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DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING MICROCONTROLLER PIC 16F877A
EA AI CHOON
Submitted to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor in Electrical Engineering (Instrumentation & Control)
Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
father. . brothers and sisters.iii Dedicated. encouragement and understandings to my beloved mother. in thankful appreciation for support.
my great appreciation dedicated to my best friends Jie. .iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost. Ching Chiew. Encik Mohamad Shukri bin Abdul Manaf for the guidance and enthusiasm given throughout the progress of this project. I would also like to thank our Control 1 Lab Assistant. Say Moon and SEI member’s batch 2000 and those whom involve directly or indirectly with this project. Meng Yea. My appreciation also goes to my family who has been so tolerant and supports me all these years. Encik Shaari bin Ani and Encik Mad Rais bin Zakaria for their co-operations. love and emotional supports that they had given to me..Thank You So Much. Pika. Nevertheless. Choo Chin. Yan Chiew. guidance and helps in this project. I would like to express my heartily gratitude to my supervisor. Thanks for their encouragement. There is no such meaningful word than….
it also shows a graph of motor speed versus time to let the user monitor the performance of the system easily. Microcontroller acts as proportional (P) controller with Kp =1 in this study. The ease of control and excellent performance of the DC motors will ensure that the number of applications using them will continue grow for the foreseeable future. the reading of optical encoder built is quite reliable. Based on the result.v ABSTRACT Direct current (DC) motor has already become an important drive configuration for many applications across a wide range of powers and speeds. A program in Visual Basic 6. it can be concluded that microcontroller PIC 16F877A can control motor speed at desired speed although there is a variation of load. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used where its signal is generated in microcontroller. The PWM signal will send to motor driver to vary the voltage supply to motor to maintain at constant speed. where optical encoder (built in this project) is coupled to the motor shaft to provide the feedback speed signal to controller. Through the project. This project is mainly concerned on DC motor speed control system by using microcontroller PIC 16F877A. It is a closed-loop real time control system. . Besides.0 is developed to provide a graphic user interface (GUI) for the user to enter desired speed at computer.
Motor arus terus telah menjadi satu komponen yang penting untuk aplikasi dalam julat kuasa dan kelajuan yang tinggi. Kawalan motor arus terus yang mudah dan prestasi yang baik akan menjamin motor arus terus untuk digunakan secara meluas pada masa depan. Projek ini tertumpu kepada rekaaan satu sistem kawalan kelajuan motor arus terus dengan menggunakan mikropengawal PIC 16F877A. Ia merupakan satu kawalan gelung tutup dan masa nyata sistem, di mana pengekod optic(yang dibina dalam projek ini) yang dipasang pada rotor akan menghantar isyarat kelajuan suapbalik kepada pengawal. Teknik Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) digunakan di mana isyarat ini dibekal oleh mikro pengawal. Mikropengawal berperanan sebagai pengawal gandaan, P di dalam projek ini. Isyarat PWM akan dihantar kepada pemacu motor untuk mengubah voltan yang dibekalkan kepada motor supaya ia dapat dikawal pada kelajuan yang ditetapkan. Satu program ditulis dalam Visual Basic 6.0 untuk memudahkan pengguna memasukkan kelajuan yang dikehendaki di komputer dengan pengantaramuka grafik pengguna (GUI). Selain itu, ia juga memaparkan satu graf kelajuan motor melawan masa untuk membolehkan pengguna mengkaji prestasi sistem tersebut. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa bacaan daripada pengekod optik yang dibina adalah boleh dipercayai. Melalui projek ini, boleh disimpulkan bahawa mikropengawal PIC 16F877A dapat mengawal kelajuan motor pada kelajuan tetap walaupun terdapat perubahan beban.
TABLE OF CONTENT
PAGE ii iii iv v vi vii x xi xiii xiv
DECLARATION OF THESIS DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF TABLES LSIT OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF APPENDICES
INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Objective of Project 1.3 Scope of Project 1.4 Outline of Thesis 1.5 Summary of Works 1 2 2 2 3
THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 DC Motor 2.3 Speed Measurement of DC Motor 2.3.1 Speed Measurement by Using Tachometer 2.3.2 Speed Measurement by Using Optical Encoder 2.4 Model of Separately Excited DC motor 2.5 DC motor Speed Controller 2.5.1 Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) Control 2.5.2 Speed Control by Using Thyristor 2.5.3 Speed Control by Using PWM and Full H Bridge Motor Drive 2.6 Microcontroller 2.7 RS232 Serial Port 2.8 MPLAB IDE 2.9 Visual Basic 6.0 17 18 20 20 8 11 12 13 14 5 5 6 6 7
METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Hardware Implementation 3.2.1 DC Motor 3.2.2 Optical Encoder 3.2.3 Power Supply +5V 3.2.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F877A 188.8.131.52 Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in Microcontroller 184.108.40.206 RS232 Serial Communication 3.2.5 DC Motor Drive 3.2.6 Loading Unit LU150L 30 32 34 22 23 24 24 27 28 30
3 Software Implementation 3.1 Introduction 4.2 Problems 5.1 Conclusion 220.127.116.11.2 Experimental Result Analysis 18.104.22.168 Algorithm and Programming in MPLAB IDE 3.4 Dead Time Analysis 52 53 55 59 61 51 51 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.2.1 Procedures 22.214.171.124 DC Motor Speed Control Result Analysis 4.1 Processing Explanation of Main Program 3.2 Programming in Visual Basic 6.1 Reading Input from User and Microcontroller 3.2 Processing Explanation of Interrupt Process 126.96.36.199.ix 3.0 3.2 Plot Graph Speed versus Time 36 36 38 43 48 49 49 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.2 Experiment: Determine Relationship of Voltage Supply and Motor Speed 4.3 DC Motor Speed Control Result 188.8.131.52 Recommendation 63 64 64 REFERENCES 66 APPENDICES 68 .
2 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.x LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2.1 2.1 TITLE Types of DC Motor and their advantages and disadvantages RS232 pin assignments (DB9 PC signal set) Specification of the motor Pin connection of PIC16F877A for DC motor speed control system Pin function of chip L298 Relationship of voltage supply and motor speed PAGE 6 19 24 29 32 53 .
xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.8 2.11 2.3 3.3 2.4 2.10 2.7 2.5 2.2 2.2 1.6 2.1 2.3 2.9 2.1 1.12 3.2 3.4 3.1 3.7 Project overview TITLE PAGE 3 4 4 7 8 9 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 19 22 23 24 26 27 27 29 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 1 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 2 Sample disc of encoder Basic schematic circuit of optical encoder Model of separately excited DC motor Basic block diagram for DC Motor speed control Basic flow chart of DC motor speed control Phase-locked loop control system Block diagram of DC Motor speed control by using thyristor Simple motor circuit PWM signal Relation of supply voltage with motor speed Full H bridge motor drive Handshake looping a PC serial connector Block diagram of DC motor speed control system Picture of the project 24V DC motor Optical encoder IC LM7805 Schematic circuit of +5V power supply Schematic circuit of PIC16F877A .6 3.5 3.
11 3.8 3.10 3.3 4.13 3.12 4.95 rpm DC motor running at speed 953.64 rpm DC motor running at speed 1907.22 4.69 rpm DC motor running at speed 1144.0 Experiment with tachometer Experiment with optical encoder Graph of speed versus voltage supply DC motor running at speed 190.74 rpm DC motor running at speed 572.17 3.1 4.16 3.18 3.21 rpm DC motor running at speed 762.10 4.14 3.7 4. MAX232 and PIC16F877A Bi-direction of DC motor speed control Application of vary load by using Loading Unit LU150L Flow chart of microcontroller’s main program Flow chart of check noise function PWM output Simplified PWM block diagram Timer1 block diagram USART transmit block diagram USART receive block diagram Flow chart of microcontroller’s interrupt process Introduction form Main program form Flow chart of program in Visual Basic 6.20 3.13 NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format data Connection between D9 Female serial port.5 4.12 3.11 4.xii 3.38 rpm Types of oscillatory response Free body diagram of the disc Graph of dead time versus motor speed 30 31 33 35 37 38 39 39 41 42 42 47 48 48 50 51 52 54 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 59 60 61 .15 3.9 3.21 3.4 4.9 4.43 rpm DC motor running at speed 1716.8 4.6 4.2 4.19 3.
xiii LIST OF SYMBOLS KE φ If Ia Rf Lf Ra La Kv Kt Td TL B J w α ton T s rpm - A constant based on motor construction Magnetic flux Field current Armature current Field resistor Field inductor Armature resistor Armature inductor Motor constant Torque constant Developed torque Load torque Viscous friction constant Inertia of the motor Motor speed Firing angle of thyristor Time ON of switches Period Standard deviation Rotation per minute .
xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX A B TITLE Program in Microcontroller PIC 16F877A for DC Motor Speed Control Source Code of Visual Basic 6.0 for DC Motor Speed Control Using Microcontroller PIC 16F877A PAGE 68 74 .
