Você está na página 1de 30

1

THE ADVANTAGES OF USING COMPUTER-AIDED INSTRUCTION (CAI) IN

TEACHING ENGLISH FOR THE GRADE FIVE PUPILS OF URC

An Action Research

Presented to

The College of Education

University of Regina Carmeli

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Subject

Educational Technology 2

By

Albert P. Hallares
Aliana Concepcion Cruz
Michelle Obias
Melanie Gaberia
Princess Mariel Sabio

March 2010
2

UNIVERSITY OF REGINA CARMELI


Catmon, City of Malolos, Bulacan

Dr. Ma. Victoria Vivo


Faculty, College of Education
University of Regina Carmeli

Dear Dr. Vivo;

Greetings of peace and love!

This action-research entitled “The advantages of using Computer-aided instruction


(CAI) in teaching grade Five English at the University of Regina Carmeli” is a partial
fulfillment to your subject Ed Tech 2 Educational Technology 2.

In accordance to this, this action-research presents the following:

• The Summary of Findings


• The recommendation of the researchers
• The instructional material
• The evaluation form

We are hoping that you will approve our action-research. Thank you very much and have
a good day.

Respectfully yours,

Albert P. Hallares

Aliana Concepcion Cruz

Michelle Obias

Melanie Gaberia

Marielle Princess Sabio

Approved by:

Dr. Ma. Victoria Vivo


3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers are thanking the guidance and help of the following personalities

who without them and their support, this action-research will never be complete:

God Almighty, who without Him and His eternal guidance and inspiration;

Dean Angela Pesayco, for persuading and approving this activity of our

Department;

Dr. Ma. Victoria Vivo, for her guidance and words of improvement for this

action-research and even dealing with the researchers;

College of Education 2nd year students, for evaluating the demonstration teaching

and some words of improvement and inspiration;

Our parents, who gives us the fund for the accomplishments of the action-research

and their support to us; and

To our special someone, who inspires us and give us moral support to finish this

research.

Thank you very much!!!

The Researchers
4

RESEARCH ABSTRACT

Title: THE ADVANTAGES OF USING COMPUTER-AIDED INSTRUCTION

(CAI) IN TEACHING ENGLISH FOR THE GRADE FIVE PUPILS OF URC

Researchers: Albert P. Hallares

Mariel Princess Sabio

Michelle C. Obias

Melanie G. Gaberia

Aliana Concepcion C. Cruz

Professor: Dr. Ma. Victoria C. Vivo

Degree: BSED/BEED

Major: English/ECE

Year: 2010

Statement of the Problem

Main Problem:

This study aimed to determine the advantages of utilizing CAI in teaching

English for the grade five pupils of URC.

Sub-problems:

1. What are the topics being discussed for the second grading period in English for

grade five pupils of University of Regina Carmeli?

2. What are the different teaching strategies being used by teachers in teaching

English for grade five pupils of University of Regina Carmeli?


5

3. How effective are the Computer-aided instructional materials in terms of:

3.1 Instructional adequacy

3.2 Cosmetic Adequacy

3.3 Curriculum Adequacy

4. What are the effects of CAI in the teaching-learning process?

Procedure

The researchers used Survey Method using close-response questions.

Aside from that, the researchers uses also a demonstration method wherein the

researchers will have a mock demonstration teaching in one of the grade five class

in the URC to determine the affectivity and advantages of using a CAI materials.

Treatment of Data

The results of the survey administered were collected, organized, tabulated

and statistically treated using weighted average.

Findings

1. The topics covered for the second grading period in English for grade five pupils

of University of Regina Carmeli includes Pronouns and its major types namely;

Possessive pronouns, Compound pronouns, Indefinite pronouns, Nominative

pronouns, Objective pronouns, Relative pronouns.

2. The teaching strategies used by the teachers in teaching English for grade five

pupils of University of Regina Carmeli are group activities, oral discussions,

musical presentations and quizzes.


