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Lesson No 5 - Elements of Research Design

Lesson No 5 - Elements of Research Design

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ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

1 BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
OBSERVATION (IDENTIFICATION (BROAD AREA OF OFRESEARCH BROAD AREA OF RESEARCH INTEREST IDENTIFIED) INTEREST)

FORMULATION OF PLAN

FIELD WORK

PROBLEM DEFINITION

FORMULATION OF THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES

GENERATION OF HYPOTHESIS

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN

DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

ANALYSIS

PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING (INTERVIEWS, LITERATURE SURVEY)

NO

DEDUCTION
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

1 BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
OBSERVATION (IDENTIFICATION (BROAD AREA OF OFRESEARCH BROAD AREA OF RESEARCH INTEREST IDENTIFIED) INTEREST)

FORMULATION OF PLAN

FIELD WORK

PROBLEM DEFINITION

FORMULATION OF THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES

GENERATION OF HYPOTHESIS

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN

DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

ANALYSIS

PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING (INTERVIEWS, LITERATURE SURVEY)

NO

DEDUCTION

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Categories:Types, Research
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BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

1 1
ELEMENTS OF
RESEARCH DESIGN
BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN 2 2
OBSERVATION
(BROAD AREA OF
RESEARCH
INTEREST
IDENTIFIED)
PRELIMINARY
DATA GATHERING
(INTERVIEWS,
LITERATURE
SURVEY)
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
FORMULATION
OF THEORATICAL
FRAMEWORK
IDENTIFICATION
OF VARIABLES
GENERATION
OF
HYPOTHESIS
DATA
COLLECTION,
ANALYSIS
&
INTERPRET-
ATION
SCIENTIFIC
RESEARCH
DESIGN
DEDUCTIONS:
HYPOTHESIS
SUBSTANTIATED?
RESEARCH QUESTION
ANSWERED?
REPORT
WRITING
REPORT
PRESENTATION
MANAGERIAL
DECISION
MAKING
YES
NO
OBSERVATION
(BROAD AREA OF
RESEARCH
INTEREST
IDENTIFIED)
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
PRELIMINARY
DATA GATHERING
(INTERVIEWS,
LITERATURE
SURVEY)
OBSERVATION
(BROAD AREA OF
RESEARCH
INTEREST
IDENTIFIED)
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
OBSERVATION
(BROAD AREA OF
RESEARCH
INTEREST
IDENTIFIED)
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
OBSERVATION
(BROAD AREA OF
RESEARCH
INTEREST
IDENTIFIED)
PRELIMINARY
DATA GATHERING
(INTERVIEWS,
LITERATURE
SURVEY)
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
OBSERVATION
(IDENTIFICATION
OF BROAD AREA
OF RESEARCH
INTEREST)
OBSERVATION
(IDENTIFICATION
OF BROAD AREA
OF RESEARCH
INTEREST)
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
OBSERVATION
(IDENTIFICATION
OF BROAD AREA
OF RESEARCH
INTEREST)
PRELIMINARY
DATA GATHERING
(INTERVIEWS,
LITERATURE
SURVEY)
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
OBSERVATION
(IDENTIFICATION
OF BROAD AREA
OF RESEARCH
INTEREST)
PRELIMINARY
DATA GATHERING
(INTERVIEWS,
LITERATURE
SURVEY)
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
OBSERVATION
(IDENTIFICATION
OF BROAD AREA
OF RESEARCH
INTEREST)
PRELIMINARY
DATA GATHERING
(INTERVIEWS,
LITERATURE
SURVEY)
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
OBSERVATION
(IDENTIFICATION
OF BROAD AREA
OF RESEARCH
INTEREST)
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
FORMULATION
OF PLAN
FIELD
WORK
A
N
A
L
Y
S
I
S

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN
IT IS…..

