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# No.

Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

## SECTION A (30 MARKS)

questions in the OMR sheet provided.
1.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

2.

## to control experimental error

to collect and analyze data
to test hypothesis
to identify and select factors
to highlight a problem

## In the language of experiment, what is a treatment?

A. A data frame that consists of all experimental units
B. A group of individuals that are similar in some way
C. A randomization procedure
D. A condition or intervention which is applied to individuals
E. A measurement of response

3.

## A 32 factorial experiment implies that the experiment has ____ factors,

each has ___ levels resulting in ____ treatments.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

4.

9, 3, 3
3, 3, 9
2, 3, 9
1, 1, 3
2, 3, 6

## When the null hypothesis is rejected for a one-way ANOVA, it means

that
A. the variation among the groups is large relative to the
variation within the groups
B. the variation among the groups is small relative to the variation
within the groups
C. the variation within the groups is large relative to the variation
among the groups
D. the variation within the groups is equal to the variation among
the groups
E. error variance is larger than group variance

5.

## To create an interaction plot for a two-way ANOVA, you should compute

A. variance for each combination of factor A and B
1

No. Pendaftaran:__________________
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.

## mean for each combination of factor A and B

standard deviation for each combination of factor A and B
median for each combination of factor A and B
error means squares

For a two-way ANOVA with four levels of factor A, six levels of factor B
and 121 total observations, which of the following is the appropriate
combination of degrees of freedom?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

7.

STAB2004

dfA = 3, dfB = 7, df AB =
dfA = 4, dfB = 6, df AB =
dfA = 3, dfB = 5, df AB
dfA = 3, dfB = 5, df AB =
dfA = 3, dfB = 6, df AB =

## 21, dfError = 90, dfTotal = 121

10, dfError = 101, dfTotal = 121
= 15, dfError = 97, dfTotal = 120
14, dfError = 98, dfTotal = 120
18, dfError = 90, dfTotal = 120

## Which of the following is false about randomized complete block

experiment (RCBD)?
A. Every block is randomized separately from every other block
B. Every treatment must appear at least once in every block
C. Blocking is used to remove the effects of another factor that is
not of interest but may affect the outcome of the experiment
D. The ANOVA table will have another line in it for the contribution
to the variability from blocks
E. Blocks should contain experimental units that are as
different as possible from each other

8.

## In a 2 x 3 factorial ANOVA, there is/are ______ main effect(s) and _______

interaction effect(s) of interest.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

9.

2, 1
3, 1
1, 1
1, 2
2, 3

## A 2 test is used to examine differences between

A. ratio variables
B. interval or ratio variables
C. ordinal variables
D. categorical variables
E. continuous variables

10.

## Which of the following pairings is correct?

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

11.

A.
Type I, Type II : ,
B.
Type I, Type II : ,
C.
Type I, Type II : 1 - ; 1
D.
Type I, Type II : , 1 -
E.
Type I, Type II : , 1 -
Consider an experiment with 2 factors, A and B, and a response, Y. Which of
the following are true.
I.

## The interaction term is significant if the change in the average

response Y when factor A changes is the same for each level of B
The interaction term is significant when the main effects provide
an incomplete description of the data
The interaction term is significant when the effect of A on the
average response depends on what level of factor B is
considered
If we create an interaction plot and the lines are not parallel, we
can conclude that there is sufficient statistical evidence for an
interaction effect

II.
III.
IV.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.

13.

STAB2004

I & II
I, II, & III
II & III
III & IV
II, III, & IV

Which of the following ANOVA results would make you accept the alternative
hypothesis at a 95% level of significance?
I.
II.
III.
IV.

p > 0.05
p < 0.05
F > Fcrit
F > 0.05

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

I & II
II & III
II & IV
II, III & IV
I, III& V

I.
II.
III.

## a specialized randomization scheme for a factorial experiment

often used when one factor is more readily applied to large
experimental units, another factor to smaller units
the levels of one factor than for the other factor
3

No. Pendaftaran:__________________
IV.

STAB2004

A. I & II
B. II & III
C. I & III
D. I, II & III
E. II, III & IV

14.

## Latin square design is appropriate when

A. it concerns samples within samples
B. the experimental units are relatively uniform
C. two sources of extraneous variation needs to be
controlled
D. one treatment occurs exclusively in a row
E. the goal is to maximize error variance

15.

## Which of the following statements is false about randomization?

A. Randomization is restricted in RCBD
B. Two stage randomization is involved in split-plot experiment
C. Randomization is not necessary when only one factor is
investigated
D. Randomization of treatments in RCBD is done within blocks
E. Randomization averages out extraneous variables that we
cannot see

16.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

17.

## the constant in most computer output

the term a in y = bx + a
the point where the best fit line crosses the y-axis
the predicted point on the y-axis when x is zero
the point where the best fit line crosses the x-axis

A researcher was interested in examining the stress hormone levels measured in cows reared in
the pasture compared to similar age cows reared in a feedlot. Which analysis should the
researcher perform to compare mean stress hormone levels of the groups?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

## Paired samples t-test

Independent samples t-test
One-way ANOVA
One-way repeated measures ANOVA
Chi-square test

No. Pendaftaran:__________________
18.

