger than group variance

5.

A. variance for each combination of factor A and B

1

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

B.

C.

D.

E.

6.

standard deviation for each combination of factor A and B

median for each combination of factor A and B

error means squares

For a two-way ANOVA with four levels of factor A, six levels of factor B

and 121 total observations, which of the following is the appropriate

combination of degrees of freedom?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

7.

STAB2004

dfA = 3, dfB = 7, df AB =

dfA = 4, dfB = 6, df AB =

dfA = 3, dfB = 5, df AB

dfA = 3, dfB = 5, df AB =

dfA = 3, dfB = 6, df AB =

10, dfError = 101, dfTotal = 121

= 15, dfError = 97, dfTotal = 120

14, dfError = 98, dfTotal = 120

18, dfError = 90, dfTotal = 120

experiment (RCBD)?

A. Every block is randomized separately from every other block

B. Every treatment must appear at least once in every block

C. Blocking is used to remove the effects of another factor that is

not of interest but may affect the outcome of the experiment

D. The ANOVA table will have another line in it for the contribution

to the variability from blocks

E. Blocks should contain experimental units that are as

different as possible from each other

8.

interaction effect(s) of interest.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

9.

2, 1

3, 1

1, 1

1, 2

2, 3

A. ratio variables

B. interval or ratio variables

C. ordinal variables

D. categorical variables

E. continuous variables

10.

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

11.

A.

Type I, Type II : ,

B.

Type I, Type II : ,

C.

Type I, Type II : 1 - ; 1

D.

Type I, Type II : , 1 -

E.

Type I, Type II : , 1 -

Consider an experiment with 2 factors, A and B, and a response, Y. Which of

the following are true.

I.

response Y when factor A changes is the same for each level of B

The interaction term is significant when the main effects provide

an incomplete description of the data

The interaction term is significant when the effect of A on the

average response depends on what level of factor B is

considered

If we create an interaction plot and the lines are not parallel, we

can conclude that there is sufficient statistical evidence for an

interaction effect

II.

III.

IV.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

12.

13.

STAB2004

I & II

I, II, & III

II & III

III & IV

II, III, & IV

Which of the following ANOVA results would make you accept the alternative

hypothesis at a 95% level of significance?

I.

II.

III.

IV.

p > 0.05

p < 0.05

F > Fcrit

F > 0.05

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

I & II

II & III

II & IV

II, III & IV

I, III& V

I.

II.

III.

often used when one factor is more readily applied to large

experimental units, another factor to smaller units

frequently used when more information is needed to compare

the levels of one factor than for the other factor

3

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

IV.

STAB2004

A. I & II

B. II & III

C. I & III

D. I, II & III

E. II, III & IV

14.

A. it concerns samples within samples

B. the experimental units are relatively uniform

C. two sources of extraneous variation needs to be

controlled

D. one treatment occurs exclusively in a row

E. the goal is to maximize error variance

15.

A. Randomization is restricted in RCBD

B. Two stage randomization is involved in split-plot experiment

C. Randomization is not necessary when only one factor is

investigated

D. Randomization of treatments in RCBD is done within blocks

E. Randomization averages out extraneous variables that we

cannot see

16.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

17.

the term a in y = bx + a

the point where the best fit line crosses the y-axis

the predicted point on the y-axis when x is zero

the point where the best fit line crosses the x-axis

A researcher was interested in examining the stress hormone levels measured in cows reared in

the pasture compared to similar age cows reared in a feedlot. Which analysis should the

researcher perform to compare mean stress hormone levels of the groups?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Independent samples t-test

One-way ANOVA

One-way repeated measures ANOVA

Chi-square test

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

18.

A researcher was interested in examining the stress hormone levels of cows before and

immediately after transportation to the abattoir. Stress hormone level of each cow was measured

twice, before and after transportation to the abattoir. Which analysis should the researcher

perform to compare mean stress hormone levels?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

19.