A PLAN FOR SELECTING THE SOURCES AND TYPES OF
INFORMATION USED TO ANSWER THE RESEARCH
QUESTION

A FRAMEWOR! FOR SPECIFYING RELATIONSHIPS
AMONG THE STUDY"S VARIABLES

A BLUEPRINT THAT OUTLINES EACH PROCEDURE FROM
THE HYPOTHESES TO THE ANALYSIS OF DATA

PROVIDES ANSWERS TO ISSUES SUCH AS:
# TECHNIQUES TO BE USED TO GATHER DATA
# WHAT !IND OF SAMPLING WILL BE USED
# HOW WILL TIME $ COST CONSTRAINTS BE DEALT
WITH
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
% %
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN
AIM
TO DESIGN THE RESEARCH IN SUCH A WAY
THAT REQUIRED RESEARCH DATA CAN BE
GATHERED AND ANALYSED TO ARRIVE AT A
SOLUTION
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
5 5
HELPS TAKE DECISIONS RELATED TO:

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY (DESCRIPTIVE OR CAUSAL)

TYPES OF INVESTIGATION (OBSERVATIONAL OR SURVEY)

ETENT OF RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE APPROPRIATE TO
THE RESEARCH (MINIMAL OR MANIPULATIVE)

STUDY SETTING (RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT)

MEASUREMENT AND !MEASURES" TO BE ADOPTED

UNIT OF ANALYSIS TO BE ADOPTED

SAMPLE DESIGN (PROBABILITY#NON PROBABILITY, SAMPLE
SI$E)

TIME HORI$ONS (CROSS SECTIONAL OR LONGITUDINAL)

DATA COLLECTION METHODS TO BE ADOPTED
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
& &
IDENTIFICATION OF PURPOSE OF STUDY
POSSIBLE TYPES

EXPLORATORY

DESCRIPTIVE

ANALYTICAL (HYPOTHESIS TESTING)

CASE STUDY ANALYSIS
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
' '

UNDERTAKEN WHEN NOT MUCH IS KNOWN ABOUT THE
SITUATION AT HAND OR NO INFO IS AVAILABLE ON HOW SIMILAR
ISSUES HAVE BEEN RESOLVED IN THE PAST

INVOLVES EXTENSIVE PRELIMINARY WORK DONE TO GAIN
FAMILIARITY WITH PHENOMENA IN THE SITUATION BEFORE
DEVELOPING A MODEL AND SETTING UP A DESIGN FOR
COMPREHENSIVE INVESTIGATION

WHEN COLLECTED DATA REVEALS SOME PATTERN REGARDING
PHENOMENA OF INTEREST, THEORIES ARE DEVELOPED AND
HYPOTHESES FORMULATED FOR SUBSEQUENT TESTING

ALSO NECESSARY WHEN SOME FACTS ARE KNOWN BUT MORE
INFO IS NEEDED FOR DEVELOPING A VIABLE THEORATICAL
FRAMEWORK

SOME QUALITATIVE STUDIES WHERE DATA IS COLLECTED
THROUGH OBSERVATIONS ARE EXPLORATORY IN NATURE
EPLORATORY STUDY

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
( (
EAMPLES OF EPLORATORY STUDIES

ESTABLISHING IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE
THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN IN ORGANI$ATIONS

ESTABLISHING IF THE WORK ETHICS OF A SUBSIDIARY
FACILITY WOULD BE DIFFERENT TO THOSE AT THE
MAIN FACILITY

STUDIES RELATED TO !%UALITY OF LIFE"

STUDIES RELATED TO ORGANI$ATIONAL BEHAVIOR IN
DIFFERENT COUNTRIES, RACES, COMMUNITIES, ETC

STUDIES RELATED TO FEASIBILITY OF INTRODUCTION
OF A NEW PRODUCT
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
) )

UNDERTAKEN TO ASCERTAIN AND BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VARIABLES OF INTEREST IN A
SITUATION ie WHEN CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS ARE KNOWN TO
EXIST AND ONE WANTS TO BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE THEM BETTER BY
OFFERING A PROFILE OF THE DIFFERENT FACTORS INVOLVED SUCH
AS AGE, JOB STATUS, EDUCATIONAL LEVEL, ETC

USUALLY INVOLVE LEARNING ABOUT AND DESCRIBING
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GROUP OR CHARACTERISTICS OF
ORGANIZATIONS THAT FOLLOW CERTAIN COMMON PRACTICES

GOAL IS TO OFFER TO THE RESEARCHER A PROFILE OR TO DESCRIBE
RELAVENT ASPECTS OF A PHENOMENA OF INTEREST FROM AN
INDIVIDUAL, ORGANIZATIONAL, INDUSTRY ORIENTED OR OTHER
PERSPECTIVE

