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-I']-uum GlOBAl..[Zt\]'1 Of>.l S OF LAJ".,,' AN DI lEGAl. Tr"IDO lJ!

GH'T: ] HcsO-2nOn

The :!l1luly of Im'll and c!te"lrciopmmn b~~~i:[b OJ partil::uJar ~o"itJiiD'nlng ID'r its. ("I.'lfOI h!rltlS" .. buy" .iilll 'Ma.don '[0 8dl:'!o'elo,pl1iun.'lt. ~ Till! q UBlioUM"$ 1,'nIo'IJI' Jeg~~ref\wm miglliu ciJ![1IUibl~t'e ~iIJ t:l1~ U~kegff b~~(l !i'~l:r~$!J!it~!u~mlg gr@\,VIl'ilin ihl'! Cold ~r, :p-Of;~)c(Jhmi[d hi ed Wo rid ur t'hlli J 960!S". 'rnrobek and Gahtnt~f~~ famous. a.1il~,de; ~Sd'lOtill~s 'u,n t-lel r Tlstralllijenle[lt,~ ~ p:u~blushed: in 1'914. stands, ~\I:uu]nG(J ther thhl~" riIJ:~~'h.e fepo~1U~nwlg ~r [he lli"I'\t) terms, p~)hle01 ~UiillB tlJ~T~~<Iliv(;l~;y !himph!'i1n:stru~mlfllld Idea Dr ~;lJW \vim. while h til e l11f:ld had: bfi!glml"l. s,!:'oicl poU,tidzi.og OLhll" llmIdeliiSurndillll±! lof ~h.'!~ElIDllment. I, I:nnp ~ ~bilise'ss3i:y willi cmntrib~ne La the ~:tu:rw~J ufi :U:n.~ pm,iet:~[bm r bb> b(}~d.:rep ~en:~

The thJ'C't;! gl.ob~b':jlLion.li of my 1),ue Irefer bl two o'l1'criiljJ(1p]ng p:e1'iods Dr I'~] ~n5~ilu~j~mil and ml'ill'eptual eh al1jge inthe Wen: tom.~ Me of Cla.ssi~:

L~ga.] ·n~UU,FihL bet\\!',oo.II 1850 !!~d lQ I 11. amd of soddy orieD~Bd [egal ~lllJ[I'U1g,~ll ~let\ft~, [SilO talQd 196B, and u, Ibe tf3n~rQmt!l(jof,l ,of 'the dmrac[?.r.i:st~c u;all:S ~f lherwo pE'ri;pds, ~tw'(l distin et 1~l)n[~s5~.!), of diiffi.J5imrl .o:lt'rtI,s!) th ", wor:M Qf OO!l(H~~~.iii snd t'~reI1Uy indeI'H:llulil'Jlt patino SMU.e8. in.lc:l iJlI':iefc:rr(Jlird pan. skdches aslmilar iU!iUlutloJIfl! ~1J!d I~~~[ ~'h~UJrdi~~ deve~QP~n.eirl-'l tJiljnJl g,1'oibaHz,nuorn-for dID pe[~od A M&--zm.HlI (for a. SlUimmary,ov1elvllL'l:W; SI~e:l·abl.e 1 ).

The;se In~t~nUimm.~ :a!IllQ c(JI.fIoepH13li trn:n:sf'1ITrm~ljoru; .1ll'!II~gh~llie dru:crmed as own! ofthe CV1l!m~worb \fir OOn:[~lSror WIl!l;1t- deveJopm!l';mt dJd 'Of did 11(l~ o~ror inrhe 'Io!m1l'1'd bC'}'Und Ute I ndu:strla1 \J!!j~e.sl over these 150 y,ears. BUlrrn_me'Wg~ and com~t iMm mls leadliln(l, terms 'f,{l r dlooor.:illing me E1!!i ;n;ollship bl!t\\'Ii!e.n le~aJlld 1~llOn~u~k actJivjth~s, Tbis ~ij beeause eCGllomi.c' activity ran '[ be undl.'ff5[Ood ills somcU:lLllg ,alU0i10mOa;!~ in ool~~ionlo a &e! of pflSS~\teiD~dhu::i.OJlill ancll ~e.ca.[ oonmpu.lail. 'I:lO~itirrul::S. ali IDe t:e,rnl!5 ffanJillWOrk md 'CO:i'JI~ t>eX[ suggest. le~~ tnsti'luilinns, nndidl!l'l!L'i har.l'B a d'yID,awk, flf cI~;;LIIl'~~i~al. or ~iL'Il'itit~Mv~ re~);:u.iO.n5hWp till! eeennrnlc <fll;:th~~}'.

1 F-Illv:ld ~t 1l'I'nh!!'k IIlliiJ M~n;: rill!gl,iWr, !i~hplr~ijj s~fll:·f,.mw.!u~;l. ~~11H! R~aml!l' ~1fI rift' 0i.~4 j1.1 { • .r.Ui 1!!Jd,O(!:r'CJ't1p'JI.I!!'l£ '!inu:ll.lJ~·l~j~lJf!UIHrCfJ ,Sl'tllotr, 1~7't ~V:1'!jC. ~ IULY_I Q1;l2-~ 11H ~ la7~,J,

1"11< • c:haogi:llg M:mmwnrk" des ribed h low \'ita abu a "plaa,' 'Dr pmjecl u( thus. .. ~'th3,C ~!'i. to rlI I,gal, administrn~hm, and judkiaJ pm es!i'~ ill {jolontes and stares, a pm)&t for infiluenei.l)g ,~on(lifliliir act vit)'!' Since the middle of t~le~igh leoolh eent 11 ry (th~ reneh Jl'hYlil ucmtsl, one of Ihe objects of]e~j.slfl'l.i!On. adm.i.!lii!i1n!tion" and adjud£ct-tiioll'Ji bas, at ~ea~t:soltu!oft.he tlme, bee.!l1 t1canomic devc]upMcm ,as it happm:u~df ~{I be !iJ1I.d.~t,nod.at U1E' titne). 'I'll Inn1~ glcbaJizatiHI'I. am. btl seen as th l!: eW.ml.naCloF! fif the UlflemJ aU.u:k on men:aotWsl ll'r ;'ePlrl~f ~11Odem~ e<l.:Ouumk I'Ind secial pulley making. and the !\el:;'Ilud Ulii the poLicy p regmm of the fi r1U senerano n o/[ critks of til rnl ilS nf ~ms<sez·fuir-b.

But the fmme\vork is nD~ just n pt n qll' upDli'Ir.)1fnakcI.S." [0 the ap,ilaLiM \V",'l and ils periphery Jitrul'lg eeanoml . acton; influence law making iiI_,[ • ITIlH::Jn .\5 IDtey [Ire OTI51n1in d by it.'l'hey llOO have prujeets, bulh with respect In s}1ecffic I,eyd rules mat LIJIilY Wli:nU or dun'l wilnt to cnnstraln their pu rsu h of IJower and rrofilru-ltiiI wi~h resp ct tu OOntOUf5 'of the lP.gal rewme l'3lkel'l as a ,,,,,[1101 e, The tn'm~,jJ!iu,n fro m rut:IX:~In:liLis.mIU Ubeml.i:!>.I.Il. WiI:1l, as nrueh n~ mere !:hW' dolnG ru;. that of 5lau:~snHUl and dllnlreriL And ~ he "!iiI: or wh.u [ ,'1li.LI be call.fng ~~ he ro~ru" ~II;S a runcUul1 ,I If 'I herise of poLllicai p~ tluu aggTCgtilted 'Ibe lnteresrs tlr \"A:'ak. eeausnni aeters, Pl'I:!rll["ularl,}, fanil'll! .md \'\Iork< r i in response to the iufiu,[!UL:' u. C~tpUal,.

IJIl struggles qll'er [he reghu ,Hlle illstltmional ilnd conceptual po:ssibili'lies n ]';1\"... ar . ar srak " ihe [ p 'rtOK' of pDSisi1i1Jle poUc:ies, as well as I Irge nttiinh rs "uf partleular rules that make up euruessed VI,'l"l,oles Ukeo I ulssez- mire or ~ociall)1 nrlented law, In these s[mggle , ~ClOI1! "~Ih priiVilegt·(f aC1:ICS5, [oili!:! Jegall3!pp8ralu,.'!1,-IIl~ JO!ilccnnltmi a mrs, ~awY[,lfliiw1i.1['&;;l.1t1ga51~mau1r$" judg,e... .. an d llegal academles - ba~ a pmfooslor..a:Jii.y h~.~itlnla'led rule 'tD piny. ~ ~I~ thut P1U'i'IUIil~g and wwerlilps nlil.[ orthe 'i!"ClU'l,Ul'!tlC- powe!f holders, The~' ,cbange wbat 'the puhlir;: 'l.l1ld·~rS-13Jtd .. ) abaut ]<'l1o"· and i~ appropriate rele ;[IS lhey I:!~lle ,(ltmi.ll ~lIYW to channel 01[ diroct ecenmnic and soci!al ehange, and Itlc r p.artidpi'lt,c in the [.(l,nlimlolJl:S lrnllSilm13:L10U !lrhm.~1 the ~"'i' '1:)' undcl:-

lands ~oouml.iLi~ develomull 'nl.

'fbL ':1.'I:tj ier pr.llvid~;m mtrQductlon to LhlS.l pmcesses, but It !ielID:J.. .. , mly 'f~.ir to warn me rea d r tim, i~ is vef}I' m ud1 a verslon of a \ovurk in p wg,-es, s, It ecversa very large amuunr oFn18renal. hnth iDlllffi a:r1:d inspace, and lam sure n've m'llde; sil¥lifida,lmIt errers hnt.h "l,r deem] and of substance, TIul's!IJ\,'eepi:ng as eniufiSin ~h~ Il~.d i'lre I'j\1Jlpurted by a rnlnhnal fQotnoU~ appal;il,htS thai rc'llccts the \il1lga.ries of my 'mlf!I!e8'1S and re!lding over Ll'le yellars m~hcr tbaD :5 ustal n edreseare h ,on eaeh '0 pi c en\! red 'I[ hope re.,de(sMllchaJ long8ll1.th:er 'tb::ln dmml~ me fij,rthis w!::Wc.:m!ss. SI] that ~ can hnpreve the 11l1!!ln venon.

B ·t\\lC!cn I 856 and 19111, Wlla(globaU7ledwasCI~ssi IiIILega.1Though1'[ rn.

Ie bad no esseaee, BUL MIlang in: .if!lp[I,rt. n'i traits \i\le:I-e thal. it 'Was a way of lhink.ing, about la."v:;!clOll, ~U~m of l'ipbcrns of aurunomyfo:r prhr.ne nd pubU aemrs, wl:rh the huundari .. ofsph r1?S definoo by [~gal rea.'~onif;g und r anud

:I·I~ I B~ UJ ]4.CLass]cail ~~I dmuglilL

::Ii'll': 194:5-:WeO,PI:lucy <I:IlHI~'Sij5" ueo{lllfm:atism. lind .m:liludtcatiQ.!1

l1(ghtE ZiQ1taUty Li:Jgtll idf'Ql

L6f:ld elm,:·

t~al philtJs{lp~.v N'}fIltm !!€ id'M~ Qli,\€ima!~~ rasa !S~al ~'Illt SOCi{.1{Bglill ~mil Boundary

Leg I In-smUU{'lI1 Lr.pt t['C/raiqW!'

13cr~rwm1r-ima.glJ· Pam i.f]i imngl!.

..., ...

Jlr~bllol; in(t!ron dD~dl taw

J'lltfJT'ltllwnaJ erollomlc law ,Pri!'{i~d tt!~ I fiPtrlli

h::utilli4llual r~ght.s( .pr~ !leny righ.E:$ F~~nnal equal ity

Freedom. !iyst~rn,a.lld legal scientll!

Priivmelaw' Le~aJ pElS:itivism Righi. will. .faillE Un itiity state Peopll~'

'Nali On ~~lU~ L'lIwimofrUiw Go-d •

DEduc.ti£llll \'1rithin t:ohorent and all.TUlfIJ()mO'LI~ legal order

Law professor (dr..afi!j 1:'0(:1 a,ml 6ip(lufld~, ~t l

Th~ fra\;llnil:r:tet

['({tn'a. potegtQJi witll un 'lll0rr:i.'E1ble higl~.rlloral d utias N'Eli.itlll!ita.1::c5..j. ea;](;Iln1~~ -l- lJ'eatie5

,old siandard, free ITI!H:h~, p iVi:L£e l ruerJllido 11.111 !IiIW

Contract ,l,m;r, cl1mmen::~al.I.a.w

t~.roup rlfGh1;5, ~rn:iilld8bb1 ~oelal. j ll_3lIcf!

Solid1l.riry. evi[).1 utiO,l1, and !lUdELl

sciene

SiJ{;i.aJ law lcgall~lurnl's.tI:I Sudnl welfare Corposansrn

Social classes, [IahCl.m!l~ni,[lO'rl tie:s The institution

Law}S!!) lelY

Sp~l:I<tIllegisl.ll·tiQn

R:arJ1oJ1a~ de¥eIQPfll~1'I t of l ElW as flPilr.l1j, tn sodal ends

Legal sDc:ioiogf.s[ ulullegtslutot mtd I'I.dmitdstll'llt'lf

Alb~mtlve s tn tilt . marik.tlL

nll~ family rugulln~d lit r.heiDI:i:lte!itof the S l:1Het sooe'ly

Into~nl,tLtlflfla I .in~·t ilUt:l:o,t:L~

,\U l rrrtby. bila teratism. blocs, [:l\.,1P, W.orl.d BO!:Ilk, GATT

laoot taw, i:ldmJrnstrllti v'Ell8.'I,~'. mm U~! law, lI]'[el':l1lfltiom;U taw

Human rr.~bt:s Nuodiscrtmlm!!:rion

Ele:I11ocmr:y, ri~lu .rule of law, .and

pmgrnalhm uO'Jl:IrtlWliomd .I 1'1\;'-

Mu ~dp l~ narrnadve 1'CW!l:!1m1ction proje{;'[:s Human rights. R l1d soclat p!lliries; Fed!~rl.ljj8m

1?:h;trnl id!endtiuS,

Civil society

La.',,,.lpolitilZ5

CiJll.sl) tu tion , ~r'l'mry, chartet

'Publli: L.two Detlfurmaiisll.UI:ruCi balillndfl~ of rn.[J:flic.ting con S'idexatiol'ls,

The judge' lam:1 the I:iriga[lltli)

'fb;~ :r;l~g;[l'Iaritaily regulated market Tbe 1 ibetal fmIl:lI}'

lfilemIlUf.lfllla! dJi'i~ ,';cn:li-eq";hurn lID rlElh [lit, and ac1judioanon

[!iC, Ni\FTA, V!lTO, '!ructural adju~lnHmt

C(J[ls;~ilutinni'l.llOl\l'i.~, bustness ktWt in.tl~[.tmt!ona] t[tw'

Duncan Kennedy

as a scilentific practice. Theann:d:llm:isulS of g1obatooidou 'W~m~ d.ireCL West; rn tmpeshtan in the cul'~;mj2ie{1 WQdd ,mllre:d "opening" 'o~ no n- WeSitem n::~iI! that rernalned indcpc;rndmn. and [he presl1gl.'! of German tee,a] clence LU the

'UJiopean and West rn Hemlispberce wnrld of nation slates.

Ben~1l Hmo and 1968, what globalrzed \il,1il:S 'fl'leSol1ial. again a W,;;lY or l1100nldmlg wrfh(lur~ am. essence, but ,,!lit.h. asan ];mpuifl!W,[ traillt. prent:.c~aJion wllh rethln.king [aw as a puqlDsive ~~tijvity, as a. regmat.orv rnecluw.ism Ihal could and should faiC.i.LLtale 'lhe evolution 10'[' odall:ifein3ccordance wUh '\1' 'r :grel.Her pet', etv d .sociill iII][t:lI:d~p' ndenee a~ vevy II'evel,. from the family to ll1te world of nations. Thlil' ager:lts;, or global i7..ation WlHt! refnnn muvern ent fi. of every political Sh'IPI:, fn tbe develop~d West. I]:ationalist r.~to\!.en;iJet'lts ill l:ha p,erip bery. and the elites of ,ne\v.lj1 i'nillepe'fld~tu. 'ml'H ~ m s I:at.es after Im~5.

Between H14!i and 20110, nne !.rend W'a:lIO Il1ink ah!]ull~Wl1 technique, ll1 the liIftcr:ma:[hoftbecfRiQu~ DfCLTand In: social; as ih pr.agl1latkhal .. Ifdflg,of cao.llk:tll:1g, C(lI1~idp.ro'ftlollS fniuinuni:smtil11! the s;Y:SIIElm created b}r the soclal, jUtj.!>~ At the same tiI:D,~ mt:!!ff:;' was ,1:1 ~een:dng1;;' rc:ootr<II1lrend II!] envisage ,ha:w ,1l'S th~ gtliarnntol[ of human 14111 d pI10pe..~ right's. MId or b."Iu)'~govemrneo;Hll ord r lbmugh, the gr'<ldual·:&1~ nsion of the, ule 0 ~ aw, U I1d 'l."sl"Ood as judicial. supremacy. The mechamsmse g]obalW,aUgu were'American, victo~ in World Wat nand the Cold Wat. the "cpenlng' of nation :9UU.e HI the new legal c{lD:eciouf.ll1 e:S::1 lJuQugh p,artici pa:tiio.ll in (]l@ werld maliket GIl] the ermdtrtcns sel bymultinatiol'lati co[pm~ar:il'.m.5. and h'uetmd.:iomill' gnlatory mstitll.tiull.:lS, and the p1'1e"sti.g;e 0. AUl.erkn.n eulnue,

,'~he .Itb]ng" th.at glob'lllzed was no( •. in any otJth~ 'tI'Ul!i1: p nods. the \1i.ew of ICIVII (l[ a partleular palttical ideD1o,gy. GI,H.'is]r~1 Legal ThoUglhf was liberal ~r.I ei:thl~.r a em:1 s-ervall1,v,e or Q pirngtes'$liv'e w,ay, orncQ,rd.iug U~I .ht:lw it llalam;ed puhU.c and ,Ilr!wu in markel arnd hOU:s\l:'!.ho~d. The Soc:l,~] Ctluid be soci.alist lOr so ial demoC'raricoroCiubolic or So daJ Chrifiitilln Olf fa-sdst (but Dol eOIDDlunlst or da~si.ca]liberal). tvlodem Jtlgal. conseiousness is the common property of right wi]lg 3.nd 11th w:ing .ri gh.rs thea rists, and r:ig11tt wmg and l d"t ~g poley antllifS1.s.

NOT was .it ,&I plti1osuph}' of 11I,'W in toc. usual S(lDiSe.~ 10 each ,(! ~dod there '\\liI& positivll;nl and nmumJ law \\i1hin the nlOde I ~r LllOUght various theories 0 i rigbi'~) {lind, as time !;mnl un, V'dJriieltie.. s. f,llf pli'.3lgmati:sm. all comfona.bly wltbln til< . Big Tent, And wha.t WoiIJj ~Obld]Zied WM most d)efini,tely Dot a pa rticu'b.lt body of I~ rales.eaeh nlodep'wv.id~d .lII!lltu'.iaTs !foom wl-n i dl jurists and. mgffila'trl (.'ii' could pmduce <I!fl infin.itlli ?afi'ely ol" ptl.rticul'ilr(l Clsitiv _ I riJ\'\o'S te govern partkliiar situations, and the did in fact produce an jn:6nlh~ v,ariel', ven when tbe:y claim, d to be mer 'Iy nan'!lplatl'Ling ru:le!li from' miU u ·to milieu

The mode of tb(l1!Jdil pruvlded I:l eunceptual vombulary, organlzatlonal S\I::heme.s" modes ,&reasi) !ling, ~nd C'hl1.rIillG:~~nisdcal:gumel~b" These ~n:~ used in revi:uytluug from IUri!i!t'8' writin,g5 Ii."o[ I;ElY iIludienre..~ in 1-ga1I:n:ieEl. judicial opinions. treatlses and doctrinal W!ritingand IIt':gal pniLosoph.y. Usingtbe,m.od

oJ Iho ugh t, juri rs in each period ritiqued lhl" previous mode, ood r'I?OUlc~p, U.l~1i!1..ed, and [0 mle d~ ·011' another 5uhstrull\lcl~' refonned. I~\~~r~ Breit of Jaw. '\le eae f],nd The Socinl.fm aample. ill. W(]rke-~\NtJere fmm family law It, !Civill prn edure, ,~o crirrtlnal lo.w, 'I'U eemraets, lit} admlnlsrrnnve, in.tentllLiB.nal. ~~d Cflm1Itu1ionalla,w.

r wiLl. refer rcpel;Lt1£d]yt!ll the eeeseleusness, ~1.ncJ~TS ~lllfu1 as a vocabul ~rr); 'l:I,f,!;;ollc~JJil"!i iJlndwpitaJl. OiIrgUim.t:l!lts, as a 'cmgUii!i 'or k!'l1'gu<lg,~, and 10 thespli',dH.c, 'p(lsrtiyely - nac ted mles 0 t.hl;! wrlous cmmrries TO which It.he ~m.jgW!' g;llIg~'!hr.tld UIJ,(.ufJic, er speeeh. JU5t ,l!:S a. 'S JU!I'C Uk se:n~em:e, Dr e>I~mpl • ~!iIIU[ ,the door ." ls un:erod ln'a s,p die language. in lliiicg Ci:II!<e. Englbh. a legal! DOml ~<S birlding, uneraaoe in n s:pec:mc I· ga'i m.c'.OlIrR, say, that 'f lass leal legal lbouctu r- r The So.dallu as Ill!· m are 3!1'1 mliniry of grammali U' cOm d ~ -[lICHeeS tI'IIiJil C3Il bt.! UII.[HIr~d II fingtmh, ihere ~ an ihfinily of reguJ'alory statutes that UIln he liur-mtltated i t1 th '1:"1:II1Il eprual wmtmli'1l111f oj, the soelal and dlere.Dd.e~, l'hroUlg~ an ~1i:I'l1n i le vmfie~ ,Of specific j1Jsttifi.caiO ryargtUllem:..~ fOTll'!Iul,atoo by (;gl¥lbjl'mjm~ and rscom b:i.llI.i.I'!!l tbe p o~iry ·'SHunt! hillf.!~" oil[ the ~f)ci~d<'.

The e]emefl'lS ,[Dr Llhe mode ,or Ino.uGb~ W,~re p;rodtu;:'ll1d p,iil'lcemeaJ !:n dlf~ rtmnl.:hi1 and xrmmen biW enuarries, We, liJI di1>til'l.gl.li!!l.h IMo pre esses, There is that b~' l'Vbich fl tr<ml!1rulIUona.1 mode of thought ~orn1I5 lntn e:x:i8.t~noe as ill" islS C ·.In~ine ideil!> wi h dlsdnet OIigjm., d.i.5pladng, .. proF~rn/lS transmu.irmtd made. Andl d'lle IPliOI:;e-sS ,o~f gB~gtt1plJic (JiJ/i.I.s.itm 00 Imnsl'll.'lttnnlll1mode; e ther by direcl andoom.p]et~ repl~nle"t of ~n . ilIId~er legal rog:im by a new ene, as in co1oni'fll, expansl 11, uf Ih"ruugh th ., "IiRCCp1liOn'" of aD,I.:I1ilf'rg:m1J. U,a.tl~8fiiJnal m Id • nmbinlng it willi ~j'l'il.lilli:gen.uu "t'leJll.I!~!rUil, and lfIe restduurn oftht p'I1I!''llliiDttS rn,rn:lIl:!. intoanew UJ!I:U(lt.l.:i1 ~1'"mhl.$i:s;-

A5 Diego 'r.lOpGZ Mi1l00::m ,argues,,'! we can hhtHti'rj! ,k~c<t.les of "p~·Qdtu,tD:on· of a new transnatlensl nlod~, contrasting loeales whe:re Wl"iOlt happens f!l recepnen \\1'11.11, onlym:inlm.al dialectical ceuntertnfluence tin Ihe transnalinnal mede, and eases in. between, Ge.rman leg~1 dlOUGh. W,iI.\i in Ihli '(!Ilii. h.ege.moni£1 betwl:!iiil.f! 1:8511 Md 19nn, Pn!nch I 'Gal fl16Ug~'Ii.~ bf'tw-efl 1.900 ,and 5nme Ume In th ~~Og. imd Unitcdstat ~aJIl legal tbuughr ,!lrM- 19:1()"

f dOl [lot propos • '1Il ihis I hapter, an ol\'I!I,a,n:IIJ.Hg th,eQIrY of !whOlt C3!.!1slld these modes of d"llHUg.l~U to f;llllerg when theYlt[di, nf ..... 11<1 l d0iIUmliined their

- Ol~ '~~mIlUL" iUul 'piIl:Ql.i!, "ii;!ii! ]Ji;rru:or.n ~~mru!idl'.A 1irmlm1~"'fCrlJijrr.rI" Z2 'LMUn([(f,u'~" H ~y; 1111,. 1l7~ r100 I 1= I]I.IN~ ~~~. I\ICHr,rtQlJllllF ;\g"mll".i\'W'I".N I I'll'!! I13' 'i'rECI 1 I JJ 1.:15 {lOOn, (Jill IIrgumtmt·lllt~"ii .. see IJIIU£:BFI Kl:'ilIfit'li~,,, 8.u,m'atifll1 irl{~d il'1\'r.'f1wJ]'. ~12 s~~ L ~ 1~ mmll. l'I:-l!)rmled 'wjlll ;J, fillJ'(I!:ieilll Jmnl!:I'ut..1:iun til J toiJ·l;I:>.~ (IF T,n' AI:: ..... 'lt ill r EIIIllIl'EIIN J'AW.~OOil!;) Ll3O!D (.H19iU

.1 Dl'-"II"t1l'..ufWl. M!lnli!1li. TI"iXril1' rmtJ~'f'j (~'IlI'r:f~II~H~I" I<ll, .Lilll, $i."e DLcIJU.l.AJr1L'Z MDd till C'nmr-ttlrtUI~ OJ! JrJrliptiidt'~ " Ill!d!pliiJil.l!itfd filisntlutjlft8 flfTrsIHnnllmml ~"gdl f11 ltt-IJI III [.lINn' Jll1Wrif'lIl 1:WO II hID)llilbL . L ·.:IIiIII~fill. tfu..scrIiIIlHIII, ,IitaiRli!ud taw dlllffil mn lllJ: WII II rhe l hmoaidLlw 5['1,:001 UI1 Ill').

ffin.tenullblll'Yctur~ pml~e.r[jes. ofitht p{ITucU!l.ar& oftl~.~i:q~ieQ,gr:iII,pL1Iih:: rnceptioQ, or al.'their ~rrgttsO.l' :l'nft(;~i ml:s:in !lodal. Dlle. ,{,be sche'me.of,e.dod1i, modes, irn.d l~fOdl:lct.iQi~.l rectlpHOuacrou IilC woddisiil ,3'~1 ofbmes In r the (lif,gHn~zarmQIJl oi{ riln:::M~ a~dl fOle!l1 ld!!, aJ Siljl'l!I~U"t:e wi I Iltla wl1i:lch to p~po.se i.ow·~,i'l'~'Ca hYP[litiliWSC8, <tnCllb.eloc.de ur ~[;I;lntIJive.

Oue eau h:a;v~, t1lR:e nlodes~. lhougfu im::!] "eglj~ibl e. ~lbhi[l.M for Ilbk .kind. or ~.e'rd5ie. First, ODe hopre; mall. m:enmnI1JJy,eMl1 bring uU~ilLter1Hld i!el.~;Le to onea£:u:allileJr .~~ ~a!';6,e number of p.revfuously dwspatJ;ate events in the hl'ld[~C'tu:.aJbTI.510Fy· of We:s~em law II], Itl],~ ,,~ta~td, I hereby .i ncreIlJli'l1,g "he ex pes l fullle.l.1igibUiIiJ oflhillt hi:slO.l'Y.

Seo[ln d, one smallJ nnl-ch bigL~eron tbe"E'aJ:e 0 r ambiilioIDll, omit 0[([1] hope (bOIL o[[hl'tr~Sl!'ar'Cheiffl (Oil" ll!ineg,~~h~ fi later d,;Ue) W!n ;·1qD'nlir.m~ lhe:.hypCltlD.es~~ by find.i.".!!: LWlIlg$ 'lIJiiilil uru,mlnilly ~~pond ·~o :wJLal olTle 1ovol.dd h ~Vi2 p'~I{_1ie;d liven ~Iu~ l~@.~~tive_ Til lJ'S, f~r ~(\\3:mple. it ga,lI'e m.e, recl!JItillY;8W;J!.~ ple~~UJ'~ Jor fiEg!i(lll['l:l; ~h[l.1 Ii'll.m b~m~' d~,ar. \vl'tell H. \\lmi brOl,!Ig~~t ttl my OI!l1i:lintiolll tb:lllt a ~-Un'ejl (If S~Mrlj!J].i1,\'-'iafin i';;,;w (:!y,blisl'lelJ ill! 1~53 d!a!1~ 1irsl" 'mal D!BIIi:shN,[lTWl?gi:aoJa:wil> pa:rt nwitl::JIer of Ihe dviLno:r of t1i1~ C;gfmlllmUR law~te.nl.~n~, ;s;C"~(H'l,d llIal th~, ~~d)' '0 r Inw h "I'u.uhn;[ imlJ:.IJ:£[IoGld D'.y s,oci,a] wdfaretrends dUlJ1we I aw of most other :ijQcle'Ue.$', ,.,~

One cam. also Jilope 1i:ha~ the ool.'1mtive 1I.'II'i Il upcrnilre b~ !jiUPPQrt of pnU~1 caili b1i!ten.re;n:l~fII<i1;"'. in this oaim. IllLo,pe. ofleJl or rndk-Jll e:ft ilCl1Te~nt~oI15. J1I migfu [ dosebeca usc, tlJ an~'GJivelrt.]1e]'iod. U)e p[~Usi:bU~l'y e~u [ID ,oul'S!eh.l'le:s of ourr PQI.ili~.ii:QIiII,vi'gIiDIMl. ~1i. [ua~lii~HI bu~~mlp Oflot~1 degree.·;): funm[PIl ofhDW we, undeEilliUarnd, I')!JJ bhlory. In thls CII!>i::i.mi~' hi,l]p ~il!'tlh:;;l t ,the .! threeglgb~ ~Uun:s ,. n~r!:i;ltJive\iI<'ili Slllt~l~un till: oonliictlom thar pl'ogmssive eilJiWi.'l'OflJ:ue pedpJile'li}' can and should devise IIlJltionni ]lmgrel!i'l;~Vtl !lU:alegi:s.s, :rail1e'l' th,,1ID acc~p'[ lhe p:resrrip rmmu. tOf lbi!! E~nleil':. tbat (~'Y :sjmply "'opeD" tille~fooolloll1llb~ s <i;W,ld ~(1gf~ rm" thejjr le~ syslflJIlS, and 3Rcep:~ rl'lrn ~l:l!oo~uCim::0S :m:r J?i,[il,ud 0<[- ill .Bl1l( UJ a'wid rawse ~dI\~lftti:smg..let rue em$l~l~~ttililliuh:e oonnec~inn betw,ee'n ,na[r:~!":i.'lI'e ,;rn:d pllIliti-caru .• mlitin['l! iii tW'lilQws.~

Sp>!;!'a\dng I~:r ,ji ~nO~e~t of till! IlL"lory uJ Umu~d!sl<llte.seanlaw"the aI:CCli.i1:!i~ tlli:la:t fQUOW5 ~ 1)I;I:lremdox [n FtU,l[ ll'll1lJif'l wa~fli,t~~(, j~ po.nr.ry;s (be Uni:l(ld Sta;le:s up m the 19306' as a ,eonle.:!::t (',if legal ~clCepIl:iCln, lila,] ts, ,~~, pa li~ 'Of the ,pe'l"ip:h. e.ry 0.1' S~J!iilli!~'perjpfU!l:'l{" Let,Ll devclDflw.cnl ~,VM be<ady de.!e~led by wha'~ Wt1i~ b~~pe~k!g h'l Cewwnany snd la:l·!r fmn Ol!, but Ihe ori\ginal U nitcdlstl'l~e· ~I!m, !'iymthcsis, l'll<iicl no' iuftlIe'rn:e' on it!!!:ISI)' (_lfm~.tri~. I~,eanbell~ to mlHll~ Ie.uee 'w:e matu tmdilillll..Lo lJ'I~l:eckt:ates:ean h::gQll:Iiiiistory. ~'Vhi'lL'h rep~~'i;ints

I 1l.~1!iI'lI\,N'lil NlJ·".\Nm:GIiAN I .... w: f!f. G'IlNIllil<\I, S!lUVil'lf ?lj' fl'hl! .g~ui,·,b r4!p:iI1Ll.~nQ:El~ un {~.~lll?i!lI:-oIiJJ~) LaW, HIG3) ,

" fur !I 1'1 !!~!!.II!~us dITC!IJl~~~ I!Jfun ill IIll!:! m:lllren u~ !.hI! pID!lJ~ or ~al cturnEP-. 1l!.1 r1 'willl .6i~~ I:fi~Lhll!ilo IfiglC;i1liIl!I)L'm~, see 2(",. MffilIltt':rl. 81.mii Gi'lr!#: A QUIIS.ffflr (.fIJI' Mr.ln'tu$mrlll Orlgliil~.af~iI"lIIl 'iWm'.ffm ~~ITmdi:til1lJ.,· 5,1 1-11I5IDi~ ~ J ~;r!i. ~ti~ r~.

TliJree' (~I'r.lbillization', OfL9\V and Legal T_hough~,

25

the transfu rraadens of UniLedst,:Ue~· a n leGru thuu~'lt <IS cier,ennineul by internal sodalllnd e onomie develapmerus,"

seoond. this acceunt cJjrl'pha~s Ll~e.e.idel1~ ~,[I which de\'~1fl'pn:lents 1[1 d.i.r· Jerren'l fie'lds o:r law ov'et tile .1.AAt c~nU1ry ruHOl,>"d ot 5ingle l~aUe,m.fflslolies of 'Ii, :Ids 0 Iliitrul.r.ty urihu'te m lnternal dynamics d.1i:1fige. that W re hapliU![I~!llg jll-.'i,Ir.h::tly i:1;I:!;jIiogou~ w:ays: in other :Iie..b!.s" <J.lild therefore Ql'C unconvin.d.[Ig in the :mme WilIY<J.S natioIl.a1 hlsmrles lhat dis:r:egard tl\~ nansnationel movemeUl0j[ legailthOll:ghL l~~td. ldepan 'hom eurn 'fit fsshtnn by treating legal liilaUS1'I'l as the critteal devastation nf s~dllJogh::al juri!iiprud nee. I "the saetal," in the Hnge, ofl:bts a:nkle) , [ll.l.he,l" [M'O <15 !'C5Se'rotiarilJy~ ae e~.tEl.lUitl~ .of the So' iaLngic:al jlui5Pl'_ld~,s trlUqiIJe 0:1' CL't nnrrt.b, ,~Il thffi account postWW'11 dev'eloprn,etUs areeharacterized JUSt as. much hy llUl neofo rrnallst rights ooD£Giou:-mel:l5 QHhe W~u'J:'eo COlin' and. the n~t)1HJ'erals as by JtIU:l ,conflicting' ,co.nsiderations conseleusness .of the ]J ~ Pro ess Sdhool, and bnUl Wf']re respouses to tb demise ofrtll:e social. rather tllmI ofC.C[7

I];] terms of classic cern pilla:IDe h,;w cH~egories, the na rratlve tl1wts til t.J' ,~Onu.afiU hetwee n elvil. arrd COJrnn.lon law ~, U se 1111 ln pmvld'ling IllKplana tlu lUi 10' how the emcrgenl tran n;~ti"oilll mod" af thDught per:l!et(8.ted and transformed different will iunal, contests, .But rr reject$[he n orion that the We.sl ern d~s ,ellol \\"tld t1uuugltl tin:lB aecsrdl n:f); to, d i:(;:tri:ncl~ mtemalt-y d,S'ler:l'uined r»'s· tern JogiC.5. 'IhlsIs amdogrlll~ to I h;:llying that \"iI'£! (:<111 explain any important aspect OfU~lJ1ilec:1S !~j'e~eaD I, ijrn Ilh.(mghl by re e.rence: [U !.I.niq "ely Uoit! . dstateSean oG]]dilj(m,~.

I'H i! Imls,1[ GLOUAUZA.TION

Th~ fir:;;i. g~C1balizato1o[l aeeuerad during the second baE of the ntnet'!l ':r'Ith

enmry and WBIS over by \'VWl \t\fha'l was gl bali2.ed lj.\r8_ <! mode I1f legal ctlmcrnullsn.e~,A cordmgto its SO~~1iJ cr:itic,s.n .md aecordrngro most tn(H am of tiOday~~ historians,'!! me late nlneh.lenm-ce;llrl:ury mainstream saw hlW as UII. sYSl.enl,." having, a slfflng internal suucturnl coberen. e hased on the Il-uree traits m ~h311!i'lil;re ,e,lahoratio.n nf'the disrtncuen l'u:llv!i'een pri:wJi't 'and publle [IIlW, "tncl i v:idlrnUsm, '. Ill1d conm:ri'l:nlen'l td I e:~ ~ lnb~rpretive fannaU!Hll., These

~ lLg., MUH:m;o; f-l'mtWrrl.1 1i'!'1I' TIIl\NSJ1fiJUtA:l'fIJ O~ Mrmm::JI!'l I>i\Wl ~ 7!Kl-I1lt10 II !Jr.): 'J1Jmmll!i Gr.ey, J..aIJWldf~ Clrdwti£Ll}', 45 lU~ITI l Jlw J II ~EI31 riPr:t~i!l'!g, fl!lfolW ;LI~;~ll tl.fll ~ ttl HW'tI!r;llI!lJrt IUmIDglOs, !:iUl ifl.mtci!Jl~r; miiifSinl! both lil wUI Ih{!illlr:yl!l'mj 'WhEit Wli1~ Em r~lt!I{'ly 'Unlite;:[!sJtB.h."S~n ODI;llIIIhe Slur)'. IlilIJU~Jy tlil~ ':K!, nsron O'rcr:r 10 I)Ubllc law).

7 ~;nmrmtMgIlrnN H JI!\-'oTJ"'/;, ~JIJ:1l1L!;:N51'tj;I~Ml'11n~' 1'),1' i\"H!rnc,\Jo,i u,\,., 11I7U-I.'!OO; TH.R(ru~l~ Of ILH';;~:I. OififUO.lloXY tl 99"U,

~ fig:.. nU!>GD~ r~I.g'l'!}d. 'ffi.e./J;ld of LtIW {j~ f.lew/llpom 111 1rl11.frle Tlwuglu 1[ • .3(1 I L .. ilV, L R'Ilv_ :W 3 , 2!)2 •. !!;Z"~'l!i ll~Hli ~!~11!mnUl ~4.t!-LI- .(Inrl il-tHJII,lpilII)ri·[!S w;tI

t I5flC 1'fOUWTI7" ~!.Ilm~ nQI.tI 11 (iI\IlY • .IT~PI'fJ flllle ,; [lUll n II K.er;I1~tly. rr:nlTiml'!HI Ji(lJitmlC!'lJ !Iruiw-· .I'~jldid·j'lf (1/ Lt'S~1 COus~1Ullm.e.u: 'nj~' (.!.n1J llf C:1ll.:rriml £IJgal 'n~ljr.lglu. :J' flllll., UJ Lli'l'o' !\~I'I $gr;,. l-<'.4 [.l~8C11,

trait t,"llrnlloineti in "tho ~\rill hC'{,ry."'to The will Iheory W~H;' that the private Ila\ rules of the ·'f.iU\farilti~d" Western natlon BUIle6 WBf{! w II nod It': Hlod as a ~et O[ rational d e[hr,;;ni~m' fmnl [he' neden dUll gO'Veu:ml~nt .sll.ouhl prate l the :righrs of legal, persons, whiebm ant helping thern reallze than wills, rcstrMned nnly as necessar to per-mil: o them to do ·bes<lme.

