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Nstp module 3 Poverty is present all over the

world. This is a complex problem

National concerns because there are many factors
Lesson 1: poverty that are involved in it and they
Lesson 2: health may differ in perspectives.
Lesson 3: environment A. Globalization
Lesson 4: education Globalization is the growing
Lesson 5: governance integration of economies and
societies around the world. It has
Introduction been one of the most disputed
You have learned in your previous topics in international economics
module about the threats to human over the past few years. It had
dignity such as social order, extreme opened economies domestically
poverty, dehumanizing effect of and internationally. Globalization
urbanization and exploitation fo has both positive and negative
workers. The threats to human dignity effects.
can be seen all around in us, and this Globalization had led to global
is much closer than we thought. We competition that might cause some
are bombarded with the issues of the beneficial effects such as increase
society; but sad to say this is part of in production and efficiency, and
the realities of life. But are these this may also lead to the decrease
threats impossible to eradicate? Are in the product prices. Other
the issues of the society the real beneficial effects of globalization
problem? Or the problem really is: how show its potential value in
do we see these issues? This module improving the position of all
will discuss about the issues and parties; this may cause increased
concerns of society. At the end of this outputs and increased wage levels
module you are expected: and living standards. The result of
1. to understand the nature of the this is a potential for greater
different issues and concerns of human well being throughout the
the society world. But there are also negative
2. 2. to identify solutions to effects of the global competition
eradicate the pressing and these are the fears of the
problems in the country existence of global bias.
3. to develop a positive response B. Recession
to the different issues and The negative effects of globalization
concerns are unemployment and economic
Lesson 1: POVERTY recession. Recession is defined as a
Did you know that almost 1 out 2 significant decline in activity spread
Filipinos consider themselves as across the economy, lasting longer
poor? Specifically this means that than a few months and it can also be
46 of Filipino families or 40.4 define as two consecutive quarters of
million Filipinos of the projected 86 negative economic growth. How does
million populations of 2007 see recession really happen? The growth of
themselves as poor [Social economy is based on the balance
Weather Stations last January between the production and
2008]. consumption of goods and services.
Poverty means the inability to However, because the world is not
secure the minimum consumption perfect, at some point, the economy
requirements for life, health and has to slow down.
efficiency on account of insufficient This slow down could be caused by
income or property. These something as simple as an oversupply,
requirements include minimum where producers manufacture too
human needs in respect of food, many goods. When this happens, the
clothing, housing, education and demand for those goods will drop. This
causes earnings or incomes to drop even depression. Therefore a
and the equity markets to fall. The person who is unemployed may
mere mention of these words bring feel poor because of his inability to
fear to most people, we think that it secure a job.
brings about economic difficulties, loss Developing one’s self by acquiring
of jobs, increase in the price of basic new skills increases the
commodities and others. marketability of person; another is
C. Unemployment being open to career changes or
Do you know that the shifting from one profession to
unemployment rate in the another. The fact that some people
Philippines was estimated at 7.3 are unemployed does not
percent in 2008? necessarily mean that there are no
Unemploy Ran % Date jobs available.
ment rate k in chan of
the ge info D. Informal setting
worl Another problem that arises from
d poverty is informal settling. It is the act
0 10.20% 95 200 of occupying and abandoned or
3 2 unoccupied space or building, usually
0 11.40% 83 11.76 200 residential; squatters do not own, rent
4 % 3 or otherwise have permission to use a
0 11.70% 107 2.63 200 piece of property. Squatters are
5 % 4 normal sights now in the metropolis.
est. Are there possible solutions to
eradicate the squatting problem in the
0 8.70% 89 - 200
6 25.64 5
The government offers low-cost
% est.
housing for people from the squatter’s
0 7.90% 93 - 200
areas, and other NGO’s make projects
7 9.20 6
that aim to give housing for people.
% est.
