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(eBook) - Mathematics Applied Advanced Calculus

(eBook) - Mathematics Applied Advanced Calculus

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Publicado porParisi&Leão

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Published by: Parisi&Leão on Jun 20, 2010
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10/27/2011

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such as, for example

4 −6 0
−3 2 1
9 −5 −3

which is a 3 × 3 (n × m in general) array

of numbers (these are called the matrix elements).
Understand the following definitions:

square matrix (n = m), unit matrix (

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

), zero matrix;

and operations:

matrix transpose (

4 −3 9
−6 2 −5
0 1 −3

), matrix addition (for same-size ma-

trices), multiplication (· 3 −2 0
5 −3 1

¸ 2 −1
0 3
−4 5

= · 6 −9
6 −9

¸, [n × m][m ×

k] = [n×k] intermsof dimensions),inverse

4 −6 0
−3 2 1
9 −5 −3

−1

=

1

4 9

2 3
2

0 3 1

3
4 17

2 5
2

(later, we review its construction), and determinant

¯¯¯¯ a b
c d

¯¯¯¯ = adbc.

For two square matrices, their product is not necessarily commutative, e.g.

· 2 0
−3 4

¸· 3 5
1 −2

¸ = · 6 10
−5 −23

¸, · 3 5
1 −2

¸· 2 0
−3 4

¸ = · −9 20
8 −8

¸.

Notation:

I stands for the unit matrix, O for the zero matrix, AT

for transpose, A−1

for
inverse, |A| for the determinant, AB for multiplication (careful with the order);
A23 is the second-row, third-column element of A.
A few basic rules:
AI=IA=A,AO=OA=O,AA−1

=A−1

A=I, (AB)T

=BT

AT

,and(AB)−1

=

B−1

A−1

, whenever the dimensions allow the operation.
Let us formally prove the second last equality:

n(AB)Toij = (Pk AikBkj)T

= Pk AjkBki

Why can we
interchange
?

= Pk BkiAjk = Pk {BT

}ik{AT

}kj =

{BT

AT

}ij for each i and j. ¤

14

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