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Thesis Sample

Thesis Sample


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  • Figure 1.2 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 1
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 DC Motor
  • 2.3 Speed Measurement of DC Motor
  • 2.3.1 Speed Measurement by Using Tachometer
  • Figure 2.2 Basic schematic circuit of optical encoder
  • 2.4 Model of Separately Excited DC motor
  • Figure 2.3 Model of separately excited DC motor
  • 2.5 DC motor Speed Controller
  • Figure 2.4 Basic block diagram for DC Motor speed control
  • Figure 2.5 Basic flow chart of DC motor speed control
  • 2.5.1 Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) Control
  • Figure 2.6 Phase-locked loop control system
  • 2.5.2 Speed Control by Using Thyristor
  • Figure 2.10 Relation of supply voltage with motor speed
  • 2.6 Microcontroller
  • 2.7 RS232 Serial Port
  • Table 2.2 RS232 pin assignments (DB9 PC signal set)
  • 2.8 MPLAB IDE
  • 2.9 Visual Basic 6.0
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • Figure 3.1 Block diagram of DC motor speed control system
  • Figure 3.2 Picture of the project
  • 3.2 Hardware Implementation
  • 3.2.1 DC Motor
  • Table 3.1 Specification of the motor
  • 3.2.2 Optical Encoder
  • 3.2.3 Power Supply +5V
  • 3.2.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F877A
  • RS232 Serial Communication
  • 3.2.5 DC Motor Drive
  • Figure 3.10 Bi-direction of DC motor speed control
  • 3.2.6 Loading Unit LU150L
  • Figure 3.11 Application of vary load by using Loading Unit LU150L
  • 3.3 Software Implementation
  • Figure 3.13 Flow chart of check noise function
  • Figure 3.15 Simplified PWM block diagram
  • Figure 3.17 USART transmit block diagram
  • 3.3.2 Programming in Visual Basic 6.0
  • Plot Graph Speed versus Time
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2.1 Procedures
  • Figure 4.2 Experiment with optical encoder
  • 4.2.2 Experimental Result Analysis
  • Table 4.1 Relationship of voltage supply and motor speed
  • Graph Speed versus Voltage Supply
  • Figure 4.3 Graph of speed versus voltage supply
  • 4.3 DC Motor Speed Control Result
  • Figure 4.5 DC motor running at speed 572.21 rpm
  • Figure 4.7 DC motor running at speed 953.69 rpm
  • Figure 4.9 DC motor running at speed 1716.64 rpm
  • 4.3.1 DC Motor Speed Control Result Analysis
  • 4.4 Dead Time Analysis
  • Graph Dead Time versus Motor Speed
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Problems
  • 5.3 Recommendation



Submitted to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor in Electrical Engineering (Instrumentation & Control)

Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

MARCH 2005


encouragement and understandings to my beloved mother. .iii Dedicated. brothers and sisters. in thankful appreciation for support. father.

. Nevertheless. Encik Shaari bin Ani and Encik Mad Rais bin Zakaria for their co-operations. I would like to express my heartily gratitude to my supervisor.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost. my great appreciation dedicated to my best friends Jie. Yan Chiew. Meng Yea.. Thanks for their encouragement. My appreciation also goes to my family who has been so tolerant and supports me all these years. Pika. guidance and helps in this project. Ching Chiew. Say Moon and SEI member’s batch 2000 and those whom involve directly or indirectly with this project. Encik Mohamad Shukri bin Abdul Manaf for the guidance and enthusiasm given throughout the progress of this project. I would also like to thank our Control 1 Lab Assistant. love and emotional supports that they had given to me. Choo Chin. There is no such meaningful word than….Thank You So Much.

Besides. it can be concluded that microcontroller PIC 16F877A can control motor speed at desired speed although there is a variation of load.0 is developed to provide a graphic user interface (GUI) for the user to enter desired speed at computer. Through the project.v ABSTRACT Direct current (DC) motor has already become an important drive configuration for many applications across a wide range of powers and speeds. The ease of control and excellent performance of the DC motors will ensure that the number of applications using them will continue grow for the foreseeable future. . it also shows a graph of motor speed versus time to let the user monitor the performance of the system easily. Based on the result. The PWM signal will send to motor driver to vary the voltage supply to motor to maintain at constant speed. where optical encoder (built in this project) is coupled to the motor shaft to provide the feedback speed signal to controller. the reading of optical encoder built is quite reliable. It is a closed-loop real time control system. Microcontroller acts as proportional (P) controller with Kp =1 in this study. A program in Visual Basic 6. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used where its signal is generated in microcontroller. This project is mainly concerned on DC motor speed control system by using microcontroller PIC 16F877A.