0 7.30% 93 - 200
8 7.59 7
% est.
in the previous lesson, we have
discussed poverty as a perennial
This is according to the data from
problem in our country, and its causes.
the national statistics office.
it seems that our country will not run
Unemployment occurs when
out of problems and this dampens the
individuals who are willing to work
spirits of millions of Filipinos. As you
can not find jobs. Many argue
read further through this module, you
about the real cause of
will encounter different societal
unemployment, some say that it
problems that are probably not new to
occurs because of the imbalance of
you. in this lesson, we will tackle the
the demand and supply of working
problems and issues regarding health.
hours. It may also be caused by the
If you are ready, you may proceed to
technological advancement that
the discussion.
human force/man power is
Did you know that every year, half a
replaced by machines. Being
million around the world die from
jobless would subsequently mean
complications of pregnancy and
no financial compensation. An
unemployed person might not
meet his obligations which will be
Probably, you would say that this an
the cause of different problems
exaggeration but according to the
such as inability to pay debts and
world health organization severe
financial obligations resulting to
bleeding, infections, unsafe abortions,
stress, illness, lost self-esteem and
hypertension, and obstructed labor are planning methods using artificial
the main causes of these deaths. In contraceptives and sex education for
additions, more than 90 of the students. It also gives access to
reported deaths occur in Asia and sub- reproductive health information to
Saharan Africa. Ironically, most of avoid unwanted and untimely
these causes can be prevented at a pregnancies ant to limit the country’s
small cost. But why do you think these population.
incidents happen if they can be On the other hand, the Catholic church
prevented? And what is the state of strongly opposed the bill and deemed
maternal health in the Philippines? that artificial contraceptives as anti-life
and immoral. According to the
In 2003, the department of health teachings of the church, married
reported that 45.1 of the maternal couples should practice only natural
deaths were brought about by the family planning methods, which
aforementioned causes. Pregnancy require sexual abstinence when the
and childbirth does not only concern woman is ovulating. In addition, the
the mother, but the baby as well. church stressed that instead of
This includes the 42.4 of Filipino allocating funds to family planning
babies, who suffer from poor maternal methods, the government should
health and nutrition, inadequate care provide funding to medical services to
during pregnancy and delivery, lack of improve the reproductive health of
essential care for the newborn baby, Filipinos.
infections, birth injury, * asphyxia, and
problems relating to premature births. Maybe you are asking yourself, “how
 a condition in which an extreme will this the proposed bill affect me or
decrease in the amount of other young Filipinos?” well, one of the
oxygen in the body provisions of this bill is to intensify sex
accompanied by an increase of education in the school curriculum.
carbon dioxide leads to loss of The program will start in the grade five
consciousness or death. level up to fourth year high school.
A. Reproduction Health Before the reproductive health bill was
Before we discuss the reproductive filed, a study was done by the
health and population development act University of the Philippines Population
of 2008, let us first get acquainted Institute in 2002. the study revealed
with the concept of reproductive that around 3.5 percent of all the
health. reproductive health refers to elementary students are already
the state of physical, mental and social sexually active and that premarital sex
well-being and not merely the absence among adolescents increased to 27
of disease or infirmity, in all matters percent in 2002 when they comprised
relating to the reproductive system 15.1 million or 20 percent of the
and to its functions and processes. population from 20 percent in 1994.
This implies that people are able to These days, it is not surprising that
have a satisfying and safe sex life that there is a growing number of Filipino
they have the capability to reproduce youth who becomes sexually active at
and the freedom to decide if, when an early age.
and how often to do so, provided that Total elementary involved in 2002
these are not against the law. 96.62 percent
Now that we know what reproductive Sexually active 3.38 percent
health is, let’s find out more about the One of the factors that caused the
proposed reproductive health bill. aforementioned circumstances is
You may be aware on the growing media and technology. Media and
debate regarding the proposed technology plays a major part in the
reproductive health and population sex education of young Filipinos.
development act of 2008. this bill aims
to grant public funding to family
“you see, even six- or seven-year-old deficits, lightening other burdens,
kids can now read and they could buy improving performances, etc.
tabloids[where they could get Other reasons of drug abuse:
information about sex]. You can even They take it because of
get information about sex through text psychological disorders
[messaging] on the cell phone.” Other people think that drugs can
- Catalina Macaurog solve problems
- Commission There is a widespread and easy
representing women access to various kinds of drugs.