Tlte mil then!)' wa,s an Blttw:npt Ilo ideilJrrify the. mle8 dun shculd follow f.rol:fl eensensus in favor of the goal of lndlvidnal *1E]F~J!eali;rJal[on. It was flUl ~ PQUli&:'. lor moral ,phlll'l-:-o~;:J~ iusU:fyingtilis goal; nOH'lfIiS II ::I positive IIffitorical or socicdogit:;il .tLH~O.ry ebnur hoW till· had cerne tl] be the goa I. Ra.lhd!!F., tlr:lld theurveffered a spe ·iRe. wl'll.b'H;~ and dedu tiv~ ttl~,~rpnml.1ljtim ofthe lnterrela tiu,nship of the dozens or l'l1.;mdr,eds or relatively, ion ·rele nOlJ]]S of the ,e~tant luttlunallaga[ urders, and of the [egi~ia(jve and adiudku'tJve msrimtlnns Jth at gC~'lei(~tJ:;:d afida.ppUed du,l norma

~Out. ide" or ~abovc'; legall tb~o '1, rhare wer, OJ v"Jclfiety u~ rarlunales fur the hl'g,iill enmmlrmem 11) individualism liul:E. uedcrsmod . .or these, on!)· naru:rlll rignIs thory Wl:l~ also h.i~bly rel,evant' \1" 'i:l1J~ "in side,' ~l1ini.\'5 . in the dev,Ill'.lopIn ent 0:1 the technlque of legal mm~ysi~ based un deducttnn, NmufilIl rlght~, t heQl"'lsts hall ela.bor.Ued th e wi II them _, begi noing in t h, ' sevenreenth ICC ntury, as a s ,t onitlJiL1.eatlll11S from tlrein101.m3tlVl~'premj;ses. ami II hf!ifsp.e;eific tegal teehnlquewas the dif 'cl ancestor oflllelelil.aJ Iormaltsmthar thcoociall~~ orient d r ~onu rs W Hil 'to aU,llto,,-il'l its posithtiz dform.11

III the IJlm.'!ltl·renLb centlll11, the Ge];n.imb~sforicotl &eihool developed a pasi rtvist verslon of normartse fomulis m, PI. national sYltf'lU of I~w reflec~~, !i'!1i a matte IOn fact the nmm:!JH'ile order of the l.mderlying SOdtYi such anermatil' • ore! et 1s euher nr all' teods U)ii;\'.:!1 nl cuhru'Bnce I) n th e bASi'll t} r the spirit and bis.lOry of th.~peopl!~ ill question i .' I,e_gla ~ Slde:n.tlsts~ em':! iiIl"Iil :s1.lIonl,d. e ~a:honue the po itive ~CGaI rules (;UJl'1pllol'ling"uJi '~stcm" tHlJ.lhe pn mls ofit!l internal coh er It 'e.I~ In the late Din leel1llh century, the German pandeerists le.g., WiIld~('Jtied) wm:ked at til . anal.ys~5 of the bj;lsl~ ,conoeptiions of~b e GernUIn COl1'lmOJI ]aw·vcrsioll[l of lRn.l:um(llaw edgin, 'l!ltill. fault, ,IHWSOw:l.' ,~t.h the aim or e -t.lbUshin,g thar this particular ~l's'lem could he made inl'eri.lall~' oherent, and a.l.SQ be madeua aJ1 p reach gaJlle~snes!1.. Many Con dnenral I .,g:aJ scJudars undars to od til e Ge'!:'Inan Civil Co d of 190U as Hle' legts,La1rkeadQPtion fjf th i.s, system, I"l

I~ S"'" Dtln~1iI 1C-e!1Il'r.'d.~. "rum rl.tl" ~ ~/i~1 l1iCflr;)l m tlu' Prlm::lpl ' IJf PHjftllrtApUmwmy: J.nrr t'rJlIet's 'r::n/,I,~dl'tel.ffrm Iilontl d-brm,' 11]0 Ct'rIIM. '1_ R~ ~ .• WS-'IOlJ, 1J5-llru f2OLKlI,

II O.fllhm.hiiilm~' t!rnllt': will. i:beor,.!';~ I'!l:A:<:Z WI' :A~.IIIil>"OIu' Oi' Pl.U'1IA"(£ LA"" 1}'1 "URCll'Il M'UI ,i:if>i~c:l1\.L RI!:PI!Ill!.N'C1I 1'0 GElI<MI\,NY ~ 11l95, 191i11: '.ut: liQ~llLli'l'. Tm' r'I~1 tJ:I!PW·Jl1t~l. Uu:!mN~ mMClU~IlN' C""N"f~~ [lrr:U,.R·1 fIl~ ~ I ~8':L L

I ~ .YA' FJJrr:nllu:lo C'-'linl.'I!uril S!M(lN"f, ON Tn VOI:.i\TmN r.!'f o IJII M.&; ~O.R l:J:'msu.nF\ ~1 ~,N" l'Inll~mn'DJlNlr:' Ilmn'lfl [It iJl Lh!~""u!l Go •• Hi;;! I ~; Plur.rniur:JI t~m.!roN SAVIGNI', nmS\'~t.Ir (] Irt\.lulHIRN llO~"'N Lw.,', IjWdlillm lHIQ'ilo:way; !f3!l5.l'Iypp-ciml Pt~. 11fr:}) t lB39J.

II .\i"'~','rroiJL\!.Niluu!~nn. T.!H.~(;jM1'rw ... iI.r rhi' ~Itjl'lj,m t;l~'r'j.rrMild ... mSact~!}', {f,ITlLnDI;;M!l!;~)\.Trr .~NfJ,TIJI! Alrmm11'17lIlJij.N :5rKr!Il22 111.!.'.t\b81'1l Mw:coii.'8 erl .• 1.9571.

Three mObllllza~l&fUi {lj'Law and LIllgal Tlu:lugh'[

27

Th .. e hera fi,gUJ11!1 of the first g~l\haHZtll.illn \i\~8 ~n ,law professor (author ef odes and ShUi.lwry modific tionsof odes, as w!B!l as of trtm..li.!;es:)i. and the gr atand inspiring pf - Wl'llCl" j nitiatnr Wah [he il.'bUllder ef the hisrortcal schn 01, l~dcm.idI Car] von S<li.vigny Ilng-IOA]). Th e paradox 01' SaV:1:gnl)', and theprobable SOI.Jl,n.~ of hi!! ~~rnhrH"Ill Irnportanee, \V<I~ (he cambination, in lhe :!I]ngh~ l:de<llJrle~l: sclenceas llie e1.aboration of "the system,' ora Llni\."eoo~iizin ~ ICglul. form.wt vciI thoo,l"Y ',",rjth the idea [hat parneul ar n~~i rnes of S"tf~t{'! ];<1\"" .reflccl di'v,U se lllIdedyu'.'Ig non legHll see ietal 1'1 urrn ill ti've ord,e.I' r I ls <I ppreaeh g'harply lIu:u::ked the nntinn tha~ all nationrulcgaL wgi[[u~s M,e si:n1~'l:~y beuer nr WOflH:: apprnaehea H:I a ml'i,giousl,y or ralional.ly b~~lI tran marlonal natural law; QUJljpide Gem.l.a.ny. the hi~'luric.d g rhenl was a minor tenden.cy, but [he same conceptlon Orit will theorycnmbinlng individnallsm and dedl.lClive r~ mill l'll" ,dually "Supplanted e<JJl·[j er W<l:.'S uf und r.sl.andJ:fIg priv'l1l .. • law. J\ustJi n was a rullow r of the Gel:'lI1HIls, and hls LqcWFe$ tim /uri.'i'prudMf' • wrirtmr 1.1] lU31-2'but untp ublh:.h,ed un i.H I fiGS. \'II"'dS t h rnanifesrn olfC T for the Ii:CllllWOfl rnw~1j,!u rld, I ~ Th e I)QrtmnlV'lll (lli "outside" fOllC~ .I<orthe tLu~[i:ry might f;:ht1:li': from miHtaFianisIJI, or t'n:)"ffi Lockie.an or KantrL:u.l u r Freneh r,e:vollitionolJ:Y uarural :righls. orfrem a variam of evo~utionj8m 'Il'he mevemeur IOf lhe pm,gressive "och~ l.i&8 has been fro m. contract to Slams; social Darwin tsm L BtU huwever d rhfed, normative individ.uaIi ill was doscly CUIU1eCh:d 'Iovirh l gical me 'hod in jbe ennsaru I.'Inn of some verslon U' the \-dI tbetlry. l!i

The,<\i'illlh, >nry in him serveda varl l}'of'purpu,se5 wid:l.iJ1I,~~a.l a..!Js.cUtlln;e.lt guided! tln ~ch(llaTly reconcepruellzartu .. D, reurganlzatlon, and reform 01' prtvat law rules, in whau the partlcipamsunderstocd as an apoltlical rarloeallzarien poojecl .. B1I.lI ]l f11~~1 pm",ridl'rl the diSClIISJVe framewark forI-he dec.isiu.1:l of hundreds or perJlo;Ip~ thnusands of ewes, lhil'oug;hllul'~he iudwi"trUi.:IiHzing \,resl, In whIch Jabo[ cuuIm.luecl ca,pil1ll. and small business (;onfron)~d Dig Inl:l;l im!.ss. And U pnJV[d~ ftilll abstracr, D'IIe~lling irloolbgk-dJ. iicn.:luu l,adfD 11 uf the mea rung g lb .. nih,: of lawas om sentlal element I r n 0:1 Uheil."i!l legal I) rder,

Lel'taJld 'righl po!l.iticl:d projeclS 'could OI:,xjSl i;"irJli.n C:lassir..all...egal Thnught in lrs h,. yda ht=cfiuse '~he •. wiu tb.eory. ri for aU Us pTClensi.ons tu se ten [ili· it)', wag hit:blymarripulab~e when it earm [0 defu:tiIlgJmt. wlrim fel'l inm th .ate~ol[i ss of rjl~h'l and wHi '(not to speak (1:£ the am b.ig,iJ]ti :;; of the n orion o r I, - gal IJ'~.rs{]na1ihJ'. Sill applied to IlrlvllU(~ clll'"(if,raliC)[Is and ],ilbor unions) .. 'L1' Bnn~y excluded ~Illy bieu,[rt:hic1ll.1 organielsm in the medeefmonarchlsru or neofeu~htl]sn'll {De.l,'ia~8troJ. M'.Id ~dt wing cnl.]ecttv'i's,m i:n die mcde [If ecmrnunlsm Or utoplan socialism (FOLLr~ellJ ..

A.fllinorit~:t,t;:u:rrenl.lll CLT, beta I:uajorcu.rrnntin .lay len thi.ll.king il1 til hn " niaet • ... nth nd early-rwentleth enturtes develnped th lWO idas that lim I, g<lil order g~l\I ilnadet.1:ua,t prot crion [('I "wn:llkcn; rights.~' <Iud that bargp1ns

! I Ii HN AU!>'n N, i.A"r.ll;JiItr,s- nN lmm,!'m rpIINCI' ~ 18fi:1j I ~ ifIoHnd, Sttpffl nere a.

under ca~~~:a]i'&m didnolt repJ{!sent ~ freen!, "16 For ·~U KQrl Mar.x:o.. rn!LI:i.11g ;ag.ai nsr It, 17 tll!!::·,po,~llIist"i!;:ht~· th-atlhlil ]l,l'Qb~em. w~s HiI.~! lbe.l'ldes were skewed againstthemasses, andfn riiUl'a~r ,or "theln leir;es[S, ~ lJeY't:r i ~!Snn; hold, .mdwas -<l\'mlable fo.~ a.ppropr.ta:Clun by ~re-l91l'l· ('emini:st~ and anlicoionliruj:5ts.\IVl:Ilte progre$si \fel! g~rU::Tdy abandoned ~l£hlts ~'ltIe'l:or,i-G du-n:'i:ug the pilllrriodflf~he wcialmey reV-b.lled ill a:ftBr\VVV1l, as We wiU SM, in the hvn rUIill]$ of cid libertru:~':Iism. oold inf:e.l'L'lf)rlm'Q,a] hurnan r~8h[ r.:ideolow.

Nonetheless.i I. ~fI f'&kl:f;), ~Hy' d;:UI-t ;"I I~rr~e majllliHy of the juristie le]]H~ lJlal d e1\l'eI (Iped and pnJipia&alcd 'a....'f'WEiS 'cGI:I..&e.rwtivl'l, andl.bs.t, ~}ver 'dle eoirrse IITi'l:b,e twen:ti.eth cen uU'y. dl;E:t "U.aiJl:~ll'~r:l4ideas qfthe firn'l: gaobruiz'Iltio[l turned f~orn.a "en fUi>C~fJIUli.!·~.~s", "\IV'iil:hi nwh~cb <u1]11J]tit'l:l,de of poLitical IUQjects were 91 least p08sibliill, ~nto lam "~deology." classieal ljberallsm and. ~h.en.~lMi i her,3Usm, 10110(] ci"dle central !pol.illtca~ th~~re!i(aatl pr-omeC'ts ~]~f H':It: mn dern r~glJLt wing (the

ether fiflle IJ-ei.llg ",~:i;8Jd.h~o!l'l'')_.· .

The m~chatiisITl oft]u! fil"st gJ,ob1i.lfuz:miUJ] was a 'coI'll'JIbi:n-(l"il:iof.) of LI'II,f])u.ente Mlnin 'the s.ysl~m of autonomOl.l5 Well,l-enl. natlan ~:t,aUi.<" andirnperfallsm tuoad~ conce~\I\ed 'rL1J! G f!'l'n:~a:n ulLod ~i :!>prei!l_d fi!,(U just to i:~<m.Ce 1.11 but amf.l.!lS SU.roi1[E (both W~8tern ~Vld .l1asrer;n) i1'Ind. aeressthe Cl1a[m,el<l.l.1(~ tlO the United, St'tlt~s and Larnil America. The United SU'l~e:s and £l,ritish C'Uhlll tes, lJ ke Bri1r<'l.ln i.tself, adop~ed Q.Et.I'OO::J;ill leg-al. 'scieiJrlce mclvas! 111 umbers Df st <Innes, whJ~e lles.iS'l1 n,g cod if! i;~11~ iun .• 11n~ fOlt:mell' Spa:nisb[,olaillilBS. were 'mom il,'l.f1utl need by France. <md ccdlflad,

The fu;lgftisil, Fr.erK.I1, and Dutch, aodlw~et tnt: (;e.maI1LS, Am era cans, .. <lfld ,Bellga ans, s,p read the~~r oll1JckTI~d.ii'eroS]o[l!'i ofCLT di~recdy W th~jroo~(llnie.s,,, \vir.h or ,"vi thfl U It.;nr I i I]cat[all" tThe lPortuguese at1Jd. S;pani:sifl did [be £3J1The tn tlb.;: remains of their empi res, ill d.eciLtl1e.) TIll! '(;T:e~. l~o.\rers fprCed ·'op cui n~" tn Wlillster-n: ~ a.w, &'i at mand atory :.lSpe!!"l tlf;[Jp~nin g to WtlS~m trade, om stares oot dJirecdy li[~1!"1niz.ed, s'!Jch 11:s-1hc DtiDln~[1 Emp'ire,Japa.n,CI~ln~, Thailnlld, Egypt, and Emu. "fI:H~;seSGn:lBrnnes-ndopted. cades on t"h~' European model and so IUeOrnes s L1bmill1ed 1£) thecrearlon of speci.d C:OllJ.1:S wap p.ly Eu rapean hlW ln trnns.a .. c~iun1S wil1l EUJ.l'lJpelUliS.

A mnre b"'lltn.le rnodl!! ut gh:lbal.i:l:;;a.l~orl: of CIT "lIas~mm:!rlh:,il in the eVe'nllJa~ IJ.:l]j'll'ersOl.I.1Zatlli1,rn U:hn~i$, IhetaHy. gilnh'1~1;r:rllUnl1!) y~ ii single C~<Issk:a:l sy~le.ru") Clfpublic ifUematiDtI~ I"w, devised by tli1~ W~'lem Gl1~<lJ l?m\i\~r.s, ba's.ecl on the ,.ol1ceprna~illl]_D'Vat]OI,1;S: or the sm·'lHlteen.th Oll'ITlm-y .lllillU[';:il. law theerist~ ''Ii' sl[Ivami,gn:tty '38. a IBuitorilal hUH person,~.I)~owet abw1u:iIlewit'hin its

If, Wl.blJJloU~ IhIR,,",,'F~h 1.-\WI!N"Jl"TlHi S!'r~im"tl Of 'n1!'llI\Mfiflt"'.Ii.N·umlJI NhWI!MI'.f4T (HJ!IIll,

I ~ .K!i.l!l1. M..u«, C~'~IlI! '!:I:F 'f'}j.~ llilm·~.PJ1A ~m~Mll;-Ifi (S!l!ii~lI1tm~ .!lO~iLn~TIl &ilriP.:fl. l]mgl!>Eill..~ Jhi~llI~h. ,~t~,. i 9, I J Ul!i\'iJ.

I" M'!'khJlU X]rali8l;, I.. i"t't"lfr .rill) rt!l~~S8 i>lllIfl'~I!w I.J,#~m'll.rJ~~. .,, .i.J'!jFLlm~(:~~ ~;:L' ~Ullil;.!"rmfll~ M~TIi !!Li..Jl..sP!! 'flIQJtr·~..,: 'rIl!U PHI"i:.l}:;or~fi"~ Er.l f',11AN1a 1l'iI.~ .\Lm!(l,'i.t Nr,: ~ t.iC'if\fl!'g>l:n.&:Mutuiiloopt l!d&,:WO!]'

spihe:JjD.!!.I In Ctr, I.hi! "nat.i,on . tate and celomes" model was univm:sal except for anachmni~[ifl3, and Ihe hererogeneuus mish mash of governance stru w rnr ··s Q r Ilhewod.d i III 1 BOO was 110 IUOJre than. a ll'I-el:.'i"'iui"Y"

Bl'lally; (hem Wi:L.o;. lil~ ereatlon of Ii !1lrst ghJb:aJ ysiem ef.internattnnal ecom:m1i.c]~IW, based un free trade, the gold stlllndam, and pri'll<lt!eintl!l'r.natioual I,a:~%! (often ~ppHe(~ by atbltrators) to settle !lli,s:put'es. MoOney W<I,!I; dep{~Hti· chred. ~u and an i urernatienal ,[t'lP.'i'loll maiJ!!::e'!:. W ~ ~h =,u~comp'i:l1 yi:rn ~ gmilma~ di:plonmcy, carne irun exisrenC'e". WHhin this ~nll1.pleX (and fragiie., att1d v:aalHIll) strucurre, tLiI!: ,c.Ql)HbiTIalion oftb~ gmlli'l'lh '!:If werld In'I.de and t.he In:.r.a~ struetural and primary product, iuvestmenl& ,I}'r lh~ Cl!l)t f ill! rh 'Il riphery unleashed a 'Il00C&$S of social tr, In!!lform UUn, trreverslble as it has turned 01.11. nut 0' whi "It ~ll']efJled tonlyln the ~ cond half of'the nin teeluhcetl'U.lIr}1 the "'j;md]1I:ion/mod~rni.ty' dichoeem that stm rules our Ih,ll'~.~J.

TIu: hlstorlcise ldaa {Savigny), BlS ]remarke(J ~b1V!'l. \>l'~S dnnble, it net cOJ]uadtctory. 'the ta.w e f.a, nat ion wasar 'flll:ction gf thespirlt gr culture orin! peo~ ple, and i no I his sense i ntum:ntJ:y POlliti1ca1. b IIH could be d.8I1lil~o,ped ill. a sd ennflc mannes by ju:rjS'l'5 who. p.resu~posed Its illl.enih~.1 ceherence, In Germany), iIIJcoord:in,gto $.1vi,gny. the-people hat! 'n:cei\l'(~d :Rvrnan law, and Ch.ri.stia.nized an d moderrnsed j l ~hmugb evolutionary pn p ular action. This panleul ar I it W revealed itself, when wod~ed {lV,E':r b~' 'the f.fci~nce- nf UU~ jtuiflts, tub based on 'the bigjhlr absuaclilie<l!S ufr.[·gln and will. 1'IJof over; if lorrcspoud.,oo i1'1dts lundamenl~, to Ih'lusg~ntilm1, nrlaw of peel' pi, 'S, the mh imal substr..:JJ!ufn gfl 'S~d rules therwere shared , a a maneroffact, or atl~:liISI shuuld h har d, by a1~ people . This fonnulaocl)'l "Ill" g~(lha.Iiz{l.u.olli1i1 the mode described In tl1~ bURfo ur piaIaiIJl:'iap.hs.:!2

D:[ COU.fSI:I-" when wh.il hap:pe:ucdvl/a.5 dimm cu]onma.r.ion, lklere WolS, hai· tiaUy. llttle eHectivun:~s:i:s.rmce to wha'lE!lIer: ]Ii!'~al ideas ~be eolunlser cll!:;I!"'~ (0 alll:pU5e •. But.ill Wesu~fo and ~East,ern Eiuope, and North arrd StJlIJLh America, CIT had ~n win ever the elk1l:rs of lndependrranaram states, h.l ~hl:l 'Iernt,mries Qf rhe OUioman mpim and in Sooth ast and E~st A,Si,lI" wfl.lIml!) happenhyg was "opening," not dlfe l conquest. In the OUOllaJIl lauds and across Asia, there 'Wen~ h~:ghly dffil luped preexisting modes of legal COM iou .fle~1li

I'll ${'I.' IIN'1l-WNY Ci\llTI', Til B DlOC1Lv 0 I N'JRIhN""1"I,Q~ ... .l, DAw'~ (1. Sflf;l; Oa"lii~ K~'l1n!!~v, PrimiU~N.· Li'!gllll Scf)(df.it,~/~ip, 2. 71iJ\iw, INT']. L.J, J 11900.1,; D;.u, d Kell'DI~-dY. Ijj r~mIlJ.~'r!rUIl Luwam/lfu!! l\I'jM.feOfUh ['Jl'l,rtMry;I"Ji.lllrydftm mj~inn. !lSi NIl!f11[!u: J, 1:~'r"L.1. ::I~'l t I !lltEl:; IllrJlii.1'1:1 fu~cl, Ltl fJ"'.i J'erritmy fA .i-1J.twryo!bum.lkJimV, 9, MU;II.I" l'I.EV. R'J3,,'922-92'1 ~.l ~9l; AIlim1V tll'li!l:1l~, ~·I'{l.Iird1lll'tl d!.' V:illJritl! a"_d tile' ()jl:emt.:llarij:,oirr.w! l'llCmlillj~moU.{jw. 5 SOc:, & ~;r. Snru, $~ 1 U!l9tiJ ~ 1m1[l:Ii.I>' An~hir.!" R/jdhig[flt'Ptj"jpJ:rc!rlf05"~SI!JW'n.;fgnl)'Q.lldr:f.lfrmil.ltism mNfnC'Ii(.m;rth.Cmml')',/mt'r;runiurur.HtljJ, -'II HAir"', IIN~I"L LJ. I, fFhlflllll!:l'Sll.

~u BilfI_ily Eta IENt;l.Ilili'N. i(,U::lMU,llN'i:l C'\]i1I'I'ILL~ it. UI!rl'OIlV [f.. '!'jUllifl.i:IlN1'-1'1 m"" I.. . fnNFl'l!tl\' SYUm.I (J,9~m; r;lui!l'li!l~ rh~5;lO" The Mar"_ifja..~{ Mmlf'r(}fMimiij,~V··flfl.lW'aJi2;iJLI': F-c:r:mumif: .rJI"l"I·'U:-Y irlAilPU'riuJIi. ,;r,,~rltudrlJla.l Hi'fllll],,;.-IO :r.JI.W &!k! ,INQUI1lY h (:lWOS"

n 't 'KARL I'CL1.-'I.I'o"l, TlII Gll:EIi~ 'l'li.'J.NsmrcMA:1rlllN 119'57).

•• 5i\"1"l~:t'i'V. 1'!~T-: S'i:'.'lllll1 or MOl"I<IIN nOMll UW. mpll1. Jilm e J 2.

(lslamfe, lJmdu, Confucian, S!l:rimnoJ lhl1l~ had ,al ~eO':!Jzlt ~ ellitfl1t:e IJf 11!!'.5'iilting Of ~r<iu L~n ~~~ug thelln:sel 'I,tI:'S into ~Gca~ (jolMpetjlDrs. For example. ,rn e Ml~j(1'Ua. :the OU.t:o~nanD(uJ~ficalion()lf Ll'lels]~mn~cHtUl;afi law of~bii;~ado\l1rs. ;n~69~7ij.wa5;'" ser\ious peripheml OltJtemlp,t to aclftp~ ~lne J::U:l1JIp~"f1I lieJtd ffmn nh,(;u1iffic;al'lO[ll (unl ''Li~L]),mJlll earlla r OUnu~<lm liIIII1]O~CEi) te '1:il~ilImi{' .iiUhf¥l!1 ce, 23 Sfirne:'l.hing, ttn le~1 r,~elTlbHflIg ~!!e1emio.n,";:.11 <llong with H~i:mJllm;ft:ian," 'Wia!i ilrlolli~tl~y ~ ra.e ~nr. in these C~ tI~pl,!e'1ol eo ntesrs, in til>t:!, SiUC:Ce,sS of ell: In tld.e..: wonlls. CIL"]f" probalbAy had sam!':! it~Jnrlms.i1:' <IJJp(ll'l'ljl ~g the l~:n~, lila[ ~hu!J,t: it.

eel' replaJt;:ed all earlier \Wst~m trn.nS03'llmtai mode ur tllotlfdn ~hjjt had, asSI.'n:OO rue exhititm ee n r ~I l]iil~\I>eW"lllfI"\1 of DeliSOlTh, f'lLher C:lidm'lk 0:. based [In naumrn~ ,rjglns ttn~ory; <I:m'j a s!I;J<rrp ~r.'gnl d i~lit'u;:l"ion I'l elwee]':!. iChrillize([ (partJtdP1!tIU in the (us gt"lltilU"U) ami barbarnus ll3111011l!i.. CLT oiTlif,e,d thrc' ~tlG;;t1 el'~es of the rer~prll1er:at f1ttlwiy formed na:tiQ~,'Ji ,sra'.te:; of .Eu~ope. Nortb and Sou~h AmGltic(l. and I\si;;ll s(JlITJetlilin..g Ul ~!::t~1 j;jtll~e:.fi.cIatUy mum aru"",ctlVit. 'ril:1e n.atiDm~ e1ih~s '!EQuid '~del'ltify thcmseh~!!l'i whh the'ltf (tf!tj;ped.!\te "peqpJes," find tihti;[p~:y lfIis!i;oolt:~ll!.'. ,i.r they \.~~il Bn,r;lisb. Or 'RUS'!l;jl'lO" or rlOr Ilhat mattar Argentinean, Pf ~gypH~FIi., PI' rall'~f!es:e. Irum liM (;;erman:s alld Peeneh,

'rhl'Y could de]l~OY .European liI~:5[(:Jfii!;~I, k .. -g.:11 U'U,eury UJ defe,m)d lh~~elves ;}~s~t Hl.!nJller1C~l ~eRal h8g~ml1lY - onl,y La'lJI:in Amc riCl'l 11'1 ill[~s(", 00 utd ''b\'I!Til'' .<l ,l[ltin Amelitllu ~ilW r~neot"illKCfiQU(J' l·{n:u.dmJ$,nJ!l:\>:S/~ ~i!.pa:J],e~~ ~!il.W shauld r:e:flecr the "splrlr" O'hh;~, Jap,ii1HCSfI pC'!o:ple. TIm mlsslun WiJ;l!< ~he d,1:!'veIU]U.llelln,t u'f [h-al~ 'h!ii\winp;I;l.rlkuJar, not nnh'ert5& nr Gat ural hliW, an d i ls dev'd upnu~flt in <I wu~id or rn rm~llyr e~~wl nalitlll\ states .. mther dum. m the ,rauWr darkness 01 ~ ba rbarmrJl<. ~'~.,

Ou tbi! D~h er s,ide of the C'onl'rnd~1:'11j)1iY struc Iw:re, CtT 3'ffi rnll~t'I [Iuti e-v~ry !:{lwn'L~ Wilb!l! \'¥iJll'!i;?fU ~~gal herit~'Ii)I!' sba:md lillc Rom<1ln~eGj]C}! otJ:OItI g 'wj)~.h '5aviglly's G(!rl1'IIiUJi6. in dwdi t'lil'h fr.:lI; eJ(~! I~pl et, ~h.e r:iffiV~Y rn.depBl1diel.:'lt Bulgarlru~s (lOWI 11~OOJ< <lnG ~he Boiivi:aflS (l'tl25}, and thilt 'e~"ery':rIAijQ:n Ih8~ pa.l'l~c~ ~pl1l~edit! '1heRloll;rl urd~u fif eammereeend :fillanclil pa:ni.d,patBod in the ifitl~ g~nti~~1iI". A[Din G \\!ifn, I he pOl'llf ~u~~ris~ n~ diDne iha.l !;W,uy fHID[I1~,e had: its ma uniq l1le' uorm!!IUrlll'B 10 njlCil'. llh~ jurisl Ii \':i'C'lr1:tued ~cm:s.s I he JJ~dJ~llery flf .lndf!- 11 'Hdem Iladullli ilIiUd U1cll]em:~g empi:ms ~oUll:d affirm th~,ir panki:pilr!flWl in th e de1!l'ttlQpin~ !'m.ienM;;I:!'\i or leg<I~ nhUgalftllln :otndhlle.m<lltion al I aw, based as tll~C"y were 011 lim <l[lir.Ll~ft[C5' ofwUL ng!'ji~. and so\'el)eigr!~Y lilla~ ~'md 111.0 O'i:lvillUS fUllinnl'Ji[ particularity at all, The)' could cleve top tllel[ OiV!i1 ~T~CI1Uly II1!odil'i,etd

;::1 NWl'ln Brnwr.s,. 1"lf~ ]")f,,,.J!l,ltj",,rr.'!o'T 1.11 Sr~l!..w I~ T~ II~ ·11ID-1.1iffiI 0'9.aIIH I1ln'~. GUJ~~', Tbe ~lt.:mTUQll QIdHbmt1rrrl M~VI~ljm~in r.!].mg~1 Mtb LIII! ,\mt"fl~! f~OOJ' 1Iil:l'llltill:!li'!,h~ f'!l;!r!Ill'lI:I1:!;piIIJlil m!!' wilh !'~!i SiLlfil"u'lk Ufll~l?I'!Il.1i}' l;IwRi"\;,lt.MIl.

~ ~ S~'t lAltl!!l:l DI/"!1.tl~l'l, 'Gi1J~!i, Gt!IiM~ ~1m S'r1lr:J!.1 HI"~'71.

a 'LllllmfI, Olilruu!ml, (~OIuphHin!; r.i\!i~~?·'1!I1QI!l: N:"~J1~\'!!I~.tI~ ['.I!II.tl.JJ)' Clltk~t[J nu'Wr·~'I!',uLI.tln!" I! [:I 1u.~lel· nMl{ltl~J l.!!w (2.('I~1 j ~U\iI!,!blMl ~d dtl~I~!1tiJ1 d.L~!i~iI'l~I:l:dOI·~. I-l~.t\'ll.rn.lrlw SdlOtl~) (on ITI~ wim. I'IH' 1:1~J'!O'Uw l.:o.\vS!:;'hl.ifil UbrnQ'l .

• fi .'ift' JmE"H L!J'!lIil\.'SON" Cofo1'il'UEto;:NC'nlJt!~, j\NI'I I"1i> MQll~"IIil>1F"":ru: A TRl.w[';~ n~21~ Mi.!L,~\tiI ~t!.Im't,'>l'fI. gl1lmm~IN"Tm1 INra~~i'!I, ~'1~E>:fOIi'liJ'!'-~rJ:j.'1jt;M\\N' ~,II,","I Fl~i4I,

n"U{lna~ verslons ef lbe Chlil and .1.IUllI1l!rci~Lil Codes of tbe omUlerciaut.l~, {ina nei a.lly. BlDd. III Ilafarlly d01l11 am Europesn powers, faci]iulling i nt grfll i lin into Iht! \!lin rid market. wtth.o utsa mg the rnselves U l'fililnrs in I heirn iltlon III ronsrttuencles, And, 'they oould wurk, as iUli~ls. fur Their narlons' lmerests W"ithin lhe stmenne of JntefO:,1I1llmli htw, d'ploym:gtll{l nerms 'of :ll(J;v~-e.itn !i!"I ualJit)! find ::1.1l,lh1;Ii1flO1ny ''!~ilil:nst the G real i:J<OI~. _ At home, Lbe U.[l~v:et~l" lm:m>:lulIJi~n ill i\'!]eliL.ent in CLTwas the basis of a clauu lu [1- ""'fer ,IS medlmers of the ,Ilmticipatian of the perillhery ln the nurrnariee nrder; .[IS w~U aa the Etdtu reo It:rf the metra [lnl~s..l!?

'1'11, 'r, renn ~.ver than three ether truenrral cllam.'~h:lri~lJ s nf CLT tll.vl.

In y hav 'facilitated trs r,~t:ept:i.oI1" first aems E.!'wJpe and '~h"'[l, across th~ 110U- ur ,p 'an p rip,I1L\~ry, These are: the di riucrhm betw. II the "subi~h( u munlcipal law and intWIlIat.ionallaw; the dtstinctlon b~'lweell public and pr;vl:jte ]tlWi and the distinction between the h~,llV(lf1h~ mJ.ukel and th taw of the hcusehetd,

The "'suli~ !:H::tS.~ I1J rnun idp~ll:RW include "porsen s," !blH ~h e "sUl.bjle,~~ ~ uf lnrernatlunal klW-We.r , i:nCtl', m:lly j'sovereigM." Citi.:tie:Il.~, ,itS: dti7it!rn:s: had nn rights <1.1 ,i111 Ulnderi:n.Le.!l'llBtionru ;li.!:w. [f they h:td nl1 ~i:lhls nuder lnternartana] law, then SOli l'lil.igUl>, Hndlllp~!rl"it:lqli1r pllwedul s:ov;emigns, had. no l,eg.a1 b0'!5i\S [or ifl'llilrr~ring with the Wily ina p !Hi nt sraees treated their c'j'rizens. This was, the ~obalizilll ion of a I,e;ga I. eoasete lI!Oness \\'i I bin which i'iI. basi. structural trait was dUl.tjurts"diclitm Inns. no: be global. Tbe people doing 'the r~cei\img, Were J ga:! 1(iiIUm;. scarn 'r'd arnund the w rid. Th~y wem clm:e1y inregrar d with burnut everywher ldentleal with. the ptlUuc~1 and eennomic 'Il'J:it,8S 'Ilf rhelr 're-sp~di~rf! ClJlI11.lt.r11B"S. Rt!c~J:vil1~ CLT perrnirted a gesnue or stdkiJJil 'CO!SJ.l1opoUtaniS:DTII 1tv1:lbuut .tny ,,:;acrifice of loelll aULOnOm}' [in the sense of lega.1 aUI,onomY\l]s ~ \rjg, nther [!'oull11lr~es)"

In cr;r. {~Ve11"'QI1Le undarstaed (anc] fUl"ist-"l nftr.n exp'llc:idy ,aEfllrmedl thai prilr.lc'lif! la.w was the eore .nn-w.<!ll 'hat dlsrlnguished ,nOll rn:l!ly in'le.rnaflonal l .. 'ItW, hlJl pubb' l,liW,;Ui well, liS no~ pan of tbe care, Puhlic hniV wa!! the 'Ia;w of th e state: criminal I <tw, admini M . .roUve 1-llI'w· (1<.l.W of th burCaUc.l'a,cy ~ ,eve, state has one); and Dl!ll11HIlllliiouai la'w. Publie law rurtered, I'mru. private 1;JW' beca LIse it wail less sclenrifle aad more pclltical than private I nw, ] i Wl!J$ more pnlltical became' crimlnal law d.iJr'erJly reflectedthe normative order of the I "(lmmon people: ii.rnIDt1.isttal.l.ve law ~ s rhe law of th. sovereign, whose Iqalwtolilonl_Y ''ilas. ~:r~u ably, lnlllll::remly unUlll.i:t.edj' and enus IlilU do nal I i1W 'WM ~aled by the people. ~n by the eo Rsli:tueu( ume~:<i; nj'd \Ii ~ ~tll.:ietyJ in their e padtya:s ulrlmare Le,g,al authors,

Intern athrnal.l.aw had -arlly soverergns as !iubfeets. 50 the j'l'Ll:'ist NJU~ d Ilnt be called on fO denoanee, :in th nam of Inremanaeall w. the [,~onduCl 0:1 his .sover ign toward his fellow citizens- inueed mu:,-t resis tl1eRwgall![fons of

:r &'i)' I'Olrg ~1I111:J1. 'Hu'l!h;t/ojjJ,' uf LtrIin ,!mF-rl'ca!"j lAm (f't.rt l), 1991'l' IJ'lw'Ill L.1lm.'. ·125 t L9971. !III e.g. I Sti.VI.GN'I'. TI'II':i !iYSTE.". OF MO~,r!RN Il()MAl'Io' !J,1IIiI, ~f~PTt'l nolllll II ,

other !Oov"'~~ign:.'" '~fll ~n ~'!il'tf'CiI1'!. Public la\'II W33 11101 ideal, mtber l~mn ,"cie nLiJ:ic, 'willi ~ho !lillm!'lfF!;lJIjll:::S:>Cli.rn(l~ dfd n III rnb:Uge ~be Ilu_fltU I~nc ~.y or ilI1IlJme;t on [I:u~ iSSI1lf:1 ofi}[lca! ditl"(I[~n,hip' er u,u,glilllllChic mle by Ia:~ lomdffill!m~rr.;. ,A'llb~ !iim:lltl 'lime. 1!JU'ht.t~ litwltl,tlJls !!idU, if1! splte o~ aH.~LmN," so the judS! could, itf he wm:HC'd 10 Ji~ ~t'. tTyro par.lay :Law!lpoosdge In f~WGlr of one ourcome (It mIo,lliler at (he n~nll'U!l!lt oil' C(lIJP d'etat. and the· jllr~~a shnuld cerl'lilinl:r be 'm cl:l!at'ge o[ il:lrafl:mg WhJHI. the n.1!!~~ Itl'~ime reqlHmd 0 neW Itfiru;fii'l]tinll.

crr dl!!'Olh \,'I!i'lb Ih~ ~BSLl'~ Dfp1!lm aI'{;:tly; mfl:aniJng run jJI:.rn~''ge'IHll!_r'' :l11iJ1 the 'w:Jll~b.: '~tHnlEcljloJd." dmnJWt dll!: di1l1iuclillDn, ",,~tldlll plf,~V3re law. b~uwee!1l'fhe bt\'V of obi~.I:laI:lQ~~ .:t!l1d :[amiJy I aV\!. Thelirst Glorl!bQ[JallioVl gJDbaLized .. oompf(lwni~e ~!IlI whk:bthewi I] 'Ihc-.ory CiillIIQ ~o an end 01'1: :I:h e ramUf. there \-ms.". big d£.ai1rnmc~ bli!n'l!'~ ~iberalism i'1'iL [he ~conomy and '~ffiher3!li;s Ifli. with n;'.ilI'li{~d ~o 1!lilier,e]ati~)_ws of sedl1~rs and !lirg:lm; htishaJl~iO ~n:d ~'iliW.fi;. f,!lthc[;s and abused nr :rElbellin!.lll~ duughll,ei',s., hugb~!nld~ and ~.]'IliNltrtlsis~,: e;X-ltU6b;11:il:lds, B..l{wive.o;.: and their i::hUd r n; richpat[~:1ili)~hs and, lJfu!.k p'roleta:[ian b oy Imrfi.i1~ and Sill 'on.

'fh~ starting point wa~ the '1'lilill~Y u'mcle:rn" ~y:;;ten'l! t'lffamiiy I;:wl'desct:ibedi. 'fur. ~~~ple, by BIIl.cbHHI!e...29 in \'Ii'bw.:-h the' patriarch M.1<15 ~~aU)' olhJiced '10 . . 5upport-lili:wife .w~d DurU' chilclrru!. e:l'.1iillil~ed tel Hleif Qtle.:mt~n~ ~'IIhJdth,e eauld I~ "To r>Ce I:l'rumugh moclera:l:e phy!it;;!~pul\i$h rn efiL~. h a darb~f;m1l'Y IfIrnv~.r widil respeJ!.!r till m1l!!l~fitil;peCI~ oif UUliJJr~lIf"i~l;_ne' and pmpe:nty, ;:IJ::Id "VH5p.rO't;~r'[~d ;}glil~W1Si~ 1!0'llimd and Calnom,iI: inte,J:ere:m:::e by tlilld r);!rltitl~;

This 'W<IS 01 Lim.il~d. Clld~L~<I]}_~i'!d, l'fUPI:l"r\I'i'.!i'edr-orm of p01:lriarchy. noUlin,g ~ikJO! the ~maillLl. pau/,tl: p(l,~.8~a&, The father was t!ndro--Sloud 'w be' :SUbj!i3iiClt to "naeural" ,o]IUg:1JtionSln [illni]y'"memire:r-,s". ubUgatlc:ms or cill'~and :ru:otectiClJl ~I:l:ill" l,Ii~TI'1 weU b!i!fOn.d rhnsa O~\!e(]] nne- aI1Q't1111:lr by ~a.rize~ ac!t!f.l[!"s. These ~>ere ~£.6iIl]y enfn~IC,~a'hhi! aga!Ens{ Lh·~ patrlareh in CCU.!lfl. when he' \'ViClH bcyolnd dill!:

IbD~dN of t'l-lil [1i!1:ralily sane rionedphi~icrualn~ o:r dUlliai of" n ecessaries, Inn Qm:y I!Jt 'the oliU:r 'limits oJ GUlfiIge. Falh.e-rnl.egaI~Y owed le-J#iI,O fi'u Wlil y tt.~JII to strlmgeFs ex.o~pr II.M[ in e}!c-e~) ~l I) 11.!d c~SI;)-$ lft~ey (lMl'ed mgf'c.Wilhu1I thE r.vide l!7ol1lJi~e of dil'liCmUum lbU5~tlcd lom:n by pOiSi!li've law, jurists 'P,resen'~.ed his l"liGl~ ill m.Jist~E obHRad nUis OlS moral or Clli:hiiOl~. m.l1Ier illil3n property ~el'fod U:h:~r,tu:rn dll's"iibcd as ,~,ri! im,p Infect otbHg.<I~ [In, ,. by CfJn'L rastwHh obl igatioflls ilpel:!ft('!ct~d" byL1:YiB IliclcliLlon n('.st,!U!:I en~rt!n::;;emefU nH'!d':l!~:rnll'.j.

l'hefeglrne~ ~n pblc-e ]iIJ] the Nott:l1 At1iiiL11:rlic \vhitln CL'T,' be,~n tntake u!'f around ~;f! 50 <I]SI:II ind~:u.iedoom e Q~~ QXi 0:1' the fQilowins= d~VOK~ IQnly ro~fuul ~ 0]' nOI[ a]~. ~r:lheri tanGe rules ,des;ig!111£1 '101 'p,re.S~ntelegjrtlman: ('lmIIy assees, ~Fiminal prnh i hihlJli!l l"I~f ~Ynl]!1JIhlml "and ~di£ltl(!nombl.e·~ ,sma,tirli')1. ~n.ch,ui_",!!l. same-sex ~ ~OO remm!.? adluJ.h1ry tli:l1ale adJutmry 'oll'iil!j ~sl!;lru_ly puni~hecl Oldy if flI;e;m w .. s H1l1.oc!QlIlallL)]lt:a(]jOfijJ &:IF tig!lCU'bI1t;l.ti~l, $nlling OrltlgVi~ claims ,;n]c!i<-' mig'ou:t· i1if ~ilI!J']J!loffJJl~~ii!!~iJ!,lns:llip!i rpi!!rti-CWi1l][~li1e chdm:s @hnjs~:re5$6S <U1Ld

33

1IJje§itiJll'mb~ ddtd'1lren), and chlld custodyi nthe fali::u:I[;V!/ithin the:te broad in]d.a~,C{'UlroUI'.E, .falmly law m01J\ed ~o1i.v<.tr-d l~bC'r,aliz,njfltll <In: dllfereru speeds :~III. cUffe!:1i!ltll ~[H,lnU::i'e-$. watb d.i1Ierflfll ~ollitilCal and re1.igiOl1s batances of pDwer prudll~'tntl, tftveflltl ';;md urls,l(liM6 bndies~lr p,oslr,t1\'e i,aw.