Motor arus terus telah menjadi satu komponen yang penting untuk aplikasi dalam julat kuasa dan kelajuan yang tinggi. Kawalan motor arus terus yang mudah dan prestasi yang baik akan menjamin motor arus terus untuk digunakan secara meluas pada masa depan. Projek ini tertumpu kepada rekaaan satu sistem kawalan kelajuan motor arus terus dengan menggunakan mikropengawal PIC 16F877A. Ia merupakan satu kawalan gelung tutup dan masa nyata sistem, di mana pengekod optic(yang dibina dalam projek ini) yang dipasang pada rotor akan menghantar isyarat kelajuan suapbalik kepada pengawal. Teknik Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) digunakan di mana isyarat ini dibekal oleh mikro pengawal. Mikropengawal berperanan sebagai pengawal gandaan, P di dalam projek ini. Isyarat PWM akan dihantar kepada pemacu motor untuk mengubah voltan yang dibekalkan kepada motor supaya ia dapat dikawal pada kelajuan yang ditetapkan. Satu program ditulis dalam Visual Basic 6.0 untuk memudahkan pengguna memasukkan kelajuan yang dikehendaki di komputer dengan pengantaramuka grafik pengguna (GUI). Selain itu, ia juga memaparkan satu graf kelajuan motor melawan masa untuk membolehkan pengguna mengkaji prestasi sistem tersebut. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa bacaan daripada pengekod optik yang dibina adalah boleh dipercayai. Melalui projek ini, boleh disimpulkan bahawa mikropengawal PIC 16F877A dapat mengawal kelajuan motor pada kelajuan tetap walaupun terdapat perubahan beban.





PAGE ii iii iv v vi vii x xi xiii xiv



INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Objective of Project 1.3 Scope of Project 1.4 Outline of Thesis 1.5 Summary of Works 1 2 2 2 3



THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 DC Motor 2.3 Speed Measurement of DC Motor 2.3.1 Speed Measurement by Using Tachometer 2.3.2 Speed Measurement by Using Optical Encoder 2.4 Model of Separately Excited DC motor 2.5 DC motor Speed Controller 2.5.1 Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) Control 2.5.2 Speed Control by Using Thyristor 2.5.3 Speed Control by Using PWM and Full H Bridge Motor Drive 2.6 Microcontroller 2.7 RS232 Serial Port 2.8 MPLAB IDE 2.9 Visual Basic 6.0 17 18 20 20 8 11 12 13 14 5 5 6 6 7


METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Hardware Implementation 3.2.1 DC Motor 3.2.2 Optical Encoder 3.2.3 Power Supply +5V 3.2.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F877A Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in Microcontroller RS232 Serial Communication 3.2.5 DC Motor Drive 3.2.6 Loading Unit LU150L 30 32 34 22 23 24 24 27 28 30

2 Programming in Visual Basic 6.2 Experiment: Determine Relationship of Voltage Supply and Motor Speed 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.3 Recommendation 63 64 64 REFERENCES 66 APPENDICES 68 .2 Experimental Result Analysis 4.1.1 Processing Explanation of Main Program Software Implementation 3.4 Dead Time Analysis 52 53 55 59 61 51 51 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.3.1 Procedures 3.1 Conclusion 5.1 DC Motor Speed Control Result Analysis 4.2.0 3.2 Problems DC Motor Speed Control Result 4.1 Algorithm and Programming in MPLAB IDE 3.2 Processing Explanation of Interrupt Process 3.1 Reading Input from User and Microcontroller 3.3.2 Plot Graph Speed versus Time 36 36 38 43 48 49 49 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.

1 2.3 4.1 3.2 3.x LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2.2 3.1 TITLE Types of DC Motor and their advantages and disadvantages RS232 pin assignments (DB9 PC signal set) Specification of the motor Pin connection of PIC16F877A for DC motor speed control system Pin function of chip L298 Relationship of voltage supply and motor speed PAGE 6 19 24 29 32 53 .