Independent samples t-test

One-way ANOVA

Two-way ANOVA

Chi-square test

A researcher was interested in examining the stress hormone levels in bulls and cows,reared in

pasture and feedlot. Which analysis should the researcher perform to compare the mean stress

hormone levels amongst these groups?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

20.

STAB2004

Independent samples t-test

One-way ANOVA

Two-way ANOVA

Chi-square test

A researcher was interested in examining the stress hormone levels in breeds of cows reared in

pasture and feedlot. Because breeds were very much adapted to rearing types, two different

breeds were reared in the pasture whilst another two breeds were reared in the feedlot. Stress

hormone levels were measured from a number of cows in each breed and rearing type. Which

analysis should the researcher perform to compare the mean stress hormone levels amongst these

groups?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

One-way ANOVA

Factorial ANOVA

Split-plot ANOVA

Nested ANOVA

Latin square ANOVA

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

Instruction: Answer all the questions in the space provided.

1.

term

i)

Crossed every level of one factor appears with every level of

every other factor, there is possibly an interaction between

factors

Nested some levels of a second factor occurs with only one

level of the first factor and there is no interaction

ii)

data. (2 marks)

Notion of balanced refers to how many experimental units

(replicates) are assigned to each of the treatment.

Balanced equal number of replicates or observations in each

treatment

Unbalanced treatmentshave unequal number of observations

or replicates.

iii)

and blocking.

(2 marks)

Randomization to attempt to make uncontrolled variables as

similar as possible in different experimental treatment groups.

Deal with variables that we cannot see or control so that we

valid estimate of error and treatment means

Blocking to reduce error variability due to known or anticipated

variables that are not of interest but may influence the outcome

of the experiment. Variables that we can see and controllable.

6

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

iv)

STAB2004

classification factor.

(2 marks)

experimental factor factors under the control of the

experimenter. Levels of a factor can be assigned to the

experimental units

classification factor cannot be manipulated by the

experimenter. oftenassociated with observational data

v)

marks)

Experimental units the smallest subunit of the experimental

material such that any two different units may receive different

treatments.

Units that are truly replicated

Observational units units that are observed and measured. May

have many observational units in each experimental unit but in

these cases, they are considered as pseudoreplicates

2.

heterogeneous experimental units. How can we reduce the

experimental error variability then? (2 marks)

Rather than blocking the variable, CRD make use of concomitant

variable i.e. covariate to reduce experimental error

example: use initial body weights as a covariate on observed final

body weights when heterogeneous (different initial weights)

experimental units are utilized.

3.

preferred as an alternative to covariate analysis to reduce the

experimental errors. (2 marks)

Computation with RCBD much simpler than covariance analysis

RCBD essentially free of assumptions about the nature of relationship

between blocking variable and dependent variable

Covariance analysis assume definite form of relationship, often linear,

which may or may not necessarily hold.

4.

Only five agents can be effectively analyzed per day. What might be a

useful blocking variable in this experiment and why? (2 marks)

7

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

block. All five agents are tested in each day, the order of agents in a

given day is random.

5.

can be obtained by employing more than one variable as blocks. For

instance, both age and sex may be used for designating blocks.

i)

What are the potential problems when more than one variable

are used in defining blocks in RCBD? (2 marks)

Too many combinations of variables (as blocks) will require too

many experimental units

Cost consideration may not permit the use of many units

ii)

Incomplete block design such as Latin square

Simultaneous use of two blocking variables can reduce the

experimental error sufficiently with less but reasonable number

of experimental units

6.

treatment structure? (2 marks)

Factors with more information/interest should be the subplot factor.

The main-plot is akin to block as far as subplot factor is concerned, so

the units within the main-plot are more homogeneous compared to

among the main-plots.

7.

For three or less treatments, the degrees of freedom for error in Latin

Square are fewer than desirable. How can we remedy this problem? (2

marks)

By repeating the experiment or replicating the squares can increase

the error df

8.

Any two answersAllows estimation of random error

Improve precision of experiment by reducing std error of treatment

means

To increase validity of conclusion

8

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

Yij Y ..

