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V One of the important features of KBSR.

V For students not mastering the basic skills.

V Initially, students undergo remedial education in normal class.

V If they failed - go to special class conducted by a remedial education teacher.

V Using alternative approaches , learning sources and activities.


THE TYPES OF
LEARNING
DIFFICULTIES

REMEDIAL
EDUCATION

THE ROLE OF
THE METHOD
TEACHERS IN
OF IDENTIFYING
CONDUCTING
LEARNING
REMEDIAL
DIFFICULTIES
TEACHING
V ï types :

1. Reading difficulties

Ô Fail to

Differentiate the alphabets.

 Similar in shape (h-n, c-e, f-t, g-p)

 Upside down (w-m, h-y, u-n)

 Inverted (p-q, b-d)

Pronounce correctly alphabets.

 Similar (m-n, c-e)

 e pepet and e taling (sepak, perang)

 Joined consonant (´syµ, ´ngµ and ´nyµ)


Ô Pronounce the alphabets with the accent of the mother tongue.

¶o· as ¶wo·, ¶r· as ¶l·

Ô Unable to

Read sentences with the correct intonation.

Answer factual questions based on the material read.

Find main idea of a passage.


Ñ. Writing Difficulties

Ô Poor motor skill.

Ô Unstable and erratic temperament.

Ô Faulty visual perception of letter and words.

Ô Difficulty in retaining visual impression.

Ô Poor instruction in handwriting skills.

Ô Example:

 Words are written in an imbalance manner

 Overlapping alphabets
ï. Arithmetic Difficulties

Ô Difficulties in number learning

 Disturbances in spatial relationship.

 Visual perception abnormalities.

 Difficulty with symbols.

Ô Difficulty with numerical relationship

 Due to the child·s inappropriate experiences in manipulating objects.


V ¢ Methods :

1) Constructing inventories.

Ñ) Making observation.

ï) Interpret Performance record.

4) Paper and pencil tests.

5) Planning daily exercises.

¢) Conduct question and answer session / quizzes.


V ¢ Steps in Organizing and Carrying Out Remedial Teaching

Identification of students.

Identification of learning difficulties.

Planning.

Teaching.

Evaluation.

Follow-up.
V As a remedial teacher,

· we should be acquainted with the types of learning difficulties, the method of

identifying learning difficulties and the role of teachers in conducting remedial

teaching.

· we should be knowledgeable about concept, rationale and objectives of remedial

education.