The Code N~poleQn (UJ0"111" ![Of emrmple, \¥<lIi'i nberni i]1 Unu lt permttted d~\lorce by D.1U[UilIl certseur. "bal prov:isk:m WiiI!l. abr~!;l~t:ed in IUI5 [a! we R~st.Q~a:tlon). andnot [['t!'S!lored untll 197.'i. The {]~Ilea[lL B.~Uo Cod.e or iB5i7 !:l'clapted much 0,[ the libe'.m~ law of@'b:i'ig..u]onsofthe Premc.h Co(J:e. but remtc[00 the wlm]e off the ];;IW o:r marriDgc and rlhroroe to the Cathclie Caureh fur ~tl!~ili.l"l$u'UHon l.!llr!ler C'&lOJ\ law, lhe Ge1I!o CDd.~ in SO,UB CI3JSBS adopt'~d and iln! others lI~jccted I:.i.beml rules de~;igfled 'I!]!,hnpetie the rOm-latiUm ItJE u;'Ilb[e c!}miH.lic :fami.l:ies la.g.. forbi.dding ~n.t<t1!s! incleaslng the rig).':I:~:t> ofiJlegithTla~e "hJldren, !jE:l'dtH:U:ig[oroed .sh~s~.Il irube.rd.[a.nc~l:, iI}ccol'C~mg t:~ tile balance (l,r

lo~~Uon ... 'e5}'! -

IUW5t1. the IamUJ:y ]aw of the Nortb Al1rn:i.tk roY.Ji]td~ grill ~~HJked. '"IIt the [om],.al~.ev~~,q u:ite B,i:n~jJa.1" In L11:f! dum I~trr.ng .regi.r.ilrlCS of MU\'J~hn .er l'1ljjll!dlLl or COl1fu(:ian 'f~l1lny klW. In ",orne cases, fb:r example the.lv~usUU'illaWl]flnBJl"ri<lg~i whiCh rec'ognized tb~wufe ~sep',.rr~H~ ]Jr~petly I~fld ! rea.lt,ed d:lJm.e'lnk: \"iole]])ce: OI;od tJJle:.husbaod['s duty of support as 1;11My jllJ:5Hd<llb~c¥;, the We.~l\~.8 wcl1 "behind." the Ea;sl+:~! Nor~hAUa[llic,ramily law'W2s only :somewhat.unom [[berm IiIan tile ti"adiwonmst catholic .regime that Sip. h~d mrpo!:ied OJ[] [(5 A:medca.n CO]Qnies.l~ in North m,".u:lI South Amt:!dca, n<lstj,1l'm EuropE a:ru:I the OlLc})ll;an lanrls, el\'1il.cd:y as in Wes(e.rn Eu.r.oPf, lac.al!1:i]1Le'.s d.id ban:le as to !how I[rrf lhe n:::fuTTllJS -of the middle u'f We ninc leeuth I:I:tfUJ!:U ry ,~no1,.l1d g_(J in ,~ ~ib~'I<Itiz;img di,mc1] on.

The substance [lJ IDe :Norith, i\lil;antic m.gj,~;r.le cha:ngcd ra:p'.id.~y. by h.i!l~ari,Ga! .s~,:'IjH'h!J:ds, ~l (11" sam!'!' time that ~l was rec(mE".e]'ltuaUzed by du~ UaJssi.ca~ jocusts. lc~mUy he~iiimjzed l~jemn::by'ga\ie\\'!lTIy; !!H~P bY$;ICP, ti(~merimes witb :S'M~p:s lrI..ad::vJ<lfit. Inrhe di:rectiOl'Hlr a l\eg1.m:e (lr-rnffil8:l. ~q,:uta.I.itywrth r'l:l!~p~()r;<IlI duti~. Per ra;ra;l~lyrea;(1 h;rl!1s, U' W:;!5 forwmd equality 'VIrf~b:in wh:u the IClassics d~fi,)[ledas <I "stanss" rather than a eentraet •. so. that H '\<\roiS tbc"wiIl of the state" rather than timl o'.f the partlesthas f.bred the 1\~I<l.timUl of·the pi'l~.'i(i'~Ii .. ln lh[s~"LI'a.y, Cl"r sharply spUt f.!l.mHy .Ia.wf:ro m the law df: ohHg<ttkms I[e~ nl:raiClt, p[\opetty~ [J nd tun). pl ~,c.ing it nn It he :>ide ~! r moroh. and .~ nUl icS, ra fhe~ .I.h;l;o sdmu:~ HIld witl.~:'

:III ""t ,C;. M I rtml', ,l'lrJrrnWfllg fllrjll'(u:t' trmi.ln lAri~ IU~ilrii'r]: Jlll4llftl!:\'8i!1Io'J U~I'!if/'tJ'jj' '(;;ooj,!N{{fI'~ti!lm' JJ~ Dmj'tlrJ;g tJrtiJ C/jll'fffl,t CJv# Coo.f}, Gl U. L lil'nv, 2~n ~2i14_n u,

·1 L!l.rn.~. A,bnl"Qd~h. M{l'6/WH;irir,lg M~dStil~' ~Il!J{v .t..l\lW'! 71je (.&tr~ (Jf.f::ro'J)f 37' V.!l;1fjtL [. 1lMN~.~M·'t .L .1 tit.:! [2OM]..-

J~ Sjf'~ IIIS"'l~1!l:l1 [:tM!lrnI ~~Lf~,rnlllo, A ,1lJs.~I'y\lr r-aIll'\~Vy .~Jffil I ~ ICO~["U hia, IlitMD UllflL~ j',U)um i !1U(flUI'I-llib;etl l'lUlm:i'SCriJU tin me with ~Ire Sut'lilllll!: Unii~M~ll' LaW ReYiew~.

~~ M~[.:I:I"'!J!L G)!t.l~~tli!m,. ("fll'\IlEl~3\lINto :~'H~ 1'~&'lIl1!'I~ ~ 1,m35).

J..J,

It was no Jess all d J~ erhaps m l;ne irnp0l!1,i] l'il~ i.h;u LIT CIl m blned m nvement rowa:rd f!J~~ll"q,u.ality 'wjl[h a I:unl\lerl!'u~ doc I ril1l~ ur te,g.aII'lDnintefvenUol1 til 'I hoI': familythal. render&!: many un 1'1 e Jarnu IIY'£l'qu al lighls O:rwh,les U Ile:ll;OrcC· .able (e_g: .• dnmesd • v nlen e, marnal mIJ£I).:H nimUl."r:IlUI n Vh rtIUonal[ ... ed an the ,ct. gru1IJnd tha I the "sphere" l!l'f lh (:'iI!Ii'I.1ily. b 1I,Si!d on t:b 'prm,d pic Dr,egalLU:a r!,au I tru ism, \"110 uld La e: ,ooJl:m("ll~d Dr d C:$l~d by irudJidnllnlHnel:l'lh an 'lhiJI~ \\liQU~ d h aw ~n Ufit:' 1~131 tOI) Is dos~~y assoclared \<mlh the conl1fctu ill iund ividllalis~ e III os of market Jlaw. 1~

nle. oohmia] puwers . "''cl}'\vlum~ dee! i llL"IC!~! replace "rli8ri~'e" ram i~y .a\\f Wi!luhelTflw:n Y5~ems.liveJ'1 thel~reneh. filmliuli,rl}r·'d.ill'Bl:l'fV.de'·~"d M,. 'rmilaDOIll. ~ did. HI} .nHU~ I ben prernet ... I he C!@di6~aj1i.itln Ilf Ml.dslLm r asn ~!lr Imy fn Lin! MBighreb. The Briitish d it! IJi]C !llulilcin ~ t)dbl. WI t hseparate i lindu, Mu.slbll, and Christilln rul CIS. 1111 ('he Nedhef~'=U1!ls ~ndh:.!'i. tho 1 utch PI' served adQllaw fonhe fumily; 8U1 vety"wtle:re the process ,oHormaUz...'llion wilhloi1 the '0]0- nial legal and flo]iillical: ")r;!;telu ]ncludedsome deliU,ierate dl:1ngc (fuH?rampl,e, With respecttn pm,a:'lir.es, like \.wdow burmiJflg ill Iru1i ... ] "~ ,and ini.tillited many h\di:n,~'~"I, In~,illnd, l'tI and unln1.ellde,d cbanscs.l7 Thll!.e might rl!!mfn.roe' 1if:itheT Ihan weak!!!.n LllE! rtlJWef~ uf heads of hDusebolds 'by l1l:!dudng res;p1:lilsib] ilies o'hi'l.u1ar l:iI'I1dho~deffi m ,ex.'eJld~ l'amHy U1'l!lIIben;;.:l1I

There seem to have be-en iii, very t1l~l: number ofs.{I~urions,. ~ll1ng;'l: hiSWy pred i.c'tab:le mnli I1Ull m. Ilf ulp'l ions. willi tlIeoLlu::ofl]e' ln JU~n)1 eOlllwndcs determlneil in sharp' unfli(;r.., bet\'\!een ~be C.aLhulk r:::.h ureh, socially cwll:Sl?l"!oI'8live "Pnd, lillm~ '>;cC1!1. or MlllilDn clf!riltS; un In' slde, and ~mod~mb.ing" se _ U· 1m furccs on the other. Though the continuum of :!iGludol~ and the mgl1- ments back ansl l onh seems fO b~w bean the' SaTn,B ~~~cr~,\'Ii'hcrl.?1 the soJUJtians a,dIlJHed. In Nortb }.nlluirn lihr,em rnu 'h 1]~DI'e&libem1" rhan thesaln 50uth.t\n],~k"_'B~[Id tbm e!!:-OltOmiUl Empirc. As mEUi1ope., l!lll'!r~w!;'!:re a. s many compromis as there 10\' re counrrles, and Ihey were ev 'rywh;'lFE llI'l!itabl,"" will d'li;;l.lrI~f: gCDf.lrnllyin 'the lIb mlizing dirtl liml in1 rrupted by p-rinds of I"Cal)"li.mlJN

It sef;!:m!i l·I,I'<'Lu~lhle liI:J~n fI:U:' dis,rj1"lctio.r..'l b~lween market 1~lw and fareIy law finu:riuncd In the same way dhal the r!.'i!uniclpaJiulwmatio.nnl and publil;/priYn11.} disfinctions did in the cnlnit~!'!('1 of hmluri,£:'ism. CL:l" did j~lII

I .'in'I 'F,I.I1!fi'~ UI!>l!fI', rn.' Mylh uf"iMlj'1nlmlt"lWl{m ~'j wi,., Pmfi/ir. I,EI MU:II I L'iW ~ffm\lll3!i [LQ85J: 111'\'1] SI.e~. -IiI'j,·IW.h!oj'tm..'i!"_ n\IjJi' lL.!<llirfR (U PfI'jYJ1w.cdw('~!I!ll'ltjIfJQ. ~D5 ~~l_ J. 2.0 11,~H!~--am] Il!I'<Itil

n ('I" lll:i.'!!l:tD!.'< (II~, Thi" fi1mlJr rIm' .',r(' Munb....r, ~ n \~~. L lin: ~ It 1 r 1 ~I,

SiJ~ lI"ntUI IULI'i.I" ·0(11 Ihn'!\o;II.l\' ""' M. !ii1ID\'DI;.~ LH] . IfI.s f-1:IoIiIN! '>I' E iGo!,{l£KF~ \!lInt 111 LA"' IN; INDIA j 19!:l1l1.

r. .... 1'1'1"

"II ,S. tII1l~'i1\1,111J1" {IrHIf!~U,,a PITblCr tNl. ,!'I't.!'I£:iI:tn:!t2i:N'lI IEIII8J: (:elWin f\~'l!ml~ 1tt!J'ldL'I ... uhum MIll, ]Jrupe:rt)l Ruin tlul)5illn It l'hIU"Dn"lh" Sod~I S~ulnIlIJoor~1 ~ Llf.lj'l!J.hli:'!ihvddiWioml dh:.~UlHl. firuv.mJ I _"\' St1hool) [nil ill!:! wIth ttl I-Innmru lIIw .'Ie LLPLPllJlJ:~ilryJ_

Srli-_ .~-g..lal'!lTIllII!l; I~"J 1l'J1C'.32.

elalm ~ l!.I,l~st,al~n~e univenmlity - qu He the co ntrary. Begiul.1iing Wilh Savlgny, hofi':ru;,oo pe[.rph~T,;;l~el,ilEs the earego rlza.tion of Irll,e'i r fa rni!y 111l1,was popular. P (lIfti,cal ,reI[gio us, eulruml, <md part ic:ulin", a:rid ther:e:rQ~e 'IS cm.inrn1d,y Il(~aG~lal. 101 e!(J::ba;n~e Ulg.y oicof;:'ph::c (us ua!l!ywilb. a!:an:illty) rhar tile Jaw taf ~h~ market wowd be, ,if:ll .rmsiti1li1l'1Y1lI'ld m 1:!1if:lr:ll d~rBl$I .• bUL.t;'ene:r~l~~y and "eSSl~'fltlaUy,~ dU~I::w'_"pi:l.l1t;yaud cUl1traot-b:a~dll:lw i:Jf a tl;,tlionm "free" market, ~mked to GIllet !Tee markets by free trr:-.JdeJ the ,~oM sl'mldmdj and a p.rl;vau~ i:nte,rniatioA~I, klW th .. n was (:Ollloo-plualJy idO<IM:iC<I! 10 ~>ll!ulidpal dvil ]a\llO'.

h'Ji the Jirsl half oflbe n~~Allle'~lull CC'l'iU-lryj U~,~ rnajQ:r bfJ'U1,[I(;1'i1t1' l1>~U~ lhat had !~ be rl~()bfecl be.f~ re [he enn Sc~io'~5nes!lii t)f 11II~ fimt ~,ol:nlli:7.a [11J1L'~ could ~~'~ no'lldrlLm:hiI[lg 10 do wi ~h tha bhand family .. l"o~.' the h~,(J ad far.n:tlyj' Ih e MJ]urHmll ~(;OGIrii]ng to whkh .11.111. Hhi3rallza.tf_p,n dido 'lapr~ly; and 1~'Vt'ry 'Gol.U1ltry could lILaliH irs own. ,eomp rorJ~nlse bet'''''leen equaliry and traIiilt:iorl. produced a sul:d,f!t oV'llHarclliil11'!: tU.lJTleld [adoral b<JJttilcs;"lbll more diffieult question ~ the fli1lnl:'] (] hvlt<n the ~ighlCOnll.b CC[i:Uuy bad I:!ionm~:v~d as dorF)e~Uc labrn. the 1<1'110'.' of'S! 3\.--reS, ,,:p'PI1~ulices~ ll1denlLlwd ~~rvant$,il mJ: dependentll\gr.k !lI~mr;l1 I ... hmi:lr~

ln titJ!il N_Q!rtbAtmruCll1ic, ttmuldmatereso.lutio.nc.'JJ:t":ue abnut 'L.hnH"igh theemergen(:8 or tilerndory, 'U~,e ~maiJ nUN!, a I1d the bOLl~eo18 tas oPfl'Osed to <i.U'.ish1C'.ra'lil':) IrJstLtutioo of dumes1t:k servlee as~' clml~Jinam laher fbrrris. AU of these cla!'ise..~ [If i aber wm'f) &':llcgorized. within r]le ~[bf:l'fal c:t:f r~gjm~ t:l,F wi dU;lory andfree OO[lt.I'l1Ie~. 'til.roug'h ~be o.{Itiuu ilf ;'s~'1 r- ownersh i.p'~·j r<[lhierLham w~tl:l.[nl lh~ ,(!iig~Het!ru.b"ce nltl;ry model of the servant as pan of li'le househll]UI. Dutic~ uf pb ~~dience wem e:11rllina.too along 'Will'! rlglmliO s U]lpo:rl; thi!3 urbitm:t), :autlllOli'ily' of the' en'1!p~;oyel' replaced dli£l arbltrary aud~!Jrity of the patriarch,

Til:!::' intermedlete :l'o:ltm.s or Se!:n~,flfCC M<llciOl' (serfdom ,apPI!e<l1JjIEBhjlp. the indenmrel wS<lppeared - ~Jurilug~] the.rrem::h Reyrdmkm and NOJpgllool'l5 couqUi3sts in W~$ler1l1 EUUT~pe, m the moment Df lmdepcL1Jd;c:nDIL'IT-OIT! Spam. ,In LltUn A.tLlIf'rk.;i, al:ler th~ middie of tbe century In llnssia. S.kwery OHmish~dinln,an'lY enu ntries of' the l\Jmerica;&. over. the ninelleen th century, and W<lsn't aboH:ihed in lhlll! Um~JSd Stales unttl 1 3&'l. liirnzJll in H17l! and,linal]y, Culsa in ]3B'ft Ai UU.1~ P (~i:nt" all '~h!lt w<t~ :Mj oJ the ~.ega:1 hm.:J1S.ftI.w.MI was the r~miy..~f)

1lrl [JiB 'World:s. Sou ~h •. or [bl;' at "Hal.is I pedphei1 hnli>JJd Iy cem eel ved,_ wh at ~rn~r~~d W~.f'I nut~he. ~t.n~U faofl 8\(1 central 1.0 NoJrtl }\t:I!antk refllu.b~k8'n idaolQgf, EUlrOpelll1 diseases <lLm;! slalJJgh:l'el'inligls~i.n1~:mned[lloSi:t of the r.amalJf11ng b'LU1l'er gadt~re:rs and [l(JjI'n:1:iitdk p~S:LOml i!lt~, m'-Id 11m :dgam<tted tribal soele ties ru:n:] smaU stau~.,<.; itlltu ,t))kmie1'l. A,t the g~111e time', th,c.pmcaphaUst em,p.im,s

j(J s!!I~:~"l,I'r.em.ay i:l"'~lp-m' ~1:;H'.l~:Fiil.1'~ T'f1p.llilVll.'''TlQN 0 ... PmYI:I LJillOIl: TH'13 EMIltoYMLfill' TtI!].JL~',[IJ}oo\So!JJ 1.1' m Il:«lUS!1A!JoI~ !\m;ItIU~ L1.W,ANJ] t:rl,j:V!!IUE; IW~l-~BJll n~ll.

di~fI~c:gratedintQ n ,uiitJfn (!!:I';j,~'('j~ and t f)'f ~l;Ilkitiies, 'Whhin d:I:!1i ~'~ruct life, a very .imge pan o~L1.1e wo f~d 'spopU]<I[jtiOJfl,(i<lm~ to be orga:nllzed eith er in ratifimdiai 'h:l.lrge ,ffi'lfita res or planrarin 11;51, nW~1Jed first by .,]a"l:lllm. a.nd I[:h:e,~, ~y m:U.~ti I] arlen:~ ls, wotked by-nom irHdly free bu [ l~ct~~~Uy depende~j[~ laherers, or in miJ:~lflmcUrl, :5maIJl plots worJ:;;e~ by·pe a sant vm01 gerl1, wil;11 wirious tbnrm ll,f,cu!i~JOm,aty ~ rs.biil.mt:mpphllg U:m.IUP. •. Hot:b ~e5prndu~cd old or [lew cash erepsfnr a t1i~wur.ld f.[1!lrr!ket, 11 ut tjhemnill]hoh;l~rS did su ln ur~stab]e,cor,lll!brnar.i:on will:'JJ subsistence C~,Up5. Thlill ]<lI~ifundii\,tmi~ilr1!!ldi>a '~flntra;~t hJ)s ~l~~'1!tltllLi.fiI,g tn ~ay about Latin A:meriC1J. Africa. [[1Idiil'l.. Eastern. Euro p'l1:" the Ortoraan Empire SC!ClC~ aa:s$nr :S'E.!ltes,lndf!n~:i=-'! (:11 i na, and the po:st-·}fuconsl:trm:::tion UnH:eds[:a:[eSCI!lTII ·Sl1IUI1l.-41

r:n~OTFJClmi!.ion Of Mliil\'O'C:l-liIDO'f fl:nms llriughCLT's ~.u~go:t'ies - the srue o~ tabor ]lowce,r fat. lllie",grku:~tutaIIH11I"ornr. pn::lvare prope:rL)i' in btnd fo r t.b.e pMS" ~f!t - rm;''itlll: sQu~eti.rnez; ~tha l l:htlcokHli.a1 powe'ffi fliOd th e ihdep eo.deu,t ;s;t[l.~es of the p.eciphea:y.sln'lply .r'1tifi.ed, by :adopting a ftlfn~al. ;)!b!itracr idea or free willi rather thana marl!' st1lhsumtive one, w]]atevoer schemes of ecanemlc ill1.d £"Oc.i.a.I.l1Iierar.cby eIll!~lrged I) uUlfili.e p],,}' orvio~,en.c-e and eulrure Oin thc ground .. And sernetlrnes they h'<m3fnnned, ~n theirOVt.!r1 intll're~:ilj byl wu~htr",·t under .. sntnd:ing e:xtfclil:y wIta r they .~rt! d:oinl'l. the I_]r1:ex'i.sting ~od<i a nangernents by fo r(:11:JJtltht1m into t.he·:rnmdlof the ,i W\M:LtlilJl Idea Oil' lU'QP'~ny. "if.l Tluou:gb d'lli!htonllj trH.nshion,ll. ,;:~I:ho~.e$,erie-s onega] dQdges"w~re otvailab ~e 50 th.u someLhirtg ]iliH serfdem could b,~ malnrnined mUun Lillle:M foif1lil1,S. and som.ethiI'l~ Uh ca.ptilalismmailHamed wirtb.i.ll.fe udi1l.~for.nl.:S, (1."1.'U! greal 'IE'XrJll}l1:h:n'll. .. is 18rltis.h l~d.'a! where land l!CE'fo!TIl1;W-!S 01 m~i(Jr :\1'~rategy ~lr'Cqnt:nl,J Mld coh)n~aJ recanStitH tlon from the mlcl:d.h: of the nme'll~nlh cenm:ry.~3ll

Once agaiI'l,it seems p.iaus:llib~e that cl..:r c:ould!:llobaliz{ll'lm€.ise~y because Ii. Iliad $0 Uttl~ 10 Mty olJe~),'a'y@rthe otner.abou! the ]egaJ treannenr (If the legdy-fre1e hul obvknls!y subo!;d;in.ilited peasants omd <igf.lcuJ.rum.t laheress or th .. e 'SoUlh.

A'S W~ wiU see, i,t ~s. no rt'Intt'e POSS! bie t(J l~ndern~and lhe seennd and til Ird gi),1J:bali?;atioli$ than the fi:mtwi'l:h01IJI' an aml:iyslS of h[J\Ii.i'lhe libe~tiJ idel'l ~f:iif-a mgimeo basad on state H . .coti.Ol[l 10 gnarantee tbe e:mncise af m-e mil and alsc d:~e Umi[s Oil I'reewm. neoessary fOil everyone to enjoy in ~\T{Jr.ked in, sym'blOsi:s

~ ~ iEl1Ur.U .• WCliLJ~ Emt\lnl ANJ:I 1m.1i PI,:[I'I,'IJ] wmlopT r 11};'Ellll'li' f J !ita]

i.1 l, S. FiTrml\1hU., I\N. ~[!fflt{ln!!ll-:'l'!~ '["til TFI1i Pil)~l'IiIt"""'L il"OOr;;t;ll1l'FY t"!r ElUA MA l31i1 ed." I 'g57), S1t'I~tl'! kl:l'f'lg'~m. ArI~.'y!'Ic~!. 1'~;ript!VI!' LUllJ lllesI:"I!'IUTt r.h~rnf.'f~~ri~m;tiorl'> '~f ~Arri~l!in H t".i:i!lr.:~1~tl(hm df 'Ii'rop~tt~ ..... A (~qi~jl[Ll5t ~f ~'t~]!n;Sltl1;!j~m .i\~ilIlJl!ptlu:n.~· tlht'l'!.!t Alftk.;1l1-lAi\!..o;tL;.~1 Ifle(lm\P~tihllitty l@j]JMJ ~ul.lliPub~n\5kwd t!j)cl.!lm~1 clL'i.!;~rnliu[l~J,I'I!II"hUL' f~!!I1 UiI!! IW tl'l£JI!1l; Jod N ~LI~. Sa£!.rchll~ fuir I.hl! MiL~~l'~ CrlHll':!iru:MiLrk.1!'L QritflJJtcd..l~dl!llfli.nls..IlI],Lc~~ miltllEcl:I"'L1I:h~1t DQ".,.~u~)mc!JiI.. [l~l'mjHie' J 2,(.l(l.:n ~lInpull:illiill~d ,ifue:torul dis~Wlll:lH. IlVilLla.ble in 11~!!' .. 1 tiN~!d. Lilw Sr:hill~~ Uhruryl,

,~t lit"HC Sro~F_~, T~p-!1"""'i'~!5.'; UTJ~TTN~a~t'\s At';"r! !,!'II1l11\. P ~m: lWi1IliH'l: "'T!~~ f!l~~:r,f'lU~I~Q. ',I\;NO OJI>" lIU,lL.-tN!:j Sllt:ilIl.. !l1tjttJd:il1.iilEr'I r>l1:;'im~JJ! !,li'8TIliil'i' r2.d mI... l'l~'j,

31

wit h 0'[ in cottf.tad ierlan 'or dm cOlJratefid~~I. counterejhie, counteITeIllHty repmSll!nted. by·the 1 II ~ UJ~et.fikl.

TlilE SR ONlD GLOBALrZl\T1UN

~odt:ty ~do~~

soclal anthropulogy socia:! scie:J],O,'!

so -hd function so.cftal ju,Stk:e

S1l da.I,Rlvplm:ioll socialism

n atIDnl'tI &lci,~ Hsm social dm::JJloc&a.cy soetal Catholicism sodiJl hriSJUtiniil"}' sodal wfitJfarc sodal, purpose socialneed

sociall qocsriO'Il

sucial pro tdom ~(H;itJ! (molie!!, soelal law

social dghts so!.!iall,e:gis1a:tio:t1 s-oc.illl i1l1 . unmce SliU.,i,31 wor,k:

he'. eccnd globtdi7-i;IUol1 began around 1900 <mod had spen r its toeee b~f the end of: \-VVVlI, but !ltmllWy influcncei!J 'tl'Dli.l1kiug bmh about (be i nternarional anu.'1bouJt third wllr](J .~(jJrI[lmi. do~etIlIJmeti.l strategies th.Hlo[l~h tb'lG'19t1lOs.. \.V\1at was globaliJ:l;!d this tinlll v .. rsa I:ritiq1.111: Q'. th 'lind globaliZfldon aud a reeonsrructien project. :'ht! critiquE! was that the Iate nin ueenth- 'entury Emnpeanlna.ill-S llrt."W'l1:IliI bused deduction in JeWll methed and was" ind ivid· ua:Usl" ln I.'ega! sub6t!ln~e, The Mogan of the secead glub~tl~~&ll.ii11l was "d'le soda]," all absnaetlon tn~rl p iaYf'd m ueh I.he SEITIU! role dUJri:ng this perlnd !hat ~ ... Ill, dg,bt,md fault played ill CLT,

Ule sociiliI as a trnlDDii!.'lmonallegp.l consciousness,

'f[1II:l initial lnnovaters 0' the seeial were G 'rm,<l1J.1-SpeakIDIjI. indudIrlg [heri.llg,-44 merke,'~s and E1u1i bi~~hl.H IhE' mam !l;IJabali:zen; wen:- Frenchspeaktng;'l7 Sa.I·il.le~ .)<II Gen)"d~1 I IJguJt,5U k1uD1beJ1,!tl fo"" l;!r:md,iI;! Go'~mud,5

I ~ liIIu nlol:.l,l OO'N ,IIfJifLI.N{;, u.w o\.'i jl; M LtI\.N~ l~' ANE!;r!.:i (l!i.-UU: UIl~iIo: I"ll:'Il:li.oi., ,MIICIJ1i~kQl1 Hl!lJl~J 1111 r.t) • .. ~ t;lTl'fJ "U~' r.U;Ii:Kir, :1?4.w:JJ.['",AL 'ITIEUTLm~, r,r:rn:u MlrI[H..E Ml:" rFn ... ilnnr Willi~.1:h MiJHJtJ.i:nl Uo:m"" ~fII;~)+

, EUGI!N El.rJUJ, I. Flll<ltl,~"" 'f1mNCII'IJIS 0,1' ·tH£ so "IOWG.V OF 1..Jw, IWlll1[ I L Mohl trnn.q~·, 1936', 1 UI~.

l~ p.tane.(.to1.00.Ht!IlC~L1, nul 'JijrV>l.!,~ 11j~!llte~: LcjWI r.lflSRk~'1'IIN.md ~drii:iI;I.n Ir~ !:atl_i17wL'!jf[III'r (j,:'IWT)i f.n~rw\':, 191:17" l.l'nm L. ilr.l{. :iii'S!,

on [IIA~MO~li SilUH lU:l5. D~ 1.1\ ]}ttl.'~A'l"I~.Hool1ila·.I.A. "ul..QN'l.·~ (J ~.H ,

g IJIlLI\N:OOls,GEf'Nt MI;;Tlln!) flF Hm~IOJ-I.I'!LI£I.,U~IDN Al'>'rJ !KIHJt1 Pm'i]'i.I:E Pt»TTIVE I",w nnurii>l~lJj)

1~~11l U1w In:>tilln Lrn.IiJs" 2i!l1.'l.'tL 191il1 U U~Jr

:Ill .[~!lnll;gni~. 'i1JrorytJ OIiJI';~:II'lJ£'l.tlWjl:merWJ'"t., riJ"Sr/l!l:,,, 1,jMuilll'll. F!iLl:tIll~H I'mltlsopjj ,VII n~~ M.Ot!LP;~ ~ 1.2Gt!1L. PJ[IU!Iill.Pl~f SI!l:lJIjS ll!H 6} •

• l I!OOU'LiiJi .iJ.fofE[HlIf, U. Fn:>o~ano.rocl1n [}~'"l:IT ':'·~'ti..:j;.L"oM.~!itn~ I D!m!!l,

~~ 1~~ffF.Mr'm, Ilii ..... 5pa'IT !:l.l&il;n{wl:~ 1>1" ll' iJm'~ 1I~Ut.n'llm,: TI;lJiiI'!"nll~TI!'t'llI'l~~ '~."~·iiU!i'C!~ DI"WrS.

LlfI27, 198~1,

'>.L 'M~ANU ,'imrNQ~, LE PIUN WE I~ 1.'f!IIflllNUliil,IU UI!..U Vg,w!..~ !'191Jl}.

l8

iWId GlJMl:dl:1.~ They had In common wUh tin! 'Marn'j(S (me ether signifj. cant early 'lwE!tal~thH;;entury sehoul c:ritJ.clIl of CIT) Ith,at 'they in(e<irpre~lCd tI)~ actual ilieRinu: ofdle, ill rheul:'YOl1ian ,epil,piIenomenon in relgliinn ~OIa "base, ~ in the q;~SIi! of the Manftts, ~he Cllph<Ilisf eoonolity and ill1 d:a.e cas s e Dr ~.he soclaf, ''sodety'' lm::onL~ei:\\'Cd at; an organis nl..llu:idea o'f both was ~ ha I [he wID d'J:l'!of)f in sam ~Jllie "suited' rll£'slld!le~umr.m:rl rondiuflrn)o or ,the- lirst half of Ihe nfneh! 'rub centw'y. 8!1!J,~ '!lle sOl:lrn ]ll!opfe wa~ ~mi-Miloo'Sl, jllsi as mu ilh liS thl!? \vere 3I1lLij,:H5Se',Z·fOlim. Their goal W;;tS to sa .... e UbeTOI'lism rum ir,gc~f: 2i5

'ntch' bash:: Jdea \\'8S that lh~ ~nl1d tians of hlte llior.'lE'eoth~c nrur .Life n:pr,e:<: Uledi.a soda] translurmatlrm, ,conS!istl.llg of urbanizatJotl, Industrlalil'.tltion, mga,fiI~~.atlon:tlII;DcimYI clohall~.Jintl '0'[ markets, ,IIU summarized [n rhe ide;;! or h'lll' . rdep ~ nda nee, ":;Il fl-· L use the wJU tbi:liOry \w!' Jml]vidu.a.I1s~, it i~~uNed imC':rd~pendl:!n(;;e1 and endD~Bd pmniCI!dillllegai, rules that j]i!'!nn[ned antlsn la~ hehavtur nl'many kinds. The erlses ul" the D1 odernrac,toty (i ndus- 1"lFia:l aeeidenrs, pnnperlzatlon) and rhe urhan sfUIm,and la'l~f the. !:ri!iis, of me I'irrand91 markets and rbe GreaL Ikp-flMIsiLln, all de.r~\r~ from Ih Fa:i.lure I f

oner < ntiLy-ind ividual iSllali.'III 0 n 'pond tn ~ h e Doh rentl y udall need 0: madern t'OiIlldfdn!lli I ~f i nte nilepe.tldlt[lv~. A~ter 1919 ,they exteucletirh[s an.aJysi S {'O tile prn'b'lern of \'ifiIll", und ~rsli:l nd tI!S the pm durt of raj lure" of 1m U'lt m~ljjonal order based [Ill the h~gic of liimTcrei_gnty, highly analogous [0 the p~uh!ems ~ nm:r:k.el!' based no ~he l.oC~t: of pmperty.5iI'

Frnm I,hi!ii N15~ an3.l:~, [he de,!'p.;.'d the "',ought" u ~ ifCfuml prngram, ml~ U~,nl \<\'011; <lBlllol'lli£hlngly :s!J·~c,es.,.:ful. There W;Wl L~b(~r legisl.ni.ol'!, the regwatiiD[l! or urban areas tIltCdul#ll:amllord:Juma.ol. :smifru1,' iHld zolling rle-giln' s, the TlGgUl:mi:of! nl' financlal miKkil.'l::i, :~nd Eme development ~tr new inslitudons. {if

~I fi~PIIr.[]Ji GllIl\'J11l I, l' rnli!f 1~11 rmerr 'ItI IAL, (1i~"I:!1

'i> $I.'I! FJr~I'I!IIV on 'Llle WeJa.! liJO; I~id I'!{IIl~elllll~llu>.;!l, WmlLclOm, l/Wf11 nrllll! {; £~, EdW.rJ1I1l Wlilw. FrQIII Son fOI'1J1I1I1nl )rp'i/;pru{/l!fWj! tlJ lllJtllism; jIJI'iJip:rfuJflTl1:;(1 {!Ird S!>A:illl' .'J11ot1lj,1t j',1 l!cFrll Lti.·IJJ.i~lrll'j'" r lrmm'y 11 "jjij'/L"f,j, 53 '!IA. J Il ~iV. t:l!W ( I Y17;1 ,; ArfoIilILl>·lil!AN' ,!tLtI.'W"~J;i; 'Lr~ JlI mSl Qt~~ ., ...... ~ULllmHJU l'41X11f.l.m l'OlllI::t:Il'" film. ttJilft!l ~ l~'?!il: HnrlllWJ.l"l.. Tur 'iur.N8<pnIIM:"':lnl['On!'i\~' I!lar>! [01\'1'1" 1.tJi!tl-I!lli4.I:ll1le('-1I.'1SI!lOl'I .I\.LOlmlllllL1"''I',Slj'J~llor('t!; N'IIB'TtluDp.I1IilElll, I..;,Pr£'.lIJJ NUIA Jila '..o1'fml\11l r ~f165)i rJu~'L~!1 IWnn.lld.y Jlfifl. Mmi,· C'lillifEl Be.ll~all, fmfit.-olJi (li,t1J}' ~f.r.!;J; P.:t.tl~ tn f''''''''IIi:r:Ill!~ fi1I~y. MYII nm.,ID' Il:E.\.!.J!!~'l r;ro! In~; I iW1C~t. ,j.;t:lrmll!ily. Fmm dr~ wm 'flwmny .rl.lllw.Pr'uJd/l!l.' tJ{Pnni1t1! ,\Jmmumf_llm ruJkr'~ '·Cml.l1tfr'tm (.tnl flml form,· 11111 em. I. Ril. 94 [2lllllJll. OIl:u,~pl:n' J';Qmjn, V,m iW'1JL'II Jjj'.li~dl'r.'}jr/tJ:liqui.1'U.:lS ~lIlNrir/,:lmW11~d""un-t1'1'l , U.r'dL! ooJ., ~JuJ1. II.:t I1AI'.lN", M.u:cb 11. 2tlO!. p.. gO L

ss Clf~ dll' M)C1f.il ~. clmmEfI!i1'1r or ,"idly fi[ili!'Ii'i·tllh"~.llil\lry I IIghl 111 g¢l:u::m.l, ~ MilliroN WInTl'. SlJCL~'L fIiOl/GILT rn.~ I\~ I< •• ~ TUIl .llminl1i j\IJ4ill'fo!W FflIlIMU.'i1!. U94~J .liIl!1ii S,1iI.Jr.~'IM<i, I "t1i'II'i,r.I'~"~~ O~ IEt:oNVM:U::Tu lI~nm Tr€IIJlEIo'rRi' ~giN9T POtti.MJ!llII!!1>i U9i.2j; Ei:IMIAUIlI' P1..lJI· ILI!LJ_ T!:I1 Cm ~~ OF Dl;J.IuElllllittl-lltrmu' 119731; 'Vvrs .Dfi.fO',B£IT~ L '~"''''I'kTln~ mI SllC,M n ~I; I'!IJ!HIlt.. H ~ lumnn A",1:I 1l00Ullrr ~ ru;rml!UQU l!~ 1On'oilTiM1 E!UTIIIf'l '" :L·11mJ1l D.I;]A QlJ Ilfi,TJm41 1lIP.!o'! lJQt!liF'~ IiIN F.IlANtJl!, Ii(]I!UlII1: 11'1I~.".mt;s &AI.LI. 141.!>iUl1r~ Q~' I.- llfoII.rl',1t!1'i11i1"-"I!:1!. IJ' iiI

r;T 1lU!1~]II'!l!l11 A!~ rJu l'4'~w 1~:;m;;l!Ti1nN'A.lL1Aw II ai1!4;l.

b:d~m~.U(nmll,~w. "rh~i~'h]"f;UglI'lI~ llHWI:!' appen]~(llua very MOe rilll!ie o( [~girn],1<1tin,g lJl~ejt'o rlcs, These navl"i'Sed lITe left t d~1n :.lcJl:CI rum, h~fL villg uu l tI['Ji~.;' M:i1l"XiIJI o[l~~~~avi1lim ar rinll:! (1mPnlB ffi'ldp ure Matich esrerisrn at Un" t»thCf_

So rh e sociel GO u Id be ba81:lcl on !)'~'r.:ialhlt ~ U' soeial de m aeratlc ld e,,~]~gy lpm'J,'l<lpS Du ~kl11~jmianJ . on the So ![:~aH::hri5titllili ~ uf'pr@ rr!:)M~:r!l~L't'itS,fI n!11!l(1 K.anli"uI "sit lJat!oual natural la\lIt. " on CanIteaJl'l posiitimm, on Catholic [I11tLII;!l I",w, 'I n Bi};! nark' Di~eli soc,nal ,mlrlSe~~ttisn], or en fasci:s~ idOO logy. ~~. to olheor wO'n:]s. the !i(][;[lit[, ~(! c:t::r~W<l~inUj'1Uy a '~l!I':,a~hl~l,&!1e~S (l.hou:g,ll a,lwa)ffi in ~[1 ff:111ba1111fd,d .11e~atiJrn.l:!ihj ~ W:ijd1, CLT" fafl)jCi'lhl<bL1 strn1 glnfo 1lI\i'<lIlIy- hegeme n ic III the w.~yc[.1I"b~uJl hi:!t;!:n in thelntefpedodbetw'E'E'uabou:t U15u;and ~ 8:901 withfn wbJich:ilw"aspmlslMe wdevelolp di:fferen( a.nd c(mllicx[."gidlE!OilogkallrmJ~C1s.. H.ecanIle.ss ufwhi,ch it was. the :sl.o,garns included orgMlicism, purpnse, h.l!ru .. 'il.in~l, '~"epn~dU!e~.[Hn. weJJa.reil h1S1fl.:LrUe[l!.Wism (ImVlS!'l; means to aaend) - and sn ilnddeducU{H:]~ b~~3~sea~egru rule lit; j ust a means to <l{;CO nlpl.ishmf:ll'll of soda! PllrpOlse~.

A crucial part ofd'le .sQ'Gita~, critique 0.( cias"SlC'a] ~ egai d::I!;H:.~ghlW<'IJ8 lie c~iilim d ~ ;:'U It rr~ai.nt~~iJ:l ~d ,allllpp.eCl[fluce ,of .Obj01cth1 [y in ,~.egi:di n(Blip mt:i1tian only ll:a.m ugh theabuse ·[If dedu![:otf 0'11 _ Ao(~ol1t1 in tl: i[ 0 lhe SiOC ial,p.enp~e" CLT ptmple undersaaed themselves [0 eperate as i ntesprerers Oudges, OldimkristnrlQf.s, '~w r [\y$essorsJ ~I~(£nr:d.]f.lg m 8. s),t::Unl:l or induetteu m:ld deduction premlsed 'on the ootu3:rence. or 'In rernal ~,(lgical cot~t'lil~.ru:y, t'lf~be ,~Y.'ll.e.tn. tl,f ~1f1!Zted legal norms, One mode was ID l.o(:t.lt~ the ialJplic .. blc enacted wll~~.11 seeond was [0 develapa rule [0 fiJI a .. ga.p by a chain I[lf ~11~dU'l:;tilt;HHI from ,ft mOIIC: rn.h~'~ilIlCI E'tHiit~'~e~1 rule or prindp:le; {I th:itd. the metbod ot:~oon:!l~ructians." ,,,,vilis I~n deremrlne wlJ nt nnt'l:niIPted pdncipl~ n'ulst he pa'l' ~ of "the sys[~,~m." givam lJI,u~ \i'ai'.]QU~ f'4]<LGlcd elCJIDCmS in i:t. i r we MU: W ['egan:l It 3\'l inlernffity erJhe~ent,. and then delivea gaJl' .. 1II.I:lng 1"~I.Il:l :[m.m dle crmstruction.