1 Background Direct current (DC) motors have variable characteristics and are used extensively in variable-speed drives. robotic arm controls. faster over smooth flooring. gyroscope controls and so on. washers. etc. faster down hill. These applications may demand high-speed control accuracy and good dynamic responses. These are several types of applications where the load on the DC motor varies over a speed range. engine control and electric vehicle control are good examples of these. So. electronic steering control. if we have a DC motor in a robot. it is important to make a controller to control the speed of DC motor in desired speed. fuel pump control.xv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. DC motor can provide a high starting torque and it is also possible to obtain speed control over wide range. if we just apply a constant power to each motor on a robot. It will go slower over carpet. like centrifuges. there are a number of applications. then the poor robot will never be able to maintain a steady speed. In home appliances. In automotive. DC motor plays a significant role in modern industrial. . pumps. dryers and compressors are good examples. Why do we need a speed motor controller? For example. slower up hill. In aerospace.
Last but not least. there are several scope had been outlined. While Chapter 2 will discuss more on theory and literature reviews that have been done. a graph of speed versus time is obtained by using Visual Basic 6. build hardware for the system. the discussion will be on the methodology hardware and software implementation of this project.0 at computer to observe the performance of the system. In Chapter 3. The scope of this project includes using MPLAB IDE to program microcontroller PIC 16F877A. various kind of speed measurement and controllers (thyristor. it discuss about the objective and scope of this project as long as summary of works. and interface the hardware to computer by using RS232 serial port communication. 1.3 Scope of Project In order to achieve the objective of the project. In first chapter.2 1. phase-lock loop and PWM technique) that can be used to control the speed of the motor. 1. This system will be able to control the DC motor speed at desired speed regardless the changes of load. It well discuss about types of motor. Chapter 5 discusses the conclusion of this project and future work that can be done.2 Objective of Project The main core of this project is to design a speed control system of DC Motor by using microcontroller. The result and discussion will be presented in Chapter 4.4 Outline of Thesis This thesis consists four chapters. Last but not least. .
2 and Figure 1.5.1. DC Motor controller Design VB programming writing for input desired speed and display graph speed versus time Interfacing with computer and controller Control DC motor speed Real Speed detection Feedback and display real speed on screen computer Speed error correction Figure 1.3 1.3 show the detail of the works of the project that had been implemented in the first and second semester. Gantt charts as shown in Figure 1.1 Project overview . Summary of Works Implementation and works of the project are summarized into the flow chart as shown in Figure 1.
Week Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1. Literature and theoritical study 2. Study MPLAB Semester Break . Order part of hardware 6.2 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 1 Week Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1. Report preparation 8. Results. Interfacing with computer 5. Literature and theoritical study Study Week 9 4. Hardware design 5. Construction of hardware 7. Brief idea 2. Presentation 8. discussion & conclusion 7. Report preparation Semester break Figure 1. Construction of hardware 3. Presentation Figure 1. Modification and evaluation 6. Programming for plotting graph 4.3 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 2 Exam Week 3.
It also brief discuss about microcontroller.1.2 DC Motor There are several types of DC motors that are available. MPLAB IDE and Visual Basic 6. several types of DC motor speed controller.CHAPTER 2 THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0. RS232 serial port. 2. Their advantages. and other basic information are listed below in the Table 2.1 Introduction This chapter includes the study of different types of DC motors. model of separately excited DC motor. speed measurement of DC motor. disadvantages. .
Generally small.1 Speed Measurement by Using Tachometer Tachometer is an instrument that measure speed motor based on concept of back EMF induced in motor when it is running. More powerful than permanent magnet motors Disadvantages Expensive and hard to find. Here.1 Advantages and disadvantages of various types of DC motor. More difficult to obtain. we need a device that will measure the speed of the motor shaft. difficult to ratio.6 Table 2. Very inexpensive Very high power/weight Expensive. Wide range of speeds and torques. Provide Extremely high mount. we will only discuss about speed measurement by using tachometer and optical encoder. There are several methods which can use to measure the speed of motor. 2. loud. No batteries required. Cannot vary magnetic field strength. DC Motor w/field coil DC permanent magnet motor Gasoline (small two stroke) Small. High Torque at low speed. very high vibration.3. and easy to find. Generally heavier than permanent magnet motors. torque. The EMF is voltages appear on the commutator segments caused by rotated in the magnetic field by some external force. . Require a switching control circuit Require more current than permanent magnet motors. since field coil must be energized. 2. compact. Type Stepper Motor Advantages Very precise speed and position control.3 Speed Measurement of DC Motor To start with this project.
then the signal will only be picked up when a slot is between the transmitter and receiver.2 Speed Measurement by Using Optical Encoder The best way to measure speed is to fit an optical encoder. Figure 2. EMF = K E φ N (2. the speed of the motor is also increases with the gain. So. 2.7 The magnitude of the EMF is given by .3.1 Sample disc of encoder . N= EMF K Eφ (2.1. the motor speed is directly proportional to the EMF voltage ad inversely proportional to the field flux. For permanent magnet DC motor. This shines a beam of light from a transmitter across a small space and detects it with a receiver the other end.1) where KE = a constant based on motor construction φ = magnetic flux N = speed of motor (in rpm) The actual relationship between motor speed and EMF follows and is derived from Equation 2. An example of a disc is shown as Figure 2. when the EMF measured is increases. which has slots cut into it. If a disc is placed in the space.1. the speed of motor can be measured by measuring the back EMF using tachometer.2) Thus.
and the receiver biased as Figure 2. When a separately excited motor is excited by a field current of If and an armature current of Ia flows in the circuit. Each winding are . rpm = f out × 60 N (2. and about 0.5 volts when light is allowed to pass through the slots in the disc. The frequency of the output waveform is given by. The If is independent of the Ia. Figure 2. the motor develops a back EMF and a torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed.8 The encoder transmitter must be supplied with a suitable current.3 shows a model of separately excited DC motor .4 Model of Separately Excited DC motor Figure 2.2 Basic schematic circuit of optical encoder This will have an output which swings to +5v when the light is blocked.3.2. the speed of DC motor in rpm is given by.4) 2. from Equation 2.3) where fout = frequency of output waveform rpm = speed in revolutions per minutes N = number of slots at disc So. f out = N × rpm 60 (2.
8) where (Kt=Kv) is the torque constant (in V/A-rad/s). . The motor back EMF which is also known as speed voltage is expressed as e g = K v wi f (2.3 Model of separately excited DC motor Instantaneous field current: vf = Rf if + Lf di f dt (2.5) where Rf and Lf are the field resistor and inductor respectively. The torque developed by the motor is Td = K t φ i f (2.5. Figure 2. Instantaneous armature current: v a = R a i a + La dia + eg dt (2.7) where Kv is the motor constant (in V/A-rad/s) and w is the motor speed (rad/s). Any change in the armature current has no effect on the field current.6) where Ra and La are the armature resistor and inductor respectively. The relationship of the field and armature are shown in Equation 2.9 supplied separately. The If is normally much less than the Ia.
m) J = inertia of the motor (kg.11) If Ra is a small value (which is usual). i. the speed motor speed depends on the supply voltage. a time derivative is zero. These observation leads to the application of variable DC voltage to control the speed and torque of DC motor. For field circuit.14) (2.: Td = J dw + Bw + TL dt (2. i.13) (2.m2) Under steady-state operations.m/rad/s) TL = load torque (N.12) (2.e.15) f That is if the field current is kept constant. w = Va K vI (2.10 Sometimes it is written as: Td = K t φ ia (2. or when the motor is lightly loaded. Vf = I f Rf The back EMF is given by: E g = K v wI f The armature circuit. Ia is small.9) For normal operation. Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K v wI f The motor speed can be easily derived: w= Va − I a Ra Kv I f (2. Assuming the motor is not saturated. . the developed torque must be equal to the load torque plus the friction and inertia.e.10) where B = viscous friction constant (N.
5 Basic flow chart of DC motor speed control There are several controllers that can used to control the speed of the motor such as by using thyristor.g. we will discuss only at the speed control system by using thyristor.4 and Figure 2. tachometer) is compared with the reference speed to generate the error signal and to vary the armature voltage of the motor. closed-loop control is normally used. Fuzzy Logic Controller and etc. phase-locked-loop control. the block diagram and the flow chart of the speed control are shown in Figure 2.5 DC motor Speed Controller For precise speed control of servo system. which is sensed by analog sensing devices (e.4 Basic block diagram for DC Motor speed control Start Start Motor drive Detect motor speed Speed < Ref? No Deceleration Yes Acceleration Figure 2. The speed.11 2.. phase-locked loop and PWM technique.5 respectively. Controller Feedback Speed Motor Driver DC Motor Actual Speed Speed sensor Figure 2. . Here. chopper circuit. Basically.