6

3. Instructional Adequacies. It was found that each lesson consistent with the

outcomes of the specified objectives with a weighted average of 4.6 which has a

descriptive rating of outstanding. The Computer-aided instructional materials

were clearly organized with the weighted average of 4.5 which is also

outstanding. On the other hand, the respondents rated the Computer-aided

instructional materials with the weighted average of 3.7 which is very

satisfactory. This means that the utilization of technology could be effective in

teaching.

Cosmetic Adequacies. It was found out that the respondents agreed that the

information in the presentation is readable, easily identified is outstanding. Also, the

frame space and locations used consistently weighted 5 giving it a description of

outstanding. Cosmetic adequacy almost got the outstanding rate so it can be said that the

presentation of the lesson is good and the instructional material was fitted to the topic

discussed.

Curriculum Adequacies. It was revealed that the respondents affirmed that the

lesson designs and procedures provide the possibility of expansion is very satisfactory,

while each lesson procedures are considered based from the expectations of the user is

very satisfactory too. This shows that under the curriculum adequacy, the lesson is

flexible on its purpose.

4. The effects of the CAI in the teaching-learning process are it kept the attention of

the students and it kept the students active in discussion.


7

Conclusions

The advantages of using Computer aided instruction in the teaching-learning

process is it kept the students highly motivated in learning due to variety of activities and

variety things to see that kept them in attention. CAI proven to effective specially

motivating the students to learn and be with the discussion.

Recommendations

Base on the result of the Action Research, the proponents recommend to develop

teaching strategies utilizing technology and in order to implement this, the researchers

recommend making seminars and programs for educators where they will be taught and

given a greater background on how to use technology in teaching effectively based on the

learning level and interest of the students where they could participate and be motivated.
8

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 The Instructional Adequacy

Table 1.2 The Cosmetic Adequacy

Table 1.3 The Curriculum Adequacy

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 The Conceptual Framework

Figure 1.2 Data Gathering Procedures


9

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………… i

APPROVAL SHEET ……………………………………………………. ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………..……….…. iii

ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………….…….. iv

LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………… viii

LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………….. viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………… ix

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION 1

Introduction ……………………………………… 1

Statement of the Problem ……………………….. 1

Conceptual Framework ………………………….. 2

Scope and Limitations …………………………… 4

Significance of the Study ………………………... 4

2 RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES …… 5

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 8

Data Gathering Procedures ……………………… 8


(change)

Methods of Collecting Data ……………………… 9

Statistical Tools …………………………………... 9

4 INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 11


10

5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION 14

Summary ……………………………………………. 14

Conclusions …………………………………………. 14

Recommendations …………………………………… 15

APPENDIX

A. References ………………………………………………………… 17

B. Survey Form ………………………………………………………. 18

C. Letter of Approval ………………………………………………… 20


11

CHAPTER I

Introduction

The way the class was maneuver were depended on the teacher who utilizes it, so

to speak. Hence, whatever the technique and style of the teacher in teaching was always

the crucial point. No wonder, many teachers were now trying to innovate the old learning

styles and replacing it with more authenticated and well updated techniques like the CAI

(computer aided instruction).

The question that bears the researchers mind in this study is, is this teaching style

—the CAI—are totally appropriate and, hence, worth the effort of the teachers? The use

of these materials such as the PowerPoint presentation is always the center of controversy

in many “traditionalists”, saying the traditional is still the best way.

This action-research aims to prove that CAI is the most suitable in the teaching

learning process. This will try to found out the strong points of the CAI proving it is the

most suitable.

We focused in the grade five, English pupils of URC in the suburban area of the

Bulacan because this class is the present generation and most probably the benefactor of

the future teaching techniques such as CAI.

Statement of the Problem

This study sought answers to the following questions:


12

5. What are the topics being discussed for the second grading period in English for

grade five pupils of University of Regina Carmeli?

6. What are the different teaching strategies being used by teachers in teaching

English for grade five pupils of University of Regina Carmeli?