3 3.11 2.10 2.4 2.7 Project overview TITLE PAGE 3 4 4 7 8 9 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 19 22 23 24 26 27 27 29 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 1 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 2 Sample disc of encoder Basic schematic circuit of optical encoder Model of separately excited DC motor Basic block diagram for DC Motor speed control Basic flow chart of DC motor speed control Phase-locked loop control system Block diagram of DC Motor speed control by using thyristor Simple motor circuit PWM signal Relation of supply voltage with motor speed Full H bridge motor drive Handshake looping a PC serial connector Block diagram of DC motor speed control system Picture of the project 24V DC motor Optical encoder IC LM7805 Schematic circuit of +5V power supply Schematic circuit of PIC16F877A .5 2.9 2.1 2.2 1.6 2.1 3.2 2.1 1.4 3.3 2.8 2.7 2.xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.6 3.2 3.12 3.3 2.5 3.

2 4.8 3.17 3.18 3.21 3.43 rpm DC motor running at speed 1716.16 3.xii 3.15 3.0 Experiment with tachometer Experiment with optical encoder Graph of speed versus voltage supply DC motor running at speed 190.1 4.12 4.9 4.69 rpm DC motor running at speed 1144.8 4.19 3.38 rpm Types of oscillatory response Free body diagram of the disc Graph of dead time versus motor speed 30 31 33 35 37 38 39 39 41 42 42 47 48 48 50 51 52 54 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 59 60 61 .14 3.4 4.21 rpm DC motor running at speed 762.3 4.5 4.10 3.12 3.6 4.13 NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format data Connection between D9 Female serial port.13 3.64 rpm DC motor running at speed 1907.74 rpm DC motor running at speed 572.95 rpm DC motor running at speed 953.10 4. MAX232 and PIC16F877A Bi-direction of DC motor speed control Application of vary load by using Loading Unit LU150L Flow chart of microcontroller’s main program Flow chart of check noise function PWM output Simplified PWM block diagram Timer1 block diagram USART transmit block diagram USART receive block diagram Flow chart of microcontroller’s interrupt process Introduction form Main program form Flow chart of program in Visual Basic 6.7 4.22 4.11 4.9 3.11 3.20 3.

xiii LIST OF SYMBOLS KE φ If Ia Rf Lf Ra La Kv Kt Td TL B J w α ton T s rpm - A constant based on motor construction Magnetic flux Field current Armature current Field resistor Field inductor Armature resistor Armature inductor Motor constant Torque constant Developed torque Load torque Viscous friction constant Inertia of the motor Motor speed Firing angle of thyristor Time ON of switches Period Standard deviation Rotation per minute .

0 for DC Motor Speed Control Using Microcontroller PIC 16F877A PAGE 68 74 .xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX A B TITLE Program in Microcontroller PIC 16F877A for DC Motor Speed Control Source Code of Visual Basic 6.

In home appliances. So. slower up hill. . then the poor robot will never be able to maintain a steady speed. etc. faster down hill. DC motor plays a significant role in modern industrial. like centrifuges.xv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. gyroscope controls and so on. pumps. faster over smooth flooring. if we have a DC motor in a robot. engine control and electric vehicle control are good examples of these. These applications may demand high-speed control accuracy and good dynamic responses. if we just apply a constant power to each motor on a robot. Why do we need a speed motor controller? For example. DC motor can provide a high starting torque and it is also possible to obtain speed control over wide range. there are a number of applications. fuel pump control. It will go slower over carpet. In automotive. electronic steering control. it is important to make a controller to control the speed of DC motor in desired speed.1 Background Direct current (DC) motors have variable characteristics and are used extensively in variable-speed drives. In aerospace. robotic arm controls. washers. These are several types of applications where the load on the DC motor varies over a speed range. dryers and compressors are good examples.

2 1. While Chapter 2 will discuss more on theory and literature reviews that have been done. The scope of this project includes using MPLAB IDE to program microcontroller PIC 16F877A. it discuss about the objective and scope of this project as long as summary of works. 1.0 at computer to observe the performance of the system. 1. Chapter 5 discusses the conclusion of this project and future work that can be done. It well discuss about types of motor. . various kind of speed measurement and controllers (thyristor. This system will be able to control the DC motor speed at desired speed regardless the changes of load. Last but not least. Last but not least. phase-lock loop and PWM technique) that can be used to control the speed of the motor. The result and discussion will be presented in Chapter 4. the discussion will be on the methodology hardware and software implementation of this project. a graph of speed versus time is obtained by using Visual Basic 6. and interface the hardware to computer by using RS232 serial port communication. build hardware for the system.3 Scope of Project In order to achieve the objective of the project.4 Outline of Thesis This thesis consists four chapters. In first chapter. there are several scope had been outlined. In Chapter 3.2 Objective of Project The main core of this project is to design a speed control system of DC Motor by using microcontroller.