6 Phase-locked loop control system When the motor runs at the same speed as the reference pulse train. fi f0 Phase detector Low Pass Filter Vc Converter. .1 Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) Control The block diagram of a converter-fed dc motor drive with phase-locked-loop control is shown in Figure 2. The output of the encoder acts as the speed feedback signal of frequency f0. the motor speed is converted to a digital pulse train by using a speed encoder.6. K2 Va DC motor Ve w Speed Encoder Figure 2.12 2. Any disturbances contributing to the speed change would result in a phase difference and the output of the phase detector would respond immediately to vary the speed of the motor in such direction and magnitude as to retain the locking of the reference and feedback frequencies. The output of the phase detector would be a constant voltage proportional to the phase difference and the steady-state motor speed would be maintained at a fixed value irrespective of the load on the motor. the two frequencies would be synchronized (or locked) together with a phase difference.5. The response of the phase detector is very fast. The phase detector (or comparator) is available in integrated circuits. The phase detector compares the reference pulse train (or frequency) fr with the feedback frequency f0 and provides a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output voltage Ve that is proportional to the difference in phases and frequencies of the reference and feedback pulse trains. which varies the output of the power converter and in turn the motor speed. A low-pass loop filter converts the pulse train Ve to continuous dc level Vc. In a phase-locked-loop (PLL) control system.
ii. PLL controlled motor systems may get out of synchronization for an abrupt load variation. The average output of voltage is given by Vave = Vm (1 + cos α ) 2π (2.13 As long as the two frequencies are locked.16) where Vm = peak voltage of voltage supply of thyristor and α = firing angle of thyristor Reference Frequency Frequency or Phase Comparator Firing Circuit Thyristor.15). 2. PLL controlled motor drives have the following shortcomings. iii. However. the speed regulation should ideally be zero. thus it can control the speed of motor (Equation 2. it has developed a model for the components of PLL servo control system using both linear and nonlinear techniques . In journals by Christopher A.8 shows the block diagram of DC motor speed control by using thyristor. PLL-controlled motor system tend to be unstable for low-speed operation PLL-controlled motor systems have large response time.7 Block diagram of DC Motor speed control by using thyristor . i. Adkins and Moore respectively. SCR DC Load Motor Speed Sensor Figure 2. .5. The thyristor is used to supply a variable DC voltage to motor.2 Speed Control by Using Thyristor Figure 2.
this method has been used by P.3 Speed Control by Using PWM and Full H Bridge Motor Drive Figure 2. then the firing circuit will be modified to allow the SCR to conduct for a shorter period of time. 2. Conversely. α. MacDonald in their research . α is reduced). by controlling the firing angle.16. SCR to fire sooner (firing angle. . If the switch is open for the same amount of time as it is closed.14 From Equation 2. the speed sensor frequency will be below the reference frequency. the motor will see an average of 6 Volts. if the speed sensor output frequency is above the reference.L. and when it is open it sees 0 Volts. the decrease in conduction reduces the DC motor speed. Sen and M.C. If the motor speed is low. the average of output DC voltage can be varied. and will run more slowly accordingly.8 . There is a resulting increase in motor speed which brings the output speed back up to the value which is equal to the reference signal.5. the motor sees 12 Volts. From review.8 Simple motor circuit Let us consider a simple circuit that connects a battery as power supply through a switch MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) as shown in Figure 2. The frequency difference produces a change in the firing circuit that causes the thyristor. When the switch is closed.
17) where Vave = average voltage supply to DC motor ton = time ON of switches T = period of PWM t on = DC . Figure 2. and how much friction and load torque there is. Vave = t on × Vin T (2. The average of voltage that supply to DC motor is given by. A MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is a device that can turn very large currents on and off under the control of a low signal level voltage.15 This on-off switching is performed by power MOSFETs.9 PWM signal As the amount of time that the voltage is on increases compared with the amount of time that it is off. the average speed of the motor increases and vice versa. duty cycle T Figure 2. The time that it takes a motor to speed up and slow down under switching conditions is depends on the inertia of the rotor (basically how heavy it is).10 shows the speed of a motor that is being turned on and off fairly slowly: .
This is the principle of switch mode speed control. and the speed will be quite steady.10 Relation of supply voltage with motor speed We can see that the average speed is around 150 rpm. Only one MOSFET on each side of the motor must be turned on at any one time otherwise they will short out the battery and burn out. A full bridge circuit is shown in the diagram below. Figure 2. If the supply voltage is switched fast enough. it won’t have time to change speed much.11 Full H bridge motor drive . or to battery negative. Thus the speed is set by PWM – Pulse Width Modulation. although it varies quite a bit.16 Figure 2. Each side of the motor can be connected either to battery positive.
6 Microcontroller Microcontrollers must contain at least two primary components – random access memory (RAM). plus each I/O pin can be programmed as an input or output (or even switch during the running of a program). referred to as registers. Most microcontrollers also contain read-only memory (ROM). Each valid instruction set and the matching internal hardware that differentiate one microcontroller from another . and Q1 has the PWM signal applied to it. to make the motor go backwards. Often these memories do not reside in the microcontroller. or erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). they are contained in external ICs. The load (current draw) . The instruction set is a list of all commands and their corresponding functions. instead. this method has been used by Abu Zaharin Ahmad and Mohd Nasir Taib in their study . RAM contents disappear when the power is turned off.17 To make the motor go forwards. The number of I/O pins per controllers varies greatly. Meanwhile. and an instruction set. During operation. Al1 of these memories are permanent: they retain what is programmed into them even during loss of power. some RAM is specialized. Q4 is turned on. Q3 is turned on. They are also used to store permanent lookup tables. the microcontroller will step through a program (the firmware). RAM is a type of internal logic unit that stores information temporarily. While RAM is used to hold any kind of data. 2. and the instructions are fetched as the microcontroller runs. and Q2 has the PWM signal applied to it: From review. This enables quick and low-cost updates to the firmware by replacing the ROM. They are used to store the firmware that tells the microcontroller how to operate. programmable read-only memory (PROM). Where would a microcontroller be without some way of communicating with the outside world? This job is left to input/output (I/O) port pins.
viii.18 that each pin can drive is usually low.7 RS232 Serial Port RS232 is a popular communications protocol for connecting modems and data acquisition devices to computers. x. To summarize. iv. If the output is expected to be a heavy load. a microcontroller contains (in one chip) two or more of the following elements in order of importance : i. vii. ii. then it is essential to use a driver chip or transistor buffer. iii. xii. Obviously. We can. vi. This square wave is the heartbeat of the microcontroller and all operations are synchronized to it. Examples of . RS232 devices can be plugged straight into the computer's serial port (also known as the COM or Comms port). Instruction set RAM ROM. All that needed to complete the clock circuit would be the crystal or RC components.PROM or EPROM I/O ports Clock generator Reset function Watchdog timer Serial port Interrupts Timers Analog-to-digital converters Digital-to-analog converters 2. xi. ix. Most microcontrollers contain circuitry to generate the system clock. therefore precisely select the operating speed critical to many applications. it controls the speed at which the microcontroller functions. v.
12 Handshake looping a PC serial connector . Figure 2. most driver software will wait forever for one of the handshaking lines to go to the correct level. temperature interfaces and other measurement instruments.2. electronic balances. therefore the mating cable needs to terminate in a DB9/F (Female pin) connector. Table 2. other times it might not. The reliable solution is to loop back the handshake lines if they are not used .19 data acquisition devices include GPS receivers. Depending on the signal state it might sometimes work. A nine pin D plug has become the standard fitting for the serial ports of PCs.2 RS232 pin assignments (DB9 PC signal set) Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 Pin 9 Input Input Output Output Input Output Input Input DCD RXD TXD DTR DSR RTS CTS RI Data Carrier Detect Received Data Transmitted Data Data Terminal Ready Signal Ground Data Set Ready Request To Send Clear To Send Ring Indicator Normal PC hardware might well run with just Tx. The pin connections used are as shown in Table 2. The connector on the PC has male pins. Rx and Ground connected. data loggers.
FORTRAN.20 When the lines are handshake looped. Third party emulators that work with MPLAB IDE are also available. vi. such as MPLAB IDE. C compilers are available from Microchip and other third party vendors.8 MPLAB IDE MPLAB IDE is a Windows-based Integrated Development Environment for the Microchip Technology Incorporated PIC microcontroller (MCU) and dsPIC digital signal controller (DSC) families . . such as BASIC.9 Visual Basic 6. iii. iv.0 There are literally hundreds of programming languages. Program logic determines the next instruction to execute in response to conditions and user request. Debug the executable logic by watching program flow with a simulator. An assembler. In the MPLAB IDE. linker and librarian come with MPLAB IDE. 2. and Pascal are considered procedural languages. Assemble. View variables in Watch windows. the program specifies the exact sequence of all operations. v. Each was developed to solve particular type of problem. That is. the RTS output from the PC immediately activates the CTS input . C.so the PC effectively controls its own handshaking. Most traditional languages. such as MPLAB SIM. ii. Create source code using the built-in editor. 2. compile and link source code using various language tools. Program firmware into devices with programmers such as PICSTART Plus or PRO MATE II. Make timing measurements. or in real time with an emulator. COBOL. we can: i.
option buttons. check boxes. which has many elements of an object oriented language such as Java. The designed screen can holds standard windows button such as command buttons. visual basic is one of the languages that changes to accommodate the shift. text boxes. Each of these windows object. So. Microsoft refers to Visual Basic as an event driven programming language. Visual Basic is designed to allow the program run under the windows without the complexity generally associated with windows programming . As the world turn to graphic user interface (GUI).21 The newer language. Visual Basic that recently appears as one of the most popular programming language is chose. producing a “standard” windows user interface. programs are no longer procedural. they don’t follow a sequential logic. use a different approach: object-oriented programming (OOP) and event driven programming. there is no need to take control and determine the sequence of execution. . such as C++ and VISUAL BASIC. In the event driven model. operates as expected. It provided standard windows object and graphic user interface that will make the program become user friendly. and so on.
it will calculate the error between the desired speed with the actual speed.1. In microcontroller.1 Introduction In this project. the duty cycle will send to DC motor driver either accelerate or decelerate DC motor to maintain it at desired speed. Microcontroller Motor Driver DC Motor Actual speed Feedback speed Encoder For speed display PC Figure 3. . The error will determine duty cycle of pulse-widthmodulation (PWM) in microcontroller.1 Block diagram of DC motor speed control system The actual speed of DC motor will be measured by encoder and feedback to microcontroller. microcontroller will be used as the controller to control DC motor speed at desired speed.23 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. Then. The block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 3. It is a closed-loop with real time control system.