~m the sodal ;lInruysfts, be~a:use m[le:rpre'lerl" witbil1 C1ThllJd aJw,~.j15 h,l undersmnd til ems.:eh'e5 as low,[aUy compelled in O[l}~ orthesc·W'~yi;, {hey cou]d IltW'L:iI le,&liHl1rultc~ly wn:~k COrisci'f.lus1yw mcl~pl. [the lal.w [00 the new oonclitiolfl!l.ofthe ~at~' n.juel1;erHh IL;:(mtU[J. NI)[!Let.h~h~(iit;l, II'lifMi'l1l cn.nd ition:s omt$!al'l'L1~ presenrad rhem, 0fLS in tCirprcvers,.with g.<Ips. VI/b:llUlle eLl' p ~ople had Hl do, to l'itay lrJy;d '~.t;J tl1Jei[[oh~ a'lOlhey l:ionCf:!:Lmitd ]rr'. mLSW, "a!b1Jllc dlC'ducdon, uS"} lllcyhad [0 make dill!dlii~On:ill'eii,c!hl:id un oth er i'lwu.nds.IQokli1Mi't1':U:l operatien af dtldI(JClh~ew~:rk premised IOn the coherence ohhe $y:-otJem. An d the ,;1 bu!SlL:l' or dedJ\l(;[ifnrg V e'n nltt;ed the s.m1lJgg~~ng in . net or ~i.'le llen.el'al ,dlegjrlera.ta of seelal evoh:nion. but of

nl! Sew DBSu:m~. ;iUi!1l'o'1 U.ot!ol 55.

~'! {)Jll the rol~ oj "~llu&~lJr i!!I,edI4("tjDi[:I. H ~E:e' .Dmli[:.\:l\I KE!l.~ ~"nm~,. A C:m1·r.QLr~ u I' AD.! ~J'.lJa(""'Tt.uN r j~m ~5.ju::u!·/I'l~E1IZ [I!i19?"I. l'i'omu.,t1.y,f,"rom rrjl! t-~~W 'r11(·IJiI?l, . .I5!lprn hiJ lit !:i, UUtic;Jll tilllld:Lt!II1~,. 4'1i.tt/ ,{~r"w~~{st~~ ltJ 1 a ~~.Ii::Yc:LO.'l>l!llI,l!iI'l' ',fUll So!:;:IJioL .... N"[l ]'mUI'I'!lI[JJII\LS.CIUNI:E.~ il5:l·~ j OOrJi n; Ji:1LN::'(J;!l'!' ~ BiE!uilAU, jUplll'lltme. 5,~. [JrJi& al!,y, E!.;QUI·JlJ:i'1.. $~~prtl MO~l! 27,

tha partisnnideulogi~ of Lh~ parnes lOllh.e tOlllllkts.b 'lweellll"bor ami cap[tn1" Imge and small busin !l-$, o:f1he _1:!!'i'lLH1( nd, [lmpona:nl antifom:'!,,!li:Us, • ~hl,- from Lhe 'Odal Pl'llIPW, wcm :DCUlO,gUC.fi!I Heck.li[ HolnlJl's;Q;l HoMltW,~ and L.l l U,rrll• &1 )

[he social pimple nad fmupusithr,e ptopUilitd,s: (1) 'from-thl,: so~~;:ti "j "'IU Ihe IlIdapdw ORdi.(li~t for lElw, l2J Iion'l~h e IJelb.ldilie ll) lilejll1SffiJl1n:mu;d ilIPJl6lw~ch lu the 'fOrtnul.oll(m of ruum8. (3) nut on~y b~' the 1~~\SUlfe' bu( also by ,legEiJI sde-nllistl'5 and !Ul~Res arul m:lm.ini.strati'lle agencies ~)1}1l:!n1 ;]Jcl:llowh~dif:ing, gaps in ,.h£ frJIITliilUy VOl] i{] Dtd Ill'f, and ~4) anchored in 1he normative pm 'Il~{lS l"iMl'lg I,a, ")I'luIICfdUPS lnterm dime b tween lb.e Silue MiLd L1u: indii:vidlJal "~'eTe unrinunust~' devi!lup1ng, in NSpOJ:lSe 1io the He _ ds of L!he new lnterdepepdent Siodal ~ormi:'ltion.

Plut;aUsUJ. rvl'Bny adeocates 0 th ~. sod ttl argued tIili:lL\ vm:io!Jj!i b'T'OuP • with i n [he etne:rgillg h1teooep.eind(lnu\odlZt'y. in ~ udi IIi!il, nn'exlllii,l.rdel I1UIKhant' comillrn::lilt its an I!, :~l1Ibnr u nkl'n'l, "1i'e~e develQpmg I,](!W fU]iUlI'i!i ttl 11 t tbe t.lew ~soda!, Me£!, "ThC'S: norma. regti~rlI("d w, "!j,/Ulhr '1ilv.io,g l;]j"~, W rather lboo d ed 1l,l:!'Nnn i'1'-oMi'l iLtd.i,yiduaMsl ponulalrn>. ~btiuM, <J[nd ltlil\1 ",,!uuld. tn il1j.s "']egal p~uralis1" view. b 'uhe basis fnof l'egisladve, adn.tll:ljstrative and: Jrudll:cia] elabnratlen of flew rul ,ofsi(at,e I~l~ The plurnlist fJDiliuJl!.lib!iD m.m:'h in th soclal, W3 it cample ls/nugJI:'n rnilx:U!lJIrH. PlumLis'!'s, idffili edt the HluJi;pl,e subsil:iI.te and sup ru;-tate nOnTI,:JIIV,(! orders in actual IJpet<ttiiOn inthe mndern \I\\'orld. and th various kinds ,of i:ru;mutiuimJi:il:ed or i.nfor:mm &anctioning s)rst(~l'li1s that cf)lllribul.ed 10 their e:flEctivcl'1lffilS hil infhu:ncin.g tu~:h'lviflJ'. ~,n tb'ismodc, the t\I'lllfla clld~ of QRl'Nrlj and O!Inon 13\\' Wl?f as importliln t and interesting ru;; ilny other nonstate ~)rde:t. HUE In dli!tr l~l]rma!t:ive' rol'l!'i thiil pk~rnUg;f::l 'Wt;:~ U1UCi1. mare ~ntw:~s.tedin medieval OOIpQIlIJitll.~" thf! law ,o:f merehants, til ~ilt-W orf I he i lldmm·ia.ll!Ihop. -and ,(:uswm-a.ry ffinl'cmali u nal law:. My hypo(jhlBs~s is that this \~lll:~ b I::QlIU. e ]fJ each Q these, it. W1'l posslhle 10 a.rgue that nnnJ>1 ate law was IHQiti "seeial" than ~n: IonV,ill1dprO\,i(J d a basis foncioml of tJleJ.dre~~n the panicubl!f di.n~ lilm 111~' [avurcd.s-,

,ill Dr.Ili! DL'm[)!:<L~,. f'rwdrJrfo'!1w Nutfrms flrP7Jl'J.U~ lBw. d II ifuIJJ1Rl'f FDDl IT PI'll o .. m'ln" Vn T,III; M'mII'J.I!'> I J!r.ll!ol, lil,rrLll'iO!I)'U1i ~En'b;,- U~I'I Ii.l-

u l nult! I,~ NI,!Ll. 'n", Jill rupr,rrill:!Jt~ luf l.iHw,uI;.!.1'i rJtdUI\fO. ~fi Tn J'rmn3lffitltlE'tCJl 111 Il\;'iLl'~l~ (Ml!gda!I!t)~. Srl~fJJ;ht 11llI1li!o_ &: ~111. 19-111').

nw OUVi'!J1 W~ Hm.!.uis. P'4I-.ojl~re, Ml.Un' anI) Intl!'l.li, if] O:ILlI!e'f[_l~ [J!G,U PA:PHI1l5- tn' 01.1 '11m ·\I!i'I!.'(DlW_ Ho:u<m:s t 192.0): T 11U~"11!i-'j, 1111! ~dl nJ rJi~ Lillil. in c:aU]]G'T~D ~~ IUJ~M; !;-Im~~ Nah:ImJ '.alP, tm::-.mJ,I'I;TiIlij r~ I'F~. mpTIL

.. ~ "I~ I-!'nn(elJJ. fm1l'MmIl'J)llJ'! (,'ulj _;lJl{rng iu ,~lll1r¥l.\al1i?l;II, ,illl '''''' . I, r _7) uns 1 fl·

fiji E-K" Katl Ui!!'iII'. \U\I'II. all ~1f.lflig and UiQi'/W It • ""I'll! '" J~"bpf11lklur. 40 COIJUM. RU'I\ StU

ll~UII

E'lIIIUr.:tl. ;f;jJ WI! !'\O!" 63; :!ii.\1IID IDiiIMJIIll, l'tlRDJ NN!!ILNlP tHl!limffiO II III.; arl'f'l\'J1'Ql' • .I.lIfiUl, l!I~r "", ro:r:n 1i~lInf!l'llfIlru iiiifl.i:lhn~pluf ts UIWHIhI' 19':Uk_SL'i!!J!;IbJl [,rimllJ • Wfllll [~ 1..epl1"iurfllli-mrj!, 2'11. I>GA!L Pl!1,JIVI.UI,M 1 OfID6,; n.oll SJl'Il!i~ fr;.SW:!t; '!I:rw"'_JlII} I'i Nllw'Col;ll''i!(;I1'I

,[O!Stitutiomd.ism. This W;!I" ~h view that ilIl order ttl underst a md nOIli&lI.Hf! orders, \!/idIln til pllllrnli.&t enrerprise broadly oneeived, nTW3.S ne e!'li,~ry 1'(1 dr-I n'!lO ll'linWt' kl, nt:ify lhe sodal pr;it.:l:ices dg~ti.1llgUJjsh:~ng L1U!:i'S1:;LW ,~iliw[mm mere (;USHlHlIll or mares, and explaiJn h(jw [0 concE'p'l.ualli7.c 'the eoberence of ncnsrat law. Ulal Is, bow \'IT' kmow mcn 11'1 given spe 1fic narm ,is; pan ul':l sysfem of aonstare law" 'r'h,e notion of 1II1!:l' ~'lI1sdh;.nkm served botli u lrhese p ~lrr[Jst:s: the Hl:fete.nci3 was 'I a an .organization, a se I' of mlei>. ,P. FS]ste n l In. lime bUit wi.th s.hi.fI..i.l:Ig p 'f!ilOnne1. orient, d in 31 !mllt-ling momem eo sem set of (chaMlge~bl') pll:rposes going beyl"md the individual inrerests nf (he role in ·umln::nts. A piLU'ely fOf-p,r,qlfiJprivam c.orpor;adof.n Is an in!)ti~ution 'int has, 3S aLI do, an I!XIILkif or impJicit business plan. n'he State b cemes: n i nsti tu dOD among rna ny. j n 'tIII.S mod 01' analysis. J

We observe that as amatrar oifmct Institutions develop cut:Qph:n nerrnative arders, l~nfurned b~' a ''liMe variety of sancttons, 1'r00n furlliffi.Ji "slaff' [l.'Viaber) to pepular a&se.mb.lies to m re social pressure, ,'he institutiol1ralist ldeawas ihB!'t tbe IlumlS tleni .... ed !JotI'D. their r,a.tln[j~ CObCIel1:_rn? and. tbei!: "v;;llidi~" ([!:I'm lh(l! combination of the drevo'~IOD of the iUl'lstj nrrlon tl') a pu rpose oil' 'P III rP !JSt's. and iIS ~lLi!stofY(l f development 'i"JI:l. l.1es:ponse 101 eh !!:l1,ging circumstances. The is/olllgin ItUJve was Wr say thalill..~,IUQlii()m:; SllOUJd (lenne 3.1:1d. develop nerrns iu'INTIYs tbar"fu.rlil:i,ered Itheir PUIlJPSICS. J.\nd [h~ taH~, as an i.nstitution 'witb the purpcse 0 coordinating HOFmaliv 'rd~'8, should moogniz.e and fadliull ,mther thiJnigmlOfe or oppose, Lhb P[OC;e5S of lnternal f.nstillJJtion."d deVi~.h )pmeot. S9

C"O'IJJO'rll"Wm, Th is was du:!' 'lii(~",v th at the plural tt'lS'IilUlfiUitR, ,.~1I had purposes that contributed tu '!I.e sel f-[l"fcsm:variDfQ or r,epmdUctign omd eva! mlim fir sodety as a whole, and that take n lOgefher rbeywcm iii better "f.Elf,l ~ esen t:~u:1\fe~ n r s Icletyrl:m'tl, S3:Y, 1iI.l1elecun:al pro-cess based on v.[]tin~ by indi\idllJ.aJls. MmeITIi'i!U, <I 'legjs,laUw pnlCIf:\'iS that emerged :fi:om i.tl.d iv:idnal votin g was unll kelly toperlarm in it, rarlnnal way Uu!t· function of overse ing the slr·r, ~g

c'dvitili.!s ofi:l.'lI.S1tilUlions.

[0 the~O:~ipOrH[.i.st viii!W, U l;~rouhli be b atter ![l gi!le the·j nsrirurinns <one IllO de ar another ,0 r dl:!' IH acce:ss to stale. :pm'll.er, rather titan {'!onstitw.:ll1g the state

hiler in oppos,ition to or wlIDOI..!Lrelf;!tion ~. them, The [a· d.sUe.~i.m es of the 19i3ru: ern braced oorportlt.is .. 1tI along with prestdentiallsmas an altemarive to pmliamemary deruoCwrl:}r. Th y so [horonghl.y d ~sueditcdi l i IJl the :proC&.~S" that.it is bj)'rd tn remember that, in (he 1'1 ![In of iml:u:stty laborl11la:narg"(~menl'

SE'l!il~1!': I.lLW, ~(';11I':Nt.!1 )\X[I ll.O unes UN TlUl P!.it4nU."')I{nr. TIl,A.1IilSlTlON (1 8~5) am:l I:b 1i!)i~(!l.JIlII~ mvlmli OI'rticlr, I3rian ra.IiIlWl.~IL, A Nuli '=1tlI(jJi~1' \~i!I;SiflIJ af UgAl~' Pfliralljj I., 17 1. I.El:W & SaL 296 (·'OOtIJ. j;m i1lil1l1~plln;gormlldemJllmaU§ihl}

(iII See "J~li !'lnF.NU II ,i.llrnrn'I!lIlNAIJb1'S! 1I'.1,!iHI1'B[1"Il H i\.1!.mn::)!j. (jHIR~ b~ [t~","""'.iU:i. J'O!iIlNI 1: D ElL!iI.~ tAllil!rllirll(Je,rici;: ed •• 1970l: ;m(J S.i\N"n IttiF>.1AllIi{l •. I'tipra 1I0( 73

PJ!,1!.~ ~dbl w~itbpowe;. [0 rrnll:keleg<l~~Y bind t[lg lIegIJJatio.l1!!), lrwas the central e.I.emrenl n rno(!5eveH's Firs I New Delliit iiii'

Sa~lall(tff/sl(jjiQu., O:t1~ way tOllmd'(lll:land We !lrHJ,hJi~~s <I:'>.i I'm!IiI!iith:rmadIJln tJr I-be' err mndd~f.lwh~~h indi_\dclua[5 GOns~( Ule <I P Gld~JJ,~, \-vi_d1J ~i'gb [S. secured by ,a ~t<l te, d-unjs jSovl'.:rel gn. W[l d~eU!Lr<!li~~d -f-] ssudaftiou 'wLth: other SGveoo~gn stales, mp~Il;&(-l'IU i:L'Ig and ~~ufin;g the fi~f;hts of other penpl.~, In the soon I, tluml W3_9 au i.!ltieI~~~ fncus not just On ~he pl,u.riil i't)" of in5tilu~~o~ bdow ilml1ah~J\',e (he kJvei ofLhc S[;lIt~ burai!;s,o angmups itleMell:1'l tilie ]cvcl [lIllie _mdiv~.duaJ. ru::lI;l tbc people. The most hnpt~nanlt ul~ these were :SOci:ll classes, and particulii!dy l<iburanmca_piil<L~F <lm1nal.t(Jin~1 Lul;ll0rH-ies. '~::Jje(rn.\s M OlI'X!Sm w,.s.·iJ ·'coJflni~lhh.~:ob'lm'1 ", muophet>~iug tbel:r.imnpll of the l,\'OIc[dtng cl;-:l~ in death stmgglew~th thl!! eJ,pllllM~1 d{!!S~,~hei;;lud.f!l1 was a "_btur.nony ideoJogy, ~ p[1ooth~~1ga.funC:li,ou fl® r C'ad]Qrgaflnzedintere!>t,~lud tb~.elrlJS ~enc~ ofa, "publie tnteresr" ~n t.h~ onmd:1t1l!1tkm of 1J.wii:r [~]im[\d~pend'e'Dtac.ti\!'idreS in order !.u m<lXim lze i\.nd a:1 w~tfa-lE. fin Su UCIleSO dal peop~e Were ,iI,g'ai.ll-Ht the ie-nod L'l'l1lICY ln CIT HI dCI1lY Ute j;urp~tk renHlyohlnythi!'!g l1~h~f than allj:~ldh1'idual ora. S~3:lEl'.

~nlalJo!: law; lhe~u[l.~ W<lS HI devjg!l':l'[Ie\¥ Ie£rol fo[ms, 8m;;i]i ~15 S1gd ~ I i ntl:ur,a I!!~e agl.-3:j·I];S~ indu~~!:rh:111 ij!lQcMents ~£a ~:om.],)~dsQir.y element t'If the wage ba r!f<U:n I tim 'labor Uikl101J1 as an irJI\lohlJltary ~5~o:d;~11[iml, and compulsory C'Ci He-clive 1bal'S,ll.tnlft'llg, all In th e! cOIUJ8'XL 01: pm''LI'<lsive reglilorDon [)fum .tiove. The not lo rrI 1rVa~ I h.:!t !Oliven the hll erdependenee oHIiI.boJ anc!,(;<lip]tw, and the- ill t-e:rdc-Itltn~ dcnce of <In the dil'ferent St'~~urs~ ~f am (It!e:,-n ecnuonlV" .i fndus'lr.~.aI wad,I.1:~~

.. ~

(or "strife" or j'c;:IaSS\!\i"ifllli", [1]Keah'l\lClcd th eo WhDI~' ~f)de'ty witl'! b rei:'l~,uJoWl1.~,

of pre duetion mal might be truly {;a1!ULrophk. [[I this IlJtUiltiflrlj the "pu b lilc ime.est" wllS In. "lul;h::!slrl<tl peace. A an d U1!:rp[lbl.kjJ1if!~rt!'st j'1:l£tifi ed jcUisOJ:a.lng .In.di.vjckm[j.sl<!.I:ilU Iarmalist R(l;lt.:lin~, ~Udl tha I. h would v~olnle basic _prn'ffi ises [[,~ uuian's ,collectively b<LlwMElj!W. ~grr:~mcnt omLldi dete rmine the rerms or emploj'ntentrl r;a ~'lfl] i'k.~r who ,,,lalii Il,Q! a. l.rlI:N.'Ilbe:rr:511

lil 'OtT, as we 8aw~ p~UlFi1lllUy ~V;lJ15 .m~l!sf!nl'i~1 piiltt nr Lhe pic:~lJll~e,. bmit \i!,i'llI5, t'kst of aU;. the plurallry of Tight bl';~r.wg indi'vjih1'.d:;-:;. SeCITnd, thlilie W~!ii the ph~ntU ly oK' volk:SgetslS I tJlf! plurall (1' of fa:rnJi~ll' IliIw n!lSil'1u:s correspond ing to clifi'e.retll :il:'l'L it nlfll tlU~ l ~ rres, I he p'lurat~ty 011 publ ic ~~W arnl,l~tlenJm'l'ts, to:LWspo~l1diHg (0 ths diff~[-.en:_l L'IlQdfl~ [If pll~iht!'!lli~~! uf dHfFiIl,re'~ll peoples, T1:'le£ie Jplu_rn1iti~ weni pel.'~ptunal' i[nlilll:~tkm to Ihe Te,g~l eore, whi~hcolls[!lted gf the pl'Jv~te h'!w afohlig(JJ,1iml'!>, \'1lid1_conn'S:~r b;n!!,i', the ~~W Clif: free will frcm the s'l;1Ll'tingpoilu of pmpelllyrights. 1iI~ the core urtbe (,J[H'e,

iIT :s:tn> Do lMLU Bllo'lND:. G:iHroMn!ilM .Villi ;rlUf,l!m£. F,lJl J .~~~ (HIll!_))_ ~)Il II:!~ iJttllm~l(:e of (!!;]rpur.lIti~rn:(:Hl !'I..iii, ~1lg;hhc1l.'l1~m, 8~ UliSfI A'I'le~ l:';alil1ll. JlJ!')rjrIJf~Wj~ .r;(Jdtt.· .,~ 1.ll,:i.tf.lry uj lJl,~'_ UtJ'/ftlr.m Ct'ijim~rril:il' ~d~ 1 !)':Mt-N!.~A~. 1f)IlHFIEAi:.u t, HI!~ !:l5'S' ~2IIlm),

~ .~eJ!'R:~-'Ur!!IJ 'fuGW~u.1'1I1I_:. Ec!":lNOM)<Cl.BMi£i> o~.Ptlil1ue~;J_' l.l9221 •

.... $_~ Karl t!lm'l', J'7Je Dl"tfJltfii"iJli;u:ltum o(forJ~i4(nJl:l!~" tiel o1!d I~J~' (J'i~l'.rtli ,qI'.Madl!'frr .~ Cir.!:nqd()j'!:.l1lir~. ~ 'filltl'ltll, 1'" Rr,~ ~Eiii ~ H178J,

Soc:ia1 :le:g~J:atio]] meant expanding the regulatnry run" 'tiun.'l uf lh~ state, C.1nrlngoulandredefinl.ng.ll'i publl law vastsreas !.h'1I.tna I faJlie.tl 'safieJywilhlll the d!O·I1HUlil. uf [i.ght, wi 1:I';alllcl fault, So('ia~ taw coord i I] ared 'llhe V8Ji"~rl1Jl5 ~ ndlvidual ~\~lmn.G £ulljects ofCr.:::rl0 the pubHc info resr, through PllhU <l~ll.cies llial \v,. re to rnak II' IlII!:;!s to ;in~tantime rdniV'ely ahstraeta nd vaHilie legtsllRdve prtmouncemenrs (r~u example, In the U.S. comexr, <'I feder~1 stanuebannlng "contracts In res !n~ln.t '01 trndec" or "un [air £:llompetition. ~ "unfair 1<1 hor prarrices, M Or ",d'~CptiVE pracnees' In ser.urllie!O la\v) ,

r!:.rrpltrl:ise a:r~d stu;;ikls. The .a·g'~m::ios We.i!'e t;.uprtj,~ed '!O bring ~experfi:li~" ~o bea1.",. meaning hmh sodal science and cun crete P[<Lglllflti.c knn\\~'ledge. The' W~Jfe to act thmugll 1.Ul;J.I ctnrates applying low-I,till;'e[ criminal sanctions or iL'i:'u~1.Cdo:IrI:l>,~,n proeeed h1:g'S mud] less fonnn.~ than lhpse em blemane of eer. In place or U"lt: Ja:w of ,~"~),I,I.gatio!1s. the salienl fj, ,Ids W [ admlnislr~l'I!Ie l.;in\!, appllcat1l'e 0 illl sodallegialati.nll, and [hen labor law .fun1f.1y I.w, and InterM tkmal ]la""'~ 711 By tbe J 9._"l 01), i h e !HH:~htl people hEldtl i pop ed the structure PI' Cl:"f and the ~~il':i~h'J)' had become the CQre.

After fi luicJ tllrtation with tile judg (both in Franceand in, Germany [1'1 l:he.b ·gmnil1;g or the rwem ieth cC]]I1.ITyl. the hero figur~ftl ()jf the sccail currentbseame, .in.IJlindp:lIl.l1m 1,!<glsLaum;whi~dmficd til muhiplltHy ufsp - eiallaws .hi,t ccnstlnned tbe .ne.\V order, along witheh ,admirHsmmu who prnduced and enfereed the detnlled regulariuns thai' putl gislattive reglmes into effect. Tbe l:i'I.i!nl.h!11e (J'ftlu~ soclal, however, was the pl!oduc[ 'Dr a. n W breed oJ lilW [1rofc~so:rg. 1:1"11es were nru 1~ll luagiswr:iaJ authors of code' anti expounders (:If tllll~j inner Ill~ie_ They ",,'ere law reforrn(lffi. writing theU[J. doing studies, dJ<lfilng, legi~lat.hm. o'!.rm;:geei~,g. I.U clut::lrin<lTI~Uil'rntl.U\e, hs ~mplenllen [alion ,and. eventual am !llldJtl[,fH in ll" I ight tlrpmcti~ exp, .. rte nee,

.Recau " " of '[h • di.v rntl'! poll rim! cu:rrems tba I. IJ 11 portedre erm, the profes:oitl rso r the so cial weren 'l pl~onholed po~I:tIcally, ~nr we.re 'til ~ open to the cilal'gl'! mfi'[ du;:y rej. ected sclentific ob~eC'lhti ty. The social was soetal sdentllic. Tbe.leY;lJ scienee ofct I was the Sciflnce ollegal caU\l.gories. U .... "a~ rhe selenc uri-he technique aHow. The social, by contras I. was:~tlcialed with ~«.)doj,(lgy, ~o[mmiCl!l., and p.iilydI01Iogy.

It key I, In'f!ll of ls-m-oughr was the "~.ud)',;, beginning wlrh iudustlial 31Gddel'II aI the begim:rlng ufl:be century. The premise nth· "study" was tha~ them was <I po]nicO'l~~ y pOl!\!'erf~l[. Cfll1f.rlsl. m idd.lc-d ass audience. dul tended to assurne tir:lln things ill g1Bntm'l wl~re going fine, \\fi'len alerted by a smdy either W dangers to Lheomsf1lvf!~ (I .g., unsanitary rout! pro ·~.ingl- Q tI!J SllfHdflflt1y flagrn.li.ll abuse 'of others (CQ[uJUtinns in the mines], Lid!> group wauld support a regulalory regime en "public lnteresr" rather ·Lbanr.;:uUsarn poljtlcal grounds,

44

The ;'5(1ci.d and lm slu(He'~ were scientific- iill:I. tbe WilY dlmlrncl;er:_i.s:tic of LI:i~ so d.ll, sclen ce ohb,alpe!riod, wbich 'i.~S 1!..uti:l!;h mash g£ fl¥O]U Ilonj Scm. P[OiilgI1lUI.~ dsm ill the Dew,ey tra.dU~on. w'lddi1(l'eil:'Sefb:rms of posilivi.sVll. such ~s sta I:l!;tics" based: £'!il1!Jprric.:rl SlL«'I1CylnG' ~~llthJ!isedru j'ur.isl.&q uared ofr;ag:a.i.ru;l.h~;s G1as$~c-"'ll ~,egal ~cli1.lsitlvi!Sl 'toUea~e. U,ea:tin.g him as,afnrJ:nal.ist d.i.nQ~;;,!Yv, hope1el1l5ly rigid ami' mn Qf.~.ant<lelwh:breali'I}~, h~ di[d rUJ't' dQ i[ in thename Q~r suhi:e.t.:~i:lli!in:l pr whatl!!V'~T h1"1 po]J]tcleru. pIt'd'erencies mjght be. Ue did ~r lCil dH~ name t'lf hi::ii !Own di:scipHue,. beceusathe social was iii d]!liei.pJine, not just a :rloUt:lic~.1 posttion,

The comb i nat~f]n of p~ uralism, instltatlenallsm i' and OOllll];llfttllllen~ u:n empliri~ll~ i:lIvcsUgm:wn. in I'll!? is-l~ -o:ug:k11 CO[;ltie::o;t meant Itbat tne ~(J,the:r~ oft;w WIllS no IOI~ger IDO.l:alin', w;;.irthacl bl;l~n i!1'C;];I, bur ":mdety;" Law dUd~:r di.dutI'! ad1!.pl [till, ilUd urdid I1IJI CI:m8[iI.tm~W~Be pl·~tel[ldill.il:'lgmro.I][i!djy miUDI il; !:)y.::iety did or diJdm:r~: b~v:e PQweL-rnIIDng-mnim:maIlle:rU[endffil.~ieS', and so on,

1l!'lno.~aoon, '«'Cl'rJ:!iS ,('f'lll w1u:r1e J~WI$~i'~ ftfJla. One jnri,$tIc :f~pon!\e to!lodatl Jegislli1rilDI~ W~~ tn f4i~:iii Inilllte it to the C~<li8sicru. p'm.il~v:i:sl model b!{ ilddJog JllleW lelf<ll nO'Pi~!j C~II1[l!ipO[1[.djjngtOl naw statures, without O'I~d[_i)riI1iiS dl,e premis~5 ,(I I' the Il'leiliods {If docLn.lul.ll iiij;H"I~i~ ~n ~ n:y W11Y. The :advent of the sod iii I. added! l]J),nN:!IS <!J Id provi ded rt!,::"W field:81 roJ[ ~e:&1Il science, In every coun [fY that hasa We'fiiltem $YSl~;jlm. of lega~ edueaden, lt ~e ms tha,t SOh'i:1'ttl]I1i1~ between "" pru1 me <'I. very rn.rge :part of ins tmICU~)o p.rtu)e>e.ds in thjj~ wmry.wli:h cla:sslc.'1I·liclds eeherenr ln a Ida.~,iCOlLI wa:~', !Iu'Id ~u 1;;~a.1 neM~ oob~c.m i fJJ a f>@dal wa.~,

The sjJ'C'i~ jUd5t.\i III emselves wel)~ 1lI1Uf~i'l.m:b]'l:i[llClS. Ulie~r JU] lii(lu wa~ Ita I Ibe rer-orm ~r]br~' (Q ,makelawa.d,aprno.:socirel), ~~lui:rli;ld n momugh revamping [lithe [uristlc univeese, LI) c.Ml.i~lJru;;e~l ... w~. for i't:l::wmple. t.h'l'l'01!dwCI.·s1l.ry sysfenJ '!iIli'l:;' oi;nr]()I1l"ly rnal~, da p,ted; to a mederu .. i,[Jrm'de~~e:JlldJelll.t.. flre-riblJlf! C:fJ.nlpIJ~x. illllhlstllill system. We l:Jieeded InM1.}l roew types!'] f pri'l~du ues tlliU \"iI'tm id :g~11 us [!U~ of tJ],erypica] hldividHalis~ I ~al Ue model.71 In ,crimin~llaw, we t:u:'!eded to ir:utividi.JaHz.e pun~8hmr:n~ bill otIso UJr mHI: ,~~ ~OI::.i.aUy eff~c:thfe by lden L1fyi ~,~ I be types of criminals ilnd the s'llcial eauses olcri[[tI~I. 72~V~F~ con tt;Oi~~ ];;lW, d)1ii! CUI)!illor lhe Q~.m, needed rev1;sion, [I~ the dlreetlon, fur example, of P,IT'f:G'Olll.r<lCn:d dudes. lib ernli~.;J;IUnn (If escuses, :flUlct:ionai .md::II!1r than fO.rr!fWI.i 51- i.nJ,erp'I.',eUiilrion of :fItJn1111111 i ni es, 7,3,

W~, ilii;1eded new typ L:!S. of 00 lul & - ,~abOf oomls,~])IIEl,rch!ii:!l'l ,I,Xmins. j'uveniJe ~glllls. and f<!.IMliLy C:OUI'it£. - a. s well as, new types. of precedure, Comn1Jl".n:iaJ la.w needl.~d to be refarrued UJ mM1Lh.m [t:qllllli,['RIJI1t'n:r~ of the new !;~y]e Dr

11 s~!!! Chuh.'\5 (.:. Clmk, ~'/~t! £1sdt.to'1l ,/rltj~ fJ! ('i.~UfJfflri!drfrnj, l!13lJ.-5{j, TIl\'jl lkrRIi.r!~ rJjlilO.Ff!dl'H!1 Cili4~ mi~'~, 5r~ f .. mUM.1- fl£l.io, . .135 ~ Ka.5!l1.

" 8.~'I! !l:it;l:!.ilrd WllS5'!:fstmm. St:!mlJi)rob,1&!~~~1l lhiJ DftjiJJt!i(m .:tmI1rJd:i/itfjnan. ami Pff.P1i.d~mo!'.r:Itr i,~ V.,il!J~~'!l! MjJ[;Jj~~. ~~l-3l5 [!\~~il1 (i'OOdll)llfi >lind htegw.!)1! I{~rn 'Ilds,. 1 El7WJ,

11 ~"ti'Ki!NmlDI'. Prml.lllU' ~IU :r:h~u.il" Joi!I~ruIJ.fJitl: 1Il.

l~ln'ee Gliobnlizatloti o[Law and ,Legal 1i~hlJliIlgh r

enterprise, pW'lku.larly 'me fSl.;t that mot tl;ansarttons ~rn b n ... een VE!'f1;' large c.om,pllni, 8, or between large ntcrpri as and individual actors !.Il;,fth no bargaining power at all, I, ;orpmB~81,aw needed to he revamped on 'the basis '0.1 the notien llf rhe radical. separanun uJ r OWIIleT5hip and eontrn 1.7

h. was ,n[)it [ust a matter ef recunceptuallzing fl?fOl:J]mlfll.ing. and then roFnJrllling lhe 1U000Larb:pl-uve, hJBO!:tl:gically i:11.d.i:v:idual[st dDICI1rlml~ subsrnnc ' th~t had eJme:rgedl In the late-nineteetrth Celi'i.LUY. The a'irl:1fonmmst strand in the saclal cu.mmt ,~nlph1'lsUe.d g;;tp~, !;IIUlllicts" and aLubi(!uiUes ill [be carpus IOf posmve ~aw,a_rod [onsequend,y a., ,rol, of the j1Lllj~, ei(h,e r fl!l an abuser oj[ deduction or as· a. rationel lawmeker, In the Unit d State5. tar diccis,j,s w,a.. s dlscn dlred as abuse ~f dedu t'IDIl par ex-cello nee, and ~ayoers or [lci,al1y f,I:ri~ ented early t'llS Jaw ,"Iii re dii8QOvered in order lo mukip,ly cUllin 1'5 and open the space' 'fo:rrefonn.

The dvil:ifll'l dispute abm . rt what U.l1!lntea as a "SOllI'Gi1J On3W" was re~olved in ravor or lhe~egiU m;)icy {1 f jl~ri.'ipmdefi'"e (judgn-made ]<Jj~r), wha[ev~;r the "nrnd;, .1 purtrait" ULigfu ~ t'.'01'l1RlUfl to. b ~r~ Mmeov~r,an l'::lw hi terpretess, in rile soelal vis ion, :1.ndudingproife9!SolCS 1ll1d adtn!nistr~'lgI!i, and iii;WYC f' wbelll they draft con eae 1:6, I II. wyers when 11:'1ey ehoase I itigatiofl a:Qdi.&t:tttle:mtml stra'i' ,giE:s, and I~wyers when illiG¥' give ad vice lUI Uah:i.lity, 3:00 eng.lged in law making. \Vhat tb anrerprtse does willi be ,r;:.ITi'ted I'It every s,tage by inlel'prem:dous made by the I,<l,wyets I!hal !,I'i.'ilJ 'be cnnrestabje,

Th Po'y' will be CODte-S fable be cause; gilv . n flaps, there wHll}lten be. p]Dlusi blo

oeial lruerpretatienand all hldMduah. t Or formi'Ilist or positivit lmerpreratlon of: the r, :Ie\p~nt lI!'.311d n'Jtll1l' . Th . social enuld be snuffed {Jul.uy judicial JlQsli.l.i~' - I !I.b nr courts or tiuni~yCO!u:rts. req uired judges WI~H didn 'f hate 11i:Jl'l wh ole id -a (lIf I]~W ju ridiba'i instituJt:ioos.lf the}' dld I' th.ey would find, :means. of sabotage or rust bungle O'tings. Only i f judges., adrninistratms •. <IiJ1;:ld l,tll1\fyers u.rnd,ers'lnrad j;1t')~r Jus!: the rationale bU'l also the teehntque of r'l':r~II'm wouJd ,[dUrIn wark.

That produaed new li:l,_ as about th law oS 'hoo'l eutricuhun. The IPn;;on teac~in:g ~ n W eourse on lh new labor Il '1;1;' tatute should ktll..Ji\'V some sodoilJ,gy. conornlrs.and psychol.ogy, and it wou!.d be a ijood idea to have asrnall number of do ile economists, ~ocil]]ngists, andps},cholo'gisls on the m.cuhy, On eli, who wDuld tle~'t elahn to know anything about i.Il!w, but 'WI:! uld he ;;11 usefulresource lur us. in developing om mtenlls.clpl.iu.ary p"ujects. Jnterl1~!i'ti~pU.mom1'tyr<[Ir the social meant [he ~.Il,W ph)re::i'ls:~r as a gelHmlUr.lJ: whose ::.kills slowetl !l:lJJq u.isi do ri o'f!:lJJ fJ I'her ells!: ipfu., es 'Mtbmlllnrmal train i I] g. 71',

,~ &.iIJumu>u Il irn. .. ANO (;"'~m~ml M.M:.s, TIlB MO:DHIlN CollMJLltru1N J\llaJ PmWITl, i'nm' H'II 11932]

~ 1ileh I (It' ',.{I.-r' '" .L.:t!I!i1!- ltid~fnl (Si!lf-JPa~tmlt~: Illl.'ifrfRf Di.w;cmrre in 111(' Ft'l'nr:1l LQf1/ SJl.~~(!'I'fl. rOt.!' 'i'A1Jl I. 1!l25 U 9f!5l,

jIli' &!to J:.I ru-cltln, wl>wl!lI.and My~ S. M D(I II g.J,n, g(J,l.lidm:tltll:lll didl PrJD1it' P~li~ "mll!.t:;UJI1l1j l'ttltllbll;riN rltd'ril!JlfcJuh!n.!!it,. "2"/I\I1"!_ I_.zo~ O~3',

As I've smi! a]~'f:<'IJYJ th lswas 1101 ·lIbou~p'C;lljti.cs. Ir rnliSh{ be truetha l ihelr versiou of social ~liliStroo could 'be cJlal~,a~l:'Iri.~.ed pIJ'Ii~iCilJiy as mom cerpetatlst, Qommul1irariaJll,c anurt)rm~l]!il, <lnd phtrn.Li!H 'lharJ.'Ji Ih~ l.JjDU~ilt of ihe:lr en.em!.:!'s m. the Ub eral ~nldiHlJl1Is'Of th~ center and :rjg~} L But tb~ cl~I:!In 't u'l.ink th.u the' mere commuru.il~J'lt to stldal jusrke 1n Ille i.s-.hl-ougbt rnede of lht sacial put rh em rn the dunger [I f ~mdi up; tlle clistinr.llolJ1 be~f.'1] Taw iiII'I d pOHlics.

"fhe SiLld:0.1 r;uli~u g);:rIeJIIwly cenceded the inte:mru. coherenee of ind:W\l'ltlu:a.li.o;l dedu.eti~e ~aw (em.l~hasili.nl!l 'gaps, nat !ne'Scap:ahlif'J G[lntr,'1.dict]onsj; they dalmed 1M S~I~ kind ufct.lhe17en:oe for agcia:lltlw. J'Illelaner r:.la:h:iu was, :!u.mf!ig~.y ~on~e~~·ed. Those ·Wl::mu.~'J.t broad~y denfJIII~ilmt~ lib~rsllil is I lick '[0 the appru:at'u~ m.d <I;spi.rntifius of CUI whUI1l bel n~ wi MJng to mcdernlze, ·say by mil! ding th~ c~Ht:epi i\. nor 'rr~1lt: P~~PUr.1 ,.I.e and ·'.Good f<l:ith" v,~TY h1loattly. BUt dllsy t,I.lld~rs;u) nd the socj.~l[ 0 bec:bt"otk. W]tlUHH Iil sin.gle .eoun'~erprLn::uctl pl,e' In oP'P" lse u) ~bt and w:iI. M01rm:we'r; whi]e 1:]li::l'Y~el:0f:lnW..ed d~.~d the 'tmd .. d had maJllY d:tEFere[lt ~o:rr.mt; ofpQli~i.C:S~ Ireru l,en ttl righi, th!:ly·mwthi.s ali a "lymptum. of the IJ1:IJlk~ I!Hi~iU.d t~'~ion uf~lJ,w Inal ~tilkn..velili Lbl!-pfi:!:mliltHOt' ren uo.darion !1 r leg;-I II sclence fut :s~;,,;tO] !'iid~lJJ.CC;, ra.r11er thani,l.$ evlde.nce {j.fth~tj;u prnpnJil'icrn. tru ttl !lhhe S-Odal.77

The globall reception. ,or th e jjj(ld!liID

"fhe :seWl::l.d ~oou~]Z.:iiIlioll followed [b~ ,chanl1i~_';ls eSII~h~i~hed by the first, Studenu;froWallOlJoB'f Europe W~nll(J Fw.1.[lr;c;: ;fmd Gem'l<ul.Y to s[udy hl,W,,711 Fmw the tn iddlt' ohhe nm:r;:~C'enHI cenrury up 10 the 19305, studen ts &o~:n It he pari o[ the ,~S~ of Uw war1clllJlncle.(' Wfite.m h'lntle~lcel]l1t::ke.d ltJ Btl m pe, Prorn rhe [:ulul1[es, th~y wen I to thdr lres..p~!I;:tiV!;l~mlil'I:ropoJes.'" the s,e:nega].es(' (0 Paris, the ]T1don~sians to AJlJ,stcnlJru:l1I, .U.1 cl.s-n(o rt!'1. ]f they had a eho ice, they-we,au U) the Buropeau capilllll with masl.prestige i.~1 I.heir il~lrt or lh,e penphe:ry !Lati.n:l. 1tll1m'iean'S t.Q Pari~, UnU!\'!dr-l~1llese~n!Y l~;I Gem'l~~ny).