CHARACTERISTICS OF A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY:

DEVELOP UNDERSTANDING OF A GROUPS CHARACTERISTICS IN
A GIVEN SITUATION

THINK SYSTEMATICALLY ABOUT ASPECTS IN A GIVEN SITUATION

OFFER IDEAS FOR FURTHER PROBE AND RESEARCH

HELP MAKE CERTAIN SIMPLE DECISIONS
DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
1* 1*

PROFILING OF CLIENTS IN A BANK WHOSE LOAN
PAYMENTS ARE OUTSTANDING TO DECIDE WHICH
CATEGORIES OF CLIENTS SHOULD BE MADE
INELIGIBLE FOR LOANS IN FUTURE

SEEKING INFORMATION ABOUT COMPETITORS
BEFORE EVOLVING A PRICING, SALES, DISTRIBUTION
OR ADVERTISING STRATEGY

POSSIBLE INTERNAL REACTION WITHIN AN
ORGANIZATION TO INTRODUCTION OF ANY NEW
POLICIES OR POLICY CHANGES

USUALLY BASED ON QUANTITATIVE DATA
EXAMPLES OF DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
11 11

USUALLY E+PLAIN
# THE NATURE OF CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS OR THE NATURE OF CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS OR
# ESTABLISH THE DIFFERENCES AMONG GROUPS OR ESTABLISH THE DIFFERENCES AMONG GROUPS OR
# THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF TWO OR MORE THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF TWO OR MORE
FACTORS IN A SITUATION FACTORS IN A SITUATION

E+PLAIN THE VARIANCE IN THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE OR TO
PREDICT ORGANI,ATIONAL OUTCOMES
ANALYTICAL STUDY
(HYPOTHESES TESTING)

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
12 12

ESTABLISHING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADVERTISING AND
INCREASE OF SALES (BY TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: -IF
ADVERTISING IS INCREASED, THEN SALES WILL ALSO GO
UP.)

PREDICTING FACTORS THAT WILL SIGNIFICANTLY ACCOUNT
FOR DECISION TO BUILD A HOUSE IN A PARTICULAR AREA

ESTABLISHING DIFFERENCES IN BEHAVIOR PATTERNS ON
THE BASIS OF SE+
EXAMPLES OF ANALYTICAL STUDIES

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
1 1
INVOLVE IN-DEPTH CONTETUAL ANALYSES OF
MATTERS RELATED TO SIMILAR SITUATIONS IN
OTHER ORGANI$ATIONS
NOT FRE%UENTLY RESORTED TO AS A PROBLEM
SOLVING TECHNI%UE BECAUSE FINDING THE
SAME PROBLEM IN ANOTHER COMPARABLE
SETTING IS DIFFICULT
IN %UALITATIVE TERMS, ARE USEFUL IN APPLYING
SOLUTIONS TO CURRENT PROBLEMS BASED ON
PAST PROBLEM SOLVING EPERIENCES
ALSO USEFUL IN UNDERSTANDING CERTAIN
PHENOMENA AND GENERATING FURTHER
THEORIES FOR EMPERICAL TESTING
CASE STUDY ANALYSIS

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
1% 1%
CAUSAL

DONE WHEN IT IS NECESSARY TO ESTABLISH A DEFINITIVE
CAUSE & EFFECT RELATIONSHIP

UNDERTAKEN WHEN RESEARCHER WANTS TO DELINEATE ONE
OR MORE FACTORS THAT ARE CAUSING A PROBLEM TO OCCUR
&' DOES SMOKING CAUSE CANCER ? ?
CORELATIONAL

DONE WHEN MERE IDENTIFICATION OF THE IMPORTANT
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PROBLEM WILL SUFFICE &'
ARE SMOKING AND CANCER RELATED
OR
ARE SMOKING, DRINKING AND CHEWING TOBACCO
ASSOCIATED WITH CANCER ? IF SO, WHICH OF THESE
CONTRIBUTES MOST TO THE VARIANCE IN THE DEPENDENT
VARIABLE
WHETHER A STUDY IS CAUSAL OR CO-RELATIONAL DEPENDS
ON TYPE OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS ASKED AND HOW THE
PROBLEM IS DEFINED
TYPE OF INVESTIGATION