7. How effective are the Computer-aided instructional materials in terms of:

7.1 Instructional adequacy

7.2 Cosmetic Adequacy

7.3 Curriculum Adequacy

8. What are the effects of CAI in the teaching-learning process?

Conceptual Framework

In order for the researchers to found out the advantages of the Computer-Aided

Instruction in the grade five English subject, the researchers will use the following

procedures to attain that objective.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

1. Identification of 1. Doing a Mock


objectives. demonstration
teaching in the An Action-
2. Reviewing Grade 5 pupils of
related literature the URC. Research about the
and studies.
advantages of using
3. Preparation of
instructional computer aided
materials. 2. Answering of the
survey form to the instruction (CAI) in
4. Preparation of reliable sources.
the mock teaching English for
demonstration
teaching. the grade five

5. Preparation of 3. Tallying and pupils of URC


Survey interpreting the
13

Questionnaires. survey response.

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Frameworks

In the input or the preparation part, the researchers make the necessary

preparation for the action research. Including here is identification of objectives where

the researchers develop a set of goals for the main topic to be solved. Next is the

reviewing of the related literature and studies where the researchers look after the

magazine, newspaper or online articles and early researches that was related to the main

topic of the action-research. This part could be seen in the letter D of the Part 1. Third is

the preparation of the sample instructional materials. This is for the demonstration

teaching being planned. The materials being prepared can are PowerPoint Presentation,

Movie Clips, and downloaded materials form the internet. Forth is the preparation for the

mock demonstration. This is to test the instructional material being prepared. This will

test if the instructional material materials are good or not enough in the classroom setting.

And the fifth one is preparation of the survey form. This survey form is for the critiqued

who will go over and judge the instructional materials if those were effective or not.

The process is the part where the researchers will try the instructional materials

through a mock demonstration teaching being prepared earlier. This is to test the

instructional materials and to find the effectiveness and advantages of it in the classroom

setting. Then the researcher will tally the score from the correspondence of the survey

and interpret them if the instructional materials aided with the technology were effective

and from that come up with the advantages of the CAI.

After this process, the researcher can now found out the advantages of using

computer aided instruction (CAI) in teaching English for the grade five pupils of URC.
14

Scope and Limitation

This research studies the advantages of using CAI in the teaching-learning

process of the Grade five English of the University of Regina Carmeli. This also gives the

affectivity of the CAI in the classroom discussion. Nonetheless, this will give some

backgrounder in integrating technology in the teaching-learning process.

Significance of the Study

This study is expected to be a help in the following fields:

Basic Education students. This is to make them enjoy as they are learning

through utilizing technology in the teaching learning process.

Teachers. This is to enhance the teaching skills of the teachers by giving them

ways of utilizing technology in the teaching learning process especially in motivating the

students to study.

College of Education students. This is to develop their skills in using different

teaching strategies together with utilizing technology.

Psychologist. This is to give them background on how technology helps in

controlling the students behavior during classes especially in motivating them.


15

CHAPTER II

RELATED LITERATURE

LOCAL

There is a lingering issue on how educational technology is integrated in the teaching

learning process. This is due to the fact that the mere use of the computer does not mean

technology has already integrated in the instruction (Lucido, 2007). Example of these is

students just playing around the internet or playing in the games internet like DOTA and

Crazy cart. This degrade the technology in the lower standard, giving it a thought that

computer is just for games and nothing else.

On the other hand of the thing, through progressive state policies that support

technology-in-education, and other new development in the pedagogical practices, our

educators today have become more aware and active on adopting state-of-the-art

educational technology practices they can possibly adopt. Furthermore, recent changes

have also occurred in the area of pedagogical theory and practice. It is now accepted that

the contribution of the computer to the pedagogy makes up for “good instruction”

(Lucido, 2007).

But this doesn’t mean taking the role of the teachers in the teaching learning process.

One assumption is the change of role of the teacher from the “dispenser of knowledge” to

“facilitator of learning.” CAI can also helped the students in their work. In secondary and
16

tertiary schools, most students use tool applications like word processing, spreadsheets

and presentation (Grabe & Grabe, 1996).

FOREIGN

In the article, “Teaching English Through Computer”, learning English as a

second language is very difficult. Hence, many developed a way of doing it more easily

and accessible. One of them is by utilizing Computer Assisted Language Learning

(CALL). One of the advantages of teaching English using computer is that we can learn

more than the language itself but we will be given a chance to know more about that

language.