The project is divides into two parts that are software and hardware implementation. optical encoder. Each part of the project will discuss in the following section.2 Picture of the project 3. DC Motor drive and loading unit LU150L .23 Figure 3. pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) and RS232 serial communication of microcontroller.2 shows the picture of the project. power supply 5V. microcontroller PIC 16F877A. Figure 3.2 Hardware Implementation This section will discuss about components that had been used included DC motor.
2 Optical Encoder In this project. The specification of this motor is shown in Table 3. and .1).1.2. The fundamental reason for the superiority of this system is that the optical encoder used as the velocity sensor.1 DC Motor Figure 3.1 Specification of the motor Manufacturer Voltage rated Power Type Tohoku Ricoh CO.3 shows the DC motor that will be used in this project. Figure 3.3 24V DC motor Table 3. an optical encoder will be used to measure the DC motor speed. It is a permanent magnet 24V DC motor.2.24 3. temperature. When the optical disc is properly mounted on the motor shaft. it generates a frequency directly proportional to motor speed. is capable of much better performance than the generator type of tachometer (by using back EMF that discussed in section 2.2. Ltd 24V 55W 7K100012 3. Changes in gap.
magnet strength simply have no effect on the output of the optical tachometer. By contrast, an analog tachometer is directly affected by all the problems listed above. The encoder in the market is very expensive. In order to reduce the cost of the project, an optical encoder is built. Figure 3.4a and Figure 3.4b show the basic configuration and the schematic of the optical encoder in action respectively . The speed accuracy over fractions of a revolution depends on the quality of the optical encoder. The DC motor has an optical disc (made by cardboard) mounted on its shaft. The disc has N radial lines on its surface. In this project, we will make four slots on the disc (N=4). This will give a resolution of 1/4 in one rotation. An LED (light emitting diode) as transmitter is put at one side of the disc and a photodiode, as receiver is fixed on the other side of the disc. Chip OPT 101 is selected as photodiode in this project. To make sure the output waveform in digital signal (High/Low) which is readable by microcontroller, Chip LM324 is used as a comparator. When the Vout of photodiode is less than Vref, the output of LM324 will be 0V (Low) and when the Vout is greater than Vref, the output of LM 324 will be 5V (High). The output signal form LM324 has a frequency which is given by Equation 2.3. Then, the output signal will be sent to microcontroller as representation of actual speed.
Figure 3.4 Optical encoder (a) Basic configuration (b)Schematic circuit
Power Supply +5V
Most digital logic circuits and processors need a +5 volt power supply. To use these parts we need to build a regulated +5 volt source. Usually we start with an unregulated power supply ranging from 9 volts to 24 volts DC.
To make a +5 volt power supply, we use a LM7805 voltage regulator IC (Integrated Circuit). The IC is shown below.
Figure 3.5 IC LM7805
Sometimes the input supply line may be noisy. To help smooth out this noise and get a better 5 volt output, capacitors is usually added to the circuit.
Figure 3.6 Schematic circuit of +5V power supply
iii. The microcontroller will operate as it programmed (detail program at section 3. The microcontroller chip that has been selected for the purpose of controlling the speed of DC motor is PIC16F877A manufactured by Microchip. Figure 3. microcontroller will receive desired speed from PC through serial port. Its portability and low current consumption.000 cycles) using the universal programmer in robotics lab. Its size is small and equipped with sufficient output ports without having to use a decoder or multiplexer. Thus. It is a very simple but powerful microcontroller. At the beginning. It can be programmed and reprogrammed easily (up to 10.000. Refer to Table 3.3. Users would only need to learn 35 single word instructions in order to program the chip. It has PWM inside the chip itself which allow us to vary the duty cycle of DC motor drive.1) to produce a new duty cycle (from CCP2) that proportional to the error speed. This chip is selected based on several reasons : i. iv.2 for the pin connection of PIC16F877A in DC Motor speed control system.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F877A The microcontroller acts like the brain of the DC motor speed control system. average of voltage supply from DC motor drive can be varied in order to maintain the speed at desired value. Pins not stated in the table are not used and left hanging. ii. .7 shows the schematic circuit of microcontroller PIC16F877A. v. The detected motor speed from optical encoder will feedback to microcontroller through RA0 of PIC16F877A.2.28 3.
32 12.29 Table 3.31 13 14 1 2 34 35 Capture/Compare/P WM Description Positive Supply (+5V) Ground Reference For oscillator or resonator Reset Input Input/Output pin Application Power Supply to chip Ground Reference Connected to resonator 20MHz with 22pF Always connected to +5V Input of Vout from LM324 as speed counter Output to control CW/CCW of left motor Output of duty cycle(PWM) to control motor speed Input/Output pin CCP2 16 Figure 3.7 Schematic circuit of PIC16F877A .2 Pin connection of PIC16F877A for DC motor speed control system Pin Name VDD VSS OSC1 OSC2 MCLR\ RA0 RB1 RB2 Pin No. 11.
2. the speed of a DC motor is a function of the input power and drive characteristics.2.4.8 NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format data . While the area under an input pulse width train is measure of the average power available from such an input. Duty cycle refers to the percentage of one cycle during which duty cycle of a continuous train of pulses. the duty cycle of PWM is determined by the pulse width. The expression of duty cycle is determined by. % Dutycylcle = t on × 100% T (3. 3.1 Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in Microcontroller The Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in microcontroller is used to control duty cycle of DC motor drive.30 3.4. Figure 3. Since the frequency is held constant while the on-off time is varied. It provides RS232 serial communication with PC easily.1) Basically. PWM is an entirely different approach to controlling the speed of a DC motor. Power is supplied to the motor in square wave of constant voltage but varying pulse-width or duty cycle. Thus the power increases duty cycle in PWM.2 RS232 Serial Communication SCI is an abbreviation for Serial Communication Interface and. as a special subsystem of microcontroller PIC16F877A.
and +10V for logic one. The duration of the stop bit 'T' depends on the transmission rate and is adjusted according to the needs of the transmission. The signal level on a PC is -10V for logic zero. This chip receives signals from -10 to +10V and converts them into 0 and 5V. Free line is defined as the status of logic one. or 8 or 9 data bits. Since the signal level on the microcontroller is +5V for logic one and 0V for logic zero. MAX232 and PIC16F877A . we use standard NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format also known as 8 (9)-N-1. we need to adjust the level of the signals so communicating can take place. we need an intermediary stage that will convert the levels.9 Connection between D9 Female serial port.9 Figure 3. In order to connect a microcontroller to a serial port on a computer.Start Bit. Start of transmission . One chip specially designed for this task is MAX232. For the transmission speed of 9600 baud. without parity bit and with one stop bit. has the status of logic zero. and after the bits we place the Stop Bit of logic one. The circuit for this interface is shown in the Figure 3. T is 104µs.31 As with hardware communication. The data bits follow the start bit (the first bit is the low significant bit).
The current that flows through the load connected between these two pins is monitored at pin 15.11 8 9 10. the speed of motor will slow down when the load is heavier and speed up when the load is lighter. Ground. DC motor drive is needed where we can control the magnitude of supply voltage in order to control the speed of DC motor. If the chip is disabled.5 DC Motor Drive If a DC motor is connected directly to the voltage supply. it should be enabled by +5V at pin 6 (Enable A) or pin 11 (Enable B). So. Input 2 Enable A. TTL Compatible Inputs of the Bridge A. Out 2 Vs Input 1. Table 3. Outputs of the Bridge A.2. Sense B Out 1. there is no . chip L298. A non-inductive 100nF capacitor must be connected between this pin and ground. Outputs of the Bridge B.3 Pin function of chip L298 Pin 1. Table 3. The DC motor drive that will be used in this project is a dual full bridge driver. A100nF capacitor must be connected between this pin and ground. TTL Compatible Enable Input: the L state disables the bridge A (enable A) and/or the bridge B (enable B). The average of voltage that supply to DC motor is given by Equation 2.3 4 5.3 shows function of each pin of chip L298.17. Supply Voltage for the Power Output Stages.32 3. Out 4 Function Between this pin and ground is connected the sense resistor to control the current of the load. Vave is zero. the constant power will be supplied to the DC motor all the time.15 2.7 6. To supply the voltage to motor through L298. The operating supply voltage of chip L298 is up to 46V and the total DC current up to 4A.10 shows the schematic circuit of L298 with a 24V DC motor. Figure 3. the current that flows through the load connected between these two pins is monitored at pin 1. Supply Voltage for the Logic Blocks. EnableB GND Vss Input 3. The time to enable the chip L298 will be determined by the duty cycle pulse that sent from PWM in microcontroller. Due to the constant power to motor.12 13.14 Name Sense A. Input 4 Out 3. TTL Compatible Inputs of the Bridge B.
the motor will stop running. the different input have to sent to C and D.33 voltage supply to motor. When input of C (pin 10) is High (H). Figure 3. the motor will run in forward direction and vice versa. .3. In this project. the motor is running all the time in forward direction by receiving C=H (RB1) and D=L (RB2) from microcontroller during the initialization of the program. (detail in part 3.1(a)). In this project. the duty cycle of PWM will sent to Ven to drive the motor.10 Bi-direction of DC motor speed control So. we know that the motor will continuous running (as long as the motor is not overloaded) when the C and D of L298 have different input. D (pin12) is Low (L). When both C and D have same input (H/L). the motor will stop running. to make sure the motor is running all the time. From table.1.
the disc that fixed at the motor shaft can run smoothly at the constant speed. the disc will cut the magnetic flux field and it becomes a load to the motor. motor will slow down. normal load and overload condition as shown in Figure 3. It has two U shape magnets with a small space between it. a loading unit LU150L is used.34 3. Thus. . a controller has been designed to maintain speed back to the desired speed by using microcontroller.2. In this project. With the presence of LU150L when the motor is running. The position of the magnets have been defined as no load.11.6 Loading Unit LU150L For DC motor speed control with application of varies loads. Without LU150L.