Summary of Works Implementation and works of the project are summarized into the flow chart as shown in Figure 1.3 show the detail of the works of the project that had been implemented in the first and second semester.2 and Figure 1.5.1. Gantt charts as shown in Figure 1.3 1. DC Motor controller Design VB programming writing for input desired speed and display graph speed versus time Interfacing with computer and controller Control DC motor speed Real Speed detection Feedback and display real speed on screen computer Speed error correction Figure 1.1 Project overview .

discussion & conclusion 7. Brief idea 2. Order part of hardware 6. Study MPLAB Semester Break .3 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 2 Exam Week 3.2 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 1 Week Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1. Programming for plotting graph 4. Presentation Figure 1. Literature and theoritical study Study Week 9 4. Construction of hardware 3. Modification and evaluation 6. Results. Report preparation Semester break Figure 1. Presentation 8. Literature and theoritical study 2. Hardware design 5.Week Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1. Interfacing with computer 5. Report preparation 8. Construction of hardware 7.

1.0. several types of DC motor speed controller. MPLAB IDE and Visual Basic 6. It also brief discuss about microcontroller. speed measurement of DC motor.1 Introduction This chapter includes the study of different types of DC motors. RS232 serial port. 2. model of separately excited DC motor. Their advantages.2 DC Motor There are several types of DC motors that are available. and other basic information are listed below in the Table 2. . disadvantages.CHAPTER 2 THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

very high vibration. The EMF is voltages appear on the commutator segments caused by rotated in the magnetic field by some external force. Require a switching control circuit Require more current than permanent magnet motors. 2. No batteries required. Here. High Torque at low speed. Cannot vary magnetic field strength. difficult to ratio.6 Table 2.3. we need a device that will measure the speed of the motor shaft. and easy to find. More powerful than permanent magnet motors Disadvantages Expensive and hard to find. Type Stepper Motor Advantages Very precise speed and position control. Very inexpensive Very high power/weight Expensive. Provide Extremely high mount. torque. Generally heavier than permanent magnet motors. compact. Wide range of speeds and torques. 2. More difficult to obtain.1 Speed Measurement by Using Tachometer Tachometer is an instrument that measure speed motor based on concept of back EMF induced in motor when it is running.3 Speed Measurement of DC Motor To start with this project. There are several methods which can use to measure the speed of motor.1 Advantages and disadvantages of various types of DC motor. . loud. since field coil must be energized. Generally small. DC Motor w/field coil DC permanent magnet motor Gasoline (small two stroke) Small. we will only discuss about speed measurement by using tachometer and optical encoder.

which has slots cut into it. For permanent magnet DC motor.3. So. when the EMF measured is increases. If a disc is placed in the space.2 Speed Measurement by Using Optical Encoder The best way to measure speed is to fit an optical encoder.1. the speed of the motor is also increases with the gain. This shines a beam of light from a transmitter across a small space and detects it with a receiver the other end.1) where KE = a constant based on motor construction φ = magnetic flux N = speed of motor (in rpm) The actual relationship between motor speed and EMF follows and is derived from Equation 2. Figure 2. N= EMF K Eφ (2. EMF = K E φ N (2. An example of a disc is shown as Figure 2. the motor speed is directly proportional to the EMF voltage ad inversely proportional to the field flux. 2.7 The magnitude of the EMF is given by [1].1.2) Thus.1 Sample disc of encoder . then the signal will only be picked up when a slot is between the transmitter and receiver. the speed of motor can be measured by measuring the back EMF using tachometer.

f out = N × rpm 60 (2.2. Figure 2. Each winding are . and the receiver biased as Figure 2. the motor develops a back EMF and a torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed. The If is independent of the Ia.2 Basic schematic circuit of optical encoder This will have an output which swings to +5v when the light is blocked.5 volts when light is allowed to pass through the slots in the disc.8 The encoder transmitter must be supplied with a suitable current. rpm = f out × 60 N (2.3. from Equation 2.4) 2. When a separately excited motor is excited by a field current of If and an armature current of Ia flows in the circuit.4 Model of Separately Excited DC motor Figure 2. and about 0. The frequency of the output waveform is given by. the speed of DC motor in rpm is given by.3 shows a model of separately excited DC motor [1].3) where fout = frequency of output waveform rpm = speed in revolutions per minutes N = number of slots at disc So.