9.

SS(Treatment)?

(2 marks)

Yi . Y ..

. What about

overall mean

10.

studies rather than experimental studies? (2 marks)

In the field, researcher often cannot manipulate factors under study so

more likely some factors are nested in others.eg. families within

neighbourhood since we cannot randomly assign families to other

neighbourhoods

Instruction: Answer all the questions in the space provided.

1.

areas in each of three locations (LOCATION). Assignment of a blend to

an area within each location is random. After one week, the

persistence of the pesticides is determined by measuring the percent

loss (PCTLOSS) in each location. The objective is to determine if there

are differences among blends in percent loss. The data is presented

below.

Observatio

n

1

2

3

4

5

6

LOCATION

BLEND

PCTLOSS

1

1

1

1

1

2

B

A

C

E

D

A

18.2

16.9

17.0

18.3

15.1

16.5

9

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

STAB2004

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

E

B

C

D

B

D

C

E

A

18.3

19.2

18.1

16.0

17.1

17.8

17.3

19.8

17.5

i)

can constitute the blocking factor? (2 marks)

Yes because all treatments appears in each location. Although

location is not described in detail above, it is likely anticipated to

represent naturally occurring differences not related to the

treatments.

Locations constitute blocking factor

ii)

Present and define the terms in the linear model to describe the

data.(2 marks)

Yij = u + bi + tj + eij

b = effect of block i

t = effect of treatment j

e = random error

2.

iii)

Obtain the

Source

Block

Blend

Error

Total

df

SS

MS

F

p

2

1.65

4

11.55 2.889 3.31 0.07

8

6.99 0.874

14

20.19

iv)

Three seed growth promoting methods are applied to seeds from each

of five varieties of wheat. Six pots are planted with seed from each

method x variety combination. The resulting ninety pots are randomly

placed in a uniform growth chamber and the dry matter yields are

measured at the end of four weeks.

i)

marks)

10

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

Nothing to suspect that differences among pots (soil etc) except

for treatments

Handling are assumed the same and growth chamber is uniform

ii)

marks)

3 x 5 Factorial.

Factorial consists of all combinations of method and variety

levels

iii)

and their corresponding degrees of freedom. (4 marks)

Sources

df

Method

2

Variety

Method x variety 8

error

75

3.

of three bacterial inoculation treatments (control, live, dead) applied

randomly to two cultivars of grass (A and B).A large yet relatively

homogeneous field is divided into four quarters and in each quarter

field, one of the two cultivars of grass are planted. Then, the three

bacterial inoculation treatments are applied to sections of each cultivar

in each of the quarter field.

i)

marks)

CRD

Field is said to be homogeneous so nothing to suggest otherwise.

ii)

marks)

Split-plot

Main plot (quarter field) cultivars of grass

Subplot (sections in each quarter plot)- inoculation treatment

11

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

iii)

STAB2004

2 stage randomization

Cultivars randomly assigned to main plots

Inoculation randomly assigned to sections in each main plot

iv)

Yijk = u + cultivarj + error a + inoculk + cultvar x inoculjk + error

b

v)

and their corresponding degrees of freedom. (6 marks)

Cultivar

1

Error a

2

Inocul

2

Cultivar x inocul 2

Error b

2+2 = 4

4.

Five packages of a brand of hamburger are purchased and taken to the

laboratory. Four samples are drawn from each package and two

replicate counts are made on each sample.

i)

Subsampling with respect to samples taken from each package

and counts.

(hierarchical) kind of nested

ii)

Package

samples ( packages)

duplicate counts (samples, package)

iii)

there is no variation among the packages? (2 marks)

12

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

Whereas count(samples, package) is the sampling error, not

appropriate

2010

3 JAM

KOD KURSUS

:STAB 2004

TAJUK KURSUS

ARAHAN

:

1.

2.

yang disediakan.

3.

yang disediakan dalam kertas soalan.

4.

Dewan Peperiksaan.

13

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