11 Application of vary load by using Loading Unit LU150L (a) Loading Unit LU150L (b) No load condition (c) Normal load condition (d) Overload condition .35 (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 3.
MPLAB IDE is used to program microcontroller in assembly language. Therefore. the PIC16F877A software development tool. When microcontroller receives an interrupt flag.12 and Figure 3. then it will jump to interrupt process. Visual Basic 6.13.3 Software Implementation For software implementation. It will receive the desired speed from user through PC that interface with RS232 serial port.0 is used for user interface purpose and for monitoring the speed response of the system. These flowcharts are then translated into assembly language and compiled using MPLAB. The microcontroller will always run the main program until there is an interrupt occurred. . There are two parts of the program which are main program and interrupt program. The program in assembly language can be referred in Appendix A.3.1 Algorithm and Programming in MPLAB IDE Microcontroller acts as brain of the whole DC motor speed control system. The actual speed will be compared with the desired speed and the correction will be done by microcontroller to always maintain the DC motor speed at the desired speed. 3. Besides. An algorithm has to be developed to make the microcontroller to read the input and respond accordingly. the algorithm is established and represented by a flowchart in Figure 3.36 3.
0 =1? No Yes Check Noise Test PORTA.0 =0? No Figure 3.37 Start • • • • Initialization Initialize PORT Initialize PWM Initialize TIMER1 in timer mode Initialize USART (serial port) Set up timer Obtain reference speed from PC? Yes No Yes Test PORTA.12 Flow chart of microcontroller’s main program .
3. a) Initialization of the mode of ports A .1.3. . PWM. get reference speed and check noise function.0 =0? Yes No counter = counter + 1 Return Figure 3.1 Processing Explanation of Main Program There are six main parts of main program in microcontroller.1 (f)). Timer1. There are initialization of ports.13 Flow chart of check noise function 3. it will increase speed counter X1 where X1 = X1 + 1 (if it is not noise after check noise. the counter will remain its value. A user register. setup for serial port. X1 has been defined as speed counter for pulses receive from RA0.B In this project. Otherwise. detail in section 3.1. When the input of RA0 is High (H). we use pin 0th of the Port A (RA0) as digital input where it receives input (H/L) from LM324 (pin1).38 Call Delay 1ms t > 1ms ? Yes No Test PORTA.
Figure 3. the following steps should be taken when configuring the CCP module for PWM operation: i.5.2.15 Simplified PWM block diagram To setup for PWM operation.15 shows a simplified block diagram of the CCP module in PWM mode. The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period (1/period). RB1 is always set to High (H) and RB2 set to Low (L) to make the motor run in forward direction as describe in section 3. Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register.14) has a time-base (period) and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). b) Initialization of PWM A PWM output (Figure 3.14 PWM output Figure 3. Figure 3. .39 All pins of Port B are set to output.
This 10-bit value is represented by CCPR2L:CCP2CON<5:4>. the period is complete). . but the duty cycle value is not latched into CCPR2H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2 occurs (i. Up to 10-bit resolution is available. Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit. iv.53kHz where Fosc = 20MHz and TMR2 prescale =1 The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the CCPR2L register and to the CCP2CON<5:4> bits.3) CCPR2L and CCP2CON<5:4> can be written to at any time. Configure the CCP2 module for PWM operation. so the PWM period is then become PWM period = (255+1)* 4 * (1/20M) * (1) = 51. The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula: PWM period = [(PR2) + 1] * 4 * TOSC *(TMR2 prescale value) (3. v.2) In this project. PR2 is set to 255(maximum value of 8 bit for maximum range). The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register. Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the CCPR2L register and CCP2CON<5:4> bits.2µs = 19. Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2 by writing to T2CON.40 ii. iii. The CCPR2L contains eight MSbs and the CCP2CON<5:4> contains two LSbs.e. The following equation is used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time: PWM duty cycle =(CCPR2L:CCP2CON<5:4>)*TOSC* (TMR2 prescale value) (3..
This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1 interrupt enable bit. t = (65535 . if enabled. Timer mode is selected by clearing the TMR1CS (T1CON<1>) bit.39321s where the pulses counted in X1 will be converted to speed and correction taken. the interrupt is required to occur each 0. which are readable and writable.16 Timer1 block diagram When Timer1 increases from 0000h to FFFFh.16 shows the Timer1 block diagram which operate in timer mode. which is latched in interrupt flag bit.39321s / 13. Fosc = 20MHz . . A user register. X2 is defined as gain for this purpose. Figure 3. it takes 65535 cycle and the time consumed is given by.107 ms. The TMR1 Interrupt. The TMR1 Register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh (decimal from 0 to 65535) and rolls over to 0000h. the input clock to the timer is FOSC/4. TMR1IE (PIE1<0>). Figure 3. In this mode. X2 = 0. In this project.107ms = 30 Besides. the interruption enable bit of CCP2 is set. TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). Gain.0) * (1/(20MHz/4)) = 13. Also GIE and PIE are set. is generated on overflow.41 c) Initialization of TIMER1 in Timer Mode The Timer1 module in PIC16F877A is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L).
An on-chip.) The USART is configuring in asynchronous mode. Baud Rate = Fsoc /(16(SPBRG+1)) (3. In this mode. The USART transmits and receives the LSb first. The transmitter and receiver are functionally independent.17 USART transmit block diagram Figure 3. but use the same data format and baud rate. The most common data format is 8-bits and it is used in this project.42 d) Setup for serial port The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI. eight or nine data bits.4) Figure 3.18 USART receive block diagram . 8-bit baud rate generator can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies from the oscillator. and one STOP bit). dedicated. the USART uses standard non-return-to zero (NRZ) format (one START bit.
X1 if it is not filter out. 3. especially when motor running at high speed. we have to set SPBRG as SPBRG = (Fsoc/ Baud Rate / 16)-1 = 20M / 9600 / 16 -1 = 129 Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) is set as 1 and bits TRISC<7:6> are set as 0 in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. It will wait there until it gets the reference speed from user. when a High (H) pulses is receive at RA0. f) Check Noise function From experimental result. The microcontroller will execute the program in interrupt process instead of main program that is running when it . So. if is found that there are some noise besides real pulses from LM324. e) Get reference speed At beginning of the program. If the pulse detected still High (H). From experiment. But if the pulse detected is Low (L).1.39321s. it means that the received is real pulse and the X1 will increase it value with one. it is found that the noise have a bandwidth less than 1ms (bandwidth of real pulses always greater than 1ms).43 To set baud rate at 9600bps. microcontroller will get the reference speed from user at PC through RS232 serial communication. then it is noise and ignored where X1 remains its value.3. This noise can cause over reading pulses at speed counter.2 Processing Explanation of Interrupt Process Interrupt process is occurs each 0. it will hold for 1ms.
39321 ⎠ round/s 1 ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ =⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ ∗ 60 round/minit (RPM) 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0. . Each part of interrupt process is discussed in the following section. The interruption flag of CCP2 should be cleared first.39321s. So. we know that it will produces 4 pulses when motor turn for 1 round.39321s with CCP2. b) Speed counter At each interruption (each 0.39321s). a) Clearing of interruption flag The interruption is occurs every 0. X1 in microcontroller will be loaded to PC each 0.39321 ⎠ (3. Data from speed counter. the motor speed is given by. From optical encoder with 4 slots that built in this project. the following interruption occurs without waiting desired time.44 receive the interrupt flag. ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ det ected speed = ⎜ ⎟*⎜ ⎟ N ⎝ ⎠ ⎝t⎠ where N = number of slots t = time of getting data in second round/s (3. When not clearing this.6) c) Error speed The detected speed will be compared to reference speed to calculate the error between them. the value of speed counter. X1 will be taken as detected pulses.5) 1 ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ det ected speed = ⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0.
2 from experiment with optical encoder that has been built. the duty cycle of PWM is remained. If there is no error.39321 ⎠ The error speed will then converted into error voltage by using Equation 4.8) 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0. e) Speed up process When the detected speed of the motor is lower than the reference speed.17 to determine to speed up or slow down the motor.89 207. the error voltage will be converted to duty cycle based on Equation 2.45 Error pulses = Reference pulses – Detected pulses and (3.10) d) Speed down process When the detected speed of the motor is higher than the reference speed.16 Error voltage = (3. The rate that the duty ratio becomes bigger is decided by error speed.9) Finally. Error voltage where Vin = 12V Vin Error DC = (3. a duty ratio is increased and a motor drive electric current is increased. Error speed + 80. . The rate that the duty ratio becomes smaller is decided by error speed. a duty ratio is decreased and a motor drive electric current is suppressed.7) 1 ⎛ Error pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ Error speed = ⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ ∗ 60 round/min (3.
