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Survey of Northern Pakistan: Languages of Hindko and Gujari Volume 3

Survey of Northern Pakistan: Languages of Hindko and Gujari Volume 3

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Publicado porjuliesheil

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Published by: juliesheil on Jun 24, 2010
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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As seen in the preceding chapter, there are some Hindko-
speaking people who in the course of their regular activities
speak Urdu, Pashto, Panjabi or Gujari in addition to Hindko in
dealing with other-language speakers in their areas. Urdu is
spoken by some people in each of the four communities studied.
Pashto is used by many in Jammun and Sherpur, by few in Singo
Di Garhi and by none of the Balakot sample. Panjabi is used by a
few in Singo Di Garhi and Balakot and by a larger group, though
a minority, in Sherpur. Gujari is used by a few in Balakot and by
very few in Sherpur. In general, of course, the language
repertoires and choices relate to contact and opportunities found
in the communities studied.
That many Hindko-speaking people of a community use a
second language when conversing with speakers of that language
suggests a high level of societal bilingualism, but it does not
directly provide information about the proficiency with which
the Hindko speakers use the second language. Therefore, the
proficiency of Hindko speakers in speaking Urdu, Pashto and
Panjabi was tested in several communities.

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