3 Model of separately excited DC motor Instantaneous field current: vf = Rf if + Lf di f dt (2.5. The relationship of the field and armature are shown in Equation 2. Instantaneous armature current: v a = R a i a + La dia + eg dt (2. Figure 2.8) where (Kt=Kv) is the torque constant (in V/A-rad/s).6) where Ra and La are the armature resistor and inductor respectively. The If is normally much less than the Ia. .5) where Rf and Lf are the field resistor and inductor respectively. The motor back EMF which is also known as speed voltage is expressed as e g = K v wi f (2.9 supplied separately. The torque developed by the motor is Td = K t φ i f (2.7) where Kv is the motor constant (in V/A-rad/s) and w is the motor speed (rad/s). Any change in the armature current has no effect on the field current.

For field circuit. the developed torque must be equal to the load torque plus the friction and inertia. a time derivative is zero.m/rad/s) TL = load torque (N. i. Ia is small.m) J = inertia of the motor (kg.15) f That is if the field current is kept constant.e.14) (2.: Td = J dw + Bw + TL dt (2.10) where B = viscous friction constant (N.11) If Ra is a small value (which is usual).e.m2) Under steady-state operations.12) (2. These observation leads to the application of variable DC voltage to control the speed and torque of DC motor. w = Va K vI (2. Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K v wI f The motor speed can be easily derived: w= Va − I a Ra Kv I f (2. Assuming the motor is not saturated.10 Sometimes it is written as: Td = K t φ ia (2. or when the motor is lightly loaded.9) For normal operation. the speed motor speed depends on the supply voltage. . i.13) (2. Vf = I f Rf The back EMF is given by: E g = K v wI f The armature circuit.

the block diagram and the flow chart of the speed control are shown in Figure 2. Fuzzy Logic Controller and etc. closed-loop control is normally used.11 2.4 and Figure 2.4 Basic block diagram for DC Motor speed control Start Start Motor drive Detect motor speed Speed < Ref? No Deceleration Yes Acceleration Figure 2. Basically.5 respectively. we will discuss only at the speed control system by using thyristor. Here. The speed.. phase-locked-loop control. tachometer) is compared with the reference speed to generate the error signal and to vary the armature voltage of the motor. which is sensed by analog sensing devices (e.5 DC motor Speed Controller For precise speed control of servo system. chopper circuit. .g. phase-locked loop and PWM technique.5 Basic flow chart of DC motor speed control There are several controllers that can used to control the speed of the motor such as by using thyristor. Controller Feedback Speed Motor Driver DC Motor Actual Speed Speed sensor Figure 2.

the motor speed is converted to a digital pulse train by using a speed encoder. A low-pass loop filter converts the pulse train Ve to continuous dc level Vc. K2 Va DC motor Ve w Speed Encoder Figure 2. fi f0 Phase detector Low Pass Filter Vc Converter. the two frequencies would be synchronized (or locked) together with a phase difference.5. which varies the output of the power converter and in turn the motor speed.6. The output of the phase detector would be a constant voltage proportional to the phase difference and the steady-state motor speed would be maintained at a fixed value irrespective of the load on the motor.6 Phase-locked loop control system When the motor runs at the same speed as the reference pulse train. In a phase-locked-loop (PLL) control system. The phase detector (or comparator) is available in integrated circuits. The response of the phase detector is very fast. The output of the encoder acts as the speed feedback signal of frequency f0.12 2. . Any disturbances contributing to the speed change would result in a phase difference and the output of the phase detector would respond immediately to vary the speed of the motor in such direction and magnitude as to retain the locking of the reference and feedback frequencies. The phase detector compares the reference pulse train (or frequency) fr with the feedback frequency f0 and provides a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output voltage Ve that is proportional to the difference in phases and frequencies of the reference and feedback pulse trains.1 Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) Control The block diagram of a converter-fed dc motor drive with phase-locked-loop control is shown in Figure 2.