2.0 program. detected speed will sent to PC each 0.1) g) Interruption ending process The RETFIE instruction is executed at end of the interruption processing.46 f) Send detected speed to PC To monitor the performance of the system.3.39321s as detected pulses. Before that. This value will then convert to represent the detected speed (rpm) in PC by using Visual Basic 6. (detail in section 3. . the counter and timer have to clear and reset.
19 Flow chart of microcontroller’s interrupt process .47 Clear interruption flag Gain = gain -1 No td = 0.Error Send the value of detected pulses to PC Clear counter Reset timer Return from interrupt Figure 3.39321s? Yes Get value of speed counter Error = Ref – detect speed Error > 0? Yes No Ref = detect speed? Yes No DCnew = DCold + Error DCnew = DCold .
20 and Figure3. They are introduction form and main program form which are shown in Figure 3. There are two forms in Visual Basic 6.0.0. a program will be developing using Visual Basic 6.0 In this project. This program is able to send data (desired speed from user) to microcontroller and plot a graph of detected speed versus time to monitor the performance of the system.21 respectively. Figure 3.3.21 Main program form .2 Programming in Visual Basic 6.20 Introduction form Figure 3.48 3.
desired pulses is given by.49 The source code of this project is shown in Appendix B and the flow chart of the program is shown in Figure 184.108.40.206 Plot Graph Speed versus Time To monitor performance of the system. a graph of detected speed versus time will be obtained by using Visual Basic. desired speed * 4 * 0. .2.1 Reading Input from User and Microcontroller To obtain desired speed from user.39321 60 desired pulses = (3.2.22. From Equation 3. the user is required to select a desired speed at computer. The desired speed (rpm) will then convert into desired pulses before send to microcontroller through serial port.11) 3. 3. The user will sent the desired speed to microcontroller by click on Run command button. It is also allowed to get a new graph by click on the New Graph command button. Two main tasks of the program in Visual Basic which are reading input from user and microcontroller and plot a graph of speed versus time.3.
22 Flow chart of program in Visual Basic 6.39321 Send desired pulses to microcontroller Read detected pulses from microcontroller? Yes No detected speed = detected pulses / 4 / 0.39321 * 60 Plot graph Stop motor? No Yes Figure 3.50 Start Read selected desired speed from user? Yes No desired pulses = desired speed / 60 * 4 * 0.0 .
1 Introduction Some experiments had been conducted for the project. an experiment is conducted to find out the relationship between voltage supply and motor speed. Then.2 Experiment: Determine Relationship of Voltage Supply and Motor Speed An experiment is conducted to determine the relationship between voltage supply and speed . an analysis on the dead time of the system is made. The procedures and the result will be discussed in following sections. Last but not least. Power Supply DC Motor Tachometer Figure 4.1 Experiment with tachometer . data collection is done at each speed for DC motor speed control system to observe performance of the system.6 CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4. 4. First and foremost.
52 4. f × 60 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ . 4) The voltage increased in steps of 0. ⎜ rpm = out N ⎠ ⎝ 8) Step 4 was repeated. 6) Step 2 was repeated. 10) Based on graphs. The output waveform from optical encoder was connected to oscilloscope.1 Procedures 1) The circuit was connected as Figure 4. 2) Voltage of 0.1.1. both result was compared and the accuracy of optical encoder that has been built is found. 7) The readings for the frequency of oscilloscope were recorded.5V was supplied to motor.5V until 16V and step 3 was repeated. Power Supply DC Motor Optical Encoder Oscilloscope Figure 4.2 Experiment with optical encoder 5) Circuit as Figure 4.2.2 was completed by changing tachometer with the optical encoder that has been built. N=4. 3) Value of rpm at tachometer was recorded in Table 4. . 9) A graph of rpm-voltage was plotted for both tachometer and optical encoder.
49 0.77 2.78 3131.68 3.79 420.0 12.91 2958.80 1648.83 2272.53 4.0 3.0 2.70 1467.58 3048.00 0.5 13.5 2.50 2074.02 767.26 854.21 553.62 3.00 99.06 315.36 0.5 9.04 1.34 3.26 1870.59 3.14 4.69 2.23 2. the data was recorded in Table 4.5 3.95 1.00 2516.52 3232.78 2617.0 4.5 4.71 1552.80 2702. Table 4.5 7.05 2.0 6.5 11.5 12.40 4.70 940.5 10.05 3.59 3.0 0.1.35 0. A graph of speed versus voltage supply by using tachometer and optical encoder is shown in Figure 4.41 2.60 230.0 15.44 1048.05 0.0 7.76 % Error = rpm1 − rpm 2 × 100% rpm1 0.5 8.50 2.73 2400.07 2.00 0.0 13.60 1258.39 1358.70 2840.0 9.2.69 2228.05 4.5 16.5 6.5 15.0 1.95 1.0 14.1 Relationship of voltage supply and motor speed Voltage Supply (V) 0.35 1794.31 2.5 5.0 5.0 10.5 1.5 14.03 3.70 1.05 2.0 8.87 3.00 0.07 .3.95 1164.51 655.2 Experimental Result Analysis From experiment.64 2.32 1968.82 1.0 Speed (rpm1) Tachometer 0 0 100 240 330 410 550 640 770 860 970 1090 1200 1280 1400 1490 1590 1700 1820 1920 2030 2140 2230 2340 2480 2570 2690 2810 2890 2990 3130 3230 3370 Speed (rpm2) Optical Encoder 0.0 11.
80.16x . s= ∑ (x i i − x)2 n −1 (4.94.1) s = 1. rpm = 207.16V -80. s for percentage of error by using Equation 4.3 Graph of speed versus voltage supply The accuracy of the optical encoder can be checked by calculate its standard deviation.0 10.0 18.2) where rpm = motor speed V = voltage supply to motor .2801 The standard deviation percentage of error is quite small.0 8.1.89 1000 500 0 0.54 Graph Speed versus Voltage Supply Speed (rpm) 4000 3500 3000 Tachometer y = 213.62x .0 16.0 4. so it can be concluded that the reading of the optical encoder for speed measurement is quite reliable which is given by.0 14.89 (4.0 12.991 2500 2000 1500 Optical Encoder y = 207.0 Voltage Supply (V) Figure 4.0 6.0 2.
No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4. overload and then suddenly the load was as no load condition (Refer Figure 3.11).3 DC Motor Speed Control Result Microcontroller acts as proportional (P) controller in the DC motor speed control system.74 rpm .4 DC motor running at speed 190.4 to Figure 4. the result was collected by applying normal load. At each speed.10 respectively.55 4. The performance of the system at each speed is shown in Figure 4.
56 No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.95 rpm .6 DC motor running at speed 762.21 rpm No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.5 DC motor running at speed 572.
69 rpm No Load Normal Load Overload Normal Load Figure 4.7 DC motor running at speed 953.43 rpm .57 Normal Load Overload No Load Figure 4.8 DC motor running at speed 1144.
38 rpm .64 rpm Normal Load No Load Figure 4.10 DC motor running at speed 1907.58 No Load Normal Load Overload Normal Load Figure 4.9 DC motor running at speed 1716.
14a).59 4. the response to set point changes becomes more oscillatory. The system is called “marginally stable”.11b). commonly called underdamped (Figure 4. the control loop will become unstable and the oscillations will increase in amplitude (Figure 4. as the controller proportional gain. the speed response will give an underdamped response when Kp=1. Kp is increased.1 DC Motor Speed Control Result Analysis For P controller. (a) (b) (c) Figure 4. . In this project.11 Types of oscillatory response: (a) underdamped (b) sustained oscillation (c) unstable. the response of the control loop becomes a steady-state oscillation (Figure 4. At some greater gain. If the gain is increased past the point where steady oscillation is observed.3.11c) .
the motor will speed up before Tmotor motor is changed (as seen in graph in no load condition). Without controller.95 rpm. This is due to over one count or miss one count pulse of the speed counter that sent .69 rpm to 1716. Based on Equation 4. if the load is removed suddenly where Tload = 0. With controller. the controller is unable to control the motor speed although just apply with normal load for motor speed which is higher than 1907.74 rpm to 762. the speed response is oscillating until the load is removed. the motor will slow down or maybe die out.3. In overload condition. Due to voltage limitation.64 rpm. the controller is able to control the speed at their desired speed when applying normal load and overload.3) J = moment of inertia of the wheel about the axis of rotation Tload = torque induced by load Tmotor = torque induced by voltage supply ω = speed motor Figure 4.60 From graph speed versus time for speed from 190. Figure 4. there is a error speed of ±38. the motor is able to maintain back to the desired speed in a period of time. For motor speed in the range of 953. At each speed.15 rpm when at the steady state. The motor speed response will become oscillate and unstable.12 shows a free body diagram of the disc . the controller can control at normal load but not in overload condition.12 Free body diagram of the disc Tmotor – Tload = Jω where (4.38 rpm. It is because Tmotor induced by the voltage supply (maximum 12V) is not enough to overcome the Tload of overload condition within these speed.