Fl n;t Gernumy all1d ~ .. utlrf]"an4e WB~ t.he[ou.llul.iill~s of I:he Sioda.l, hut ~t d[i~C'aa-p~d s.:imuha:[ltlOLl~ly blL .m.aJ1!yp~a.C!~" ~vefll. I.hrnUllh IT.nI!~l ufthmo;;e places Jmperted ~lel]Jen[!O froft~ Gel:':~nU!lY;~ r~:d 'rt"'UH.::eand h.u d teL1Ilhr~ty Ilttle O-.F []Jf,l JnOo~nl"e b~d. i1"!l ] n IHaiy itWilS fir;sl mO'de1r<J!tl~dy~ef[. and then faSJcjsu::. ~Il Ill. Spain tFtffi'l.co}. Portttga] (SabzW'l,!Bndl Gmec'B (M~lm1ms), il. was ~·asds'r. iii. ~IH~

-;; ~~.' W.!.~.I!!!;~ ~i~"rj~/1m noll! '! I ;~I;f'tN!'m'j J'Tmm rfm Wi'll '17~e!lIy, ,11Ip1YI nm-c ~I[I. 'i'!! S.r,'f.lrI.1l!o'1l Mlldjjt~~ ~!~W!'l: iiU:lI[J! ,L

7li $~iI G.IllII'I', jtJ)J.'romll.~' lU .MlITJlOlJ· tilt 1.NTE1L1' fi1H'A1'1.dI\I, ~Upft,l t1DI!L! '19 ~p.rth..jrlLn!:l ,Lr! ~rl)OCE~t.d~ ~uml:OOa)l €If ii:I~~lO:j:l[J'OO.nlt~ 'U!) !IO ] fa! 9J.

~ 5if1;!!'i\r,~) (jl'~151i!. Sr':i~,N~l\fnli~rmr./!. rriILL~ llN I'l10Il'iL"O ~mco, I !rtm-~ \iI~i) fll.~OOl, AI~~~~l· iJJrLl ~OIlmjj;~,jl'tki~'I:ofo;\'t!trff.l_{h!If.i;I'l~tl'l1.rr.i;, I'~ff~~lr{ m~l'dlmmi;[>jl[, ~Ja~WIJ;[i£l;i:l.rj[iU.:ll'oJ!, II! Hr'tl "M Cllfri(:A (l,ml. DI.iU·,m:l, .PlllV",·.ru Ei~9 aOCLO', ,\I€lls;;m.dim StJlililma; ioW~.:j'~'m~ (~-dfritr;n~ r~na ri~n;'ll .rf]X m~U(jJ'. ~5 ItlViS'll\ ~l ~LlMIJS·RJ"'.IJ1lI:l~ D,IIU'l'OCI n l'OOc:nmHLl'1 Cr\':~Ul !iiEl! (2{ID J).

N~Ui.erhlJut~l amd ff'OIbii1T1) Britain,filI: mo~emte~y lilift. Tlse Ul'Ilu;ldstilte:gan oociolQgicw iuri'Sl'I'mdeS! I[PO;und,tm C;i,r~;kw;o.~La!lld B:m'lu:lei~ ~\i'Ere [h(:l mast impurl1ilnl) delLi'elnped fi v,~lr.H'infl' l~hllll.~f.1iS nws~ tfH)dofi'!'tal~I~! reF1t and ihert rnedr.rately rigllt 1:'il1!ey ~ (,lxu'rn;'i;'o'ti'ly on UH~ Frefld:l and Germans, hm 'lllo'e[e ama s'rro-nglyi UUIJJllllCOO by lIQi]]nICb,who I:tev,elg~n!d. bero!'!::" Gr:ny.il pecuUan)' A111~riJ~ \"aJI'j8~n. (!If (bs' I~a;bu!ii<~ uf d(li1uctim;:," ~h~5i1l.B6

1'~JifUJtdi.u,l"'. lb;lhe ",udal~~lajh~,t~bed ~tse.1.frlJJ t:~e ~Mesl,~tmlE:nt:!i rliom H3:5'~~ em .ElI.l'fOpe, llItin Ammica, g.otld~, lEac1u.lII'1d So·I.:n:J:'leilS[ Asrll'r Ltie Nabv.mdd. and Afri>ea. appropriated it <IU1ld tno!!: ~thome. A ·1AlJI~iaID mm:e.nsion oftbe spmli1d of Ul1e SQ(ii at ~,q. p ~tlo[(~~bJn, hu I in;.u I~easl lh~t'ee rnodes. ~l:ther UHI.1lI alia lID!1~~ (<IIJ' ,hcnamenoJll. Pfrn~,natlo~m i ru. ue(Iell1Li~m and as the driXie ]o.!fe'lhnit: pmitj', w~~~ understood b~! lhep l1ogvcS'.'Iive Eu.ro:~:ui'l\Rn soelal peeple to be, fI~tU1g wi[hdass C'lIuH Ilel, Ihe s.;;muglf;' lh~ll~ InigJ:lt ·w~U d'esn:foyEumpmu] d'LdUZ;J!~io;n.lihepriti<l'5t~f nlC50C'i.1i~ Uli'lidenll nll: <I. deE'p r~'t~tVlltl:)1g ofpibitJ11;c mlE'm~l~ il:on<lJIl;awin all e[foJrIIO ,,,,ontain and shapen.niomdism unde[1Jt oad as rI litecl1mting and al~UI' U.rfill'i -ldesuoyi:n.g, ~rmtimull'rome • In pub.1 ic i1l11ematiou.d law. th e. ti'ila;nd:Ji'H~·li.y!;tem. ~h~mi'lil!1e In ~ iii!iitl r!J[jon~ (I hI!." Lf~agu e of'Natb~n "']1, Ilfle erearLon o:r .briml ilg'l! type. govl~.i:l'ilg wflillitimtiomi S\J:c.h .• 15 lhflrree til)' HI' l1;mz~c. amllh.e .lJlh1iiW!3rre~~S nEIll.iuG dry p[lflle,cJ]:onallllnWl~\'\oo.m.n oval1ve [[lJ.rms, ,i!.nd U~le s~~r·~C!n.:;,(~gU~ feJecL!!}~ or the ~t()git of "'UVf:reig1.ily,'t81 ThEY \'l;'ere inspired by run':! in turn ifl8Il~~ed thcinnCJVflUo]1:S in lilbndLt~/lfde:u;:l:ibed OiIbo·V1:: r·1]1du.!>Vd~. w<liI'.faoo~Cm;11i1Lined jHWl'IY~""!lI'l<l:logoul"i to "I:~ailiw"l'f<l:m: tlaws or t'he .~ogic [) f property paT".1li[eluhe Hf.lws of th~. ~Qgk~ or !loven:l1:g,n ty) ;lJ"

J\l '~11", very' S~"1!(~ time, the .ti<rJcj,al .'V'.t$ ~~ne n'f UU~ .~ slu~f'ls l1Irl10lU~,)of!~i$:m i~f>elf. in hs fO'l!id!'i'l rio~rm, and a160 ~'1 OJ.llvlitlnt 1liri'an rh:th L·w'i ng mriunrn ~n rna ny pans of tb~ world. indudlil1g the Al.ew 5l'a,I~ rnr-v-ed Ol"lt of 11I~' OUDm.<IIn and

WI f'A!u SC11I:IUL'I!. 1i1.l£ILH!I.I!.'I: ULU. [ I !iif4l1 [J! d~t" In~llc~ d~lnill, I'InL ~raru.l:ued U'l~ II fut.w.I1ih. a~ tl[AlIDL!1J [l\!;In. 1I1IIB-S,TA:1lJ I.N ~m~ NEW SOC::IJ\L Ol!!lJEl1 II ®~ II.

IU rmnJt~!I1.'IPnUI!I!1\. !ir1.Wfl !l!01~Il, WJtb ~h~~Vi(lirU;[}n$l':r"i·:!!.lJvt<'\fl!f];l~n 11~1 The' M'w '· ... Hd.7iSyfM'Il. ';'5 ~ :rt~, L.1.l'1ri' f 1.~3iI]1'.

I~ I}llNIJlMJ.N r..: ... HII)tIIW, TI.I.L ~'l.Illl).('!)"·J:l:U:".'U'[!['=LPILO!'c:~" U!il.:!!.~ I.

Ko SeI,)' .s;J.m'l1~I. n, \!''IIrnm !:III tIl [!m~:P. Eftlnd!:!~!i, Tlw ~igl){! W Prij,{ll'j':,! n.i\ltT .. , n Tl:!I~~'~ II~ 1 J NKN rilroill1llllc.!lI e.mly~~~[)~i'~~liI1IBQCl~li ~~ll>l'l ~k.t!Id~ls· tl)t.I;lti!.i5.trd.cHn l\1JlU;jr~'. r:,IT~J7! 1];1 w.hkh ~Iw U.sStilPfi!I[I!l! ·l!!;l!.i rI ~I(ihl!!hl. pmt~~J~1I! ~o'Ib,~!' Lll'~I:!iIi!~lritl !ur wm:m!I'1 fjj ~ r;nnl'>m"~li;j."L' 1!.I:Id!~1 cn~I!lI,~II§,

~1'oIl.lOl]!i>'. ~jlpm nme ~ Krulnl:'!ily l!JTU! neH11!;;lu. YJ1pm n uti"! 5JS.

1- Illlili'!d If_F~l~l:'dy. "11,. ~Mt'r' m fwtiJill!1lJ1n', 11 f~mlrl",(1 t, R'E'l. !H ~ ~ I ~7 J: I~"'d ~IlUl~.)', TIif' 11l·w .. mmfO:mU s.i)'b!-i,IJPnif-l\.'i!rl.uwalld !f'1I11":::!. l!l!1J U1il'lo!~ l-il!FV .. ;': ~ho!Jlll"~ !l~.Iim.."'!". Bw r1fj' NlL'.n'.!nt.il~·}.! ~iT.' N(£'imIJ~li\'IJ! UJ!£II\·J~ru.l;!.j 1OOt.1<!I~~ (Jfi"!Wl'I1rJ.litB.11J.II4'j~~,1 QiJ 1-IIc'L!W, ~ !IE'\" J:1li!2 it ~ 5~5~t ~'a~hllllLi.d IkEmilll, MlJld~"fl r:<ij I, Mlh'wmlhm ~;HlJ£~ ll~~' RJj~'1fml"uf: ~'j'frjlC· riull.~, 'iA:Ll!1i. LAw .. l\I:IJi~f • .:i.'i!i ~ l!l!!l.ll);

I!I! 1~lIin] SJ1!f1'!i, A Gj~"'e!!.l0ID' nnhHil WiJdd A!i'p,mndu'!!i til !1rJ[~.nmtil:iIIl,~I] n\,,": 1"h .. :!Im::lal lin li'1:.!bl!!:: :lln!l1T.l~1:iI!llI1ll1 !,Il'!.',! \ollllfl~} I fJ!lllUhiilihIi!Ei. clU~lt1TI!J dL~.!I~rL~liilJllll!] m~with tllll!' S1:urtl!lkl }liIiyl!'r~'lf l.Mlw~INl~L

/-'l.Uf; [ro- lhi.J'lg.a.ri.JH J3;II~J.ii'[~(d'£, BilJd La& A~ned,car:n COUlltl':!JE$ .'ml;h as hg!'!11ltill0i fPl:l (Ql1}A!l and Br~1 .. dl rV<'!,(g1;ts}. 'fhls m~~u'l~ that. du"'~~~ I he ~n t~rw;'lt¥p;erjrJd, P'l'ogr:essive o[l1(nfolllJlli,I)IIl,UY hefl wi~E1g I'€JolmCis hi! l(!alJ~Jtsjes Hkc Gt)]CJimbia and Me}!im. and tlheinjgh~ wIng enemies, enlp]Dyed v:irU.1iillJ)y identical soclal, ICfl~lI(;1ril!U~~, a:ni1capll;3JlL'l;I. ,all.til.U;ler~1 :rbe[ol'l{;;$, the Me)!:i!can fede:r:;hll.!W£ltf laws ,o,f rhe ] 9(iOS, ..ramtJius ,01 n;t:ump~ i~'&lIn!;:'nt u f the e,e'ilvcallo r [he MeJtic<tu I,~[t undE.[ CtimCIl<1!S, d(]!~~~y ~es(tJ]1bli[ld ,rI t:b.eYV!re'm net i!I~lu~ny m.odeied on 1 NLL1~olc[m's Carl~l dt Lt·wQr(i.~'

[imruly. in the colo [I ie'S, :IIl<lt.ionaUsln miEliltnll'toU iol'li~~ inde;pelldl:.1t teo ~nd 'i,.lo1a_.S UW· C:<liH of ti1e ·peopl's asa whOle to arms 3£1lI1nst the colonial master; The 1;0]0- mal p01!'Ll',ecro\l, r,eeruHed n.aI:d1,!,iil;S [o!it.aff1he I,()~er levels ,of (I1J!l~:r. ad:rnlnnsn::llllnl1lS, and ,e]eme;nHs [ronl precoloni...11e1He-.'ii survived :an~~TlJtgulCd Sl!CCe~S in (he Cl:e:w ordCil'Utn:iJiU,gh EuJt'op'I?~]] ed ueatian, Some cifth~ found Frenc.h i Brl1:i.~,h. iJl!1lcb, and Uru:ll;e(b'l<J.'lteSem academie menrors-turned-ajlies to help 11mm transform rh i:!' ,PI rog;re!Oslve !1Ml'uopaU~.u'tsodaJ ~de~logy 1mB a:ll<l.rgu:m~nt~or every!:h:in:g fti] ([J '"'!"lIaritu,tl,lvclfare" 1:0 ll1!t]{ma~"in dep e'll'! h:l'r![:f.;l {Fu mh z ~~ U. ~ I '~nmE Du lei], ,~[(I.«~ :~aw soC]OIO,g[-SfS.~!i1 lElIilbert,.!B 'ru,gwel~~~I}.

Th~Vif! was ~ piilll~er.n" jd~tified fj]r 't.be:Egypt1~m ease by Amr Si.udakany,?~i le' tile precesa by wh~ch a r..a:r1[!hll'tJ Jeg."'i1 elite o[ Qn,e lXllilnlry' ,~rer Motber made tbssodal. ~1:S OWTI:. ~11 case !l(~'r case, the .limpl[II1.ing ~m.~ fo.u;~]d somethtug In Jthe O;;.l'l.iJ(lnaJ euhure lhi3J[ would! [Hake rille social, as opP05<ed Ie the ftmnrilli;;( k1dividnalismlmptUed to CIT,. ,nmtqr~dy,r:jliJ'prOfJr'i6fteto Jhltil'lMlflU [(I qUfJJl~f(m,

In .Enrope, tI:l~ CaliloUc 'Sou [11 (Portugal, Spain •. ba]Y.I,dong 'Wi~lll,l.IIngil:X'Y) c\Jukl. 1L:!1'I.'lpba,g;i1.!!t': 'lih.a,1 tbe .'mt.lal ~'l,I'~S (be pb:ilfl5l0phY'[I:r tl,e Churelii. ~nI!t'I,d~ ated i [I R1!:'ltum NO!lcrrurn (lfl97}. which meil [IS w(>f neW titing:s, "nnd I.ntl "new things "wereindu sU!'iallii~<ltion" urbOlJ]'liz<ltioIl) i.ntJ~'.[-d.ep(:![JJd.eJ[lce,c and I]~ Ij~S,[ nf thesoelal, In I'lile d~Jrtties ihe Vati.can ~U:1IJcl il:f> inlarneus deal with I~sci:sm, memorialized in ~the$oci.al rhei"of.ic: nfQ'urlirtfil~isil'luu1nnQ (li1e fll1qdic<tlclf 1937 1rirla.rkhlg 1Ibefgrtietl., a~u'lhre.r.;srnJ' or Remn!.Nou(ifl·uu~) .~o.llle Pmtestanr NgliLh. the D lHCh M,!~ re able '~n In.ffill'rprel ~ h!1! sndaL ,all parl!cutm'J:y ~l"Pl\oprii!ll.e

Ull s~ DMTP 1l.Oc:t<,Mrnl(li~JT"'IlII'1:~ A~~EIi!JlNA: Ttro N,(I{l1Q:,"i:,UJ!5'i!' MlJYI'liH'lf'lc, Tm t,]:!~l'l'1:!!)· "NPdlC'ii !~tfl'l.r.T ~ I 'jsal.

!Ill Crmj~~i1~I.tuJl2.M.Iilll N .... , ~!1lmtjjtltI!3, ~iiifl~ ... \J¥!Im&i:tllj)!I, :nw ~'p11'llJ~fSrH:-hnLt!w,ltJ Mt'.:rlCl' tilJd U1~ Srl,IJI'~g('I't ,OtfgfnlJUty GIrd .Pro.w~1jOOl[ms. (;1 Md,r~'cari 1.tJbiJf [aw rmOil) ~UI~pul!lt~hLlt'l P"lIIp'e~' Ill1 file- WU~I th~ fl!1l'llf@lk U!!Ih'crsl [y t~:w l.Wvlmvl

ut :!lfe! S. 'p[lIINl1m~n_ A11; 1f'frIlO[)OlltmUNTr! ·mE"l'<nI.IT~~l;F.ooNlmTf or- Btr~MJI. mfm~m:n.e ·1,il',

l.;t [, ~'dfihh~. ~'!t J.,~'l?r Jtml'.t"DjlXJtf..!$JI in lhl' N(Jlh~!I'l~1Nk II n~f.lli PE(KJ'l'l, ill SOLi>lllW('~· ti'P I_~W JIo~""u U!~JIi.~ .... ~i.n'.H.fijWf~.ID!:i'tI~ :VHi; tl!J~~'J.I ~J'QA.l:JJJ,m Q:jmtntn!£ [I, "'.a:lC~ HllllIIL~. L-d J 911!H.

!II ~.Lr glnll1abb.LI'. St.1l1JiuTI II1I~d (il(,W$ltyf/raJ t}rlg[n~ 0f,.:orrJI,vmN,Ut"i;' teall! ill tlJlIl t!mll i V~\I'lIJ, In r:t!!',rm N'r;;J'~I~' "I1:fill M.{Il>T!"~~{)i!' ('..flMJM.lIKIT'lfB.l.ILW ~!ill U\N N.6i:1~~ Jt[L'EIS, ,ulL :i!tJlJIl ).

Q I HroI:j'!1'I~ll CU'ol'·-rm'WlI'.!.l., '['m,-lifrr~ji['_"~.N '[ '''[I!i~~ TH·I~ S:rrm\l !~~ ~~Uir.iml .i1IA:~.1 11 !I~G],

51; i\l!tnt Sh~J;II.KailY, l1el~<'I $a~mll¥ liI~itj ~rJ;r .1reit(sufbr,ufmll &mhw'4 Gj}Jl(~ll'lE.\l1 rilnff r'JI' wm ftl ,~il'Wtllm. '6 ~ctlaUlh: L~w &! £jol:'r{'~y 2All ~ ~I}OI h

tt.llil.l!! i!:i)I~,~rdeJ:I~ndltln l 'CI:lIII~ (J:r d~ke-b;;u!)e-d httld recl;]malll~n. In R~Mi ... (llUlfli: 'wasl1le :[mnous" peasallli: viii;lge communi t}f, nr mirYiIi

hi a striking essay pubUsbed in the Ht1J1Ja.rdlnljl Jik!t,,'t!~!t In January 1 ~ 17 ,<t.

RO&l~Oi~ Pouri.1i1l Inrd d}~ nil" or mO(~er,n nli1'nt'p-\d~[l]jte'5~~>:LFI sm~nety Oli~ Ihe ~hElor 1":1:[ 'I he "Hmrmm i7.:.iltiun" 'of Unil!,."d!!;I:;J~~elNnlaw during rhe seeend hal f afdm nm(J~~IH.b 'ClHlll1J:ry. n-~Il!' IUfl:5M[i;!{!I C1.:f as OR'! "alil!l~" Rlolll'e~r legaID tb,(')lJlg!,"II~, ""'ho~ ft:mmaU~~ i~ldN[dui3i1.i:ii1I! bad d.i1>placBd Ihe 8'~fgank'" c.tJ~noo ~n~~~'!,! ~.'!lude bWi'ed on me III:Jt!gn uF ~reb,uitl~l~ (l'tlJab<'!l1d !lind wlfe, n'lil.J.')~er and servanr, ~O!Jii£ldlol'cl <J!nd tenant). ':Fh'll I'edi~~c(wm'r of COJllmL11l l.iiltW n:leIli.ie'Val rraclitiol.'! 'W,aS ~o be the basis tor br~ru~!'1gUlli.teds;ta,les,oon ]flW il'lJ~fI hr.JJtFn,ony wid! t"",eill'fielh·(:enhWfj( Cl!m~lilic]n"l1 of ~(lt.:filtinlemf:pernil.lJno~. Citrwiml:lO ~>O 'theGIffl:'IH<ln and l~r~'[J<!l:il1,uMlim1 ori\ginalD,[8 (If rtm JlI!OgJ7llllll]l h~ :pmp(}Is.ru!i. :W,lIDIl J~w <l.ollJ far bi!tw~~ ((jml!1gh .p~eIDti:rld lnhla ]<lI~~r \'VfJrk.~,~~ !j~p[l~e!iltlr~8lbJ!': sud<ll, !!~ U:.'!t:' t~mien:!l.l!.L'j: of 3d~tri,~d li:uw!lllt:!llifF! ~eli!al rhgl.lt.Ch~l.

I n _loU!'! AIWlei!iiC!I., the Ifig,M wing .i] u:rhold~l1irl1!!Jcn:i. apP~llh:d t:o lli.sp:t..mdnt~~ whnse 'oochl j!sst!llloe W,I.IrS Catholic but also uniqu.eiyj.\!:T.leli,c __ .~ JIlL Mexko. H::Idi foI!!lIarm and 111111' lop4rJ system ()f :!51Illtle< re:gub;u.edl .Q.IHI S'nJlIjmdil:wd ~fm,paJ~ aE'll/e' p~~~~l' agriJC.YluJfIe'J!I\!'i\l,s SUippm\edl~y a .re~um to Ipn:-O"J!ombian mod'e.s til !:It1ciaill or.g'<Inill:mitirm. 1,00 ~n Egypl" Sanh OUD,'S llitdern[ i ~m[iaUy 6r.:ietl.t:~d ,~M] 'bod~, lal:e.ra.doptl~d 1[]:r;ali,apredJn m~iltJl!y~tbe.r.mb (ilUll.tnl~l!, ~s ~tu:lI[:8erm'l.li .'I,ud er1Tl~fll!'m:Uy ~radillon'lJ, -i:l:.'ii' well as '~!:~u .. rncdern, beeanse lslamie I.<lw WU!l, and hOld otI",ays bee-I] f;O!I::i'<tl. ]D I

In}'!.fiic<l!, tller,e ww; Sellllhor's 1.~1!grUud.e! Kmlya:Ha's ,~,rrHm.1:I ideO':!. uF pfflPe:rty, I' ami Nyt,u"cre's Ar~i~.!li}Qcial'l~ n.r i1j~(~ma.liI);;! SU~:1 Yt! t Sen and lh~l Chi:il.l'ig K3i·sh~1!;. in Ci'iinadevcloped d'llli: iIl:atil!'nrui:i!'l i'deoll:lgy 'Of lhe 1KlJO'm:i.I:n tang, UIl: m ;tinUplp n nenr of am,ese eornmunlsnr, as ~ oom:~llf!l\ and subtle b~errd ,Or Conmo •. ~soda]I" and l!UlernJ e~ernLllt'l!t:>.LO:~ AI~i[ \iVoih.'l War n. CIlIa n,g hired Roscoe Pound as. Ii!! reggJ IWn8i,d:~I!;J'Ji[ un lthe lOOUSUUlC'l'LOn o:f du: [epl re,gjJftl! '1]'[ IJ.beTii.cpUDlic of c:JiJI;Wa en Tai;\,'i,~an, '11101

The sacl'rnJ tflu~dhe llhe pllLlil1~I.cJa\v j,d!ia{l!llogyofadillempoWlued, subgr,olJ'p iJt a:Hrit~h ,oolun..iaJ tltr!J!.eLmf, :ru!r e)lclliliWill!p~t;'. nf the QUl:iJeoijljs iiil1l CarulJdOJ,llin or-the

".!Il5eti! P,~m 1ll,':t'l~t')M""\ ~ln:I!;~£', ... :~tlI1&),jj·m:!.~ UP 1it111I1I'M",l1ijj,$f;I,\, tsna- .... I'I2.~ n",.Jh.,

I'lI'lgllltUl~rllhum ~ ]lJiIltJllty Ml.Kter, ~ l!il'fll t j. liT I'(]!UNT.!. n~pm I'Irtla '1'.

llllll.1f.,I~'JS(H~ ~PH1I)W\ AN lr.rrl).C!l'liJl7tJ.f'1\I~~I'fII~ljw~:.olim'HftjF[""W ~Hll2:), uu Ih~,. tj)ff#'J:~ ~:!.Ij!'t: 'U9~

luo] fivr.!E1l. N >'!ilrM'Pl'i'lN, Tnn E':1I:LlIi1I: M I":lJI~(f~ W.I!.\f O!!l'r II 'm7J,

I~I ~~I~lka'l1Y •. njFllInlH~ !:i'l" .

I,",' ~;'.~rd!. rupPZl I1HI1l4~_

JilJr~\f;rltMH1. ~J.lpm ~ijnll~35.

!~~f'jm l"I.il'llnd, p~~ fll/~w LlI.w ill Chltjll. :!3 \''!!~:!H.L. Rm; ~~5.,. 35.'1 jlS-l!8), Pournl. lih" (.'hiJllf)'!! CfrL'llO!lrlll'frJAaIWl!.U nJi .... I_m~ 2'1.0 flO!l5~,

1m lI~e.ClaJfi!.Ik'lli!il.l.l. W ,&\fj!l!~ill~droil'~jf~·r'!.'(d.rm.f !U.tilll~r ilim.f1.;! ml~.li!:!1d!' f/J:,llcl1oi-'€,pU·,.-r ~Wl!!l~ 1f~I~ll'~lrgU.~tlff'IO\Ill'Ufll i1WHIi!uJ~~J,d~U:' l:lE..rJL 11'11M.tJrlii, 1f1!alll

AlErik.o"lllllcm, in So·uI1Th Africa, 11:1& wIth ctliiliilim pri\'i.~ 10"' Ie'la! nl!'1!G th~ li~f1ITI~~ism r~.r lhe.lldunri~)'~ ~etI\Opo~~ asa S)'1'ru1Ibol Orreii~!dan!CC' I tllhccoUimtJn ~ij.W 'Or the cololll~1 pOWCiIF, 1111 PalC!;U1]l~durists~]]i'lJucn[)ed by ~Ingmy ,and EI.\did~ dJevekrped a ~(II:u.L~ r "U~T[lruw~:';',W''' tli1at\"I!iMI :fi.r~J r sup p l~1il;!d to h~iu.dhridiU.'1~ 1£[ and then scclal, and thefi ",l,'e,rr.t f) ~t "r r~h ioo,. at rhe n mlnen~ 'when tile St.Ul'C' 'of tsrad begaWl U) develup jj jh.jgb1,y soclal regirI'Il!:,of publ ie :htw. J m

S~l'wiI~y's ft1nnnliM dcrhr.lllf:HlI (Jf'<i!lllllrlwiIl:c~i'lw[romriGbt <1:00 wHTII gave l.Va'}I In Savi gn;fs iru.i!H:eIlC!!! that rutt]onallegal ml;!e'l's, did a.l1Idi .should ~~preseru Lhe pan.ictlll.ar !llOlmlaUI.'~ Orclfi of the p~ftpll~ invtll'o't:cl SUI ~~ ;;we ler~ ,iW~h I he ,qU'I:HI ann u r \'~"~y. 1),1 rhe mom enf €If dhlcmrerillllg mll:iol'lOll pa:rtic:ular.i.rY_f!il4!::1, nan"m,j dJspmufn!ti tl.Pfl S:o;I'nt> ,(Oil~1f?

A tae iie, bu t if]Jhia'Uy pkH~sl hleintempre~:u l~)n wtHdd be thmt th C' soc:ialwas a (O{lil Otf'E:!~~t,~ [rl~{:ir1JU pj\~ir;ijs.elj!' O.,e: ;]lb~ttnc~ ofth.e saeial, TIl<II: is, ot!" elites put i1l1 ,t;:!h;uge fl r 1il,g;v~niilg11em(:OJ!,irni U:UlI::I'iitpal:l1'by d;r;Jr;s't:m:dlic[, 01"000 I~im.~g w~I.~Uy .h1?('lIifIll!:Cll'J1.oom t1r:ibl1~ .m1.u.lJtW. m.ciilll, and reHr;iaUli& groups. first 0IS5ef!rll~ed 3S £olnni~ ~ttCimdi.fi.C [0 the l!''Hef;e!U.s. u:rlh~ 'f..mpiI'eS and (;rea~ Ptlwers. ilim'ld tJile,11 rept!vce1ecl iiI~t~le momonl 0 r m;:nigru,J.I. iHdepm;;tO;c.filoo <Icoo:n:'ling m lin2 in~llJire-.st'!i of Ii'lc' Grear Polevru:.s ilIl'ldl mif the To ~m elites wiflo ".,,~ UI lake m.e4r plaee, Theideol,og)' of the seclal \WIS, (p8.fh:lp~,] nO~fll 1\El:n.~dkm nf INti~:kmal poI!;ni'~ul~uil[y I)u~ ;!nin~l'mm~!'nl 'In tile: ~inlJaBil1l.ing~ Orl]i[~ndy I],OI1lBldSltJllnl [Ii1~i01l18,1 cmnmunltles, UW '['h,1!:. h.ypofhesjsgern Some SUPIH:ll"lfrnnl 'the story' I]re~nd~r in Li:le !j1'l1,1:ra~.

:s~,(I~"dfru*,I,)'. ttl t:~~o~d Rl(l~1:!!~i7.a~inn. rhe: idea gtthe "~'c:iaIB '11IVd.s,dintwiltI~iQU)' @m'biguuY11<i when ~p]ied ttl fmnlliW,B.ndSHUM mb:.tioBS.. 'fb~ soclal i:n:vt;d!;l\cd We demand [ham em pi O~"IW. l!l'eiU wll.rkttffi nut! Wall ~l,!rrlla.Il.[S Ue;l t Dm:lSllJ.m~'rS3.ciXJroan~ ~o ~ so ~ ethic. QiHL the ~ihetfi ric 'was!]!" e of sol ~dllri,ty ~flcl 'OInm!JJl i ly. The een S:l1LU~itiU:nt of rnl~ljon8 of fa[niiy Inembm~s <1:5 lnrrlnsicO])Uy <II tmistit .Ln,~l(l protective was an ·obvious. TIl!!femuee an d !lUPPO['l for I he' de.rn'lI'l.tuis 0:1' ~\fU[ike~ ~Jld 'Cr)W;i!.I~rs. I n a sense, t ~H! d~m:ii:nd WiUi I., ·.ri!ll~ bIOl!L~ the ninc,~e<l:'nth·ru;eil'nl]jg;y di~integirnlii:O:A Dfth,~ hoWiil1!noJd.,Bd ~,rulnp'CiS'[> on the 'ldIp~(a&t the duties; of the plJ.'man:.h. this tim~ wi;~ :;'l;U.~' Mfuro~!!]:l~I1!' ('If sfil:ilh!r~ty, r.II.ther than. Jl:h~ tuler,atlD.I;~ or 1I'fbil.mdUe5~,Ene!niefi of the: soela I n(!V'er tlrad or P L\)hltblg, ou~ ,11Il.t it W~!i J;t ·rel'l{~]YI1l" [mm lc::onU,il:~t to status, ~nd ~J1.rr1 it wtlS ~(~I~n.e!ilmnG~· to [he: bew::!fiC:~<lI:iiS's 1 (I be (:feI:.a:t:ed Mi du:n,lgb, I ike the member of the ['inman rar~ud:a]h(nJ.:Re:llf)[d~ rTI.'ley ]~c:ktedle~] cnp~city. ]1,1'1

JOt! /111m '11111'1 de Wn!iLl t. Tmdft{t:m,[ln TI1al.::JI iCnil/(Jlj h~fily,l'~ fJ{ ~/J~' [:wIJ-la •• , l'ffII.'iJ.«m m ."i~m~li J1jfri!;~!UI r~l1pt'r1j' ,iJtrl'. I I S, Am. I. 1m ~I'!iI~. Iiffi;., lfi~ 11~!iJ.

!(f;' ~rLl'lrl:Jm<5"J" nb" ttJ.l'l1JlJi!lii aj-J'4.[mw,. ~ JUj)~ in 1\ "liIInfli.J'lhry AJ"c(";f!llT>1'. J Ij AI.L J, eo .. .m 1.. :t.l'!ll' n~.

~>lII Enl!:I IQ!l;>.!llll;WIiI. ~iI<l,l'rj"'~ liI'w.'ti N.w.tI:!.'IWl!iJoi ~ flitl! .~ l'l!D t ~~fJl; ~1IJ:;iUiIr:r /liiY1F~!i. 1lr.1~l':.mal O:l'l,","Up!.riTl&,>: 1{I]IiLiil:lT!l~~ rNII-.I1U! Oi'I'i§~Il'>"& MiI!I) ,!ilPllllAD '1:1 r, N"'~!]MlJiSll tirllbl:lI, mt ]_9g:t I ~!J'IO~, .. \UPl'l'l fi[I!!l~l~: n'lSenl."'Jpm JlI11E!>l~~

51

A'I me 'arne l:ilru~; the suci.u] ~t[Jyd for modemity,,~oT adapting: kl\'>\' too conditions crf uruanlzatlen, global HII<tJr'kJ-r. eoonmn,y, lech1lologica! change, and general i 11 i;t!fflepenll enee 'The _Pl.':fig-rr=ss]\; e sod,'l] rvJll'JI08cb [0 sex and ram n)~ i il the NortbAtlim Lie ''WfiS uornbly"sE'ctdn!;", i nJlucnced by the ms'l wave onMelem" mlnlsru, and ~'t in turn, Inlluen ed the most secular lind WI ml:z -0,

egm nts of the' ellt s of th p' 'l'j pbery.I,[!; .1]1'1).I~rnm, was t'll ease many pmhjbrti[lfL.~ ~I" the nin teemh-eennny gend 'vlt!g!ime. while at the same titne illi'easinglhc intrushre en errcem 'nt 01' the duties of the patrlareh that eLT had I'rB3:t d as merely moral, as opposed 10 lega'l.

The '~ad 31 ideology treated lile fam i.ly' as an in !'ititutkm '~'l!ith '[uucrlof'Q s and purposes rneiel to I1le sm:i~ whule. Th filmily W36 far frnlJ1 ... matter of m.e:mly pl.iWlle co n' ·"'m. or ometh i u g to be IJiB £1. [0 tho 'p !UticUlI iUitles 0" local eulrure, 1~,lr '~.r:i t1in:il l![Y'ill'r:tI1EUinod as mOlfttl rather than [{!'gai.EiW!ry ,3l.~]1ec~ ui family Iif~ had. glv'(,I] soelal II.'I~lerdependeI!cc, tar-reachtngconsequences for lilt 0 rher so c i<llll tunctlons, a nod th e "publil: interest" [her,efo re lusU lied persaS'iV{l lrnarventlan ilc~~ms* M.le'i'alIypa:thologi.ca] he'hu'liiJnr; T1::I.e "study'" was a eruetal .iIl'Sli:timent here, as itwas in I,he!! area uf]ndusl:tial acetderus, and rhe $'~r.Uegy 'was ide.lltitcaL.It velilltbJi'I of bad I ondi,liomi of puar .amilies would rnebillz Ll Ul SYJllpa~ hy of the miiddl class iuf.av()r u . regul allan.

SLudh:lS ceuldalso !SuP']) on decnnd.llaj~~tn on and l:itca:stigm.a.tJzfldon by :sbowing I"ll<11 o III tdated, moraH$UC COnlmis 0[1 sexuaUI:y all! d i hs· ~I (~nt:e on Lhe Rlrmali,ties of marriagewere g:odaRy cOUfUerprnd.ucUv '. The pu'b:li.1: haaltl argumems ~~'Jvere(l, UIlf:wh,o]1.l rntlge[ro~ll dllUd nutrition ~o ~nerea.l. dlseas . Spread b!l'prc~tilliHes fori t!.d m~o \I,i'ce by rhe combinarioe, of: pO'i.i~tly and repres Vi social noru,'hS ("ruined'; ..... omen could.n't marry), Tile new science of sexol og_y s,uMestecl reform in the i nt.eR!st of adult J:i'f:l~U III pleasu.J~ .. but also ro S'~abmlli' '~r;.ditiorllal ~l1der arrangeme nts in the lnmrcst of soele l~,t .'il5 a wlm,le.,111I

In the progressi.wi'!\l''e[Si,all. nfdle.soc.ial, the J)rohibilil:m~,tlJo be oornl«lt] wef:~ I..h05'~ nn i'lonmorritm Sine, <I!do.l' lel:.M!f!]de by chl~rimimLlizDng :i'e.rua,l~ ,adlU,lle'I1' and Sf:' b rween lI.nma:rri,l;l,d Pi [Sons. p . rmitt:ing dNorl:~ h}' mutu;tl consent, I l!laHziug the sal . uf unnaceptives, dl2nigmatizi.fl.~ iH~gilimacy, lega~j,zi:lIlg a.bo.rtlon !'~Q tb..'J:{ it would be pe.nmru'l!oo .~ l'Iil1.H:dkruJy Clll:IJtroned eircurnstances), The dccdminailIz8tion 0.0£ pl'O!tlit1.li~lon vilCl:.i'r <illOIl,g with :It~ n~guJa& lion in brothels tbruugb Ihc 1ypi~~ oeial mode of an inSpectrnt armed with erhnlnal fn~n;;i] t ie~and in] un cliv,e pOW'~IH·!l. Th eo seclal id'L;iO[Ogy UHldecito p'~I'[hQlogi7.t: ,aod mcdiffil]?.£ bonmsexual fly.

The duties to. b Jincreased included rommll:ing domestic battl ry bofl'l of l'lf1Ve5, and ehildren, il~ill:l by establ ishingadmin is,tQ:l~ive agencies armed "'\fi ch low-.~El\~ ,I mmirm~ sanctions and pOlw.erlJj inlliail.e the transfer ur I.:liSh.'ld)l

I LII "rilD1~ GrtlMmml 11, 7Jl~ New WfHJtltl1l a,m lh", RQ.ti'm€!lr~lir,m ()'f~llil/.lfy .dlJ 'WdrrllU"' (.;;!1.'lJ':[~.ty, ill, PrIWIUUlUl-' I]~mr. ~Anu SiiHflW, Chr.:l!"HI1i:!!.SI~lI:iiiA!~I'! and ShllTIln "Ii1tl'lJl"l;P~i:m t!d!i~ :~~~l

5.2

o<f '~hilrlnm: .. FmniJy and juveni le ceurrsand tlliu~ I]~w~y cr~at'ed p.mfession of ;'\sm:i,al Wn:f.lt~ al rued ro fa. deiarm,a,1 izsd lega~ I'egiuu~ dl!"ie.nted ~o wl~]fa.re ruther than lighrts (b~'~ Inteeesr gif tbe ,t.'::bjldl. reliLabiU! ilit:ign rnlL"her tban p1iJJlii!ihnH;,'rU r P@l'EliOIl],J, In Need. ,gr'Sup;$rvia;~Q.n, Child In NI?'ed of S'li.I(l>e,f!lil!il]orJi" ,md so m:i ) .. J l. i

Th~ pr:ogr~~sive:,,!' main 0ppur!i:i Ilcsil1 [hI:! NO[itJl,/'Idantic Were tb;~ CHttlolic ell urch aX:l:d ~ud,..n~f Cfln~f;1f'1/~tJ:ve' 'flnj (atoUir u :Ii~C($ (e.g., cheBibh~ Bell tu lh(;l United! States, Anglicanii$I'[;l iI')I the U:oH~d liG,~d.om). As ln the nlneteenth IcenUl~. a~tbou:gh the agWida l.WlS l['alls~~<I!ti.onal and Ihe <lEgil:imt::nts andeleme:uu··nf reff:ll:t'l1l!. eve't~her'~ s[nlnal'~ there< ,.,ras U!orr.htl'l(5 moo the g]oha!iz<Uion ofaJ parti)cu]. !ilOdil] ·IGga'l rcWmc .. Th)~NJlJtcomesv,an edf:rom f!YillIJitr'y to co:unw try ;;u"IdI'rGIll d!:lcads t~ d~c'lJle, (l(jC1cm::illil.lg tn the ~ O>c.a[ b~a:nCi~ CI,f fortes and 'thfl·stf~legie!l tJif 11!.~ !jY~l[r:1nde~S', "{he ~dal iPwvidel1J, B!!i .tmd co.: a Si!':'h,Blne of IC;;JJt~~Qrie8. ~ume'nt5, and eh~liIl'tll1't;s·rOlr leijisb1!ti{rn,. nut of whkh ~""r~gJ:t~ uationalspeakers P~'(l:duccd(he paN].te of fP{'S~tivc law:;

111m authornartan natiDn;IDliBl <I:li~'PrtI<lr;h wm very diUEl:I1I!lIrt, rha ugh no ~.ess "jlod~t" 1" Naz$ Gerlf.lUll1}'" bun tl1l1ink m':l!iy Ibe:re;il W<lsmk~.lll~,es£]y "madern," cngcucci:st <iboul [tlpr[ldlJ~tilon .. :s we:tI. 'i~ about n\Ci~11 exUn;CtkHI. U2 .~u~hurum;ad.ms ~~,!i'ewh~",~ W~[tl JTllnkly a:mC'd 'with the Callho.Lk or Greek OrtJbQc1Lfix Chl!rc1 I, both in, peripbeL<I!J t:JUropePflUd in ,LaM! Arme:d.ca, or w.1:tl1 C:~:m:I'upaOr or Shinm "fmliliHy values" U'l Easr &ht The fru:niiy pl<'lyed the roll~ ofl he ~ healil" or ~soUil ~ of thlll [I:a'r.i!ou exactly IH:'!c<Lo5G i,t wa:strad.i.t!im1<i1. tatl::u::r liIan modem. The l.\r~lUle f.Mi [[011, "\'~ a fl!l:l:lli.]y, fo,r example, and the flIlJILhin dlnrItm leader 1i~ fl "fu~he(;,j

The interests oh.he Ittill'lor:f~q;ujJ'c!d the refo[m of the farmilyilll [n.e lnteeests 0-1 !'iaci~tYr as iuthe prng;ressJ.v{!' iiII,g'f'llda, IEHH the rbetadc was o:r prolect:!loD. riulle r than 01: fr;e€dom ande<quanty. TI')e fruni.ly a:gend)fIl WilS' to' s:.ulalS.id:i7£ the u,nlidonru. JUldem,-fumily ·;_rud tbJe CWf.:Cpr-i8eoJ ~Mdr:e,<frilli B i III (Jr('l~f ttl strengthen the l1I~'LdD!IJ <Il'l~1I:I"'t its mmnil.es, l'h~si,n;vnl v,ed meJf1foroi[):~fue I:;JOW!ef uf taft h ~rs Whil~ !l'lcre,as~lf'Ig, s.l1:rvi!ne~ U,:illuOIDe.n> I'~tdctecl' to 1Il.~ il::lli:une ~ p:IT.n:,atilJism, aad mam.1ruJ~ing It;b.e sy'~~em or ptn hibitkm;:::,. (,In exl"r3m..rrtt..'115eK" lmlhy o:fwomen. ~[h.e .m,a[D.tJ!n;e<ltsf.or the OIl1JduJlfi,Q}:[jan suciail, Wel)~" Godless ceafllJPunlsu,,( and-the' "'clecade.lu:" Jiiberalbing n'lell.d in bomgeo~s huenanism mfld ;\;otifl'~~ ~m,Hnl1u I ph!) (I'ill arnd a.[lt1r,l~nultisl'n w,en t hamd :in h'ril.l'li:t I 'I,]

lrbe uilijol1JiiI~liberntkm parties i [I mecoLrm:ized. wllIrldt¥tced yel' ~II hir.tli COlll.fi.gUIaticl.]]. N3liol:l!aili:!ll.U\ weroellli8iryw.I1~ di8p!j[~d in, lb~i:r elalm ~p~carn:

H':IJe rap ptlsili,tian ~o rh~ cQh:m.i;aJ pm'll'~r. () r i3Cl!J!Jl'S~, in 1'11i<U1J' plaefA:ljlillll.oo we.re cernmtmlst parties. Bur O'f[cn mote lmpnrtarrtwere ptlUUc~IFornliUi~,ul~ repm1>e.a'llti;ng iheIT:<l:gnulrnffi file I]1'Ilional[~ts bop,ed to bdng tog'i.':lther in C[HI]u'tion.

