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NCLEX/CGFNS Review Notes in Infection Control by Lyle, RN

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Type Definition Equipment Clinical Application


Standard Reduce the risk of • Gloves • Blood
Precautions transmission of infection
from all recognized and • Protective eyewear • Body fluids
unrecognized sources of
infection (formerly called • Gown/apron • Secretions
universal precautions)
• Mask • Excretions

• Any break in skin or mucous


membrane
Airborne Reduce the risk of • Special air • Measles
Precautions airborne transmission of handling systems
infectious agents • Varicella (chickenpox)
• Ventilation
systems: HEPA filter • Tuberculosis
masks, N95
Respirator
Droplet Reduce the risk of • Surgical mask • Haemophilus influenzae type B
Precautions airborne transmission of (bacterial meningitis)
infectious agents
transmitted by large • Meningococal meningitis
particle droplets
• Pertussis

• Streptococcal pharyngitis

• Scarlet fever
Contact Reduce the risk of • Gloves • Enteric infections (diarrhea)
Precautions transmission of
infectious agents by • Gown • Skin/wound infections
direct patient contact or
indirect contact with • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
contaminated items in
the patient’s • Herpes simplex
environment.
• Impetigo

• Viral hemorrhagic conjunctivitis

• MRSA (methicillin resistant staph


aureus)