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
15 15

CAUSAL
FEARS OF AN EARTHQUAKE PREDICTED RECENTLY
IN THE MUZAFFARABAD FAULT ZONE WERE
INSTRUMENTAL IN AN UNPRECEDENTED NUMBER
OF HOUSE OWNERS IN THE CITY TRYING TO SELL
THEIR PROPERTIES

CORELATIONAL
INCREASE IN INTEREST RATES AND PROPERTY
TAXES, RECESSION IN THE COUNTRY AND THE
PREDICTED EARTH QUAKE CONSIDERABLY
SLOWED DOWN THE BUSINESS OF REAL ESTATE
AGENTS IN MUZAFFARABAD
EAMPLES OF CAUSAL & CORELATIONAL
STUDY %UESTIONS

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
1& 1&
INVOLVES INTERFERENCE BY THE RESEARCHER WITH
THE NORMAL FLOW OF WORK AT THE WORKPLACE
ALSO HAS A DIRECT BEARING ON WHETHER THE STUDY
IS CAUSAL OR CORRELATIONAL
CORELATIONAL STUDY IS CONDUCTED IN THE
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION
WITH MINIMAL INTERFERENCE BY RESEARCHER
WITH NORMAL FLOW OF WORK
IN STUDIES CONDUCTED TO ESTABLISH CAUSE &
EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS, RESEARCHER
MANIPULATES CERTAIN VARIABLES TO STUDY THE
EFFECTS OF THIS MANIPULATION ON THE
DEPENDENT VARIABLE OF INTEREST
ETENT OF RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE
WITH THE STUDY

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
1' 1'

MINIMAL INTERFERENCE
# LITTLE OR NO INTERFERENCE WITH
NORMAL ACTIVITIES

MODERATE INTERFERENCE
# MANIPULATION OF NORMAL COURSE OF
EVENTS TO STUDY EFFECTS

E+CESSIVE INTERFERENCE
# MAY ALSO INTERFERE WITH THE
SETTING TO STUDY EFFECTS
EXTENT OF RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE WITH THE STUDY

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
1( 1(

TERMS RELATED TO RESEARCHER"S CONTROL
ARRANGEMENTS
# E+PERIMENTAL GROUP/ A GROUP FORMULATED BY
THE RESEARCHER ON WHICH EFFECTS UNDER STUDY
ARE SPECIFICALLY APPLIED
# CONTROL GROUP/ A GROUP WHICH IS NOT
SUB0ECTED TO ANY MANIPULATION AND ALLOWED TO
E+PERIENCE ANY EFFECTS UNDER STUDY IN A NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT
# EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF PHENOMENA BEING
RESEARCHED ARE STUDIED BY COMPARING THE
RESULTS OF ITS APPLICATION ON THE E+PERIMENTAL
GROUP WITH THOSE DISPLAYED ON THE CONTROLLED
GROUP
EXTENT OF RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE WITH THE STUDY

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
1) 1)
STUDY SETTING

NON CONTRIVED
# STUDIES DONE IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS
WHERE WORK PROCEEDS NORMALLY
# GENERALLY DONE IN CASE OF CORRELATIONAL
STUDIES
# FIELD STUDIES. CORELATIONAL STUDIES DONE
WITHIN ORGANI$ATIONS WITH NO INTERFERENCE
TO THE NORMAL ROUTINE OR WORKING ARE
CALLED FIELD STUDIES
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
2* 2*
STUDY SETTING
CONCERNS THE ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH THE STUDY IS UNDERTAKEN
AND MAY BE CONTRIVED OR NON CONTRIVED

CONTRIVED STUDY SETTING
# ENVIRONMENTS ARE ADAPTED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF A
RESEARCH PRO(ECT
# SUCH SETTINGS USED IN CAUSAL STUDIES
# FIELD EPERIMENTS. STUDIES CONDUCTED TO
ESTABLISH CAUSE & EFFECT RELATIONSHIP USING THE
SAME NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH EMPLOYEES
NORMALLY FUNCTION. HOWEVER, RESEARCHER MAY
MANIPULATE THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
# LAB EPERIMENTS. EPERIMENTS DONE TO ESTABLISH
CAUSE & EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS BEYOND THE
POSSIBILITY OF THE LEAST DOUBT BY CREATION OF
ARTIFICIALLY CONTRIVED ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH ALL
ETRANEOUS FACTORS ARE STRICTLY CONTROLLED WITH
SIMILAR SUB(ECTS BEING CHOSEN TO RESPOND TO
CERTAIN MANIPULATED STIMULI
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
21 21
EAMPLES OF STUDY SETTINGS