Some do it because of peer
Consequently, sex education is to be pressure
promulgated in the school curriculum The notion that drugs give
to ensure that children will be oriented enjoyment to users in the context
properly through the guidance of the that it is used as an alcohol
teacher. As a Filipino youth, what do substitute.
you think of this issue? Do you believe
that this bill will solve these problems? LESSON 3 ENVIRONMENT
If you were given the opportunity, how
would you resolve the current health Introduction
related problems? In 2008, Philippines natural
treasures namely tubbataha reef
B. Drug Abuse and Puerto princesa subterranean
Abuse of dangerous drugs is often river natural park both in palawan
the cause of so many crimes in our the chocolate hills in bohol, and the
country. * drugs per se are not mayon volcano in bicol are hoping
dangerous if they are taken in to belong to the prestigious list of
moderation and with the approval the new 7 wonders of the world but
and guidance of a certified health sadly not many Filipinos are not
practitioner able to appreciate the beauty of
our country. Our national hero, Dr.
A person who abuses drugs may Jose Rizal once depicted Philippines
not realize that he or she has a as the pearl of the orient. But what
problem. Family member’s often happened after generations that
bring the abuse to the attention of made us think otherwise?
a health care provider. How is our country today?
Unfortunately, some people who Environmental degradation is one
abuse drugs only realize they have the unsolved issue not only here in
a problem after they have been the Philippines, but all over the
arrested for a drug-related world. Nowadays, access to safe
problem. food, clean water and fresh air is
Drugs- refers to legal drugs which not as easy as it used to be.
are natural or synthetic substance In this lesson, you are given the
which when taken into a living opportunity to take a look at some
body affects its functioning or of the prevailing problems of the
structure, and is used in the environment. As you start with this
diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, or module, I challenge you to take a
prevention or a disease or relief of little try to ponder for possible
discomfort. solutions.
These are many reasons for drug A. Pollution
abuse, including calming or Wala ka bang napapansin sa iyong
exciting effects, escape from mga kapaligiran ?kay dumi na ng
reality, search for awareness and hangin, pati na ang mga ilog natin.
mysticism, masking pain, blunting Ang mga duming ating ikinalat sa
anxiety, fighting depression, hangin sa langit huwag na nating
escaping mental or physical paabutin upang kung tayo’y
pumanaw man, sariwang hangin sa the emissions of the fuel burned by
langit natin matitikman vehicles and factories.
Different advocacies were launched to
One way or another, we all experience prevent our environment from
pollution. How many students deteriorating quickly, but as long as
complain about their white uniforms the government will not be vigilant in
turning into dirty white before they implementing environmental laws and
even reach their classes? How many the people will not take conscious
incidents of red tide poisoning have efforts to take care of our
been reported in the news? How many environment, soon our beautiful
people are suffering from respiratory natural wonders will be remembered
disease caused by unclean air? through post cards only. You can do
These are just some of the issues we something today to prevent this. You
have deal with everyday and unless can conserve electricity or go on a
we do not do something about it, soon carpool with your friends, so that
it will be all be too late. something will be left for the future
World bank warned in their recent generations.
study that there is possible water B. Deforestation
scarcity in our country by 2025 around Forest cover as percentage of land
1.4 billion people will not have access area. The destruction of Philippine
to safe water. In addition, seven forests has been described as the most
million die yearly due to water-borne rapid and most massive in the world.
diseases. 2.2 million of which are This represents the forest are of our
under five years of age. With these country in given period of time. The
figures, one may wonder where the green part represents our forest areas
water has gone when in fact 70 of the and how rapidly it has deteriorated
planet is composed of water. But, over the years. It is saddening that in a
unfortunately, of this volume, only 2.5 couple of years; only 6 of the
is fresh water; the rest is salt water. Philippines land area will be covered
Three quarters of this freshwater is by forests. No wonder we are
trapped in the form of ice and snow, experiencing mudslides, abnormal
and the measly one-fourth is what we weather patterns and extinction wild
use in our industries, agriculture, life. According to a study of
households, etc. deforestation in the Philippines at 1.4
With little water resources, the percent from 1990 to 2000, the
situation was aggravated by highest among asian countries making
modernization, population growth and deforestation in Philippines the worst
urbanization. These factors contribute in Asia. Why does this practice thrive
not only to growing problem of water in our society? One of the reasons is
pollution but land and air. As a result, corruption. It is reported that
people die prematurely due to corruption is behind the massive
exposure to pollution. deforestation in our country.