II ~ CJI!!ll:SiNlP.t~I'"-!1 JLMctl,FI ~v1;;r;1 tN ~ B~l1ILmj:F.£'i WrmU] ~ ! g71l,

II~ l,"iUeN [I1t1W'G'I:~!IlL't.M!!DQSTI!\I\'; W(lM~f'l II'l W'11~n ... ~ "Nil) N~zl al!~MJl:NV ~ 11l!l'IatiJ. Elir[~I~fII.Hal, ~1:[iIllt G~MSI1HlIl. Mlnj(!~l Kaplil'l~ OOIil.. 1 flll4~.

J U S!!f!, ,u_~., ~oJat;RT "'~nfli" HI~ln.Jilll~ D~ VI~;U!l' l!~:i'-'.';,r~ rl!1.p~),

Tbllee Globalizlltiions of Law and. [ega) Thou~hll.

53

In the Midd]c East. South As!ia. Southeast Asia, ;)inc! Africa. there W(1;I)e, Ilni( of all, I. lamic mfol'm. parties (arid HIndu partieS in I.Jl.1dia). Then there were trlbal polilic"tl orgl.llllzilliomi ~iJ1 all th above "eglon.s; nat just ln Africa). And th T Wlilrc rae ally 'lTl~g~lllj2!ed groups, often 111 rel;!ctl nn '<!!gO'lli nst local minorities (for ,~amJlle, flg.<i!ins[ the Chl~u;:!!e or lndians in SCIllL'l:he'a.H Asia and the P,at~Bc,aga,insl th~A:r3.h,!iI 1n sub-Saharan AIDea) that had rnTi.''IIlBd afjd pn)s· re«~d II nder (;o~o'nial <I',t[s'p,im,s..

The na'lIQnal.i!ii~ PW1'HCt was ~'(J develop Lhe nctlen gf naflonal ,particularity <III a secular furce, 3lJahlsr both the colunlal power and the ,ftagmEHlli.ng el, ~lUent'Sin the lo a] Situ~tiOJll. 'he family played a big role here: the naslon oouWd b llnH':led around ill'S unique family value!)~ social values. that provided 3L cIe<lrpoint of cemrnst with the imagined sexual and Iamilial dege.nerney ol'the metmpole and "the West" in gclluirnLa~ This, made possible OJ ompl~ set nl' ecmprumlses, Pirsl. in the name of Ilwdemity, neticnallsrs could enders . ' ducatifl:nl 8.1:1d t!mp,loyrtl ent F(l,t \'I1'gmi;j'fI, tm,d,!;lf me l:eglliawc con:dlr tlens ~ha1 liliUl 50 ciaJI pwgra.m ;tth:: mph::d H~ 'll:'Stabli.s,b for <111 ~'II'llllke.li'S. 'S(ecuud, wOn;;!en shtn;dd (kLeailly through 5'i<llite-SUppluted. organ:izflt:IOI~S') partidpalt~ in uadonal sLruggies ,as oee 0 r Lhe Slod,a I groups {alof'l(g wirth labor,EEl.lTflers, yuulh, in'teUecl.l!al:s, etc.) maltlng up tn,e IICOrpD~-atisutde of the !lationallib~ eration cO'<J1itkm •

.lU the s'ame irne, [hlll1 run:iIollal i:iLS, . tlU Id t;Dmpromi,se, in th regulation of g!!!Dd~rrole.sini'ilarria~tr and estrsmarital ffiil'xualhy, with the local owes that idrmli u~d with tradition. SQcial r.ich1:s fQ!rlabot, land r form. and publicI prl\!llL~e collaboratlan jn infrastructure develo1i1m;eri1.lin:d import substlnuiozr mdU5tfializaliol1.; cauld nut iLlS'I. (mel<ii'll wi:th, they eould .harl1lOt.M;e with h."I.IDlob~Uty on rurm~t iri!l:q1JO:I]j;ty l.uldcr Isl:mni£ law, [olf.d.mli Oil. ,uf domeSlttic vlolente lind CrJU1~S ofhono:r. <lnd lIu:! 'L~J:!I,eb.rlil[]DI' of female virg[rrity before ma:ui<IgiB:. (J 5 Activists fur wOtl1eu 's iligh'~g ~ound themselves up ,aga:ITl'st (he probJ m that rnodflmjzin~ secular male ,elU,es had chosen [0 spLh the dil':feren!;e', IOn Issues of sex and the farun:il.~r, \..n.lh the 1:;i)'fiI.~e[\o'llti\l'e ulrmm in the M'lJSl.im worLd or l:be priests l!l the Cat hnU world. t Iii

"11m • the Sa\i'!i'{lni fl campnmrise tiook ;) n .wlnm. ProgressIve vi W·, abeut labur hn'll', consumer hlW,i bou!iinglmio'j and se Ierth, !iDl1:l:eUmes combined wnh fOllscls~ or tradltte nalliiivjew5 about .ramUyl~w and in gen end abouc the status of \VOmeI:L flll, d:te ~!E:le'teenlli1· eentu l-y codes, it had been eOOIlIl on i,c lihera.tism th~u ecrnblned with: [M~Jy' hlW oOJul,enmli'Sm.) l'he snc,iliLi, whleh ,[:uwd be thoroughly 'pmgre.s:slvB or lhofuughly ~'.lI",d\51 in the political and

U~ )(' i1~lml>\ ,I'(,\'rr A,II , lJlIfNmu(l, 1!i.N1J1'1'!i:I!MW.,~CliflOl'liJll.I!,rm f'o5m'XJW IA.LIII!!m)R~ 1i'1<\1~1·

11·l.;!m""II'bu-OI'lI'Il!. Grlfn!lS (}[lifrmortlrtlll tilL' (,VJli.il'kcr'IO!1 tlJ'Gf!.riderinAmh Sor:iJ'!if1!i. In FilM" "l!'lM: ... lIom 1$L'Ifj,~; La'"L.,\!ii'l!ll..~T£RAIIY I' '(iI!'il' ,t:r!VES (Mill Ylllllanl" ed .. tOOIi) ,

!aU I rna i\hu.o·i '1I.litrIpr'tNII~l1Ij/lt~m: :rmpfllJil'/l.l~Il~ldpR<tJrylJ"J..}(,/I!f, in VliLlll, L~w PIl1!.~1 I!lM 12011.11.

made!' domnil}lS. eoukl at~ be pmgJ' i\r or ttadilionllill!il on Sf.'-X.,. mJ rnml1y. :a.fl.l!i 1 hero wreaIways oomPI'UD:U5!l'.:S in both LlolIl:tin&, and the cnmpmnases ,1"ml,tI, go in an dim tjj1n~

Th werhm g!)'ll£l~ 11. "(~1~' welfare m,~." ~lQ,llllrcs bl1!'a."!.ily in da,e :mdal and p,Olllictlil hi;iIOry 11f the pertnd of tllile so mI, [I.un lIS £ h~pp Is a'IJre~!.R')' dear. iftwuLlld III " "HOtlS ~." U'E!<Il h as '1l1il' "t.'l55~I:t"Y nr, 'nJltn th pOim of \rj \'II Dnaw, as dIe ClimtmJ dm.'illnp lnirnL .Jlte It-gaI fnHcepts !l'hlJ~ :iii m m05~:impun.an~ aff:' til lIse of!>odnl lnsuran e h.mettlpmnyrneu1, t'cidlmUo, hl!illtb!Uld nld !lgepensim1.'\) and enthl' mmts, b~ on need. l:onlt'epsuaJb'a1 a'S n:liI.,blli'l rive. wirh nn admini tmrion ihal!. does lIll!' need assessm -nl and deliv.ers stll"\'ii.ces (iiOeln' work) .ham ~ ~Pfll~C:'1J • u 11i:!~mcgra[C tbe mcipimn mlO the pl'l:.'sllmab~~· norHl'!.I Lllli,"'QfM.' uf the bJibor mnrlW1.

These an typical11lliUillcs.L.a1lons nr the- lldill. Whlfrj Hi !DII'laikian Gennafll " ~~, I!It!lDflt d d]l'ili!.l~hraul the capimi1J;sr "~1. Thew is 0111 eas)f tr.Jlllomnn b~ the "rl1itl'h Qr ~[Jjci~lli!;hl~ liilll;J(!iIi'S~DtU!l'as "lhinl glN'letfldj~m~ (afler private 1b ...... lJlIld lPoliliml rigilLl~l. OCCUpyhllll. <I f)i'i.~iI i on of jurisfic omb~g:u:ity ~rpical or Lh~ innov,lIIion orllh~ perind. snr-ialrlghrs Wil:n! Dulb ~.1. and ,e~'enpn~U'lu'tiM.liI IHrsl LIl M -neo. l'~J 71. but noniustidable it" 11(lllhe ~ '~'e~, if ben titll provid'd, ,;.ilIi1ul..lgil jUbn,,",abl~ <'I!> ~l1tiLlements unee l·g!sbui\~ 'iy CStiilb.H5b~d wilhin. th adrnhli:l:l ['.i!! U VI(' raw reginu: of rh cuuntry in qw~s,tb.lll.

nft'lJu- e.th \ IIiilll!Ilstll,t- clJuld~~llbalil"onl:ytlli:ilirniit d ·~te1rll.bcc;:n,'IIse it presupposed .;II particular kind of ec:on:om e, soclal, and :1dllll1'inistr.u:ive dCl,r,elopment. a mel'lsmei of ,)oUti~l ::Ilil,tllm,my li.~. ~om.e[IIi.n,g ethar IiJlnn c~l.uru_oo stQ'IWo), and I!! puUtirnl oonfignr.niDD" ~ .. ",ould charn.I:'I.p..rlz.e Lbepu]j;E'ir;alletmriRuml~i an u!. {In • in 'wJMd:s a sign lftean ~ m easure of ~d£Strihnrll(lllfl from lhl! middh,'- 10 tile l'o\VE!'II'-rniddJe arnd ''V'l~rking-drn;s suaea, ami a sienffic,inn me'l!i.un: of pat~tiIltdL .. r ron IJwi g th 5pc[uiliIllC d"ds~on s of ~11 ase .\Oln~ltt (dill;n ;S, -IJmpcL1inGlhcl'liUQ'in~urnJ.,rolidd b mad plnu~bhHn .. m r ,t:uuru major~ty (e.g.. d1li~ _ ~ ... ! DeallD the nUiledlates., 1111 Fin1l1t Populaim InFmn~. lli (;urpu;Jllisl .surim d~nlll mcy uf Will"mi Oli tInl l'iui.horilarl_n elhe' (e.g.. r.:ef1!flfIfl)'. 1\~~f1ljnal. a. .. prmeenan IOrtilu~ 'iocl.d Whtlfl!.. Nntl:' th • as, lJro cas' funhelib~mLiz.al.oJl or[bekw unh hnweludd.lhefedeveloped a incl.e' t'Gl115Ilatll1l[~aI prnRnunJ:Il~s.k repert'Oite a:ndirmllig' \lloalillulLklryfm soctal pregfI'IlDlu; (,'rtngul'). bu I' Ml! infi.rlit~ d;"el"s;j:ty of 5p~C lUI dOflJ<d r~n~~ (p:amlBJ.

,"ReI wgilue' 11m ~odruJ ~ltm(:!i tonk a de,~p i'J1~ fl2j~ in ilne iiL~n['uJ'fu.rnl '¥Orlt~ 1i.'.fiI 'Ilftbe UUdl. tha \I'~ry on~ tha~ LeI I bad ~ump!lld mClhe IfJjJLdio uPf!mi«. Ill' n.'\:dom of eenn .. C( r-egime. blithel.)' ignorifl,1l their 'llb\·ItJUS hu:k IOf "fpc ",val."

" SI!r, fli Id/i'TIlTU'I> S1<I'iCft'll.;fon!:Lu 1lD.~ I no: MtmUll'. i!.VUlu.1.l!l99IlhF.WIkW, I ~'lu nul~SIi

1'[1is 'Was Ihe pe'rjod of the ~:u;!g;inn.i.ng.of thepopuilar io~ e'xph~:s,~(D<n in tllc SOULh, as deillilll t:Jt:tli!!s ill mn[IIlY .~r,e~ISi b~g:.I!'1fI 10 frrtH wh!l~ bhth rnt~tii IcmIl:mtld t,mn:SJtrnu .. The hltifundloa:l minifu n(iJiJa SU'ul'Lumb ag:a:n[~ cam ~ <l1Ilm'1 a:l the ,mm~fI;rnd:ia IOllt ~lltcaT ctI,pac'ity [0 aIi)SOdl p!lpul.alio[!l bitff'~e... s, \vlruilie '~~Hrun· ~ as [be!!, I:H~1;amJ!l1110!1e ellkienl tL~ll~hmeel1tanwujnl1'. needr:d less rilLW !:tb~H pu\,;:er. U~) 'lO 193(1, C:i pH~~ ('!lnUnl.1ed 1'(ii1 p(J<urinlll ~h e d ewJ!QlpllJl g\'~'j]lrl d, ,~ffild ing infr;;L:Ij tn:u::tu(~ and CToo'li1i1g pll'im{lif1,' produc[ rm1liinellr<lm and agri'CJIj];ur1l'l) el::lu~rplise.s, and sIJmul.1tin[l smulnho]de!' cash C'lIopl1illlt" AIiI£'r 192m, .11U of this s;tuJ:lped (:lbnil:)dy. The 8~lulh{;'m ~lyll:l nf uTh~lnl(,;ilJI(!n! based nut O[J me I are ,ofe!'lipandtn:gil1lldusrn<11 'Il'n~pioym·r.m.t. but un Ulkl ~11.a:IlSP.'ilf. m.ral, Uf~, GlJI: ~mclurwill'y. ~ ~8

'IiiI$s Wa'i, ,aJ~o d'ilf:!' period of ComrnlWlis[ revolmion in lan dI m'lll::lership' m l{iJ~Srrt, ln Wfl ieh bDtl1 11it:[~fundi", and min ifundffia. alone wi:tTh1 .I:Illg~ and ~n:MII ~ l~and:IO]d classes, l,VC(,e ubonsbru1,andl a.ClicuJtUlie~()Uecd~ll. This \,Vi!Sl am 'epm::ba] e\!l~n l.l'I'B"n~rormin~ t'he fu iem:reh.jcmSlJi'uC:UI!~e uf the M'ld;'fd Hv~ of millliOJ::1S ,or peopl~. all a 'w!wylarge C{)!![~n d'llOld'iJ and 8U Hie-ring. ;::tflt'! rill:atively UtIle lru:tea'Se in calorie intn1.i;I' per (1<11, Non~iIJheleJ'l!§.O'I~DniP'"itb [Ili.l.ed ~(liQ'!:munlst u:pris:i.rl!CS in phl~~S ,Ih 'li ~.nllli<l.n'}· and !HiI.lug.ary (,l9.1 9 ):a~d Ch~n!J <lind lnd~HJ!21i~a lJ 1iI:~n '~U::!!I.ughl t,hl~ a'lte.nUm:w ureJit~ il'\'l:."'if)ilO~rhcre.

The ,c'haU:~G~ !();r me sociru, curroi.'1~ .• afilicr the 'f.ti~um oftheWe.s:lem powetp,l, m erushthe K.us£.lan mvoh.l!t[iml mniUt1l.rOy, was, again, to sa '!.Ie Ii be~l H~l!iI"I bl'JtIl ,rrse:l[ Jhl this tiI,I:Hr~airn. all, in thdl G£ i,abor/,t;:'li$lmtaJ and iluema:tlormT QO[lUkt. lher~ hfld HI be an rulem,Ulrve 10 l.in(il,\'l:lh,uuon ~:ndooU!.l.diViZ<It[[!ju. Tb~r.i,gl1lwi;og social :sal UtilDI.l!i (whtetluzrin in.depi!ndftllt auiliQI'ltar$i1m~mgliBJn~ Uf ili!l ItWRIru~~ m1lmwGi ~Oh]R~Qi, ~:meiij ,.~'ere righr wiJ.,~ b~<I!u~e th~y ne]t1Hn~ha~· 'l.elll),ed (he' Q'\\\!~ersfl:fl ~ [1'~J}d[~ run' uiOOW'(OfCe- fm:cign mpitaUsl eiiJitjIJ:rpri,s.e!!:. tu 's;uhsidb.:e I'he lpoo.t a"giliclllllt~ seeter, Imwad, Iii!!!)! o~redpdl.kie".s U~ road bill ih1]mg, t~n,ign;lj;[ln. and e.N.n'l:lJUtDn nf puwe1. till tn,!! 'COUll'l fjfS£dc. AlJl~lllilelr .rig~H~\.vi.ll;g t"rnpe was reseulemem ]f mig~::It be tnternal, as ~n tIDe po.ti[!y of m.oving r,il'l'1l!l1~Se peasant f(\'rUld1':r$ In the uurer lslands under tb~ DUflCb uRII-:!. kal Poliay. -u!.! '0<1 In~l() rH~wly acqlil~md te]'TllOry (ec;G" M:u);solini~ North <Jl11'1.d ~u Afri~r1ml i!'fl:peria'l.schem.~).

The pmOte"$..'i;1Vt:' V'ermn'll uUhe 50CIa]] ado~~:ned the sanIiH,ftmwgflM. but ",!'lit: less, lilClu!enr;y ~'O "pdv,atiZie ~.h~ a~.eililrs cd' :IinnlLs(o nruni.cin a5&DUJIl as po.ssi ble, lIlhl0SfY~'t!iI t~ 'fRr:ru~~fl!e Va.He:~' AUlhol:i~ 1S 3. pLitlU~ example, BlJlt 'Lbeir r:mt.!'uc'~HPll!lii!lttl\",I~S ]~d re~[!m:n.. ~n tl~e bf1(ladcSl" li<~n~ md l1di,l],g~he U:lIflfiful'[[]IilItiiti'l1 of hlJ[ge ~[I~ I) vi<lfu1C' 51]["1;j1 pmpel1il!!s,tfue a,ggJoWllN03lil:km >0 r rIi]]~iJL.ndj~ into! cOlP'Perail.lv(ls.. d~.e ahoUdorn of teuu~fbirES Uke ~t!rec:rl)pp i ng, and rltliO &uhs~ilLu.in!n of MnClU-s rn m'l-s of c[lopemJ:j\ic OJ[ state cmdil (Dlr rural mlon· eylc-n d~rt;, ClHl'p L\l nnive nillaiRfltiTlg beards, WiLili lllIel,e~!I:ed,sta:te pQ1l.'ll'>eP.i as

11. Wc:ilf, Juprnmtl(~l' ·\11.

u~.~t. ~:. t~U:;l.:l..!tl~ {I, l'h~rnRr(Ol17 MQD~IIN IH~)~m~ll!.l!.r.l4!l~ l~fjn.

58

n:guhu.ed t110nopstmists. were tu -'ll out tha W, tern cemmercia] h::ll~efl1l[1t!dime 'b tween cash .cropp. rs ,and mler1lu'rj nal rommodity mari::ea. The refUHuern; '''IICJi~ far less SlJl"'i:~ssflll htlr,1! I:h<m f'!,5~whe[\e!9nd. wi[,ll e::«:ep'ti.utlls like Me;~i(;u, the f) p;mssionsl::mtlecl nllJ&t of me schemes ilI1lj_g~~ Il~,!.be s'iag o'fimplelueOUU'loll.

r'~t'U1iIatron{j.1 t"LYinoJII'liic ,w'rv. 12U The~il!li.ek.i:nlll Of thinking tba~, ~ed [0 the mjoctil1l10fdIDl'lll aI libl!l3.1 law as fomlai'ist .. nd indll:vidualisdoo 'In to. rej' 0, ri!)fI (')[ 'me nfnereenth-cenrury ~gu'ld staDd~dt'lTee i'l:l'I.de/priwte bllto!:lm<'lrlonal ItII.\r~ Il:fl~m~ Stafll:i.fI,g in the' I'9;W1S, but e:x'IfIlndJng aliIcr ~929. lI~n 1:10 the period of "nut. r,ell ."whh:h mi,glu berrerbe deserlh d as "nadnnal snat~ror'" ba."l ·d Of! bill'ltit.!rrn agreements ,anti! u'l.l!n IlIJ IIDe [omlaHmll olib!o(s' lim' those t)S '1h.,. ernpl IUS and then l'lJiUM:' b~s-.ed on jdeoi,[l~ in Uli~ cun It,taf! ta:n.iun of lib o~;di m .vilh 131.rull1and eermrnmism,

,l,,~porlsulJ5-ti~tllior,r Indnll'l"irum,fi~1\m, an Th e ~a5t.flf't.llmpre-War 'ill rDllJ'l!ial':ion:s. ['lIl:memilmbcg~1I1 ~n ~.alinAfllelijr:a,. Thill C'!DjionIzccir}er111he'rnJ countries could [l ut rr:a lin lhek .own m[(,:IlC!i'tl' 10 the De[Jre5sicm; 'dJI;!Y' ll'ffp['ed [In jl,1',cly th dryW~ up IqJ,rlt1Ve..·oItlm~:lll fm~lil! ~ iUliT mc'lmpyle and li'1le (loU,liIpseof the p~iC:I:S g If thelt pdmM}f p:rndud P-lt11 _IrES. Th e las,t rbi.ng iheir .:oton III rulers though I or .,,'lIS 'III open fhem 10' tbc pric; ·-cul.!:ing Wid 'fI' the Japr.mese or II 0 e,neoW'3ge them iIIj I~r1liQe theilr lmperts of 1m ·'I.rop:(ll'ita,1l ~Iile.s. But 'l:l:mi Wil05 nul me ease for lh~ Independent pm.'iiij1hemJi Sl:alM,

Onen til mum: l"fllt!l.1:j :muryililtcUeClUi:11urlgin"nHhItSilldll!lhad.beenllile d ",rrrMe 0' an lm pu rtswbstillllill:ioni nd us I dal.izatilln p 011. '. USU b:;~' I~he 'Ce milI:m s£born '0:1' ~ld:iriu.ntlltl'~Jt1f;iU~ie. La lim Arnel"lcan I:c,ollJOmlstS ~'IIhIlI hi~,d been P<7l~· _ lonata fans fl" ~bc free wllde/gald s>tID'lldiWid apprcaoh wbr.:n it [Bvored rapid dl.'W;!I()p~nenr mthougl.'~ then- ;pus~tion 3lld tlllomugh.Jy moden1i;Gtld 'mrioutdllLOCOJ~(ilmil.' ~~ ~ hllpon suhsmurlon .indu.sl ritln~3'1.i[i.n,'· ~'t b ocruml tile ddl'Yel· npmEill1 S1rnt~ of righ'l wing nalionillirsl regimes, in Arg~fiIIHrm and lB,razil. On e pm-! !'va!> ~a:riffs. m ani pUi ted t!XII.'hange Il<IiI:, S. enrren cy cuht:rol ,i.lnp ort lieensing, and subs dimd ~l'edl(i all d ,lgfJed 1:0. '[aver Ieenl firms in cnmp-I:lr~don wilt! imports, An,)!rher \'!PaS the develnprneru, lilll'ough dl'lsslc soci~ law adm1n i ·Iratwc wchruques. 0 r it. st:afe-O,WllllH:I Of In ;;t1;l1l1 iI~oille· ~aled seetnr,

TI'!;e tliQcll.ll m~\i\i\VJJ

['rLb.1!!i De p'f,e$ion and WW1J si!!lilulw.lle!Oll!;lY'stimu1lJf,ed und snui'Fnd our:ins.titu.tilio'nalimhflvaIIDns.. t:ile1111'U:h1: pUi!:ii!:i[bLe. H'lIroughtbG!lhIHl<I i.llt~nsU}l'.fI,fdlsas.rer.cembinedwith th!:ld:Bfeatoffascism Mld III _ con.trunmentofcommuJU$.Ill.

L~ ~ §l"rU!rnU,' 1l11;11IE.""~1Il'l'!I\1. ~Wl1'm'I:IU!I! zo,

I] L 'VlJ:'[ORIIu ~ hllr- Tl~ nMAs" Tl~ ~1 nkoNtlMIc.lIISl"U'll~ 01' '1&m1lM1l!U<;;I. $I:!>'CI! ]N<D1lI1'ifN1l1l-",,0' II !I!Hl.

57

a whn[e t:oUerillioD a'r ii1!1Uhl{lunM triumphs oh.h pregresslve verslan nf the ::lodal.. The lrs'r of rhesewas Ibe ct, atiou. fur th' CiJprifaUs:t COli. eauntries, of the ruJ.tioniilly and mmrna~i(lI~.aJly [t':g;ll_la~ed, market eoanomy The second Wa.:! the g;to balizadion of the _Bretum Woods sy;!;ilm:n. TIle Ih:irdlNa'S the globaU~ali.on. llrst frorn vJctor.s to vanquished and lhe;o from tb first to ihe third worhJ. of th . progressive sncial r.e:fnrm p rugmrn ohe5tmc:ru:ring el'lti tlements-as ,·he basia for aJ1igh]y rre.gu.hued h"lb!1:d capHaWist tlc(nu:nl'l~{ pur!luing a strategy O~~ SO ia! peace through economlc dEfV ]opr. Jl!n1:.

K~~\r;$. Lf]lurringis. the.undlspered graodr'a'lll::u.'!I ul'the 80ciat John I\.>"ayl1~d Keynes was p~dtaf:ls .i'~s g~niu~. even though. be [bought thli saee-ft-from:its:eJf:sr.ratem shotdd I!Jpemtcat the stare and jJ:Uemath:loallevcls. lpavmgti.l!i! 0.1' structu re OfprJ'i/iilh:l' prep e:rl':Y anrl ru:ee contract intEl'ii:t. TIle .B.ro [lon WO~J Ids systt:;m t1'].1rttlu~ Wes~~rt\ .Intl ~I:\<ltri;;ll po,weTS established fbr their itu r,il bloc telations during the cdcl war bc."lm eventnall thewortd financial reg)llllatml' sys(,ern.. A!;l, i I! i t~;l,1lly con ctllvud. it was a.typfc al ex:a ITI pte IQf tile sceial at 1;VO!i:k.

film of all (he I MP was pre mlsed nn 1111: idea of Lhe ]nteniep en f:iJ!'lfH,:e of Iiaanelal and cu .rency Inatkt:ts, Mth the danger being. nms utllJutional GW·r'llucies produC'ing 'bain r action drnw,wa!:rl spirals, The' way to stop runs W9;S HI "nlp them ;iru ~.be in.w ~ I'r.!].r.t! a position autslde and a lilO'yt! ,~ny 8ingle nati:QnaJ traregic aemr, Ti~ere wn,s a shared' publle i.nUlres(" 'in thls kind of lutervennon, ;so long M it W<lS ,cm'eIUUy Jim ned So 0iJ:S not to interfere wid I. ua(i(H'D,a I sgveJitd:~nt~r hi. mn l'IIe{Ili~'" and fl.~cal p nlliq'-

or ourse, marruecenamle 1rlluneHI,ry.al1d fisea!l pnliey w,~re e:)!.lctIy wliat the eel' mL'llliel, of I'mii'!· lra.de. gold tandard, HEld pd:vare rmemarionel law WClie des.ignJed I,b eltmfnatc, K 'Y1Ul;!l'S CD 1'1 u:ili:I1IJ tl,g'n in rhls mea was to show Lhall!s;[:al' and n:ioDctary pol.ir::y could function rationally as "oouultln;ydi-

ill, 'I' cou ntsraetlng tbrQugh strateglca tion fmmth e cen I e Ii' Itll- individua list . apirallst II,iJgic of'boom folJowed by bust, and £0 benetrttingeverycne in the sodety. But fiscru;:md monetary policy alsn mei'l:ntdcucirspend.ing ifllJefindS 01 eeenouuc cenuaettan, and Ill'I:'refUf op ned the pas lbili'ty of 'financing. the whole prograrn of th > ociall relarmersh II .. e very periods .,,ill~n htsrortOllly lll1ey b ad been foit::ed t'u close up. :shop.

Globld~tian ofl.he Brd1r.m Woodss,,'1sl.ern. The Bretton WHods lnstitutions graduaJltj1 e){ptJlI1(1ed to tnelude the ~\lholi"; noncennrm .. lmSl WlJitld< llel:we~i1 HJ45 and tbe mid- 1960s, de oififl;i2aUoll brougbtinto ,1i!,.ustl.\l.DCe a. w.o'rfd order oHnd'pendent "nfl'll'lnf' . unes, The old,and ue\,! Ilation~l elites ofth peidphery Wf:![1:" ree of direct, {bat is. jmj.sd:icli(lual eentrol, ll.lmost as important, withuUl d~ e gold ~na.nd.md, they were free to m anipulate tlli:lenr eurre ncles and mlrtional bud~e'ls for what;e'\I'eir 50ver,eign purposes. Th, \oj Snon disoi1'Ie'red. how(!vl'!J:, that the)' needed, for-whatever purposes, access 'to werld rapltal marllelsL 'fnil! meaat than.hey had ro j'OIn '~ht' Bruilol1l \!\foods .s:YS~'I:lJn_- elthell

jliill t hi~ game' :s1rk L~Y '0 n eh e terms P n1fh'l!ied. ton1' i~,witb~1i'I 'I he seru .;tUII'e raf ~eg,al rules B~I'J!J.dy M place. or ~ran'C ~n dB e dii,lfk.

WlIII.in dTI,(~ sOliiam. lbL~se ~n~nds produced, after \I\n.vu, a "third wm-Idist" M BOiIf!dunRfl';r!eUnn (Nt'i':lrl).!, NO'i!:cli:'illr. Su kanlll'));a~tl a i\lCll~ o,~ of pf!lgre~$iVfl ,Public ,i11l1Crmlijomi1law.l:.!t It d(l~i~o'Yed [he !iiuda:l 'ta;Hqlu~ OfTh~l indivi'~IIJW'~ ism nr 1t:lilIlS'.'iii,CiI!l,1 pdva:tl? law <lifolinst ll.The POiS[- \'VWlls;nppCl'li~dJy lilll'orm.ecland pusl!mhi 11.1.<11 ! nltenHuJoiila1Uaw :reW.~~.l'he fglr]!Ua']Jiib~,rndQu a:llnd enJram:}l:ise .. n:U~J'1lt ur u ufree h~bcJ[ in Bill ~llP~ J5i:m pl~! .'i'h i Fled the' !nt:'dmub m or ~pLo i'tation fn:oil1ile the trru1!~p'<[[l~l'n!cy of.fE mj'a~~5n~ lo (,b,L\!' n;n,.YSL~fu.:a;'ior,t of c<lp~$<IJism, lbe fOrH~al ,grnn~ orrurrtonal hld.e:pe.iI1d.e~u:::e [£I ({I[unHecli peoplms HD'!l\,rjse ,shifllEld Lh~ transparency uf ~mp~rialri!.Jlle I~DI ~he m!ls:~16calIDI'iI nr rUi:ODI]Ofili;liU:f.irrl.. ['WI JIlhlCe o:f!th c eAlIloi!mjww<l~,~ ha:rga:rn. dl~' lliI!i[l d CUI interu ilEiorn~~:ll'dlW\vor~cl t hllDUg:ll til e un equal niball,~ (11' pfl.r.i.1I'IJ"Y JU![Jdu{;~ !Orr'~H]] d~E "[Md_ 'Narkl :[ot h~dlJi.'il'fi!il1 [~r"ldlJC~ rt~!l1 th ellkst. I :Illl1is seems tiIJ nu:i! to br.~\'!;l b~e n d1fl~a;st sui ~d)r lJlOii!yt le ~,ccol.lL.p~i~hmr:.nt ~j'r Ihe 50du~cO~18C~O asness.

'fl~;e'gJJI!}h,aUzn;tiiIJ.n of~u Inl. ,lIII'lix.e;itccQuo.l1l!Y. ltseams !lsd'll] to dts~inllli:sh Mm phases h er-e. The n r:lJ[ oC~~.I'red ~ m media [e.L)' aR~r ~ h~' \V:l:rr '\then! hE' Al!I[r$ :rIlKifruJI}r imd ~\1!~ll.'mat1cl!l:lIy l'ra:os:fmmf;o tilille~Ji1,pMl.e!ic. Germ01n, ,ru1Idt~:afiMl systems 'fii.Ol'n"I II. faselst ~o Ii!. progressive' v~rnio(lClift11i!l sl1d(ll. an d jmposeda siHlil!~rtmM:lionnOl,l'ign on tbe So''l.i lh 'Ko~eafi! ~ l1ldi Ti),j"'!lan ese soctal and eennomic sllsu;'l1l,s as liIe' price 0:1' protecHo1ll bum ul:e Chlrtese It:ommUI'1i~t!t~ In ~ apan, SrrI,:.:nh Ka,'oo • and T a i wa I1, ~ and refunn was :a n lmpertant pa:n oll' the u·a~1S'ra:rmaUon. a'lll mg wit]] fI.{]e!ilSI p<liPer rlW:lt.f. fer i<jh!l.r UU.liOiI1S, and .allr$MI p'1!ptlr re,gl!I.1.tirrm Q'f the Hnlanc~a~ ~'[en'l.. Ge:l':m.any 'H'_~ ~b3]y Were [110g'rl'~'· rated lntnthe Sodal U:emociiadcfClirlristiilu DemoG:m'ti:C mndel pmpcmnPled by the pm~!l;SSffivemdnl.I":e<IiI,p~e ffin rJllll! Un i1ed States, BrUaIin. ;:M..'lrl ,Fm:lule land 'by Gefwlfl3il :311,d U~I'I~I!iIII1, ~ndn~ ~tt'""~Ol;ml'~ btilfom :lh:eWirlr}.

1"118 socr.m,d pl'las~ \'r.!'S the ~.e:n:sioro or thL" 1im,pon sub~'f1iru:t:itm ~lJ:Id'Uliui,:di2:3Jr.ioR!i~nuegy a,cr.!ls..~ lai.nnl\meri,G1arnd to lJlen~wl). in!de,~endell~ lhtm !!i\lot](li, firJ:lt til v~ry brge le(Qnpm~~s'l],cb as 'tibmll." 01; [~CU;;), F~~. Th.fhy. '~Tan, and ~ndonC8ia, III1d. ~ilTter 19ii(1, w the wry small ecaaamles or newly [ndQpeJ'ldE[I~ MJr'imn S.Ult~S. Th~ [SJSlTl'ltBgy, \'vhich mlied h~ilrv'ij,y O~'1 PlJlblte ]mv and gO\II!'!rluUeJ:1'l I1fI~er'l,l'e"ntiaJll" "VIlS. S.lrolilg~y !lLlpp(wtled h¥ the viilrkm:s Ul1~! ~;U N:;i nl'.l'!l:!ll!iodie,~, by ! he World flall!i<"and by U~\lD, !;!V!d U WillS the tn~~i.11 cOPlnomk :!lt1l"a~l~ of Tm.waI!] tmd ScmLh ~[ie<J ~;JLS w~rn;, Sl:1JIJ~<!I,PQrl:l) bRfiof11' lJ:u.~~r grad'1l1aRy sb.i:rted U'J elfp orHBd .gTll,wll'nl. J~ I 11 V,rrul :Ill prol.il:iIJICl C1~ Ke'ynes&aJ!l

L~ Hnnl SliT .-d, J;,jflfU.iU.11:i:! au,

rn ~ ROI!lIIlJ1 ~ 1liJ.l Tu:~ IlilN'1llrl~-O' Mt!\Im,li!lN'Ir" K1UJWI!ofiMIlil ANItII'fII.IT1J:.1! 11'1 lInnf1l'· ~1!DlT Io"li"lm~ u !9m!1.

I ~ J.l\MI~·Co>tI'HII~~lfjj 1M, 5S nUll;;'>;. 'rIm 1'IIlJJt.:~5 f.li'B.P1l);:';'U!i.1i1=n~tlo'il1!L1!'MiL\i't1m~m (! ~ IIIJCj~ 1\M!i~iI>N. TII:~ n.00i,[1~· '1I'lkl' JlJ5.1" f2i!1U Il

1~e.raUScm IlS muc.h mil of d:enn:ocr<l1i_c socialisii •. ~IllSla$Sl,r9:n~y mt'ItiCODl1.n:U.m.1 as i t was ag~ili1lst ]1]Jr[!;Sii9::· ifaiJi!!_

lSI tn'lbilliy in .... al,wd ~h ~ (!Nptoifation uFlile oou.I1h)rsido, f;uPPosecl ~y for lll~ s..'1ke ef l~!fldu:s~dsl (l8!1!l'i![al FIlInllfl[j·onJJI thil !rl,ties. 'I.lnmro(.;l,gill Orifi"s <I]u:J liu.u~ the ttlafk_(l~i.llg·bu~rrd~ t:har ~b~ ~cial ptlopl!~ had pioUJi!ewd. illlll~ .Hlalb"lO!ll Aside (WIliI SaudI Korea and Thi'\:Yi1n ,O![ the mO!iTiI1iIIH of m~i~llm, eommuuiLs( d':lmatandi. m)1IJ(.i1,1:'I~~tn lib(:llw~ hl'H U;~I] CC' in '\t\1:Mh ington, oruy at v.r;:ry few p!i.u~rle:.~si'Ve ,mIIrL~::lfms tilll.g,. r~~.t. BolNi~u :actually bnikie up large estcl,teS, l'he rel'u~al~,o join the :liJti'lo'i{~~ i~ ku~ Wa!lltli.!re ~'tl;~l:l a tua.~[ l'ef of cllpha m,~~. ,I~~ft)im· 'm!:: thi:nJI\mrJd. cl.i[G;!;!)!dOl"ll.'d! lJ~e Il'~Dnomic instl t!JJt1ion ~.I(J:r th e 50cialeufT!Ii::'ITl1 r,::Im h!!:lJ tll11ilO l1uJ:i~ (I r Il:'rJ~lnuQ:i09w.. And Il\'oid~d. soria1l1J1'1d eeanemle .I1!va[lJI~ lkm mthtru;tM\ti~lP ~o IdJ!!eupdt~if emalumenrs,

The ottique ufth",sl!!IELaJI

n l;ilt\IDI'IS W n]_~ hmrl to t)\~:restim,aw the giob;rl. ~ransJorlna:U[m or pO!ii]~.h\'e law w~rkll'd by Ihen,;'if'QJrffiltl r~ in the ~'!;!d:~d eu r{IIlJU_ Aif!,lOJi fa, wh.~~ "'OJ~ r.!ubJ!lllIJl:d 'MI'S1'LlIlIl trnypani [ullatr sQ.e lal .l1ep;im~ and tM rare of 8oci:alizatiJo.of¥.ruied: Frtllm COl! nt ry .~I.JI CI] untry ani! w!th~neil!~h oonn l'lI'y fro:nl cle·c_adiEl tQ decade:. 111ere was nn ~ingic cndpOrnll lilward whtch fI'ldflll:nl~gime$,oJpo£'in\lle law L/.14nvelll;(!d. aud i:f,rilJll 'I wm sllgg~s~.m a mlJm~nl. Wi! ral~if:l ti1fl yl1l'i1.r L!Hill 3ij'ilIlimugh Tllilrkl~w [u r llwl:i d'e:I:n:~ uf llu:l ::ii~lt:trn as dlll.uilliinalullegm mnsdolJisocS'!;" '~\I'e W[I u:ld bav,~ to wy nUlt ]'~ h~d mlilulph~cl in~litlHlon.~Uy. but iml ~lil; UUWjI rornlS ~~ihen:' W;Cre soverejgns.. In o~hJ0't w·l]Ird;s,,;1S parole' ruther than as struct ure,

Ute mtique ·Dfthe. somal wru; a I:wnldati.vc pileo.lHJmflfIBOJl, beginnfug In thu' 1 DlDs \\1'11111 the S!leOn d "~"e ,of ~egis.llaHve reibrms (l1IeBrst. Ilccurm.d d urlug tnb· dc~dc be'!'IJ¥f! World W~!I II. i:l:hd ilell'eJ'i 'pim:lg I:ontin !J:uu:dy .:.lIIJDg M~h tilt:! b~adu<lJ ado:ln:iou of soda] la~'V m!'t![ time <II1d1l,mll nli the w'nrdd. lI1:u~re lj\'as unly .t ~Jrid pt::rin(Ji hroilidl~ de~!ooo.iH~led ~·lhe· fiil't[es," cllLir1l1;1li "'Ofb.I~1'I til!::' snelal had ao SlllW'lg, upponcoo,t (CLT w,1l.$ dlstredillr.ld and 'Marxism, In 1I11ie ~'!irul, d:is.in'tiegratillll)'

·nu~. '~1:iI14U~$ fh:a! reac.hed cti[l~<I] nl9,;S$ bV n:l~B w,ere. th.eQ~'elh;:al.ly, puUt. icaHy .lnd' pvugmrul1mjQ~i~.ru~yt!)l!1lroJ.dh:~li'ry. l'h~ social 01 wbicl~ they were dhcI.:1OO "vas in.iii('i~utionm'Zed. ~tilinJI1HJgJd}f rotte:ru::h~dl gl~UJS q,UJ(i1 iIr!l'lph;!meutad at the ~eVQ'l of legal doctrine by a cadm of jlJli~ist~· who had never kn:[f~ anyd~~nc tn.:H !h:e socia~ :S,);.Ipe:lfimpDl'iiIcd on ell. 1llley l!lfel1e adimffin~s~ ilrnl~,n,s t"dth.e[ tban. [iC1iOIBlCfS 0:1" lntellectuals, md mnet o:f tlrem igUOiICcl !he .erl liqulI:!s tbe~, hap p.enoo, HI DotI(le. '[1.1I1' s'i~lI at,iDI] is, ItlGt Ul aLdiffure.n~ ~f} d:ds lI'o£'U)' day. Cl(,Oepl ~IHU thE.' peollJe ,nnh.esud$j"I(Jwla,ne!H the PIJiZ'lJ.illg "res.~!:n'«'~ ofce-aher ~9i£l:O.Uy ~ontrrun. Ibe bUlli.ml ~ar]y sod.d p~apledir!i!cl:Ii:d

Ill'll s~~ li!tuil!k'T 1i.~11 E." M",fl,ltl!"1'!!1 "'N:U STA'1.\l?s ,LN' '1i~C1 I 'U::JI:L .. I\PJiln: -~\I II~ .POUlt i.~~L &~!S er At.~.J tiUl· 1iJll:l.'i1 ]'HLl(:IIES{ I!li;ltl't lIDBUfl' ~, HSS}<fSI~ '1111\ Pm"ITfJ{""'J.ll.ool'!<o~n' Qr '1IIJMLAI;!I:It;.A n i:Ni1i?,

6e1

arelali'llely U~li'la.ry "lndi'llidu,a.]j)s~~ plus. ahuse of dillducrton;' crlliti.qtrn 'at CLI' ~t tl1l~mom~nnwh!;ln;!i rd.liI~'ivdy UOH1<lty seetal 't'Iilpm (If ]aw re~clfln \ilmJs e~$:lerglng tramlfa:ti.OJJ:la~!y 3S a 'p~tl~nt dJlm.u. 10 tin: . est;:! bl]5hea !],r:de f.