According to the article, “Computer in Teaching English,” the computer has only

the background, assisting role, as it solves the same methodological task that the

traditional means of learning to do. Such term as “computer assisted language learning”

describes the idea. The use of computer is not a method; it is a methodological device in

the modern approaches of foreign language learning.

In the article, “Electronic Performance Support,” EPPS is an another of an

computer assisted instruction. Its purpose is to help automate a job. Turbo tax is an

example of EPPS.

RELATED STUDIES

According to the study of Dr. Martin Endley of “Teacher’s Attitude towards

computer technology use in vocabulary instruction, traditional approaches to language


17

teaching and learning have been challenged by new and innovative approaches based on

the latest advances in computer and internet technology. The vast resources and

opportunities that computers and internet provided have brought about new tools

approaches, and strategies in language teaching and learning.

Computer technology, internet and web-based resources are now in many schools

and offer teachers and learners vast resources and opportunities for language teaching and

learning. Maximum benefit from these resources can only be achieved through teachers’

use of technology in developing materials for the language classroom. In the context of

this study, ‘computer technology resources’ is used as a general term referring to any

computer, internet and web-based resource that can be use in the language instruction.
18

CHAPTER III

Research Methodology

I. Data Gathering Procedures

The researchers use the following procedure to gather data for the research. The

method was this:

2.
1. Prepared a Implemented
Demonstratio the
n Teaching Demonstratio
n Teaching

3. Do survey
5. Compute
in the
and interpret
Demonstratio
the survey
n Teaching

4. Collect
Survey form

Figure 1.2 Data Gathering Procedures


19

The first step is the researchers prepared for the demonstration teaching that is the

main source of information in this research. Then the researchers implemented the

demonstration teaching. In that demonstration teaching the researchers gives survey form

to those of the reliable sources and teachers. After the demonstration the researchers

collected the survey form, compute and interpret it.

II. Methods of Collecting Data

The method that the researchers used in gathering data is Survey using close-

response questions. Aside from that, the researchers uses also a demonstration method

wherein the researchers will have a mock demonstration teaching in one of the grade five

class in the URC to determine the affectivity and advantages of using a CAI materials.

III. Statistical Tools

The researchers used weighted average in computing the survey. The formula was

like this:

X = f1X1 + f2X2 + f3X3 + fRXR = X = fx

f1 + f2 + f3… fR f

X = weighted arithmetic mean

= sum of all the products of f and X, where f is the frequency of each weight

and X is the weight

= sum of all the respondents


20

The rating scale used in the survey was the Likert’s Scaling technique. The

respondent will choose from 1-5 which do they choose appropriate to the performance of

the demonstration and the instructional materials. The scale is like this:

5 - Outstanding

4 - Very Satisfying

3 - Satisfactory

2 - Fair

1 - Poor
21

CHAPTER IV

Interpretation and Analysis of Data

After the teaching demonstration, the researches come up with the following data

information:

Instructional Adequacies

Item Weighted Average Description


1 4.6 O
2 4.5 O
3 4.3 VS
4 4.1 VS
5 4.2 VS
6 4.3 VS
7 4.1 VS
8 4.3 VS
9 4.1 VS
10 4.1 VS
11 4.2 VS
12 4.0 VS
13 4.2 VS
14 3.9 VS
15 3.7 VS
Table 1.1

It could be gleaned from the table that the respondents found each lesson

consistent with the outcomes of the specified objectives with a weighted average of 4.6

which has a descriptive rating of outstanding. The Computer-aided instructional materials

were clearly organized with the weighted average of 4.5 which is also outstanding. On
22

the other hand, the respondents rated the Computer-aided instructional materials with the

weighted average of 3.7 is very satisfactory. This is consistent with the two principle of

selecting instructional material. The first one is all instructional materials are aid for

instruction. Every material is aid for the better understanding of the students to the lesson.

