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The reasons why this paperwork is being done is due to several objectives as stated

>Evaluating human activities that endanger an ecosystem

>Understanding the greenhouse effect and the thinning of the ozone layer

>Realizing the importance of proper management of development activities and the


>to instill awareness among humans about the significances of preservation and
conservation of the ecosystem.

>to make humans realize how bad are the effects of humans’ activities towards the

>to increase efforts on creating a safer environment for ourselves and for the future

>to deduce the time for the depletion and destruction of the environment due to various
environmental problems caused by human beings.

First and foremost, I would like to introduce myself. I am CHONG JIA PING from Form
4 SCIENCE and I am glad indeed to be studying biology which is the most intriguing
subject ever.

I, now, have completed a paper work or a folio on the topic “Endangered Ecosystem”
based on the last chapter in the Form 4 Biology syllabus. I have gone through many
laughs and sobs throughout the progression in completing this folio. Nevertheless, I felt
relief and grateful of having such wonderful companions who are my lovely Biology
teacher, herself, Cik Nurul Hafiza bt. Jusoh, my parents, my helpful friends and my

In the long period, I have faced many problem in my folio. My computer has broken
down when I am doing folio. So, I need to send my computer to repair it. After that, I
realized my printer ink has run out. I also go and buy it. Beside that, many time my
internet has disconnect and made me trouble.

But, I would like to thank the mentioned people whom have been very supportive and
helpful in giving me extra information, tips and ideas to make this work a satisfying
piece. Not to forget, my headmistress, Puan. Hajah Fatimah binti Ahmad, for giving us,
the students, this opportunity to do this folio.

Last but not least, thank you once again for all the commitments and supports. May all of
you live in a blissful life.

1. Computer
2. Colour paper
3. Printer
4. Internet

1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/8463724/Biology-Paperwork
2. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_an_endangered_ecosystem
3. http://www.scribd.com/doc/4800478/ENDANGERED-ECOSYSTEM
4. http://www.google.com.my/images?hl=en&client=firefox-

Reference Book
Textbook Biology Form 4, Gan Wan Yeat, Ng Lee Lean,
First Published 2005 Bakaprep Sdn. Bhd.

Learning Outcome
• Identify human activities that threaten the ecosystem
• Explain the impact of human activities on the ecosystem
• Evaluate critically the effect of unplanned development and mismanagement of
the ecosystem
• Describe types of pollution and sources of pollution
• Explain the effects of pollution on living things and the environment
• Compare and contrast pollutants in the air from different environments
• State the sources of air pollution
• Interpret data on the level of water pollution in some rivers
• Predict the level of air and water pollution in a particular location within the next
ten years
• Suggest strategies to solve problems related to air and water pollution in a
particular location within the next ten years

• Explain what the greenhouse effect is
• Correlate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with global
• Explain the thinning of the ozone layer
• Explain the impact of the thinning of the ozone layer and global warming on the

• Justify the need for development
• Explain the effect of increase in population on the ecosystem
• Explain measures taken in the management of development activities and the
ecosystem to ensure the balance of nature is maintained
• Care for the ecosystem
• Participate in activities related to the management of the ecosystem

I start my biology folio from 6 JUNE 2010 which teacher has been given the homework
for school holiday.

Firstly, I start with the front page which include name, IC number, class with year, title,
teacher’s name and date submit. After that, I continue my folio with the objective,
problem statement, apparatus & material, technique and procedure. Then, I have follow
the textbook in chapter 9 (ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM) and explain it.

During the two months, I finally managed to finish my folio on the topic “Endangered
Ecosystem” based on the last chapter in the Form 4 Biology syllabus

Human activities that endanger an ecosystem.

The world’s population might reach to 10 billion in the next fifty years. Hence, when
there are increments in the number of the world’s population, it generally means that
there is an increasing demand for shelter, food, medicine, transport and raw materials.

Today, due to expectation of modern living and industrial revolution, the world has to
confront the destruction of forests to build more houses, to being use as plantation areas
and to build roads; just to fulfill humans’ needs.

Unplanned developments and mismanagement of ecosystem give rise to vast amounts of

environmental crisis. Among those environmental problems are greenhouse effect, global
warming, pollution, soil erosion, landslide, flashflood and ozone depletion.

The human activities that we are talking about are like agriculture, burning or
combustion, industrialisation, urbanisation and last but not least, deforestation.

Impact of Human Activities on The Ecosystem

Human activities made many drawbacks to the environment. Whether we like them or
not, these cons of the human activities have made all of us now leaving in a hardship. The
impacts can now be clearly seen by looking at our devastating environment conditions.
What are the impacts?
Let us see for ourselves….
Human activities usually affect the ecosystem.
The activities that endanger the ecosystem is
shown below:

Human activities that endanger the


Soil erosion
Flash flood

Extinction of flora and fauna

Global warming
Greenhouse effect

Industrialisation pollution
pollution Greenhouse effects

Urbanisation Farming
pollution pollution

• Deforestation is an act of extensive cutting down or
burning the trees in the forest.
• The vast areas of forests are being cleared away for
extracting timber or fuel wood, agriculture and urban

• There are many impacts of deforestation such as:

→ Soil erosion, flash floods and landslides.
 Landslides occurs when the top layer of soil
loosens and slides down because of rains for a
long period of time during rainy seasons.

 The landslides happen because of the stability of

soil is lost due to deforestation.
 Clearing of trees causes the loss of tree leaves to
protect the soil from the impact of raindrops
and also causes the loss of tree roots to hold the
soil in places.
 Thus, the soil is exposed directly to the force of
the rain. Heavy rainfall will easily washed
away the top layer of the soil. This leads to soil
 The eroded soil is carried away by water and
may be deposited into the river.
 During heavy rains, rainwater flows quickly into
rivers because there is no retention of water by
plant roots as well as water catchment areas.

 Due to silting in the rivers, the water flows is

blocked. Thus, water flows inland and causes
flash flood in low areas.

 Soil erosion also leads to DEPLETION OF

MINERALS for the land. The land cannot be
used for cultivation.
→ Extinction of flora and fauna
 Deforestation leads to the loss of habitats for
many species of flora and fauna.
 This will cause an increased rate of extinction of
plants and animals. As a results, it reduces
biodiversity and the source of food and valuables
medicines for humans.
→ Greenhouse effect and global warming.
 Deforestation causes weather and
climatic changes.
 When a large scale of trees are
destroyed by cutting and burning, it will reduce
rainfall, transpiration rate and the rate of using
carbon dioxide during photosynthesis by plants.
 Clearing and burning of forests also
release vast amounts of greenhouse gases such as
carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
 Deforestation is believed to contribute
about 20-30% of all carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere for every year.
 Carbon dioxide can prevent heat from
escaping from the atmosphere. Thus, the level of
carbon dioxide increases and global temperature
also increases. This leads to greenhouse effect and
global warming.
 Increasing global temperature may
change the ecosystem.
• Excessive use of land for farming and stock rearing
lead to infertile land and may expose soil to erosion by

• Use of inorganic fertilisers in farming also leads to

• Dumping of domestic waste as well as sewage discharge
from houses causes pollution.
• The waste materials in landfills act as toxic substances
which pollute nearby water sources.
• Industrial plants discharge industrial and heated waste
water causing water pollution and thermal pollution.
• Toxic gases released by industries contribute to air

• Open burning of rubbish, farms and forests release
more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which
aggravates the greenhouse effect.
• Burning of fossil fuels causes air pollution as well as
increase the carbon dioxide content.
• As a result, it causes the greenhouse effect and global