A researcher was interested in examining the stress hormone levels of cows before and
immediately after transportation to the abattoir. Stress hormone level of each cow was measured
twice, before and after transportation to the abattoir. Which analysis should the researcher
perform to compare mean stress hormone levels?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

19.

## Paired samples t-test

Independent samples t-test
One-way ANOVA
Two-way ANOVA
Chi-square test

A researcher was interested in examining the stress hormone levels in bulls and cows,reared in
pasture and feedlot. Which analysis should the researcher perform to compare the mean stress
hormone levels amongst these groups?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

20.

STAB2004

## Paired samples t-test

Independent samples t-test
One-way ANOVA
Two-way ANOVA
Chi-square test

A researcher was interested in examining the stress hormone levels in breeds of cows reared in
pasture and feedlot. Because breeds were very much adapted to rearing types, two different
breeds were reared in the pasture whilst another two breeds were reared in the feedlot. Stress
hormone levels were measured from a number of cows in each breed and rearing type. Which
analysis should the researcher perform to compare the mean stress hormone levels amongst these
groups?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

One-way ANOVA
Factorial ANOVA
Split-plot ANOVA
Nested ANOVA
Latin square ANOVA

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

## SECTION B (30 MARKS)

Instruction: Answer all the questions in the space provided.
1.

term
i)

## The factors can be crossed or nested. (2 marks)

Crossed every level of one factor appears with every level of
every other factor, there is possibly an interaction between
factors
Nested some levels of a second factor occurs with only one
level of the first factor and there is no interaction

ii)

## It is much simpler to work with balanced rather than unbalanced

data. (2 marks)
Notion of balanced refers to how many experimental units
(replicates) are assigned to each of the treatment.
Balanced equal number of replicates or observations in each
treatment
Unbalanced treatmentshave unequal number of observations
or replicates.

iii)

and blocking.
(2 marks)
Randomization to attempt to make uncontrolled variables as
similar as possible in different experimental treatment groups.
Deal with variables that we cannot see or control so that we
valid estimate of error and treatment means
Blocking to reduce error variability due to known or anticipated
variables that are not of interest but may influence the outcome
of the experiment. Variables that we can see and controllable.
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No. Pendaftaran:__________________

iv)

STAB2004

## A factor may be categorized as an experimental factor or a

classification factor.
(2 marks)
experimental factor factors under the control of the
experimenter. Levels of a factor can be assigned to the
experimental units
classification factor cannot be manipulated by the
experimenter. oftenassociated with observational data

v)

## Experimental units are not the same as observational units. (2

marks)
Experimental units the smallest subunit of the experimental
material such that any two different units may receive different
treatments.
Units that are truly replicated
Observational units units that are observed and measured. May
have many observational units in each experimental unit but in
these cases, they are considered as pseudoreplicates

2.

## A completely randomized design may at times be used with

heterogeneous experimental units. How can we reduce the
experimental error variability then? (2 marks)
Rather than blocking the variable, CRD make use of concomitant
variable i.e. covariate to reduce experimental error
example: use initial body weights as a covariate on observed final
body weights when heterogeneous (different initial weights)
experimental units are utilized.

3.

## Give two reasons to support the contention that blocking is generally

preferred as an alternative to covariate analysis to reduce the
experimental errors. (2 marks)
Computation with RCBD much simpler than covariance analysis
RCBD essentially free of assumptions about the nature of relationship
between blocking variable and dependent variable
Covariance analysis assume definite form of relationship, often linear,
which may or may not necessarily hold.

4.

## Consider a chemist studying the reaction rate of five chemical agents.

Only five agents can be effectively analyzed per day. What might be a
useful blocking variable in this experiment and why? (2 marks)
7

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

## Day-to-day differences may affect reaction rate, so day is used as

block. All five agents are tested in each day, the order of agents in a
given day is random.
5.

## Sometimes, substantial reduction in the experimental error variability

can be obtained by employing more than one variable as blocks. For
instance, both age and sex may be used for designating blocks.
i)

What are the potential problems when more than one variable
are used in defining blocks in RCBD? (2 marks)
Too many combinations of variables (as blocks) will require too
many experimental units
Cost consideration may not permit the use of many units

ii)

## What is a better alternative design to RCBD and why? (2 marks)

Incomplete block design such as Latin square
Simultaneous use of two blocking variables can reduce the
experimental error sufficiently with less but reasonable number
of experimental units

6.

## Which factor is of more interest in experiments involving split-plot

treatment structure? (2 marks)
The main-plot is akin to block as far as subplot factor is concerned, so
the units within the main-plot are more homogeneous compared to
among the main-plots.

7.

For three or less treatments, the degrees of freedom for error in Latin
Square are fewer than desirable. How can we remedy this problem? (2
marks)
By repeating the experiment or replicating the squares can increase
the error df

8.

## What is the purpose of replication? (2 marks)

Any two answersAllows estimation of random error
Improve precision of experiment by reducing std error of treatment
means
To increase validity of conclusion
8

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

Yij Y ..
9.

SS(Treatment)?
(2 marks)

Yi . Y ..

overall mean
10.