This guides and redirects the students in their journey to learn. And the second one is

choose the instructional material that was best suits your instructional objective. The

instructional materials suit the need and what is appropriate to the learners. This proven

by the item number 12. 13 and 14. This is also consistent with the principles of selection

and organization of content that subject matter is an integration of cognitive, skill and

affective domains. The instructional materials and the lesson itself provided the learners

to interact with each other through activities, develop their critical and analytical thinking

skills, and do some active activities like singing and group dynamics.

Cosmetic Adequacy

Item Weighted Average Description


1 5 O
2 5 O
3 3.56 VS
4 5.1 O
5 4.4 VS
Table 1.2

Base from the table, the researchers found out that the respondents agreed that the

information in the presentation is readable, easily identified is outstanding. Also, the

frame space and locations used consistently weighted 5 giving it a description of

outstanding. In addition to that, the absence of typographical errors in the instructional

material has a weighted average of 4.4 making it very satisfying. This is consistent with
23

what the informative tool stated. The computer can provide vast amounts of information

in various forms, such as text, graphics, sound, and video. The instructional material

being presented in the teaching demonstration gives a variety of graphics, sounds and

video that really helps the learners to better understand the lesson and at the same time

caught their attention.

Curriculum Adequacy

Item Weighted Average Description


1 3.9 VS
2 4.0 VS
3 4.1 VS
4 4.4 VS
5 3.5 VS
6 3.3 S
7 4.1 VS
Table 1.3

It reveals that the respondents affirmed that the lesson designs and procedures

provide the possibility of expansion with a weighted average of 3.9 is very satisfactory,

while each lesson procedures are considered based from the expectations of the user is

very satisfactory too, with a weighted average of 4.0. Also, the flexibility of the lesson

being presented is very satisfactory with the weighted average of 4.1. This is consistent to

what the Child-centered design in the curriculum. This makes a curriculum that is

anchored on the needs of the child. The subject matter being discussed is important to the

children because it helps the child expressed themselves and takes what are them. This is

proven in the item number 2 and 3. It is also consistent to one of Posner and Rudsnitsky

five major principles for organizing contents. That is continuity. It states that vertical

repetition and recurring appearances of the content provide continuity in the curriculum.
24

This enables the learners to strengthen the permanency of learning and development of

skills.

CHAPTER V

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation

Summary

This research is discussing about the advantages of integrating CAI in the

teaching learning process of the grade five English in the University of Regina Carmeli.

The Chapter I was all about the rationale, purpose, objectives of the research, conceptual

framework, scope and limitation and significance of this study. It is also a compilation of

related literature and studies that was related to the main topic.

Chapter II is about the research methodology. This includes procedures and

methods of collecting data and its statistical tools.

Chapter III is about the analysis and interpretation of data being gathered from the

demonstration teaching being held.

(SUMMARY OF EVERY CHAPTER)

Conclusion

Based from the information and data gathered by that the researchers found out

that:

1. Topics being discussed in the second grading of grade five English is Pronouns.
25

2. The teaching strategies being used in the University of Regina Carmeli is group

dynamics and individual assessment.

3. The effectiveness of the Computer-aided instruction in terms of instructional

adequacy is very satisfying to the learners. In the cosmetic adequacy or the instructional

material is outstanding and the curriculum adequacy or relevance of the topic is very

satisfying.

4. The effects of the CAI in the teaching-learning process are it kept the attention

of the students and it kept the students active in discussion.

Therefore, the advantages of using Computer aided instruction in the teaching-

learning process is it kept the students highly motivated in learning due to variety of

activities and variety things to see that kept them in attention. CAI was proven to be

effective specially motivating the students to learn and be with the discussion.

Recommendation

Based on the research, demonstration and the result of the analysis, the

researchers were recommending the following:

1. Develop some collaborative activities like seminars and short courses for

teachers regarding Computer-aided instruction to equip them with necessary knowledge

and skills in integrating technology in the teaching-learning process.


26

2. Use attractive the images. This is to ensure that the attention of the students is

always at hand.

3. Use video presentations to make some interactive reflections from the students.

This will also helped them have some analytical exercises.

4. Make group activities to develop different values among students. This will

make the students aware of their classmates as friends.

5. The prayer should not be lengthy. The student span of the students is short, so

short but very inspiring prayer is enough for them.