Domestic wastes comprise greatly the Isn’t that our government should be
mass of the pollutants everyday. From the one leading the people towards
food leftovers to used household items environmental preservation instead
are polluting the world.. Land pollution the people towards environmental
is caused by improper waste disposal preservation instead of favoring few
and weak recycling practices and greedy and powerful men in exchange
these wastes got o landfills. But for money or other favors?
landfills are not the solution to the As future leaders, we must take step
growing problem of waste disposal. towards improving and protecting our
Every year, millions acres of land is environment. As a part of the nstp
lost because of landfills. In addition, program, you are provided with
landfills pollute the air, alongside with opportunity to help out in battling
against forest degradation through the
tree planting activity. Can you think of Do you know that under the 2008
other ways on how we can preserve national budget for education, in
our environment? particular, around P200 billion was
C. Illegal trade of wild life allocated for education, including
the international wildlife trade the allocation for state colleges and
supplies both the domestic and universities and the DepEd school
international markets. Wildlife is building program?
traded, both legally and illegally, The government believes that
for a number of reasons, the main education is a core value of
ones being for food, consumption, Philippine society and family life
traditional medicines, pets, then belief that education is the
trophies and decorative purposes, foundation of economic prosperity
and zoos and and individual liberty, social justice
Collections. and self-worth.
Here in the Philippines smuggled “no other issue is as important to
exotic animals make way through Filipinos as the opportunity
ro-ro from our neighboring Asian education affords the generation to
countries such as Malaysia and be liberated from poverty and live
Indonesia to Mindanao. These a life of hope, optimism and
shipments either end up in public prosperity”
markets like in cartimat in pasay -President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
city or arranque in manila or are Can our government sustain the
shipped again to Thailand. needs of education in our country?
One solution is to not patronize Highest education attainment
these merchandises or any by- According to DepEd, only 58 for
product of these animals, you are every 100 students who went to
not saving these animals, but also grade 1 reached high school and
maintaining the balance of our eco- only 14 students are able to finish
system. college. In the year 2004, in the
Frightening facts study of United Nations
Illegal trade in wildlife is second Educational, scientific and cultural
only to the illegal drugs trade in organization UNESCO commission
value, recently overtaking arms. in the Philippines, only 22 enter 1st
The ivory trade in the 20th century year college and finish college.
caused the African elephant Mode of travel to school
population to fall by 10 million The children s mode of travel to
between 1900 and 1989. school show that more than half of
Up to 9 out of 10 birds caught from the students aged 6 to 24 years
the wild for the pet trade die before went to school by walking. Tricycle
they reach their destination. and jeepney were also commonly
Every year, an area of rainforest used as means of transportation.
the size of the British Isles is Two out of five students either took
destroyed, this is largely to fuel the a tricycle or a jeepney.
demand for the trade in tropical Reasons for not attending school
wood. An estimated 50,000 other Of the 34 million populations aged
plant and animal species, many of 6-24, 34 percent or 11.6 million
which have not even been were not attending school. Of this
discovered by mankind, are lost. number, 30 percent were not
Animals in trade are subjected to attending school mainly because
stresses so great that they can they were working or looking for
result in death during all stages of work, 22 percent lacked interest in
capture and transport, even weeks going to school and 20 percent
after arrival. could not afford high cost of
A. Literacy information in the children, out of school youth and other
Philippines segments of the society in need of
Basic of simple literacy service our little way of helping the
Of the estimated 62 million needs of the community for quality
Filipinos 10 years old and over, education.