N =1.61 by the optical encoder. Figure 4. There is a dead time at each speed.8 2.4 2.5 4 3. Based on Equation 3.13 Graph of dead time versus motor speed .8 2 1 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Motor Speed (rpm) Figure 4. Graph Dead Time versus Motor Speed Dead time (s) 6 5 5 4.13 shows a graph of dead time versus motor speed.4.4 Dead Time Analysis Dead time is the time of values of the quantity being measured for which it gives no reading .15 rpm 4. the speed is given by.39321 = 38.6 2. 1 count speed = 1 1 * * 60 4 0.8 3.3 2 1. The motor that does not respond at very low input voltage supply due to frictional forces exhibits nonlinearity.3 3 2. for one count pulse.
. the dead time of the system is decreasing as the motor speed is increasing. This is because for higher speed. So.62 From Figure 4. the motor will start running earlier and the dead time become smaller.13. more voltage will supply to motor to induce more Tmotor to overcome frictional forces. the error speed at starting up condition will be higher. Thus.
torque and even direction of rotation can be changed at anytime to meet new condition. DC motors have speed control capabilities. The goal of this project is to design a DC motor speed control system by using microcontroller PIC16F877A.6 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. chemical process. the speed response of the control loop becomes a steady-state oscillation. the speed response become underdamped response. The controller will maintain the speed at desired speed when there is a variation of load. It is a closed-loop real time control system. which means that speed. electric trains.1 Conclusion Recent developments in science and technology provide a wide range scope of applications of high performance DC motor drives in area such as rolling mills. If the gain is increased past the point where steady oscillation is observed. . motor speed can be controlled back to desired value easily. If Kp <1. the speed response is not satisfied. by applying Kp =1 to P controller in microcontroller. By varying the PWM signal from microcontroller (P controller) to the motor driver. For this project. The motor will suddenly speed up and it will damage the motor. robotic manipulators and the home electric appliances require speed controllers to perform tasks. At some greater gain. the control loop will become unstable and the oscillations will increase in amplitude.
the number of slots at cardboard that can be used is only four. some recommendations have been listed based on the problems in order to improve the performance. 5. the controller can react faster when there is a disturbance.4.3 Recommendation The performance of the system is slightly sluggish.39321s. So. the light of the LED cannot be blocked by the cardboard and photodiode will always give High (H) output. The objective of the project is successfully fulfilled. due to the size of photodiode which is quite big.2 Problems Although the controller can function as we expected. if we can increase the resolution of optical encoder by increasing its number of slots. As a result. the speed sensor is fail. there is a constraint with the optical encoder that had been built. the time for getting data and for microcontroller take correct action will be reducing where t < 0. but the performance is slightly sluggish where it takes about 2 or 3 second to react properly when there is a disturbance especially at low speed. with the Kp =1 for P controller at microcontroller PIC 16F877A. However.64 In conclusion. Based on Equation 3. then the sensitivity of optical encoder can be increased. Otherwise. Besides. the motor speed response can be maintained at desired value although there is a variation of load. . For future works. Then. 5. This is what we need to overcome in order to achieve quick control of motor speed smoothly.
So.4). these will allow us to increase the resolution of optical encoder by increasing the number of slots. Fuzzy Logic Controller and others. time for getting data and for controller to take action also can be reduced. it will reduce the steady state error (based on Equation 3. Besides. Besides. iii.65 i. from the mathematical model. ii. Hardware Improvement Use infra red (IR) as transmitter and receiver for optical encoder for more narrow light. it can be simulated using software such as Matlab to get the improved motor speed response by using controller packages such as PID controller. Software Improvement Use fuzzy logic microcontroller which combine the idea of fuzzy logic in microcontroller to obtain a DC motor speed control system with excellent regulation and high robustness. . the motor speed response will become better. it will reduce the total hardware complexity and cost at the same time. Thus. Then. So. Mathematical modeling of motor response Mathematical model can be obtained from the graph of motor speed response.
Christopher A. Sen and M. 1998. 121-123. Duarte. Iovine John. IEEE Spectrum. IEEE Spectrum. L. Rashid.which. 51-56. 3rd edition. AsiaSENSE SENSOR. 2003. 3-5.hills/SpeedControl/SpeedControllersBody. 2nd Edition. Devices and Applications. No. P. pg. United States of America: Prompt Publication. Singapore: Mc Graw-Hill. 359364 7. A study On the DC Motor Speed Control by Using Back-EMF Voltage. Moore. 3.66 REFERENCES 1. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 4. Phase-Locked Loops for Motor-Speed Control. Muhammad H. 2. 1978. PIC Microcontroller Project Book.net/paul. IECI-25. MacDonald. 5. Modeling of a Phase-Locked Loop Servo Controller with Encoder Feedback. The Microcontroller Beginner’s Handbook. 8. C. http://homepages. A. Marra. 4: 347-354. April 1973. . 61-67. 2000. Thyristorized DC Drives with Regenerative Braking and Speed Reversal. 2004.W.ht ml 6. Adkins and Michael A. 2nd Edition. Abu Zaharin Ahmad and Mohd Nasir Taib. United States of America: Prentice Hall. Lawrence A. August 1999. Power Electronics Circuits. Vol.
Sjhinskey. 16. New York: Marcel Dekker. Simulator.airborn.0.com.seattlerobotics.au/rs232. Paraskevopoulos. 2nd Edition. 2002 12. Editor User’s Guide 11. Millspaugh. MPLAB IDE. Singapore: McGrawHill Book Company. Kertas Kerja Makmal Kawalan I 15. Control Systems Engineering. 17. Programming in Visual Basic 6. http://www. Inc. 2002. . 1995. Nise. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.microchip. Process Control Systems. http://www. http://www. Norman S. Modern Control Engineering. California: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. Redwood City. Sistem Kawalan Halaju.org/encoder 13. Inc. P. Julia Case Bradley. FG.html 10. Version 6.N. 2003.com 14. Anita C. 2nd Edition.67 9.
inc> .asm .RP0 BCF STATUS.=============================================================== .For error correction ENDC .RP1 ENDM BANK1 MACRO .L) . list directive to define processor ERRORLEVEL -302 ERRORLEVEL -305 #include <p16f877A. RA0 as speed counter .For Reference Speed CHANGE .68 APPENDIX A Program in Microcontroller PIC 16F877A for DC Motor Speed Control .For Gain REFERENCE . Capacitor . Programmer : EA AI CHOON .=============================================================== .22pF .Set Baud Rate 9600 for 20MHZ for USART Communication CBLOCK 0X20 D1 .20MHZ .For Delay D2 . Project : Dc Motor Speed Control by Using Microcontroller PIC16F877A .----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .RP0 BCF STATUS.CONNECT TO ENABLE L298 . processor specific variable definitions __CONFIG _CP_OFF & _WDT_OFF & _BODEN_OFF & _PWRTE_ON & _HS_OSC & _WRT_OFF & _LVP_ON & _CPD_OFF . BAUD_RATE EQU 0X81 .For Delay X1 .CONNECT TO L298(H.===============MACRO CHANGE BANK ============================ BANK0 MACRO .Set up initialize value and cblock for the variables needed.Change to BANK1 BSF STATUS.For Delay D3 . RB1(PIN34) & RB2 (PIN35) . File name : psm. Date : 27/1/2005 . Supervisor : MOHAMAD SHUKRI ABDUL MANAF .=============================================================== .============= HARDWARE CONNECTION=========================== .For Counter X2 .Change to BANK0 BCF STATUS.RP1 ENDM .=============================================================== list p=16f877A . Crystal . CCP2 (PIN16) .
AS SPEED COUNTER ----------------------------------------LOOP BTFSS PORTA. Reference speed = 0? STANDBY .TMR1IF GOTO LOOP .39321 where X2 as gain X2 .============== MAIN PROGRAM =================================== MAIN STANDBY BANK0 CALL CALL MOVF SUBLW BTFSC GOTO MOVLW MOVWF INIT .If bandwith is less than 1ms.W 0X00 STATUS.Not noise. Intialization SERIALSCAN .107ms = 0. Yes.1 .0 GOTO $-1 CALL CHECKNOISE BTFSC PORTA. Get data for reference speed REFERENCE.0 INCF X1.RA0 .================================================================= . then it is noise BTFSC PORTA.------------------------------. Get data again D'30' .##########################INITIALIZATION################################ INIT BANK0 CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF PORTA PORTB PORTC PORTD X1 X2 REFERENCE .Interrupt Process .69 ORG GOTO ORG GOTO 0x00 MAIN 0x04 INT .0 GOTO $-1 BTFSS PIR1.Z . increase counter RETURN .-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.Check Noise function CHECKNOISE CALL DELAY1 . Set Timer1 as 30*13.