"fht.:: Ilr_"rMOIr.ritlque!:iu.rigin:ated in the Hl3(t15. One w~s the I: ridqjlUlc of the 'j.sm~O·Oughln::love d~ivfng rl~.fmm .leglsl,tuJon limmtlhe science of sodety. The Mo main soerees (J;r thlil' crltiq!IUc of k'w[(j'I)I,Jgbt werre Mu.Wel:l;i'lrl:211 and the .~()gicat PQsitWi:SIS. ]27 Web ~1'inf].lilcnced lEI!JicrP'6<U1 yl]fidst~ I i k~ Ht.lfn~ KeI'Bel1 (;;'!ccon!.in~ HI wham ,socliEllQ.gi.rnill. jurisprudence w~!lnDfuill S but a dl.sg[lil~ed v'L'!lIitle ~o:r "natnral ~3w~erirdlen(!i€S"),r.!Aand tJrtlN~lcl~fal.eSem!lli.h'!! Kat] Uewtl.Uyn.l~ AJtca.' tilJie WiU, U.uh,i;ls.tJaLes·~M:I pragmatism, Hl Us phllo."ophical ve,'sinn, tl(.II:oed declsively agai!nM the ~i.'s"ln-.ou£h~·' vorsion or- H;s frnrndcts. le<l.'IImg-b ehind 1ihe more Dewey~:n fU.r1isl'SQf; fhr examJl~e,. liheleg;:'!! Pro cess schoO'll.·30

ThJlll crl.tique {If 1S-'I'O-lOU.ghl induded a mov~ s[l],");lIarlo the abus:e~o(l:r· d~ducliun trHtf)ue ,or era: Tills: W3Sll.':IIlA 1l:'iB seeial ~;lImpi}e W~Te ~.blfil 'tD mainlain lhJll']i m .. sIon I"iHU thleY wen:' de riv'n,n:ig l~~~d ru.lt:ls flr:orn. soda! nseds or FUn.atJ:(UI.5 Of purp oses only b,¥ i.gIJoriing the pen~hr.~ phlif:Jlomr~m'~~Jl uf (;~H~· Ilief b(l'tt~e.,tl des~de,ratt(l-l)hJe:ltehYPiroclluc:i.n.g·iS!(Im,etl:1llin~ aptly 1.1Ianted. "saelal CQ.I]ceptttdsm.. "lal '[his Utst criHque i~ I.he jrU:e]le~tli.~1 ancestnr of modern po11cy ana:i}i:!.+s.

A seeo I1d, libe l'3'~ ato.d n~a[nl eral, critique was of the. ~~1I1,atupr:l of thewc.ial ~ithmdsm and cornrnu nlsm, J a\l. Thtfes.fe :man,Y l~iar:ad()Xjri!!il :nli!!re.. Fi:r&[·r~.h.er.e WGiS a strong Marxist critique of d'lc soelal asmere "a.]ld~ld,IJ.J and at tbi!i' samerune SOlll1:.e qUh:B st:u:ikin.g i nrQorp eraaons oll! into tbe parts of Soviet ~ .:g,lI ]detllogy th<l~. seem ulday Jth~ :~east "co,m:m~mist.. j.!]~ The: =>odal p!lloJll~e .~n~d the dominant ~[:Iti!;;Qmmun.i's'l·;'!,odaI1Hfa:scij.sl ijl'1~}e']fteCrllJlli~ C!I;.IlI"fi!nlS of t']:H:l ill.l:,rn:r-Wa[ :~n'lriDd. lh'.iilh the agenda., ali ] meIJl~Dtiled abuve. uf s,:wing

I~~ M,v. \\fl!i3:IiB. fil:!! 1'l,1I4rltH(10~1.OG,!, .~p ~IHD~ SoE~.L 5c!.Tll\IC.~ ~ShH~ & i~illen. erls" ~ H14~).

177 itt. A. I. lI'UllI, bNG!J'«:.~, 'l'ImTl ~ &'~I:I L«.lG [1.!lSi6;~. As ~.p:p:ttecl in. lali'l', tlJti LtJp,iie!!1 p!l$iHlliSt cr.h~qIJ)Q WfUl. fur hilYOurl WJenllX,.lldvtlCllling apuIt'ly d'i;!;>~rirthrl>. ~~WI~ :!5~i!!IlI~~tboQl would 'rll~" nuLlala lIB. I.Ylll!:I~h~~r.l5 '\vitb'm:~ I~~I'ITIE: ~llSjj!iE\~-t mi!!llllD,lil>.t C!I.!lE!&ri~[~~likE -I~~~ ;;o~Hrl~~f' H '11lll!~{' Wl!~ II" -~~r-qI n:iil=~flt<1i"i'!",rIln~JW1Itb I.u!!hilll~'il]flsm ~1lI. p:syrh!!llta,il4! ~~UJJ Ig dcl Dr !l"'I!llj'iliIll~ m.·frrHul, ]~~"i!!g (:mly5rl:rm:ilu~'IUl~~~'p[}n!l!~h:ild (he IIUJ~1! [0 • oo.roled r:~retoilnlC~· 1ge1:ting rWtQr ~IJ tilJ:ty;" .~nd "l::'1.m.g;~"r ~J! oommnliCS, Sl'egt!lJer.a~·Dy ~M-:J: .foI;;[iJ..iilmL, ~.,.ti l..rn[.~1. R"'\[,JSl!! Moil .EMI·[JUOO_ So.!lIIol Si:mlill':H ~ 'l j(I!:I5).

!.l!U l-liANS .K:!5l.sJilt':, ·'14T.~&nu,[i'!11UN-TfrTITF_E"fltl~'H,E;M~ m' J:.t"'1ol\i_ 'n'] ~(iM~] l ~'9J!1, 1:t7~lts: 1 !l9~1. I ~~KJlr!iJ!!!wmUyr!, .11 R~'<l'~[sd~ /!ui:rpn.tfilf!iliDfi; 17;i.!l' .Ne:Jt/ Swp, :!IrII't:O!I..IlM l. :Rill(. '~J.~ ~ 19:WJ.

I ~n .~ gt!ll~fflll':i'. 1I.tr~llllU. A:lJI!1:IiIJl![.I1II'lf! PI~AGM)\'rffiMi AND j'~{ :I"AtI,M P'FInU)ijltJlr.IiI'~ In DlsrlTm R65n-

LIIlmON (20021.

tiL ilJwreUl}'H, S~~p!~II'If:Ilt:e ~29. K:ul K~at;rr. 1/;lJdiMii:;r{l'tilm •. ~rlp.rll n11~J;: ~. I~HlFrUl;:l!;!mCI·li!ji'~1I.'1J"', T~ II' .'RfltLD n) :;;l!;RJi.UlO~.l (J 9>Nl,

100 l~".lM.~ 1j..~I ... r, l_I!.Uflm'r I!{!ONI1lML~IJ~ llil1U.

13-I.OianIllJ;3[ill AJanI, Fvfn:r.-lfism .mu.i' 11/f.ti-fontjaUfi'j~]i II·t1Qm' .'iim:.irj!i.i:1 !.mm 11~Q O:.rw u§ Gi2rr,8R'!1 Clm~ir'imilf tlw Co.dift~ri!Jf~QfGJ;~jl Urw, (~I-Oib\:i.JU\fnI$!'Auv,!LN{!f;S. VtJi!. 2, Nfl. 2. (lW11.

(it

.1 iher<llH$m ~rom itself .l\ndim the post~1jN\IV[I r~e rlodin which tbe' sodJrl jurIsts grodU.iUy fildJcd :[[cOID vi!!w. the libe~.ts WWlO trsated rhem a!S tatn ledre~ted IJl:ietr GM'~ against '~ommu.l'llis,m, On Ihe pos~-\I\f\.V]J $1J!Ccl;.'i!~ufth,e l'~Os rem:rJH h:lllllh.nloll&, pushed ,thn:~u~h by rbe ~Qci~ people dt>er the W. o\l\er Liberal I) bfrerl~ons ..

Tb!e.I~mainil'llg i(::I"iU~.UBS d€v.el.uped dUl'injglhe :I. S60s·a.nell ~)iOs, They havl~ a cO[[']Jp[ex .imem:a~relal:ionsh[p to one3.f1IC11het that I i.'lI>i)U]cli d~nihe';ru, fnlo\lVS. The drJrnJn anirh.elatlc Gil'c:fitiq"ue 'w{I:;i cid. libev[a'I:Iw:l ,i3.il"ld ~e:.If.mitl:etl a de fl)l;cto <.i.ml;n:nce uf l!il:fl and~r.~.Gbt I' q:m]t!~ "5.imUOI .• to that whi(:h bacllt:nkedl the sooial dlB'nllo~f<L'tj!C and fasd:lii:[ Vli?rmOffl~ ,of thE! ~d~1 ~.QW underc ~U1t<t. l:h:e c:diillqu'l'. 'ta:rg.eLed the Jlij1)~Ie-~l!t,ru dh:nensi!]11l oi the ~m:;ia~ rdonR IH)ogr,am,tltiatis, ~ts iH'lHfu:nnil.l:ffim. ~:Ilf.iuni.ly Law~ crjminallaw. l.<liborla.w, ptllb~:ic h.Oiusfng, 'd~~ iaiW ofdvi! eommlrareru, ~]1cl. in. dl~law·olrp.ri:sons. men'~!!.l hJlSpit~I:51 o:JclI1.djuven.Ue bOlllE'.!>! the soda] pmgram~n\l'ol ~d the c!!eaUun ,r..fl1!flW·i:n:sU:tutidns. ,[he~ were de~ib~n!lely cnnstru~Hl'd te emi[l!}\!i'0:r :adminj'shrtO[cS. opi"ll'a..tiug 0.1:1 tb~ baSIS tlf exp ertisft, MID:! till" pub~i e mt[ll'esl .and 'in ~.b.eimt!llreslOr ~[t&l:'U~ la~kj.f.lg I'lilll ca![itadty.

The clvll.l.ihenaJ'ia!!lill ~!I;t.:!lcked lJirlf(: in:;ti'lutioJ];s as cleiJy.ing;fndn.vidu.a] dgbts and ~heir adrni]lJstra1to]:8as arbitrary'<I.ndi im:plidtry <lJL:I:liuuita:lfi,iiI.n m8lf1ii)i;I~ laters or vacueus general standards a:nrlle.m.pty ex:Pel:ti.8d:l. A;~ ODe ]evtll I Uui cietl1a!i'i!d w~s rVf"p~r:l cedurn[ rtlilht\il fur exam pk:. ttl hear1ng!! appiyin,g :m:l:iomilUy ~nteUigjb~e de:cWiolH erlteria wi'0I11J1cl:idaJ r,~viJew. It:Ief~m the a.d.l'ID1~rY]~lra~i~lrs d~du.llIjng$ to their cl:I;ar.gE"~, 4Jut beLtlnd t'l.d~ dem;a.f~d :lh·~rle \iVo!!.s.a sejl!:l[llJlic cuhural and pal:I.t!.cal.shifl,. oec ILlIT.U!,g m~lre ~.I r te$~~inu.dt;:.I!.[IeQ~slyaLl OV1(!:r th s (h:.wainped West

A~ the po1i:ticall~vel, llhe cont;exl [m.· me jmists' trili(lu.eohlm sOdaI indullt~d ll:i.c.discre.diJting 0:1' the see:ia1lly orie.n:~ed :~adersldp or~he U.S. Viem~ul~War ~~Ihe bes[and lJIe bri:ghh'lSt"~. with peth!'llps ~,O(')O,OQCld:~.Bt[C<lt\i,. i:lhe discrodHi:ng of ~ h!il Sovi!el a~tema1:ive ln l1'~gue S[Jdug and AA'llbirD]sra.r.'!,.liJ:e :gr!;ldua~ 111$ae(:Uti1l!;l of Ibil'Q w'Odd rem]utK.a1JJ.U1' .11:al1ou31. mleran.arul ideology in Ian ina ftheO l'elt[ Leap Ft1rward, HH;1 R.ed Gt:!o»cl~J, Ghana"ulld. Al;yerill. Don '1:~ol:g"et the dtsr::ted~~in~ uf Fo!.dkals:nl' in the We·st by tile We<l!tb~r Undeu:gfolltnd I ~he ni<l1G1i; Pail1h.~[!l, the Red Br:\Bades, and 'the BaaJ~erlMRuiliDff Ga.f!g. ~lf Pil.n~li1:sm irnJ tb~ m'IiU\.r:ab-nsrn.e1i W3:[ Otf 1 ~61 ,Ilot ttl .s.p ~1iIJ;:, O'fl;he 3~~il:~gi:m[li:o],D oK l.llraia.tf Oiym.pil~ aU.I,e'lella.!:. n~e M~n:lo!?llI g~me.s.

Th~' !il;utghter af 500,000 c:(]m~1l1.1]J~t5 andsym.paUllzer5 by the <!I!.rnya.o.d fslam.i'!'l.t~ In 1l"l.dol"lBsim as U .8.- ba,G~d Suhar:liO "eplaced Sit::l;k~I'rJ]I) in the ecoD.'lJo,Il1i.c duros of a failed ~rnpol:'l $l;1hill~iti.1iIIUJl md.u!itrl~tio[l ~llrll.Utgy, Hl1.0 of] tOOO,O[1[l Qtl!tHn ilf}! pecrplf' byth.e c.Qmmuuist Po I Pot rn~e it Cam.hQd.i~ ;a,t't,er the U nired S:tCllm; ·;.de.stahUized ~ the ICIOUilUcy. the de.~c~f! l il.f ~Jne African Sl:<Jitill afiUH:[ anuther [rom ~n1pa.l .'l,!,Ih~,llt.uijo.ni IU~Jldeptm;;;rncy - nQIl.I1!. Of [~'W<l!S "[he rtli.ult~ [if the JlioCl;.i!t nut. ;1,.t-all. The "~[lgdi' sm:ial p~ph~ !1<1~ed all Ofd.1JS.

And)! 'l ••• ;1 ~'1I:OI.e "lcgime" "'\'3S dtsen dited.'~ 'p(!1r1t5e Wll.<S dMic:reJbPdt and so on Ind 'finill!ly..

'rhe noncom nnrnisllefnel! II km ug:nin$1 [M soCial] was CUUllml and IUl'Itcllecnmi. Lt." nmdl as .lmU_rlrnL Belimd rhe dvi~ lib 'r;lari~ w~i'e wrtters like KHn Kesel'.0135 an d rl3an G~ni!lt., q Jtj and llE'ft)f Prit-e:d an, Lr. Who ,r 'casl I h 'sUpptl..,mli~ bellignsm;j~1 in~titllt~(jtl~ m.[uruu;, 'of b,ell rnliilIogous UJ rile hells of lh:e p erl ad '51 pu bile sphere, and p O'S~5n-U ;II u ralis~ ~hi:Il:rI~ls of t11 R' soelalas '~dj_iSripllne." rnthe wnke ufMi,chel f:Oiucaul!t.Il!H I\S n';m:.r;doth·~!I.ar.gu,ed. the Nr:Wlr left arnund the ''II'llrl!l. when it was not M8_mistl..eJilLiillllliit, was a utopmn rebel linn agmnsttl" liIo(_'litll. ami failed becauJi" the masses on whom It.call dhad b 'ell I~r,;uartlrmed bj' lib e sooiru in1!D th - lJn.mS,est U pperters uf the :;'UllU5 quo. '(11 srriking thing a bout Ihe end of the secial on mil I,m [s that \l\'hm rep ~~Ilr had no m!11 .lion 1:0 this rebelhous cur "'n;rlianlnfll'u,clti.c strand. It wasrather ,iI revj",a~ of '[uith in righm, this I~me human m!lu~r d:uli!n individual or seeial.In I'~gal ~unn,n I i ry In place of this standards 0'( 'IDe soe lui. ~md n 11 II ~e jud lelary as " nu nllu~~ticru, non tnlJ~denjl.-t~. d [lfens,e ,a,G~lI n St tl'U'~ mililillT1~b:n:Jr.u.tdld.· wL"1 F!we-· iildmi:llist:l"ativ[' stall: that ~he~!JdiilJeemE'd to bllve becomi!.

On the ri.glll, there wasa two- t:filnd I1Ui.'Ick. So:CI~1 COmjB'I .. 'a:lj\~.s tiki!' Christoph 'r I .. asch ulllliekJed the soda] nsrltmlnns fbnmdC1TIili[l_i_ng, '1hliUUt:h sneial engineering and bureauemttc s wlce pmvii~.on. the v' r~' 5IOCi:a1 bonds th yl~Qod lanned ~D be preserving, I~II /-\ad emeIgirl1g sluwl.y from 1968 on, (he re WIIS, th ' !J!oot~beral eharg [hat Ih~o [011 program lUI I pervcl,'s_ E'!;:Qrublmic !.":tIn 'equt'llc ~ a~ wd s perverse· octal 0 n es, ind uding. Iji<l:rLi:c-o brtly. th.at'i1 'JII'CIS bad for ecenomlc growth, thai t1 !1e,qlLired the I'Diddl class1?l1 m l:il,lbsidhf.e th.e Im'l1',e'r d s sses, Mid dun lt hun the p'e~ifJ Ie it \IiJ1i!O uy,lng ttl help 'by rOrt:]lilg (hen"! ~o buy :soda~l PMU!Cliam'IJS of vnniD'Ulii kim.:l:6 lh8t' ,",were wOlth Jess ,~o them 'Lh_8.nlih~y ~oM ID in~:il':!Hs~d prkirne;.as sumn"lari"".:ed ill the sh,!§m "~~olfldil'lc~~lmabte tenants' pmmerions lQI'Ce ill.nr]ltlrds. ttl mist:' the ~I:li~ and evict 'hegtOln!limnl'he.r, ~Hl

The IJeriod <Jro,l:Jlid 1968 in\>'nlved '~\ln1etJt1nR lessrlist1mc& and final man the dlSo(l;L~i1lin;g of CIT by the ,!!Wnts I r wh· peJ'i('Id rnun the bli!ginning or Wodd '\Vnrl ~O tile ~C)epres'sion and the iriS'£' offuscWn and cmrununbm. BUlf I don't think H m.P.n~ genemtlom:d preiudic~ (b. H142) te see it in IH~'IJ-B ;~,eUa_1'l! organh:ist ~;e[nli!lr 01;\1 'ItU'l rnnrneru \f,J'hli!!1 lhe chrysalUs dis"lJ1'I'e:grated around '~he legal cl:Imciousmess w:e call wnl1::mpQrnry.

~ "'''-''' ~ L1rro- 'I~ IJITII TIlE f;IIUJIJ:1Q'!'; N~ ! I ~l _lJJ__[ IE.,,""'" GWilM, 00-1'1 I 11'11' OF"'" FpJlWhll-.; I ,1.9f:l3l,

I Li BtTn' F'R1H1:MoS" Tilt,:PIlMINlioii M~U/Il I i~,),

I'" Milt:IfJ!1; Ji!onrAlJIJ', f1~'ilNlJ 1;11011) (liuN'I!iH f I !'ll. ..;vJ KJore,' Jilia;ri ThI!lH), wlIJJ . .lJ/mr R1_,JJ1fjlf)l'l~

t.tlij~ltI hM\-,1Jj tiM:tl'l'S,!ID., li'r1F PI'l1JTIr.l" 01i"1 w r:~J1I p,d" l~lIJ.

IJI! [lflNZIJUJf. SU,lffl IIIlII L!,5_~ , ... 1.1\:,'10'1< ~!~Ii'ITnl~1 e I [ l.

],011 RlOO;'(fID I:'oiNml, Til &Iil"mlfl' "i~ I:Ymi Ill' IJi;w 4 H.5O, I" w.. i 9121,

In iliis.s(!dio:n.l SlIBlllUI.r:iBl: my.as ,elljuile U~D.'ta-i:iive tholiJ§Il;~8 abour hOWllilc 3lfUltysiffi <llilmle ]l]j~n be !l!1flended nIl iHel ude a Ih:i,rrl g]!!)baliza[~OIiil. J'~Jtb(lugb h I:s.e~ ro :see Ihe f,lT${ Itl!']d 5,eMn:dBJllha~ll,3'1ionsa~ rh9JS and 3.ru.:U.hesis, tffile diJrd globaJiz;:niiuu:r! t\1i~no't be Seem <IS, dnes no~ S~ itself as,1lI. $yntltu:-sJis.. Tililc dltr-d globaLizadan ~ros.emtdC5 th~6 est nw kl tlTh<lt i ( is fmm d~d em a bnll~a1 cl.':lltique tDf its p~Bd!l!'lcesf!l(I!r.iU:lms: rns<e<, I.IUI !iOC ial. Bu [ i l d.iIfers :[1'0.111. bl}lh crT and the sfH'~i3~ if! the oospect I:h>3:t tlhelte i~, n6 discennihie iifL~ge:ifllt':lr.'rrJJhlg en ru;:ep;~. parallel 11] t h:~ will theijry Drli]Jc nDllO;rl Of.;W;JplaHon tob:lt~cpj;![Jj~ de:n.1C2~, [[1e~li,at.mg beh'l"~iI'liQ IUllmaA:in P~!ljCC(<5 aud !ild)S~r:.lj('nl!> Ip{,pns.hJiVtp I~w, "~i'l:ber I woUJid d~rl.llle W~ ~l!lXl.:l~n: Clr l$'Ie ILln~do!J!S~e.~f!tI~bruh!;e:d after 1.945 as tbelill!i)I'J1,dre~d ~QID!h;t!iln~e oflr.! n~fi:nrn('d elemen ts of C'Ll' lyjl:lil\ [ranSrO rHr:lmill!lenteUlS of tbeso~i •. Of QDurs~, t!:lis faiilUM on my p.arlt ·to 'm~tiD~:[11 iZ!llH maynlenn Clnl'y tlHU:., b II!H:::ause d mk bas I:Ull]{e l r~nrnl.o n ~ni]Jod£mffilll, ~ !lliy rtf!'} !]~\I] Mi.fU!erw.! J1.~ fUll h~n ~ble to lab ~U~~.

The ki~IFom!!i1bmn'd ememciIIlll]lf CI:r it> Ihmkingin Ihe modli: of deuucrnon Wi:1h11l1i! S)'.SU~lilGl of pll~iti~ .ll!I.~ .. ! ~m5UI'Pl}lilI~d [0 btl' t::Dhll'l1mt,.oli "neo(o,r-IDai ~ I~IU," NlI;:ufouWiJism funS wild lu, bur td~fl ~,~ ~a'i.!lly r;l~!lfi~l:ld ro.publii( ]~W! iliLC~udull:!ili:terMtjo~ll<ll~. 00 lUI lItutional. unci eriminal htw (n01 adminlstratlve IJ:IW}., and r.mf'lUy hlW, It can be rLgl:1it Of ~eft. Dy OO1'ltrast. eLf l~eg;;\1 science \lvas that ur the ~~\\'!" nr n h Urf.!rioiU, The kq' '!rans:r~mled el ~TIHi!U of '!he Sinlci:a:l i:s pol icy an al~5ii5, bu[ based en ~'OOIil meting ton5id~nlh!llililit UIL'1iIl coiled b<il~;ru!llt:~ Olg(jr pmpomouanvyj. ~tplr11d)~.:n;!~~ na:.h!fi 11l<Ji!..af.l01·ad hut:'ll:lJm:pmmisc.s. rali'il:C( t:lIM1 JIJ I esaclal r!.JIJ.il5 did,i1.Wd by srn,~.le saclal p urpases :in(obemrntly ~di:l!l1d'~e new L~j ~es, Thi~ Wlnde ClMli also be. ("i,gln orle'O;, and I!s present!;l.ve'l1'· Wbete. sglJUet1Jnes 'I:IlcterO re, S'urpimin,;1y.. CUe.N~(jl!lg wi III ncOr~ttn alism.

1I~il.'1lvec:n lB50 Mldi 1'950 t(rnrtor:C:': or lessl, 1l1Jlilplumlim:y o.fscll.oali!; o~ [nt<J.l. p[~~~Ij s.ophy d1!d rU':11 produce' a d[V.Hr-$'i:l}r Illfn'lode~ or ~e!ria.l inrn,agblaCjan •. 13J~~mg!t',lI~, and ~.ilW nmking, IJrrdl aruund 1900, everyiJn~ endil:d up w~~h:!l l!re'(filtOn of rhe lWillhc.o1'Y,. and arte~' .[1900 'everyot'l.e 111tud~.JL:Ill (lither \mlth <I~~l}n of I:'b~ mil thenry ttl v wltba. 'versIon of Ibe saelal, 1:l)dri!.Y, ;Jh1J ovew[l:n,.e world" poS:hl,'!;I'() legal re{l!lmes ~m eVIi:'r-y ~l2'a OrlffW rue :th08i~ t'h nt emerged fm:m the oonfh:ln;t[!'~iOlJl <11 tile [e,.~m (IIf h:gisrn.l~on (lIt easelaw belw,ecn CIT i!..IJ,d IUle sod<Iill,under;. :s:mudi <lSlai'll' .1)J1!m r.m proj~~s ra:ther lfum <tiS l~1 ml1:5dOUi!fn~lie5. 'JiIlcwe is Q sJUbfilTIiltl'lll1tll Df pD::'l1.[fvely ~ar:j~oo. d~3.Sl!iiCl!i.l. C.OI:U.TIilJ:;:~· h:i~' L·~e'Y'!'Ill'!u!re. and 8: l:lupe~StW'lu.re g~ j;!t't-!l'iUvely enacted 50~ l::i~ !~boii" law. 'rhere ~R m ul tmpfe .adm.lni:stro,1iw a~t'l'lIc:i~ de:aI.i.rn~ lwth. a hos~ of sodd.y pmru:.~'I1'B1ati~ <mI?as, eve~Y!bem:e: and e',,'el'Y"'ibe:mlIDleiffi jstbe ~ oUhe rme market Ci1:SoIll'Jlfm)D{IHIl:f less mtemii.Uy '·~ldaJ.ill~d") gl~"'t1emil:!g 1Je'liIea,l~fI and bel\~le~1fI ,and im!o!1G (M. mguJD~D:I1'~ma

MUll liL1£1m i:snot .is OQ.I],e'W' W!![y of cOIi!iEe,M mg Ifu~ h3gali c:ltl'ga.l]jzm.ti:o~:l Df's'PfCi![ity, ~ flew /;::Clfi[rlf:pUun!U tb!;l sarue level a'r a1b5ll:rae·ri.nu a..~. eLI ,or Ihe 5:ociaL

:111 Il'tilih:nlol;iJ;i1il mmav.nilJfn gge'!i un ,ton5t;OI nI']y (eo.go, ~lnuJ;':Iu~l <ldfl~stffi>li'ru. d~c EWllpeai'l Com:m!5.SiUIl, seCU.f.itizallWl'Jlj. 1)1111' fl'JlIC.1l1 O'B'iW pll?r~ of ,f.I{I!ii~;til!.l'e: law p~~tiI~ ht:.'ii.eif a$1JtJ:lT#~> dij;suivahmeinllJ [h,~ ~~p:mdffdleg<i~ 1.al'lg,!t{;'that hoW ]ududJ~ • .niil'll!~n;;~;II.mge(l!b~!l' delh.l1en ts rullJll: i:l"Jinovtllf~ cOino~pt5 I) r th~ social ain I~~ wirh. irnrtbe1::f than i III pLace of; thos~ oJ ct:J:

On the fteld or posirnV,iil liaw, :S·l:nI.CtU1~d and I)1J'mI:!n.1ClUf\L'ld ill a "vay that mpreseues f:IIf}t ~'EI'y sii.n:gre log~c:. but rnm:hertL~e ConlliT!!gen~ ClU~CQmes t1( hund r~d!! Dr ~ul1i,rro,m!llinW5 nf tht:: .sodi1!l ,'\\i[:h ClT, it ls slii:l.l, ptl~m]e l!J' ,iiI'lL'GUf! '35,01. d~· S[fAIl pL'!fS{)~. One snm,p'ly starts [rom ilL'IliJpms,uC'S the 'i1remi$~ ~hattibe ~a'N is >0 r s!h.Q~d b~ ~lte (;~hl:!f!Lf! It wOIri!:Q!'i!g '!Jut pf tbe; (lyhil!1'~tIll id,e~ or ir.~.dMdu al 'rreed~m, so :far as 't:ompiiJt~L~le willTIl [he 1~ke ifmedl.1lln 0 rothers. In [he law u1r market .~ 5e~ be~ow for :lIm!. ~nd Lhlii mmil.y), tl1lis l'nOd'e ofa:r:cumC"f.ll noW' ~dlm:ltlftes nlle~ s Di fH:lillihBml er I ibe:lLt~r~.nor f-m,e m,arke'l cOIMOervati\![l. eLl' hl its pure fIIr r,efwtiQJli'Irri.ry fYJtffm .~~ nnW.~ dgJ'I~-wkl1~ pr~]ecl!"llEher thana l~;~1 eenselousness,

It is ,also st'iU p05S:tblc: to Oliq;;Lle<lS Itt.I];Ouw.lfurrnli".~ an ob¥ious ~ogi~ of~cial d~ l!(Gi oj) m ruJltd:£,I"Il~mj, b}1 ctr. £ffil.a[ d (I H or s.huuJd a:oim:u:e a.I!I of pfl1ii1dve Ja'!,i\{. \~e·re"l,!> lip In \~wr lhi~ ~'i'llgh~' idenlltfy tHU~. ~,~ ~i Ir~lsc-i'5:1 as ~m)h:;}hly :!s J;! Pfi(]gre5siJve, l:llc~eH-m'~rslJdel ~S:1:m'111"'. m rile ~I<I"\fofttlc mar~.1:, almest a!:\I'o'iilY:S ,3, p.rogress:i.1i'ij '!>IBiD£e. Uke ClI, Ifle '!i.odalin!u:uki~t ~Iaw bas lost ~~'s; p.lllti(C~.1 iruletermi!H!cy. but ended up O!1l1 'tbe left fl'l.lhlCf than un I&he rughr. CLJ" a:nd the socim, ~J[1 lh ~'l!i:(! h~ftovil,'l'r, po.li'Lid2i~d .fon:r.:JJs, am net sn much discredited as d,a.t~d. O~ "QJ,d hat," or tired W;9YS 1]>( fl>l'oceB.d.ing. spol;'adi'~a1i,y fOKlJlfuJ. ~][lore ,oFten nlBrerny r~l1i.l al,

These~J.h'll'l.ces an~feverseU in ~th~ Jn~" r~[ se~ ,!I M II he f~mijll. Tb.rtre. err ~::; I'en Glr rib em'~ li2"miTl i8'l 'OF 1 Itn:IT.nian .M~ 11 equal :rigl1 u>~tm a prlllgrum Fortran'S" fomm.lJton oil" (he H!liui~Wi b~iU",~'L"fl.U .Lne-rnL allOI WWIlIl'D and for. (11 e Ubi Imu:inu (I r"5i;!,M,,;aloolUl;llfiUes, ~ [[;Ile 5(jdal. in Sh~~l ,~n1q, .. t .. is ,~unse~.til!le. rifad.ui~Jl]iIII ilj:~. or authorl ~ l'lNlI'I ~n sesaud [<'Lml~~ y ~1iIi~1V. jus'!: me [l'p'postU:'ill!' of i:ts.valmce ill nlarb~I'iilw. The p.re- \I"'-aru:a,di L'iDl[laLi-sl. n r aut;hoiital:1i':l;n el'ffil'me.l'll.t in the s6da:~ sU!mv~here r!sAsian tI:l:ls~;!!n~~c or ~fI\C'i~l eaU'lnlir~ C!( fundartlent:a1i!!lChriiOr tian values, L.)JPI~M>f:d Ul dlc 'Idecade!;;lee" of\!Ve:;OU;:UI !Sexuru ,and falIDm:iiJ Nh;:and mgJCS.

Pg'lfficy dIlIlil1ys1s" the fin,J of thl~ ~i1t ~nlu;w.:[liul~ (!}f post-Wall: ~L'YrilJ tbiJI,u,!!:lu, deals \~Tjm1li HIe u!i'lgplrn.g m:ilHiligeU1ler:l~. urt pr'L:!;~~!'lt]Qgjl~ ,r:eg$W1e!> 'conOi;i""en tis co rn.piml"W1!~~" 'bt:lWet:rlI "indi'li'~du~1 ig;~,~ tel.l'l and sod~ des;jd erara PubIc la.w nea(ll:rmaiLi.:sm. tb.e SlOCD.nd~eatinno'll.L(i.~n" 1'5 a disruptiw. rarher U~a:n man,a:ge'rlaJI iIlmde, bmll!~l.lIt [U hear siJWt!!llti.IT~:e~ (lIW.! 'll~e i~lU1JtjaJil!l l.h:li~ embodIed the sl]d~~, and s(jIme.rime!i on i.lrlC Ifl.s:r:ilnl"iorlll; IIlI.u 1MJr1ibud" led ccr. lrappeals, be,rond dlfl seu:i1rt1ll:~nl fue,n',rIl'LJJ1 tty aed t~~1e !'locta~ M:prnse.J1i.tjoo by llbe lnslu~u.ti.PD. 1.1] qU~StjCl~l, tus~ppo.sedlytrnllll'iCel~d'el'J!!t. but a~!SiIil postthrely ei~l;(lal~ vWu~ i:n 'CQllstl'tl!.l~i OlliS IIlW '~[e'J,[i~. ;;l.i!1lb1 the' staeus qUQ.

In p.la.cc lOf'llThe rnr.slil:lictlilOllici.ID1I1s ctlufidJe.lle.e ~[I. reasan and seien e.e I) fen, nnd of ~be CQ.lllhanVB selr"as~rU()" lorn~ ooc!al. pldi~r:~.t~!.lJlYSI~s hW'i I1t!CrI, rar liFty year~, til e ~e'l1 idle of I]Imcb::s L,\I\i'QrkWlj)lnm~ke dc:wd:ian to doi'QC ~:B~ill wmk wllbwh<li~gvlJfmatcd<Jils are btU OVe$' ,[m:rm '[h£! gro.mruosi!! projeoll:l5 tllW tl:U! pAlll. [~, ~u"·.!IctitiD.n~rJli are n~(),.5l proud Wh~Illhejllr c:o:nd.1,Isii:ltl:! a1.nl wa:rrunJed tifJnpolitical beCtluJiifil G:l~~y p'!fil~~l:1iHWclr d18;ple~,se I~fti!,~cl Ql;lhl' l",1thoulapPliirent panern,

I\1fuful_aw 11looi£C1!Tt1l!!lai.isn:l .reh;!llll8 In the 11liilme ,of~~bso~lI'rues," [I Ulmged in 3. pru'tku.la[ co~,~~t. Neofll!lmwJ~is tln~~l~c[ivfl i;mlll! WRy cUammricalWy OPip'll" 'Sj,t;e ~up~~iqfili!fiI1y~j5. The ~me:nt ~hm [111£' do~d ~hOJl rilJ]<IlI:~' lb_~ Mm(3) IConsrti11liJtion~s~Dtee o£,(riiffidO.l'ml r.!!f'il'SSDchnio'l], or J:MJal tbe' faUlJlJr1e'[o c~llillalire clitll)t;ideal(nayviQl .. tes the Ir:on~~n~ tQil (] 1'1 'the 'EID[rfl[u~til(ln o'r AU F'Q'IF[I15 CI:r 'DblJ(!limi~:nuion Agllilost ~me]} (CEDAWJ. or thru ~l.Iifmil!(hl'ei.HH:ion .in U ,51. IJIDIfv!llitlty adurim:;wns vhJ·]dI~e£ eq ual prolectio.n, or that any ~ud~,e In. nn~~ ~nU!tlny mi£~f<lMl'tbo:rilm 111m d,B[erntrIJn. o,f PII:IllDc.be I. :ror hruma!ll ri:ghts abuse,'l ill vhilanQtIl c:fin,u~:rnaJ;I{Jn&llllil.\1II, a!li1 p~~ypp08i;lei,l1leif a mysU,~ U!;:IiIJ ue f n atura I a,nd 'IJiOSIUve I i'l:W ur tlh,~ ImodJi!1 of dedlJicl1lDI] fmm otb5ttii:ctiOr'lS~1: 1i~lcl:,' li"asbed by the 'Eafly sG£jarulh~'OTIs't.s.

fm w:daoe or the t~,T,I)fa~$or (]if c:u and the .!egi~I:~[rlIl'/adnlI~lm~Ot or me. "'tld.~l, ~he ·h_ern £1gurel'if tire' lhlrdl ~l)b:liJz;a:1ian U; l!.DmiSlHilkamlylhe ~U9ge'. wl,]oiJri].]>I!!s·{l:lHa;erpo Hey ana ~ysi.'~Nlr ~]UlOifl:l'1WaUSm 10 b ~r. as bests t be can, on d:i.sIUI.[BS n'),rBmlu1:'1l·'ed by :g(N~ruooenud find Il;Q!l;r!i(!yemmeli'!I!~ o~miZgUQi:l'S d~imfulilg, 'ro representt eM I. sm:]cw,

Hurm\all dGh~$pllay d'l12 swme role Wil"I mnuilmpo1<lJ)' lii!.g<I~ cif]\I!sclou>SfJLes;li wa~ ·'p:riva~le rLgb[~~ pl[l¥~cl i:ll'l ell' an.dl '~Qd;al.:d~hts.~ 1P'.~ajfed irru 'l:1li:.e So.ci;at mdelil~hy phI}'!!> the ~Dle ~h !I,t ~he ~~lll1:1irvIduulp~a:yed ln er.l",lliud tbal da,$!>L'!5 !Lnclll~IJO:[JIal mjJi1orii~t~l· pl.aye~ in t!;IItf' ~,ci al, The c!JIRlempumry ideal ~8 a lcga~ ~edlll~ ~!l pi ural rnt , n(1l~ In (11 11: saasa of CIT.~:i.chcfHM'dillLah3cl i1'l~nM;r~d l ndl$v:iitluaJs duo 1i.I.g:b-LIJ,l~ver;a:ll~ ~aUdi I.llbstttl',a~1 rule~. nor ~ ~ 'l:hil!~ !(If the Srtdm.IlTcooc;~wed ~fI~h I1nd~Wlg HiOd S'lJPPQJli/nQ, ~he ~vaHd" ~Iivmg~ :I<I\\< a:l' SIIlJ1pcomJnIIl.]til~s asa 1~:l<It.h m\i!,'<!Iylll aaidea of dJsu~ibUliva [usrlee, Bu~ it']: lhe seuse ~f a~p:n,:'.lpd<lte'~y ,~eoosnizi.I1;~ and 1~\'Iatlag~~g i'd,~~r:i!l renee,"

The jndi\iidu~l (;and Cl'I:rp [l:l'tUe) prup;r;rrtJ ;lind eom rile I ng[his bfl'IDVed of CIT WCft: OJ ~imH~d diliSS. 'l:l1Itr.i~II::cl bY'l'he wln~l:Li~ of '~Mg)IIi'_ Pl:llo'let nome ODe iland.<lillEld hly tliJe sbarp dis1iimcruDIl h:!"itwe~Q l.egm and. ~ClmI obligaCl:iflll tU~ 'Lbe utber. They ~ OjjIDl B'I:!~e~tol;', blJJ~ netthe rnuclelfo r l~ol'lh;:ml;IIH'my humm riw.r.8, ner, {Ollf th~t U15ltUer. are l~e:y O~l1tnl' hl the hl1lia'llan rights p<nn,tllOOn. The c:oUeell\<esodi!!1 rig;n'[S Ii:oodi, housing. wrnl'k. heailllli'l) hl!l~o1!.i'ed orrh~ SI]dilll, are ~m~~e or [es<s \I[,rldli~~led i n p~iUv~ ~lIw;bu t th:~I"; .~tkl~ 'et:] 'pmjpeny [igbrs. ilf'e tQ£;Iti!;!'pru.'Il~.I'~'''I, l~,lIe margin (!If eon hllI!P'~rory 1'lIlgat COlllliidoli!i1ll!;SS in]11i IJmcnSllUitiUJl3Jf{lm:D..