ISSUE
# A BANK MANAGER WANTS TO ANALYSE THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTEREST RATES AND BANK
DEPOSIT PATTERNS OF CLIENTS

FIELD STUDY
# THE TWO ISSUES ARE CO-RELATED BY LOOKING AT
DEPOSITS INTO DIFFERENT KINDS OF ACCOUNTS AS
INTEREST RATES CHANGED.
# THIS IS A FIELD STUDY IN A NON CONTRIVED SETTING
WITH NO INTERFERENCE TO THE NORMAL WORK ROUTINE
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
22 22
EAMPLES OF STUDY SETTINGS

FIELD EPERIMENT
# TO DETERMINE THE CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN INTEREST RATE AND THE INDUCEMENTS IT
OFFERS TO CLIENTS TO SAVE AND DEPOSIT MONEY, FOUR
BANK BRANCHES ARE SELECTED AND FOR ONE WEEK,
INTEREST RATES ARE CHANGED TO )*, +* AND ,-* IN
THREE OF THE BRANCHES AND REMAIN UNCHANGED AT
.* IN THE FOURTH BRANCH.
# THIS IS A FIELD EXPERIMENT SINCE ONLY THE INTEREST
RATE HAS BEEN MANIPULATED WHILE ALL ACTIVITIES
CONTINUE IN NORMAL AND NATURAL WORK
ENVIRONMENTS
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
2 2

LAB EPERIMENT
# TO ESTABLISH THE CAUSAL CONNECTION BETWEEN INTEREST
RATES AND SAVINGS AN ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENT IS CREATED
BY RECRUITING /- BUSINESS MANAGEMENT STUDENTS. THEY
ARE SPLIT INTO / GROUPS AND EACH GROUP IS GIVEN CHIPS
THAT COUNT FOR 0,,--- WHICH THEY CAN USE TO BUY THEIR
NEEDS OR INVEST FOR THE FUTURE AS DESIRED BY THEM.
# AS INCENTIVE, INTEREST ON SAVINGS IS OFFERED BUT IS
MANIPULATED AT DIFFERENT RATES FOR DIFFERENT GROUPS TO
ESTABLISH THEIR RESPONSE PATTERN
# HERE, A LAB ENVIRONMENT HAS BEEN CREATED WITH A
CONTRIVED SETTING, MAXIMUM RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE
AND MANIPULATION OF THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE WHILE
TRYING TO CONTROL OTHER EXTRANEOUS (NUISANCE) FACTORS
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
2% 2%
UNIT OF ANALYSIS

REFERS TO THE LEVEL OF AGGREGATION OF
THE DATA COLLECTED DURING THE
SUBSE%UENT DATA ANALYSIS STAGE

COMMON UNITS OF ANALYSIS
INDIVIDUAL
DYADS 12 TWO PERSON GROUPS
GROUP
DIVISION
INDUSTRY
COUNTRY, ETC
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
25 25
TIME HORI$ON

CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

STUDY IN WHICH DATA IS GATHERED 0UST ONCE PERHAPS
OVER A PERIOD OF DAYS OR WEE!S OR MONTHS

GENERALLY (BUT NOT ALWAYS) RESORTED TO IN FIELD
STUDIES

LONGITUDINAL STUDIES

STUDY IN WHICH DATA IS COLLECTED AT MORE THAN ONE
POINT IN TIME LONGITUDINALLY ACROSS A PERIOD OF TIME

SUCH STUDIES TA!E MORE TIME, EFFORT AND COST BUT HELP
IN IDENTIFICATION OF CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS

USUALLY RESORTED TO IN E+PERIMENTAL DESIGNS WHEN DATA
IS REQUIRED BEFORE AND AFTER MANIPULATION OF
VARIABLES
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN BRM 5: ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
2& 2&
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN

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