around 93 percent were basically LESSON 5 GOVERNANCE
literate. Basic or simple literacy is Introduction
the ability of a person to read and Politics has its originated from the
write with understanding a simple Greek work polis which refers to city
message in any language or state. Polites referred to citizens
dialect. The basic literacy rate in involved in the affairs of the sate and
2003 is similar to the 1994 rate of overtime, anything that concerns that
94 percent. The basic literacy rate state was would be derivative from
among females {94.3 percent} is polis. Nowadays, politics generally
higher compared to their male refers to the process by which groups
counterpart [92.6 percent]. of people make decisions; it also the
B. picturing the state of art or science of government or
education governing, especially the governing of
upon looking at the present a political entity, such as a nation, and
situation in our country, there are the administration and control of its
challenges that face the entire internal and external affairs, while
nation. Shortages in chairs, electric governance is the continuous exercise
fans, classrooms and teachers, of authority over a political unit:
among others, seem to be common administration, control, direction,
media fodder come the first government, and rule.
Monday of june when classes open. But how can we differentiate
Such problems have become governance and politics?
common since nothing much has Politics involves processes by which a
been done to solve them through group of people with initially different
the years. opinions or interests arrive at common
Literacy is one of the critical decisions usually regarded as
components of human development; it compulsory on the group, and
becomes the foundation upon which all enforced as common policy.
learning throughout life is based. It Governance, on the other hand,
provides the means for greater suggests the administrative and
participation in all spheres of society. process-oriented elements of
Low levels of literacy can limit governing rather than its aggressive
individuals ability to take part in ones. Contemporary governance
decision-making and thus making it practice and theory sometimes
difficult for them to exercise their questions this distinction, premising
fundamental citizenship rights. that both “governance” and “politics”
Moreover, because the outcomes of involve aspects of power.
one generation affect the opportunities A. Voters’ education program:
of the next, care must be taken to to responsible voting
ensure that children have sufficient Why should YOU vote?
and equitable access to literacy- Voting or suffrage is a privilege and
enhancing experiences, regardless of right given to every Filipino citizen.
their socio-economic background, in More than anything else however,
order to prevent sowing the seeds of it is a RESPONSIBILITY that every
social exclusion at an early age. Filipino is expected to fulfill in
Through the University’s national earnest.
service training program, the literacy Upon having met the prescriptions
training service is designed to train of the law, every citizen is entitled
students to become teachers of to vote and cannot be deterred
literacy and numeracy skills to school from fulfilling this function. Hence,
voting is one of the filipino’s most of change we would want towards
inalienable rights. making our society a better place
“it shall be the obligation of every to live in. education is one of the
citizen qualified to vote to register most powerful instruments for
and acts his vote.” Article I; sec. reducing poverty in our country
4 omnibus election code and lays a foundation for sustained
economic growth.
By casting your vote, a Filipino LGNOTES<3 Ai Shiteru
makes himself a part of the
nation’s conscience whereby your
decisions affect the history of the
whole nation, the well-being of the
community and the fate of each
Filipino family. Therefore, by
deciding the fate and interest of
the whole nation, the Filipino is
charged with the responsibility to
promote and uphold what is
beneficial to the common good.
When a Filipino citizen chooses to
forfeit his privilege, right and
responsibility to vote, he makes
himself an apathetic bystander
amongst his people and all they
fight for in the name of true
freedom, justice and love for the
Whom should YOU vote for?
A Filipino will most certainly be met
with a barrage of considerations in
choosing his candidates. There are
however, some basic
considerations that should be
taken more critically than others.

When coming up with a “line-up” of

candidates, one has to determine
certain facts before doing so. These
facts will essentially reveal the
candidates’ CHARACTER,
Every individual and organization
has its capacity to be part of a
concerted effort to address
pressing social problems, issues
and concern ijn our country today.
An individual has the responsibility
of taking care of his environment in
order to assure the coming
generation of a healthy and safe
place to live. Meanwhile these
concerns cannot be address by
only a few: rather it should be a
concerted effort of the government
and the people to ensure the kind