C~ultempollU'Y' I,egfll~ l4!n~ch~u:ll;fj~ i~ theendpuint y[::! I,nn~ pruoe''5lii WI] whl cll [he~EJ'U;e[fi!J t,;(U~~rH 01: iii right has L~e:n morn it:! ih\5ffiricnl Jm'll' PC]iLIl[

in (be ] 990iS ~l:1:Byday of dgt1'1 and left ver.simts oTtl1~ social) to heen me the lInlv'~r.1ai leWl~ .I.inguis'tie nmit Human "'c'lli:S an~ 'Ihe ~hypmi'tliltu".l'I'rton" ohhis trend, uperntin,g as univctsais, ,Ill once n.:ml .... l'll and posltfve, in <I wily oddly unalegous It'!, [he ope:raf1Jon ,( right, wlll;;mel [<rulli.n ctrpri''ilBif' law. Ruman [iglm. alsn rnl'liCDOt1. ~umedme as rules (evel1 absolute rules) and some HIDes <IS r:nere pa::iI.~cie,~, )1{JtM tia]ly re~vmn ln wnmUy every I,"g'a I dispute ~v, n if lheu~ i~ no cit' i m of \I']olariou of an enacred oo'1IThl11tu !:ion (I r eharter O~ uea.ty,

Contempnrary leg~d eonsclnusness or,ganizcs rights clatmaruaaeee rdjng til ulieirpillmil. tlOss-cuttlng "id ntttles," lI:l,en,til:y .repres nts ar un can extension of and OIlOtal;l.Timsfonllati:on.of.lhe Cil,tegur~el5o -soci<l1 class and. natlunal mi nority -lhruugh whleh the ~ci,;d j UO:SHl (ijsi:llI.fl.grn~e.d.lhe SEl\'~l::lili~nl "'p ea- 1P.~l'. I, Conte.mporiA,ry identities croS8 curln tbe sen set b!it eueh oru~ h as, In<lJlI:l~l; OnE;: person 'rul b a straight whlre male m;;tniedmling class New ~ngbltld Protessant United8t<H8£ean. not 1I""jng wIlli a disability, not 8. perSlIlll.iving with AIDS, not a survtvor Ilh~1 herememh rs) 0 d]jjill'lOod SI:J!U;l'[ ilbuse, and SCi on,

MY'~~i'lcmple ns~nvkw;md becllLlflli\'" ll1.cunh;!rnpurmy:glubaJ if.!gru.cons,dollsness, the norien u[ idillidry is the descendam oHhe soeial pmoc'upilUOIi nut wiltb domintl!l,l[ hUl wilh subordinated or dlscrhntnated ow persecuted ld nti.1.:lf'!li, Idenrttyis typicnUy the basts ora claim. <I:ij1li:rulrtl!c "majolity'" or "dnmtmm I culurre," [denUty [h~ukin~. tI:1 h~'rnM'~'S' b[l'i:J,i"'ile~1 ,eSSea:Jili.rd'i'LJ ng 'whal i! ifi ttl h;a~e sorue '[ul.['Uc:ul~l~f trait that '~em its fHlsses:snFriio apart, hl ~;I'merto dev, ]Dp and legh'im,H~ 'I gal claims, and uying 10 r,'';o" lle those claims wllet:l Lb!l:fY ctJt'illid. ' ->f course, sIn1iiGlu:Jur\Iir..LJjr! u~d()naJist' .1aims, and drums baser] 0'1'1 class ill national :mi:u~!rlty oppression ar no less emnmon wdfty than Ib.cy were in the ial~,l3'rw.lfr :period. It is [ust that [bey are n olun Ger pMllLdigJna~:k.

rdel11hyjnghts diSCOUJ'SI!!Slllfll.IUS!!.t (1rrsll gl.;}nce lO be-a pubUc Law <Illd (j~lllll@y l<n\rpb enn n1IellOU. 8Ulll is in fa t. I [UClilll~')lI<1 franca, just 3' 8, pi icable i 0< ~ h lawo thamark 'I. On lnesl,deof'llur typind benel.iciDrie8 ()fid enrnydlscours . fHimelr what lhe social jurists call "week partres" (WoIDEl'n, d~9£rlrnl.l:1ar, d m lnnrttlss, now eV'l'lTl ~thl:l puar" am derstoed as an ide~lrlL'Y ra tli er than a elass) formal m<Llrlkell8\iv no ~llnirJ;,er lgnores lderu hy, Same pl! hilt :lnd priw~,e market a rers, bUI n(;l others, are forbidden to ,discl'itnil1.l.te a.gllinst sum iden'litieil. hut not ethers, whteh means (01.'11 Ihey mllY b cumpelled 10 deal, ag~hl~r thel r w:i11 r at so me IlEc.QIJ,omi.c OSI, OT f'O I!!::ad to d al OM. more ravmable' terms 1J::J~an the i.dtil;ntDty in,cull1lb~nts cnuld ublaJu iQ a: "free" market. Hlstones or: d.i!i~rirnrolUcry treatment efnn hlm:ltiry giw rise 10 eamplax economic daims agamst private l1Ilar.ikem: a 'loon or pr:ivarep.ropl'ny .owners ilIl the present,

On [he- sld .or "stIfODI'l parries," employers, m'i:i1Uur~. sellers o,i" tangihle and intangible cnmmndlties. there ball! b 'lim a sustained ef.fon. B.mhlermUh.: of t01'ltempor~ry legal CO!lS~iuY'sneSiS,; to r€oCo,rnfigmJ:!pf,(I,perty ~raJ 'l:;ontHII:I rig:Jclts Hll flaurnl.le.I to m,[.[J.orHrul.;;J1] tdcm:ityt;rigllins.. astem P.mupeill.l. dissidell"lt 'rigtns lbeort5l:S. for whom The Soclal was .imflliGatedif not in eommunlsm

61

'itscl1".11 :lea51 in 11$ to~eraliun Ehrm.l~h the Y' ars 11 [l to 1989. inelu d 00 p£jva[~ p nllJe.'lrylll'l thelren aJog 01 \Vha~ w a s,demed undermmmmmlll .• Theu!tiilHIU: realiztlt:iou o:f this trend is Anuutylil. Sen'!; inclusion or the Ul!ighL III 'l1gage IDlIl'llrrnpreneurlali aotiv~t.y·' ~n lus calalog or human poll ntJiialiJy pmteetten, probabl~j best un dellllUmd •• "past (.)r~h thiTd.\'urildn>aai.onil.eruJ]Jl:t Ilbe'soclaID as mlltnffesh:d in the [;'I)\i lod, rSL 1'~gimL'lS ,of tj]~ siX1ti c:s aml :sever.W8.

'lJ'iltU;l mnue:rml.~~1Il3] business ootlUIlUuil;,}1 grnd.u<lUy ~cla'Pt~d 'ro therise of identi1y dgbt:s J:betori1!;: by h1.In.~funlling pmpe:ny mvnersh[p ~n~o' amlnori'~iUI, h.IeoHlY and peifrtml:.'tIr reBwallion uno ule aua'iog or db; rlrnina'liUrI b' ~cgishti ... 'C IiI:N.ljmitie.s. 'lllrough I.lt 'Wro.FUf example" mullio<ltinllals denilllL1d ,PfU'[e don (or inUle'lual PfOp~rty ligh " asaimit lbe p,m ti es of third wurld Ct,liJII tri, ~ tlnn refuse Ito re·(l.,l:ilrJl patents and (f-l:ul.eliiark: of 10 'prell' 01 "piracy" (l:llccly'p<lrnlIelinglbe' demand '0, I IlhemiUitlnm, c,apiml thar Hmlt'lill:ialist states, SOupprns5 t8llgibl,1:l pki!jJt."Y in the cilIld,y nineteenrh-eennrry M~dite!inllleanby coitlllidrlg N'lrth t'\fricaJ.

nle hnp-e uf The &ldid, []'lIi'llU ,iID mstH utinnal meehanism based en I he ru~lWlliition orf 'nrganiWd groups, (as lim C:Qf.Pu:l'<l!~ril;ID-) C~1'i tl=itrRC rly m::h i't'!lI'~ accOJ.'fl.modllJitillr.t.. hat! d,~3Jlf:l~\'l.Md. JUSt as ~h'l: pt.'O'plcliultiOfl tOl.1l1l1]rnt oret: r Volm) rliVt!J1, 'by I he faC'u8 on sDda] classes and nadnnal mi.twdtle ,'1 the onlet b .. sed on classes and nat onal minartdes rwgn~l:!m~. wh n rhe idntil~! eanc ,lI becaroe cross 'culling. The end results Ihilt dIe concept of an idenlilt)~ am:1 the sec uf lcgID'L"OilccpiS llII!Id teehniques based nn t11 hla uf a right. ~hm!l!gh \' hi iIrIldcn1itlcs en~e.r.Jim (e.g., dbcrlmln~Ulm. aecemmedaticn, 13b:.l. an . geu ral.lIuL lb.!!y p~u'Vildf' ,onl,.. :a lln~gu " used, to preduce <IlltI intirutl!: wr.il!:ty 0' parlj~ll,dl!ili M:gH$i!'lents <!rod pa,rllcuWlliJF IIp.gimes nfposit:hre :taw. a,s ~}rlr"'r. 1>42

Each llfilliOnllJ l.eg~ SYSlJE!nl makes hs O:wfft choleesabour wmch jdeilnil:ies Itt) reeognize a nd wh teh ~i1 s:ttgm. tize.. But the ~.cnts: [tlr and ag<l.ln:!i't rn~gnHiun are close to jdcntioaJ i'tC1'0S1i time and spaee, 'When an id >nlhY.1I l~ogniz'ec::~. i I 'will he thraugh a [yp.ical.l}, cum mpururyi mix DI' higlll.y ~, nnal ltlDlnl! , Df equality and nQndlscrirtli:n. Unn. wirh ill blgbly ~l1lodated, ~d hu • I\~I' Q 1I11j"ln • uinnu rnlerano OJ accommodation f(lf Id,eQ.t.i<ly dlillin~ lJI' "_ UCe5 ~i~ "sedorny i. alld the vt:'f~. and all n U I affiJrnljl1ive;lil ctfJ[]n or rep .. ra riuns, In etherwords public law I:U~OrQrtnj]Usnt i;umh]U'lred "...jlh oonllicUng eensnle.m.tim'lls ,balaflL"i.l1~~ 'p!'Qp!Dnh'tmd ity)l. T.I'iJC rp",," 1m. he iI5 nl<my ... D~lil'l:iom:u~:"as lh,a'['e' ~re I~"vwm<aldug <IlJ tb.rldllirul.

Eil:ch of Ih~ ~utill; of UU:1 third g,inbal.i1:atiun h ~ a fecDgmz.lble Unltad 5H:!:te, sean geuttalugy. In the' sense I hlllt. st<K1i I] G from our peeseru and.movfng back;, in tlrne, we snun come upon UnitOO!iUlte;sean deltelopmenrs dUll se m .'U Ill!illiI'l to pficsagedune in l..1tgjnb:Jll}nnte!il. PlIhUe I;)"" Hl!ofllrm.ali5m stmugl'y re~bJM mile pratl!~ o~' ~~u~, nineteen'lh-o-nru:ry U.s. 'colin ,,\r\obicillook

Dnm::m Kennedy

the eel' cnnstructlen af plrn1ate l;rwand applied ~tlu the U.S, Co:nS'titJu:l:i .. on. MterVil\tv:u, Mb(!'!;!1.I.dvlllilbe~tllda.ns '_"'itn had L"rongiycri.ticized tb~ Eo.t1Se,-Vative publlc law nent:nrmaLism ,oF the l\'adi~r I'D ried IDOl!:: up ~hl'! same pr:i·c~ice 111r,iough the'i¥an: n Court. Poli.cy analysls a.nd bal!ancingwere po:n-Rcal.isl U.S. deve!:opment,'l, and the' advocates of balan 'il1g were ailcei!ldy debating public: law neofol:[uaiists iu theearly l ~508.

The id .. ~n[i·~' I ti,~ht!il crHTlIpl,ex, as ... tcmp1am 10.r tihinkingaboU'l a Va.'i·l rnnge (lf1eg-al i:S:$1Jes, IiflCnl& hne&badol'ilicd ln the United Sl$les by the past·!A'VI/ll alliance Olr elite WASl's. raws. and bla'eks in the eunstruc ion of [he category of ethn.id.ty, lin~inB. the ~Is of'lhe Holocaust W those ohau:ism in lhe UnU'd S[l3Jlllil'tS il.~ meg;;q1 dmcrIm:inalli:m. U.S. second-wave reul iuj~m .i s respc IiIsi hle for the abstraetlon and generaU:z;adon 0:( the IC~Uie>gOry by traalSt'trrm lng .il.intd ~idenlity.'· And it is familiar since' de ThtrueviUe !.hat Uni.teGS131t'S£!anfiltlod umram juris tn 'rocy .

AJf.lng with Ithis. cnaceptnal g@:lll!al(J'8¥, ea b of the' main 'Sil s fur the developmen r I]f dll'[1 tern 1~·OEIiI.ry i!ll-gal cDiJtlsdgu"~eS5 hots it SRU ng U.S" 'qJl:lfIU!ctima. I wlJuld.m 1l(:111:d~ among tl1!;ls:e SUtifi, fll;st 11:1 e consttru:tionail,comts, l'JI'ith KudO cla~ mvlffi\ll' ofhm nli]~slles. of thed:istrihution of powers in [oo'r!l.ralsystlmJ.s as w 11 as ever ri,gI:us .000ainS:l: the state, that have rsrme m!:1:!' l;:i:ist!ence all uv 1'1[,e wn rLd since 191J6, Second, t h rise uf trans:il-atiornlID iwis(iJjctin lIS! m a has l or diffe.fleT!l e~~111 OOl\t!:i. i:rgm the Eu.ropean Union tE.ul to tt.H.~ 'INTO ·~u rhe i:rll:~rItil tiorra[ War Crimes ~I'tntlilmaL Third" in tbe Wgri d cr law practice there is the deyclopm0Jlt 01' tbe U.S.-Slyle large illtl3mationaL law firm dea.ljn~ witb. the iss.oesoIthe g1ohaliJ)ed ecunomg and of a Ilonp,mlEitNGOsecwl:'fequallyg1Iobalized, understandlng i rself as- ,constituting "the i nrern aliontd CIIJ11ImlmJJty, ,; OJ!" "irrternatten al c~vi1 soclc~y. ~

In eaeh of lhe&e ~on.'Lel1s., the influence of the. United Sta[es is m,lu:nlfeSi, As in lbe ;;ini:l~y~is of the diEfufii'CID of·CJ[T, we can distinguish mole or less violent imposition J'irom.impos.it]nu tl'nQugh upedor biITgaininC power.and both from prestige, IJF'OJ' crrnstitutin nal 'C;;O'tut5, fer 'IDiilllmp]e, the dwe ~fl'Pmetll. begi1ls wlth U.S, vaq;;Lory over Ge.m'lany. ~tidy. and ]a;pa:n in w\'IlIII, and COTIdlill'ies ilif,ough v[c:lol'y" in t:hJ~ Cold Wa'l'+ Then there is the precess by whiteh USAIlD and th.e'irn'lernBllinn.aJ lloan ial insti"tuU!)ns bargain with third world r, g.i~mM des~l erate for I1nancial ball outs. lmpnsiagrule onaw reffir-m (IS pan () . structural adjustrn ent, U .. " court s have steadUy expanded their "~I] ng arm" jurisdiction, andthe 'way (If t!:iil[lking I'lIbrJ'~ l ~~W t hilt gpes with ~ t, through 'tI];e impliQ:( tlrl'ea't thar ifdJef""ndant muilinallouals.mfuse to accept U.S,. iutisdicdon, defal.ll ( judgltnmts will make n hmrd or impossili)le for them to ae ass the U.S. marker,

ThE! <malogy l~ tn nln teeruh errrury ilUprtiai htl:(gEllD]ng wtth the Otllnln:lifi E:m.p'i re tJf ellinll ~l'r 1:!gyp [ [or 112-W1Il"'capi.u.dat.km " undeil [be two Ihreat'S of nilliU1.vy Intervel1llkrn and refusal '(I:r trade.Tne rise or U.· . style Il1'lns.nalionill blW firms Is ob iim.l$t}r tled to the [·dative dominance of U.s.

~SiE1a~ronalllo:rporath)IIlt8 in the .cl!!JbaJlized wodd eCOmOIlIY. ]l[\~stige seel'J')S the U1JO.rc' JC~~'V<I!])l ca!:egQ~ fer lWdersranding lh.~ d£l1mlnaltllCe ()f U.S.~!lt'Y1e pnUC¥ ~."iI:ny,s~s in the 'l"rorkcl' !he EU IEIJtl~~eill::; '00m mJS$iiO[l Dni::Q~lJa,pdiu(Jill io1!wi or Ifor i.!nt:!,efslrund ~T1g 'q:nolijltion o:f U .S. Supreme Cm.ut !Ca~e& by tb;e .EWlP)~ Ii<m CO[1St:iru:tionruJ Coufii.

On the othrilif hanld.l~. 'is easy tOi le:gagg;I'1r.:ne Ule-~neru ~owlh:icb lh~~lDJim g1aba]]zaLloll is "i'eal~y" Amede"u~I·;r.A!Jliknl" Fir.'>:!, publb:: Litwneoforma][sm and canII ie~i n,g t:mm}dl~'ra.li!]ins. 'h'>!'Iv'C ,11 .I:u:mpcan as wd. as a U:nitest:aIBSiEMlIl geneatl~ ogy:. .i.ndudluJrug; for JHl1iCj' analysis,Belle lJ,emogueand :Ph!JI ipHeok be fon: wwn. aod~be ,l2a.rllf propnr~ifJn(!ML'Y eases llif rug: G err:ElalJ. CO[!Lsti.mdm:iru, (i~i;:nl.Kelli8en tan j'tiJ dil:;h"lll revil~'If and German [Jrdo~ll1:bernl:i!'iLm uoCIJeq:if\d, publie law n~Q1fO[maLisln. ADd as ;~n the earllsr c-ases of CLTand thee social, there is a pro eess of sBlr~ctiiOn, In ~'II'h1'f::hl~g,a~ el i Ie£; ·arou nd .~ be wodd choose to be df:i:mi.!~ al-ed it! one way ~I~her tJmIn1ul&tiler, The EmopdaiJ.l Coun oJ .1 ut:H[o~ is !1!.t1J Rrrrifl~isJin i;t,'€; (I] ooJPr~I~;tion oifthe canenseal ~:I'f1:ledcl\I:ns"Q;f .mo¥elr.te:EU or~[lod1s<il.IJJd PB["S(jI'JJ~ In a "iIji.lngl!e Dl3:r'keu~ in. paa;~, as $s w,u.::]ely r~co{Jini1Jt:d! m order. to drap eIts 11,!'lgisl.aU\!'~ D~l~te]" in the cloak of ~ega~ nece$jty.

"\'Vhf iJ8 It m.ll", in a gu (lilly rurusber of,pe'[i ph.'il:I<l! and ~Jni p~iphemJ mlt:lona] legal: :syslBms.[;oJrl!>t:i.lllli anal eouets establi:~::!U:ld o'v.e.t (he' wlltlle p ~fiod, ITtUil1 (hIE! ]13Jt:e: forties [lndiaJ irun [hIE "l97a~ (p(I!I:'tugal, Sprain, GreeGe) and thJ~ 1990,5. 'CC'..en Lrt'll Burope.Gt)]ombiOJ., So uth Aft.irn). hOI, ve e[101e lei exe:rdses[gnffina:n[ pow~r. 1!lUCe'dJSsflU1Uy inv<)].i.d,8Jti[l)g legisla"Eivtl and {~E:!>cuHve ar:th:~ns.! The b.ackgn:aunli (if n, S •. Juilimry h~g~m.ouy, !:he ptli:!~1i'ure(j nf 1J1eintemad!)'n:al f [IlaI1ldi~ In!ii:lhjJ1Ja~!;$alld f):fw'Qv~d ~~p~~'Id m'Olld.:.ett'l •. andthe p,restige Q.I'ltS. iI.1Sti[1II~io'll:5 ao:al1 parrlufiliesmry. ];!J.n In,ll'e, toO.iI seeres IJk~ty~hal se:lecL10illl. is .nmportiluCiL

We 1Ll'rlg[~t mt.:e:rpret {k:!"iIe~opn"let'lt.5 of this kind of jud'ic:i.a1 poiM;;lr asa :il1;"Uegy o~f a part 'ofU'le ]Qc~d eUW~, 'thtl'prarl wi U'l ~.cce5iS t lJ ,IJdh::ia] pl}w~:r and ~c.~a~ dll!S~,oufSe, to de·<l~ bY"!D!ildh'l;tiGn with <I CD arJld~ris;tiic Set 0·( tfl<I'1Hklling p'rlM~ S~;E!I:es, In the KoJ:'JJOil1l;!l¥. lille,se [egJ:1l1~5 W~ I:b~ ~dtes of the e~,~btlfiniml 'Or Hu~ insdlll~i[ln:s< qf lbJ1'3 s(ll~ia!. [rQ:m :~~ucl refl ]I(m t u h]l]Jor~ 8;ubs,tHulwuillidus [d~ ;!I1h';~1J~ion, by the ,Iefland r:iigh'l nationalIs,[ m;gi:m65 that {;am.1ll too ·pow,er after V!lWll. in the CD.ll[eX[. o( deco]ol1riZatinn and th.rrdl wor[dism. n:H~re g~[!eiHlIly. B~gin[IJb'1c.·sol~1le 'nm~ein !'.be I ale &Is, ris.fulgneo.'tfber.alisrn, Wi li1s,lmn!jl Units to cut ha~ked by the f,esu~ce ()frlght-Mng power iln ~le United Siittfl,8 <lind Western "Europe, has been pu !SihiOigftJ:r tile ~"I<Ji[Im:n,g Of saclal re;gimes, ~!ild le:S:[:k~cialy of IS] regimes,

Third worlld cousd:tu.tkm,;l~ eoarts mediate b~l'l;¥Ce[ltlte5e PI'Il.'ffiUTlf:S aJ.lld theresistance of the mltlJdcG beJ:re'fici01lid:es o:f the soc±a]. peasants, [he urban peor, g'ovc[Jtl,ment mIlp,layees,atr.ld business mre<oost$ witba~ce~~ h'! th~ rents ge.nJillfilLed by regulatlCln. SO.m.~'Llti1es [hI;'! C9IJi['t~ ~trik..e dQ~ th'll!: social measures, :'1;5 for e:li,n'Urp]e when the IGllam:li:ao Co!J']s~itl;niDnal Com.'! ab{)~,i~hll'!s the N~nlm!ilh era QOmpli1.s'Ory gare-sooorpffl'Olthle:!; of pliOdncers ,t][ d(lrn~s[ic gh:u.. Sam~tin:l(ls th.~f ·sofl:en tile h:nJI&7I(l~ of ~be neor~!benll nlU ~flck. 0\$ '!'!then the

701

Indi'MiI eaurt.whh Ihe_h~artyapprrnmlofoav;id Beau)', delayed lhf1ll\inion 'Of qU.lUeli . OJ) public treets Ul lumbi'lhmtil'1.he monsoon season \',,'3S,O el')'

I'., im.llac 'bllll inv rse precesss ms to b at wolik for ILh~ dnrniltl, o'f g;i\!il lb rues, se , Ilnd tb :fam~ll". Ilere du~ inleJmuiol:"!fi~' prf:~:;:ulrt!· rnmes f"wm 1111." lmematlnn al NGOs, p.re;9si:t"!g fur pmt ~tinn of pontic.al dIssid nts and rn:, l:lle nbemli.zfiiJian .(1 r ~e:.'\i!;I;~ ~l1d flImWy h~,ga I (lfJl~:ll'!if. On the' mJhe r side are, ~':II:'~BfI. tile l11ilUal)~ allild Irnd[tiom:IilE.51reUgi,~~. and WUIlH,I].Iud.iliIl org,a.oh<'l"tions. On agakl, '[he COllslili.JtB:mull illllCumseto I:J r putdh: l:,Iw liIeofornlnUsJ:1Th and p ropor'li.onaUt)l" illlml\l' di·e letolil11y ~rnpowrod part 'of the ell te [[I Mnedi'ilit, • CI iw 'I rideemmy is mn Shwri',a. so th gm mllnell'L CIUI ban il. a _l.'IfIMil'l,g to the f!ID1uian cm.rn.

lvlcdia.Iion mean . dmtnt!]dt r -id'gl'5,e~T "rytl'liingilWl'l.lIl'L& 011" cl81I imlll. 5, an more than (11 ,e-OUtil' 1;'1'1<\Ct I ither th 1 \\'ashi.mJglno. c-on~rllm_. OJ th ' su IIlI! .1lgenda. ti)u h lie I<lW nen mma.Ys[li'i.iWld I' 'ie p:ielhlJ d D prop(Jrilion~ L~ty empower j1<ldichlllinsll'tudo:r.LS HI S'la.1l1d ahuve th e con m.ct of C:L~I.' -sryl .. ' nenlibelflJi $om and I:he~tJrvl'll'afi~p~le ments of ~ In: ie~~w;ing sodaJJ1, <I~ld eq u.allyahl1\i\t' lh,~ ,oonn let 'hEt-ween ~ln hemliz.eT5 and social iE!.u[:!llnrlUui3i11S l:li.nd I F.ld[tirJ:l'mU~lli. Til . 'Ink:. th~ co ntilrC'rs GUt o:l'!.he dOI'lll::dn air pUf1 poUHo;. with .~W111'li explosive 1!I1J!i:S i bWtle ,and reloca [e n ~n me domi)~n onega] cxp mSE!, (1st n:lli bty und~1i huprnpoliUca'! :Incul c-nmro1.

'M}f wew isl.hr..n it \'11111 btl a, hn~ heFor' if i5 p!"JS5]bl,e to work OUL. mlmspecli..ly. jU.!l;[ \1\111 mI the ,clj~~ Il;il:lj;e 'I'lllaS for this mediali:l'lJC, aclivity.I ~4 M 11 ~lI'I!lJtt IDJes.q., it \\fnldd ~~m p1aru;.bb!, that th ' ruJlllorlern of iudidl!il. te"Vil'M" m.a)l hll .... e in~]udud 'the Ilollg-C5ta.hnltluw C'ldnnita:1 g p!ie¢nk:mjnJI cw:mO'pon~\iln'Ii;['C5j not fuUy dlilip]a.cecl.. ar even slrun.gt:Jlt'!i'H!d by HI 'Stl i<a.l rf!gilDe.s, ~'ld IJ 1G n.~wly eurid'led ltmt~p:;" n1(lvin~ 'l~watil ;01 more cosmomlol itl:W ~~di;ia ~ IIUl:Iu;e u W,I;!U as into the IilLotml n:n~lrik:e:t, whp IDl][naged ~,o, est"l bU~h themselv s v.rithill toe sm:iru d'ispens<lJtion.l:rnr these·groups-. the 'I\r~hiilfl~WU Gon:sen:!l'llls advocateS, the I i bernUz~n8 NGOs, the local miUtary. iCUUutaJ nat iunaUsts. and religious rood menl Lim are alW thn~al:S UJ be R18nk!~d !l~cgmmod.ilu:d but DuE all,ol\'I'eciI W'Il min lhe good 'limb and dl_Jll'otnL-q-Jrrg filhlW.

TIU!' proc ,of eI~ctl.on~ as in ,,_II of th e IOOrmp]CS, is p~ible b C"..l.~e.

~ with the' 6f.1olllWU, the third glnlf:laJiMI~ion d {fuses a ltul:gue. and Jl rmlts 01111 ~nft~jll" varl ty of lJ.Ctl'Ole by rhos 1i'11110 Jearn to s:p~at propodh:mruity, I'IfW('OtPlla~~sm. ri,~hlsJ~del'Ji~i.lY. and ~utJ1iid .. ~ :Slltprel'iliiJ,(..1" ,\Ii the 1t:mgll.e rlffiuserni, It lost wts di.sl[i.nc1we Un~~~~!'01!te."ean qill .. tUty. l'h~ U,S. 'soluti.on.s to the pmb- 1t:ITl s ~ ha lloc.-aI.\fpcQK1 'm address in t.I'ui!.'ln~Wl'u:laliuil1aJ contexts orne tD se ~'I1iI. Iusl l;JlIrtkulaJiIUil3J~re5 rather than pi1rt'adigm;:Jj~c uUemr.IIlCl1S, bis p~o:ces~ is r<ldlitafed 11;' tb~ p'l,[{idlialtlirn of U.S. leGitI cuhllmj whIch.l teli W\\Vfl lOl .. t

I Il\wm"8 -'lW, 1'10: u~ Rllil. m l.Al~ t:!U(Hl ..

WI, . iliUM '",,110 tlliISCu. ~,oIJID5 l'mIlS'IlXMu; 'tR~ OI'mm"5 I\N~t Loil'i!iF.iQlJliflff~!F_'i.1l Til I'W

Co"i!mTI!mDNAUi5;1<1 1:!ll[H,1 hplpll!l In Lhi~ I1ilglll1l

Tim..o.e. GLobaHzartions oJ Law lIIQd L gal 'fho~gJll

Lhe opermess 10 the res ~ 0:1' the WOdrlU1B 1.11 ad heen u ne of i IS, strikintg . .LrnQ wh n Uni tedstateseans Wfi'!n:! se.IJ· c{1r!!lciIJUS dwelle rs fen ~hE' P edph,~ry. When [bey wanr.ro lu(lul!nce the irmgm:. erassert pmpriemrsb.ip Qvedffi use, IJni'ladsrateseans m~AY be mei'Fecmai because 'they know it in its enntem pornt)' trnnsnarienal form 1~8s well dun those whu 11';-1 ve been busily developing i l offsbore 01o'\12:.r the [1iS1. Mtl' ye1ars.

Tim. cenllalilY oJ rhe jtid~ cernbl nes, willl the fU'ob.le.m,:nh: status of jurjmc me ~bo d. ,i!'l t h I" afielrmll'tbof rjtiq U~ and wUb the mui.ti"p.l:icatlon 0 f claiman l tden til if'S, 1:'0 jpQS1 a nm'\l' problem. In pia e of the question oj(' the extent to wlilidl law should b~ mfJl[al, fore ,000.nO: the question oFthe relarlon between L:il:w and :$udety, for Ibc social •. i n ('ounefn;1Iporllry Je!j:ll ,eOf1sciotlll'lttmn u..e question ls the EC[;:l.uonship he-rwee.1.11aw ;;Ynd pulJl:ks. 'flru:l I udge Sif]'llill;;!neon~ iy represents Ja.w <lgaiinst legi~l;.lti"e pontic dum slimIly Bud sovereign poUti s flll[!rnallianahl~'" and must answer the ,charge tha.!. ~/he i a lISUrpCI', doing ".I1uUtk." by n ther me-am .'

Cmrternp omry legal con$€.iou&nl:'!s"~ h arbors a plletbo.m of nonn,an"e te'CQJ nstrueti on prof eC'I.S, df!'$Ign,ed to trausee nd theop'!losil.'ion o I' CLT ;Jnd the social, and lhe~rehy restore Reason to ruiI.er.ship in Ia,W.11fi U ilAsu harbors a p.l.elhom. of methodologies Iluoug;h whidJ !'ei1~1 theorists allm:lilpi to i1cbi~'e fl. dlaranced W'lderBla.ndrng U 111 r, J1'I!d,o.1ll (If la:w tn ether demalns, In place of, (l'r alofili! :lide, the narmarive 'p'11oiecls of C:LT andthe goda:l- uti.l.i.tm<Mlllsm. natural rlghts, social D,ar\J\;iillsl~.rl,; Catholi, DaturaHaw. Ui.'taJrXism.. ,p.ragm,~t:ism.

om tnaaism, end ~o on - we have Legal P mosss, liber<il righ I~ I henry (oliten puzilingly eombi n ed 1O'ritb. analytical jurisp.rudlencet4i'); effi deney <I'.na:l'ysis, re'p u h Iit:<lRi MU, iommunirananls Ill, leEiaJ 11 e Jpn'lgma nsm, feminisrlegal theory, eririeal mel:' 11'18011'. Arild' thai, ts j1J:~t ihe Un]JI(]dSlat,~sean a~niy. n'ien: is nell [fLO[\~ a dtllllllirlil:trn ;liCoon:Slmctiun pmjeclloday [baRth" re was a dominant philo:mphy gflaw in .. he late ninereenth c~l1l,ury or between tlu World Wars.

)\nlOng the lut rpl\edVIlS op'post'd to reconstructive prejecrs- fm~l tical [urisprudertee, 'the sodorogy of Law, the eeonomsc a.nalysis of law, Hteml')' lht~Olrl~ing oUaw a!i text, flu!! cultural su.u1y of I,itw, ~ritkaJ1I,~aT .s:tudiefl, post. rned In le.galthflory.lQ:f enurse, the int'erpr·dv rnedes are. no Je.s.!I Vf.:!cUe sal- 1I nu:mi for hav]ng I!sdtewed pre ciplion. Cntlnal I.ega!!' sludi:tlill, l he approaeh of this antele.mcl udes -iii ermqu of poli.r:ya:nalYSiis. f 11 r[ . s, pretension to I each nut', through HI -uotien of unlversallsabllity, the inev:itiilble partieulartsm (lof political/legal choooe. And 11 ]r.cl'lJ[des, 11. cri:tiqQJl(l o.fprubl.ic]aw n!~of'CI~mruJiSDl ~lJr Sli1pp!OOss~ng the moment 0:[ "governance" in. p(lliUl::~n tl-eg<"ll L'ho,ict'.,ar

1,Ifo f'l iJlLIlib. Sci·iL~~;, TllrF, ·!iN1::I:I.UlTM erIT QI' lb!A~x U 9H71, II" Soc 1.o1'J!".!·MI!I.I.I"\.\, &Upmlilrir,~.3.

1111JI'I'l'itl K~uIl1Cdv. ~WIVt~ n.[iPl,O\t.I~11 "1'qJt'tl~s: "fhi'n;b!ns;"'wr/nst ~Iro B(U. 1.11l1!iJ:1'~ I..l!G,Y..i!'i~.,l!i.fr( :lill'Ilq(!.~ rill!l!.·1 ''''aLley Ill: VI,'t'nd¥ Elrown, OO!l\., 2QIJ'2il Dm~t1 :r(~'IlI1l!~Y, 'rll~ "l!m!II~11Ug}us A~f!Wmlml Ptm rif tJ1r?: Pmlill!'rrJ. 15" I-;tulv.1i I'M T:I'r.s:. I. 99 (ZOO2l: DU~·QlN Ki!I'(Nr.IJ1I. Cnnmml o F !\mUD1 Ci\TIIDoI. iilipru lJI:I11Il 2i IjLl:n~!! KE! Il!l~~~ Dt.~rrllmtlj·'1: mut ,f'o,!I,'I't.rll.lbt !"kICJl'i.'£(, ill ea/ll ru t UIII1

C(JNC.UJ s,mN

Thil:! ]~~~ !lind ngb~ pnliti~al ~deokIGi!~8 pur,~i.ed 'Ihtrtytl,gh conlemp'fJlim"Y '~e~aJ. .cansctousness are na 11110[8 lotiCm<LI.ly COhCfCL'll than d~e I,~g.t~ dogm~ti,cs of cr::r ur l10le or.eanii.ci\lll do.gmiILd.cs of tbiE socia], TI.l:lS pniIll~ is an linpOI'il:3.1M. anddJol:e to the t1E!l'IIdeni;!Y[!')' i;£'e Ii, di5[,u~'5l~o:n of l1.lf!pll ~liI.i,c.s ofl4lw, like rhe one ,i!lb[l~, <Is reduCing ,law ttl politics. Ai!! It 've Ol,tgu~d attl,etl~th d5~"Ill!'l:ii ere, til e reducrjGn~s; ]mpo.!>s~ bJe b eC~IL.l'!ie,foI IDm1'I1.ple, th~ PI"ojGC~ of the r]S~1It oSJc]~ late bet'w~e.n Hbe'rmr:i;;liElism.a.nd. seeial Cn]lSocv.Ilti;slll: tbooe [I f d:1~ .I~fl:, S .. ly for ~he hl.'m1~y law k~:.\lI]JE!ll fli."il menu()~h'1d.he ~WP.I;'!U ,~ fe'm in i~l id!entn~! P9J!itics'of prQilJl!cl:io[l <1:m::1 a queillr Uli3!trretiiC:ai1 Mtiidenlt'ty JHlli;iJ;lc60f Se'.'<'LI<IIIl ]ihe;l;iUio.ru, I,~~

In, olbfil'fwtJ!rds ,the oonu:~ru~ of~eft<t,tIid ri,gtn p,rfUh~ct8 18 1~9 more [l:!Uab!y i'a:do'log1cillly 'c;h::or;;td01bte~ tor "detesmlnate, "as we used tu s~y in c~iriG.1l111'eg<d S[u.cLi:e.sj 1:i:l<ll.1I I.he pure qULe5[lOH of legal v<J.i.kliry. Vill,um. CU.l£e rraees the. phe.fHJUl.e.IUJ]ngj' U.f dmtis~on under ULII.'lJt.:;eUaiuty i.n'lU the choice {If an i.nleilllIeu!..1] 0 n of Ci ne~ O'Wn pu.liHt.;~, H turns aut Lh~n there is an '. he'rt1l1eneuti~ c:i:r.c.h~." C;(ln:tl.il~itm enraas an llCI.'lJf 'WiIItnln a l e;g~l oOnSdOns,ne~8 ~ba:pe ]lotn.tiC!). es weU

as. the rtvel'.ljlB, ~.$ . .

Even In C!"~~lINew[l;.!':~ fam oUS funuuli!uno. IBl! w~.r is po Iliti(;sby .(JfflCf ·m\i;~I~!j!. nat ~ i ust" po:.1 it:k:s. ][1 Cad SdllI'linjs 1].ip t1rC:~<liILHsewiJt:z. poll ucs i8 wa.r by oHler m.e~ri~, but nc\ re~:h];m.h\t': tfl war, lli I Wtu' as "n'.ea.ns" ""an b~':!!n ~I.:ld,im a!Jne.ang ~o Q~herend:l~ Ifl<l,l'1 p(lI~li:ic.8" Ifh!IW t5PfJlitlcs~ it i:::1~o, ag~in, byo(herm1eall.$, aJnd theJc is much to be said, 1]I[JI1rtd1l10Jtivcly, eboutthese n1!il'RI1$, S'y;:ma!ogy 'VIl'ilh SdU11.i:tI, h seemstu £n.1L£~.ISQ tru~ Ith"u I::lCllilJica is!()jl,y by othe r means, in the sense th.<I.l paUties ~ ... ~fj, n~u.c.b tin;m"l me unlne,etat!.Le dema:nd[pw etllJ:Ical ~tlo]l:drty io tbC\>"''CH':l.d~r~·~ as [[lorn the eoo:o(u'tiic !ia"l:eres'~'S, 1(l1i" pnre power ~USl willi whIch it is S{I o:f~ d.i.selISi\)1~ly a88QCliirtecl.

The ['I:art-al:l.v,L:! b;!ltgl.lllJn tbis,aITh:~lea:Uf!;mp(S tllllil'lmrk:i2le "onr" slruarlcn, m the :modeo.tuFh;ft c:r:it:ic!!1 rheory conllbioed w~(h mDdei:Hi5rnlpo.RLmodemi:!ltt'!. TblJ rfu ree gIDbill.l.iza[~DIThS <I.refm;;;id~Ll:U; in Hun story' of rn:tiIjl~'1l1LY f!Jf-CC, CCIJ<r.iJD[Q~C pow~r, <L.ndid~,oto'gic;<ILllegemonywWdn d~e (;<I.p~t:a US~ pe]"jod ofwoddJdslO'1". It!~u ] u:lli:lm'SiD~ net t.i1li.s jierlod 1'l0 I as. ;pJjl'liYlu~ out lhetogie -(llf c<lpit.aI" but mtlhe~ as the pt'nFld ufurn.lver(oial roHnnalimtt.onp<.Imdoxicallyi.n®e'rl'WinOO VI.'ritil tne death n:f n:l1liStI'l).1~:a Th.e d!e~J~,l! of roaso:n permits (bui doCl!; IiJ.O [ mql4ilie ~Ir

Tm1l,l~m f1'i(h Spt~!':aI:il¥I!!mIill! 1.0 r..a'!jpr~/.MliJ' 'l';nms tm~l Ufllf~q!nr.t f!lSi.rga'h#ll£ f'imtJl'r, 11 Nfl. I •. Il.W !i&l [l!J!I!l.~.

1 ~ft JiIIliI~1 Hi.!INKl:y. :fEtuaJj~jl HU;ro!L~&~~i~, l~ LI!.i'l" Ll!.G.M.HM. '~CRrnlm'~" :Wp~'{j l'W1!~ l't~ 14!l li:1!1,'lIflIm', C~ITIQII'I1 QwJ\r"HI'D.I£A1TON ~.il7' -.1 !!tl$il-pTt:! n me a,

lnnCllillL VllN CIJllJs.:i!wn;Z. Oil\l'\Villl"[~1:~dm~'l Nm'HIfrJ ¥.:~U:r Pi1~t. ~mn~" ~d ~d. IgRIIl ~ IOO~). 1 "I CXIU; Si2l~!lII1ITT. n,.~ ~Cb~'[Jr- ~"TIJI! I'klUTU;.... u:mi'f,)_

L~! 'Cl'. Mru: w.\m~Jl, PulUl(:/; fI$ a V(lj:"/,l'ijml; ttl :f<'nPM M.u;, W.i!I!I!~r [~tl1l'[h ,&0 Mi!I:.l, ,~d", 194~n, i~~ [~.

in ltself bring <thou,1) th I,aldng back uf ,1III.i-enated powen. rhat CilU bl:: u:lied f€l,r toea!! er national Oli transnauonal change tlJWiDid qunllty. cornm:llIni~. and ""Udrisky play.BtIIl llley ,lI!lrC pO'WIf.l.!ffi wlu),s~ ethical ~,i:ci'~ 5:~af1!:li fm m acClflP lH1C, the rudS1,efllli~lJ dU.:mmas (I unde.eidllb~1 iI 'I til t legal dlseourse has, from. wobaliz<l,ti''1I!'1IU globalization; sUlullilchly III nied,