## Why is that nested factors are frequently encountered in observational

studies rather than experimental studies? (2 marks)
In the field, researcher often cannot manipulate factors under study so
more likely some factors are nested in others.eg. families within
neighbourhood since we cannot randomly assign families to other
neighbourhoods

## SECTION C (40 MARKS)

Instruction: Answer all the questions in the space provided.
1.

## Five chemical blends (BLEND) of household pesticide are applied to

areas in each of three locations (LOCATION). Assignment of a blend to
an area within each location is random. After one week, the
persistence of the pesticides is determined by measuring the percent
loss (PCTLOSS) in each location. The objective is to determine if there
are differences among blends in percent loss. The data is presented
below.

Observatio
n
1
2
3
4
5
6

LOCATION

BLEND

PCTLOSS

1
1
1
1
1
2

B
A
C
E
D
A

18.2
16.9
17.0
18.3
15.1
16.5
9

No. Pendaftaran:__________________
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

STAB2004
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3

E
B
C
D
B
D
C
E
A

18.3
19.2
18.1
16.0
17.1
17.8
17.3
19.8
17.5

i)

## Does the experiment resemble RCBD? If it does, what variable

can constitute the blocking factor? (2 marks)
Yes because all treatments appears in each location. Although
location is not described in detail above, it is likely anticipated to
represent naturally occurring differences not related to the
treatments.
Locations constitute blocking factor

ii)

Present and define the terms in the linear model to describe the
data.(2 marks)
Yij = u + bi + tj + eij
b = effect of block i
t = effect of treatment j
e = random error

2.

iii)

Obtain the
Source
Block
Blend
Error
Total

## complete ANOVA table for the data. (6 marks)

df
SS
MS
F
p
2
1.65
4
11.55 2.889 3.31 0.07
8
6.99 0.874
14
20.19

iv)

## P > 0.05 , not significant

Three seed growth promoting methods are applied to seeds from each
of five varieties of wheat. Six pots are planted with seed from each
method x variety combination. The resulting ninety pots are randomly
placed in a uniform growth chamber and the dry matter yields are
measured at the end of four weeks.
i)

## Identify and explain briefly the design of the experiment. (2

marks)
10

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

## Completely randomized design.

Nothing to suspect that differences among pots (soil etc) except
for treatments
Handling are assumed the same and growth chamber is uniform
ii)

## Identify and explain briefly the treatment structure involved. (2

marks)
3 x 5 Factorial.
Factorial consists of all combinations of method and variety
levels

iii)

## Present a partial ANOVA table showing the sources of variation

and their corresponding degrees of freedom. (4 marks)
Sources
df
Method
2
Variety
Method x variety 8
error
75

3.

## An experiment is carried out to analyse the effect on dry weight yields

of three bacterial inoculation treatments (control, live, dead) applied
randomly to two cultivars of grass (A and B).A large yet relatively
homogeneous field is divided into four quarters and in each quarter
field, one of the two cultivars of grass are planted. Then, the three
bacterial inoculation treatments are applied to sections of each cultivar
in each of the quarter field.
i)

## Explain briefly on the design structure of the experiment. (2

marks)
CRD
Field is said to be homogeneous so nothing to suggest otherwise.

ii)

## Explain briefly the treatment structure of the experiment. (2

marks)
Split-plot
Main plot (quarter field) cultivars of grass
Subplot (sections in each quarter plot)- inoculation treatment

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No. Pendaftaran:__________________

iii)

STAB2004

## Explain the randomization involved in the experiment. (2 marks)

2 stage randomization
Cultivars randomly assigned to main plots
Inoculation randomly assigned to sections in each main plot

iv)

## Present the linear statistical model for the experiment. (2 marks)

Yijk = u + cultivarj + error a + inoculk + cultvar x inoculjk + error
b

v)

## Present a partial ANOVA table showing the sources of variation

and their corresponding degrees of freedom. (6 marks)
Cultivar
1
Error a
2
Inocul
2
Cultivar x inocul 2
Error b
2+2 = 4

4.

## In an experiment, microbial counts are made on samples of hamburger.

Five packages of a brand of hamburger are purchased and taken to the
laboratory. Four samples are drawn from each package and two
replicate counts are made on each sample.
i)

## What is the appropriate term to describe the sampling? (2 marks)

Subsampling with respect to samples taken from each package
and counts.
(hierarchical) kind of nested

ii)

## What are the sources of variation in this experiment? (2 marks)

Package
samples ( packages)
duplicate counts (samples, package)

iii)

## What is the appropriate error term to test the hypothesis that

there is no variation among the packages? (2 marks)
12

No. Pendaftaran:__________________

STAB2004

## Samples (package) = experimental error

Whereas count(samples, package) is the sampling error, not
appropriate

2010

3 JAM

KOD KURSUS

:STAB 2004

TAJUK KURSUS

ARAHAN

:
1.

2.

yang disediakan.

3.

## Jawab SEMUA soalan Bahagian B dan C pada ruang

yang disediakan dalam kertas soalan.

4.

## Kertas soalan tidak dibenarkan dibawa keluar dari

Dewan Peperiksaan.

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