PWM Setup: Period KHZ(19.RC6&7->Input.TMR1IE=1 .RB2(pin 34 and 35) sambung ke pin 10 dan 12 of L298 .70 . 65535*1/(20M/4)=13.Others output .Timer= 0000-FFFFH = .Pre=1:1 TMR1=Int TMR1=ON MOVWF T1CON BANK1 MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 MOVLW MOVWF b'00000001' PIE1 b'11000000' INTCON .ON TMR2. PEIE=1 .------Set up Serial Port----------------------SERIAL_SETUP: BANK1 MOVLW 0XC0 IORWF TRISC.Keep in file register .2 .2 BANK0 CLRF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF TMR2 0X00 CCPR2L 0x04 T2CON 0x0C CCP2CON .PortA as digital input .1 BCF TRISC. PRESCALE = 1 .----Initialize PWM----------------------------BANK1 MOVLW 0xFF MOVWF PR2 BCF TRISC.152KHZ) .GIE=1.PWM Mode .Set PortB as output .-----Set TIMER1 AS TIMER MODE-----------------BANK0 MOVLW 0X00 MOVWF TMR1H .1 PORTB.Duty Cycle = 0% .---Initialize PORT---------------------------BANK1 MOVLW 0x06 MOVWF ADCON1 MOVLW 0xFF MOVWF TRISA MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 BSF BCF 0x00 TRISB PORTB.F MOVLW MOVWF BAUD_RATE SPBRG .RB1.107ms MOVLW 0X00 MOVWF TMR1L MOVLW b'00000001' .PortA as input .
CREN .Correction of Framming Error PIR1.W .71 MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 MOVLW MOVWF RETURN 0X24 TXSTA .W REFERENCE .CREN .######################## END OF INITIALIZATION########################## .-----------Correction of Overrun Error-------------OVERRUN_ERROR BCF BSF RETURN RCSTA.Correction of Overrun Error FERR_ERROR .Enable transmission & high baud rate 0X90 RCSTA .RCIF .Check if data TXREG is transfer to TSR ->TXREG is empty .TXIF $-1 TXREG .Discard Framming Error .Disable continuous reception RCSTA.Enable continuous reception .----------Send the detect speed to PC------------SERIAL_TRANSMIT: BTFSS GOTO MOVWF RETURN PIR1.-----------Get data for reference speed ------------------SERIALSCAN CALL CALL BTFSS GOTO MOVF MOVWF RETURN OVERRUN_ERROR .Wait until new data RCREG.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ SUBROUTIONE^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ .Enable srial port & continuous reception .Check if data receive $-1 .------------Short Delay----------------------------------------DELAY1 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF DECFSZ GOTO D'5' D3 D'9' D2 D'36' D1 D1 $-1 .-----------Correction of Framming Error-----------FERR_ERROR MOVF RETURN RCREG.Get received data to W .PAUSE FOR ABOUT 1mS .
W SERIAL_TRANSMIT OVERRUN_ERROR . No. Haven't reach 0.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ . CHANGE = error correction STATUS.F CONTINUE . . Yes.72 DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO RETURN DELAY2 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO RETURN D2 $-5 D3 $-9 D'255' D3 D'255' D2 D'36' D1 D1 $-1 D2 $-5 D3 $-9 . Ref speed .Detect speed CHANGE . Get value of counter.W .F .W CCPR2L.W GREATER .F X1.Z . Clear interruption flag .W . Continue counter GETDATA X1.PAUSE FOR ABOUT 1mS . decrease duty cycle with error correction 0XFF.detect speed REFERENCE. Reference < Detect ? . Jump to > or = check CHANGE.*********************** INTERRUPT PROCESS****************************** INT CLRF DECFSZ GOTO MOVF SUBWF MOVWF BTFSC GOTO LESS MOVF ADDWF GOTO BTFSC GOTO MOVF SUBLW SUBWF SHOWSPEED MOVF CALL CALL CALL CLRF PIR1 X2.799527s .C GREATER . no need correction.Correction of Overrun Error FERR_ERROR . Convert the negative value to positive value CCPR2L. Reference = Detect? SHOWSPEED .Correction of Framming Error X1 . Detect speed > ref speed. Add duty cycle with error correction SHOWSPEED STATUS.Reset Counter CHANGE.
W 0X00 STATUS. No. continue the process .******************** END OF INTERRUPT PROCESS************************* END . Stop motor CONTINUE .Z CONTINUE 0X00 CCPR2L DELAY2 . Yes. Get data for reference speed .Reset Timer . Reference speed = 0? .73 MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVF SUBLW BTFSS GOTO STOPMOTOR MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETFIE D'30' X2 SERIALSCAN REFERENCE.-------------------------------------END OF PROGRAM------------------------------------------------ .
0 for DC Motor Speed Control Using Microcontroller PIC 16F877A Option Explicit Dim pulse As Integer 'Varible for desired_pulse Dim str As Variant 'Count pulse received from microcontroller Dim speed As Double 'Real speed Dim desired_speed As Double Dim Error_speed As Double Dim objExcel As Excel.Value = 0 Counter3.Text) ' Get desired speed from user pulse = Round(desired_speed / 60 * 4 * 0.Update Counter1.39321) 'Convert the desired speed into desired pulse 'Exit the form and show the graph in Microsoft Excel .Range("A1:E1000") = "" j=2 OLE_Speed.Value = 0 End Sub Private Sub cmdRun_Stop_Click() If cmdRun_Stop.Sheets("Sheet1").74 APPENDIX B Source Code of Visual Basic 6.Application ' Setup for OLE graph Dim wExcel As Excel.Value = 0 Counter2.Chart Dim j As Integer Private Sub cmdExit_Click() objExcel.Workbook Dim xlchart As Excel.Caption = "&Run" Then desired_speed = Val(cboSpeed.Visible = True End End Sub Private Sub cmdNew_Click() 'Clear the graph Workbooks("Speed2").
Caption = pulse Counter1.OutBufferSize = 1024 ' Transmitter buffer = 1024 bytes . none parity.Caption = "&Stop" Then Counter1.Locked = False cmdExit.InBufferSize = 1024 ' Receiver buffer = 1024 bytes .TimerEnabled = True ' Start the counter as timer cboSpeed.Output = Chr$(0) ' Send speed = 0 rpm to stop the motor cboSpeed.DTREnable = True ' Enable the Data Terminal Ready signal .1" ' Baud rate 9600.Settings = "9600.Caption = "&Stop" cmdExit.CommPort = 2 ' Use CommPort2 to communicate with microcontroller .Enabled = True cmdNew.Output = Chr$(pulse) ' Send desired count pulse to microcontroller lblPulse.Enabled = True End If ElseIf cmdRun_Stop.InputLen = 1 ' Read all the charater in buffer .8.NullDiscard = False ' Discard bytes that are all zero's .Handshaking = comNone ' Disable all network handshaking .N. 8 data bits.Enabled = False Else MsgBox "You must select a desired speed first!".Enabled = True cmdNew.Enabled = True End If End Sub Private Sub Form_Load() 'MSComm setup With MSComm1 .Text) > 0 Then ' If receive desired speed from user MSComm1. "Invalid Data" ' If no desired speed receive from user MSComm1.RThreshold = 1 ' Set the Receive Oncomm event to occur after 1 byte of data have been received .Caption = "&Run" pulse = 0 MSComm1.EOFEnable = False ' Disable the End of File type . 1 stop bit . vbOKOnly.Locked = True ' Lock the desired speed selection cmdRun_Stop.InputMode = comInputModeText ' Set the incoming messages to ve ASCII text characters .TimerEnabled = False ' Stop the timer cmdRun_Stop.Output = Chr$(0) cmdExit.Enabled = False ' Disable the command of Exit and New Graph cmdNew.75 If Val(cboSpeed.
3) = desired_speed . 2) ' Calculate the error between detected speed with the desired speed lblSpeed. 2) ' Convert counter pulse into speed(rpm) Error_speed = Round((speed .39321 * 60.Cells(j.Caption = speed lblError.SThreshold = 1 .Value * 60 * 60) + (Counter2.Cells(j.Caption = str speed = Round(str / 4 / 0.RTSEnable = True .Value * 60 * 60) + (Counter2. 1).Workbooks.Open("C:\Speed2. "Excel.Value > 0 Then If (Counter3.xls") ' File Speed2 as storage objExcel.1.Cells(j. "##.Sheets("Sheet1").Value Then 'Plotting graph With Workbooks("Speed2").Value > Workbooks("Speed2").Update End Sub Private Sub MSComm1_OnComm() If MSComm1. 1) = 0 End With OLE_Speed.Input) 'Get the counter pulse from microcontroller lblCount_pulse.Output = Chr$(pulse) 'Always send desired pulse to microcontroller End If If Counter1. 1) = (Counter3.PortOpen = True End With 'Setup for excel file ' Enable the request to send data ' Set the Transmitter Oncomm event to occur after 1 byte of data have been received ' Open CommPort Set objExcel = GetObject("".desired_speed). 2) = Format(speed.Value * 60) + Counter1.##") .Sheets("Sheet1") .Value . 1) = 0 .Visible = False j=2 With Workbooks("Speed2").Cells(1.Application") Set wExcel = objExcel.Value * 60) + Counter1.Caption = Error_speed MSComm1.CommEvent = comEvReceive Then ' This is used when data is received str = Asc(MSComm1.Cells(j .76 .Cells(2.Sheets("Sheet1") .
Value = Counter3.Value + 1 Counter2.Value + 1 Counter1.Value = 60 Then Counter3. Counter2 as minute.Value = 0 End If End If End Sub .Update ' Update the graph End If End If 'Timer : Counter1 as second.77 End With j=j+1 OLE_Speed.Value = 60 Then Counter2. and Counter3 as hour If Counter1.Value = 0 Counter1.TimerEnabled = True If Counter2.Value = Counter2.
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