6. Activities and exercises should be properly implemented and managed. This is

to minimize the pandemonium during the class discussion. The students are highly active

therefore maximum management is very necessary.

7. The teacher should be more active and enthusiastic with the learners. This

would make the students comfortable with you and your discussion. This would also

establish management and trust of the students to the teacher. Call also the students by

their name.
27

APPENDICES

References

Bilbao, P. (2008). Curriculum Development. Lorimar Publishing Inc. Quezon City.

Corpuz, B. (2008). Educational Technology 1. Lorimar Publishing Inc. Quezon City.

Lucida, P. (2007). Educational Technology 2. Lorima Publishing Inc. Quezon City.

Bogen, P. (2003). Technology Training of Teachers using Scaffolding. Retrieved

February 2, 2010 from http://74.6.146.127/search/cache?ei=UTF

8&p=thesis+about+technology+in+teaching&fr=yfp-t701&u=www.thesis

.bilkent.edu.tr/0002298.pdf&w=thesis+technology+tech+teaching+teach

&d=KKcpuam4UOVf&icp=1&.intl=us&sig=CASoV8GTA2ivOyT7RtZfmA—

Rodrigo, M. Information and Communication Technology Use in the Philippines Public

and Private Schools. Retrived February 8, 2010 from

http://www.admu.edu.ph/files/211/09_Rodrigo.pdf
28

Survey Form

Item 5 4 3 2 1
A O So Se N Interpretation

A. Instructional Adequacy
1. Each Lesson is consistent with
the outcomes specified objectives.
2. The course material is clearly
organized.
3. The basic design logic of
lesson including that of its
components makes sense.
4. The course material gives
learners clear advice about how its
contents could be most effectively
exploited.
5. The lesson distributes
emphasis according to the importance
of the different parts and section.
6. The reading level is
appropriate for students.
7. Important terms, concepts and
information have been amplified
effectively.
8. The lesson personalized
instruction appropriately.
9. The appropriate lesson
personalized instruction appropriately.
10. The direction for lesson
control is clearly stated.
11. The pacing is appropriate for
the kind of learners and learning.
12. The activities; content and
procedure are lightly to motivate
learners to perform.
13. The lessons provide
opportunities for meaningful and
varied interaction with the students.
29

14. The lessons provide


appropriate feedback.

15. The appropriate record-


keeping capabilities are available in
each lesson.
B. Cosmetic Adequacy
1. The information contained is
readable, easily identified and located.
2. The frame space and locations
are used consistently.
3. The frame is uncluttered and
does not present all information at the
same time.
4. The use of color and
animation is systematic and supports
student learning.
5. The lesson is free from
typographical errors.
C. Curriculum Adequacy
1. Each lesson is consistent with
other lessons.
2. Each lesson, procedure is
considered based from the
expectations of the user.
3. The worktext accommodates
the preference of the user.
4. The lesson designs and
procedures provide the possibility of
expansion.
5. The lessons contain
information, which will not likely
become obsolete.
6. The lessons can be completed
in time.
7. The lessons offer flexibility in
how it can be used.
30

UNIVERSITY OF REGINA CARMELI


Catmon, City of Malolos, Bulacan

February 25, 2010


PROF. DIVINA EUSEBIO
Principal
Basic Education Department
University of Regina Carmeli
Catmon, City of Malolos, Bulacan

Dear Dr. Eusebio


Greetings of Peace and Love!!
The Second year students of College of Education, are conducting an action research
about the effectivity of technology integration in the teaching-learning process in partial
fulfillment of the requirements in EdTech 2.
In accordance to this I would like to ask permission to conduct a teaching demonstration
with your Grade 5 students. Here is our tentative schedule:
March 5, 2010 2:30 – 4:00
March 9, 2010 2:30 – 4:00
If the schedule won’t fit with your Grade 5 pupils, feel free to change it for your
convenience.
I am looking forward for a positive response from your good office.
Thank you very much and have a good day!!

Respectfully yours,
Dr. Ma. Victoria Vivo
Prof., EdTech 2

Approved by:
Dr. Angela L. Pesayco
Dean, COED