SCR DC Load Motor Speed Sensor Figure 2. The average output of voltage is given by Vave = Vm (1 + cos α ) 2π (2.8 shows the block diagram of DC motor speed control by using thyristor.15). ii. The thyristor is used to supply a variable DC voltage to motor. 2.5. i. thus it can control the speed of motor (Equation 2.13 As long as the two frequencies are locked. PLL-controlled motor system tend to be unstable for low-speed operation PLL-controlled motor systems have large response time.2 Speed Control by Using Thyristor Figure 2. [3].16) where Vm = peak voltage of voltage supply of thyristor and α = firing angle of thyristor Reference Frequency Frequency or Phase Comparator Firing Circuit Thyristor. iii.7 Block diagram of DC Motor speed control by using thyristor . it has developed a model for the components of PLL servo control system using both linear and nonlinear techniques [2]. PLL controlled motor systems may get out of synchronization for an abrupt load variation. Adkins and Moore respectively. the speed regulation should ideally be zero. PLL controlled motor drives have the following shortcomings. However. In journals by Christopher A.

by controlling the firing angle. and will run more slowly accordingly. the average of output DC voltage can be varied. this method has been used by P.C. α is reduced). The frequency difference produces a change in the firing circuit that causes the thyristor. . and when it is open it sees 0 Volts.L.8 [5]. If the motor speed is low. the motor sees 12 Volts.16. the speed sensor frequency will be below the reference frequency.8 Simple motor circuit Let us consider a simple circuit that connects a battery as power supply through a switch MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) as shown in Figure 2.5. α. SCR to fire sooner (firing angle. the decrease in conduction reduces the DC motor speed. When the switch is closed. then the firing circuit will be modified to allow the SCR to conduct for a shorter period of time. If the switch is open for the same amount of time as it is closed. 2. There is a resulting increase in motor speed which brings the output speed back up to the value which is equal to the reference signal. the motor will see an average of 6 Volts. Sen and M.3 Speed Control by Using PWM and Full H Bridge Motor Drive Figure 2. From review.14 From Equation 2. if the speed sensor output frequency is above the reference. MacDonald in their research [4]. Conversely.

Figure 2. The average of voltage that supply to DC motor is given by.10 shows the speed of a motor that is being turned on and off fairly slowly: . Vave = t on × Vin T (2. The time that it takes a motor to speed up and slow down under switching conditions is depends on the inertia of the rotor (basically how heavy it is). duty cycle T Figure 2. the average speed of the motor increases and vice versa. and how much friction and load torque there is.17) where Vave = average voltage supply to DC motor ton = time ON of switches T = period of PWM t on = DC .15 This on-off switching is performed by power MOSFETs. A MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is a device that can turn very large currents on and off under the control of a low signal level voltage.9 PWM signal As the amount of time that the voltage is on increases compared with the amount of time that it is off.

Thus the speed is set by PWM – Pulse Width Modulation. Only one MOSFET on each side of the motor must be turned on at any one time otherwise they will short out the battery and burn out. Figure 2.11 Full H bridge motor drive . or to battery negative. This is the principle of switch mode speed control. although it varies quite a bit.10 Relation of supply voltage with motor speed We can see that the average speed is around 150 rpm. A full bridge circuit is shown in the diagram below.16 Figure 2. If the supply voltage is switched fast enough. it won’t have time to change speed much. Each side of the motor can be connected either to battery positive. and the speed will be quite steady.

They are also used to store permanent lookup tables. While RAM is used to hold any kind of data. they are contained in external ICs. and Q1 has the PWM signal applied to it. Most microcontrollers also contain read-only memory (ROM). Often these memories do not reside in the microcontroller. programmable read-only memory (PROM). instead. This enables quick and low-cost updates to the firmware by replacing the ROM. The instruction set is a list of all commands and their corresponding functions. and an instruction set. Q4 is turned on. Each valid instruction set and the matching internal hardware that differentiate one microcontroller from another [7]. The number of I/O pins per controllers varies greatly. 2. RAM is a type of internal logic unit that stores information temporarily. some RAM is specialized. plus each I/O pin can be programmed as an input or output (or even switch during the running of a program). the microcontroller will step through a program (the firmware). Meanwhile. During operation. Al1 of these memories are permanent: they retain what is programmed into them even during loss of power. and the instructions are fetched as the microcontroller runs.6 Microcontroller Microcontrollers must contain at least two primary components – random access memory (RAM). RAM contents disappear when the power is turned off. to make the motor go backwards. The load (current draw) . They are used to store the firmware that tells the microcontroller how to operate.17 To make the motor go forwards. Q3 is turned on. Where would a microcontroller be without some way of communicating with the outside world? This job is left to input/output (I/O) port pins. or erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). and Q2 has the PWM signal applied to it: From review. referred to as registers. this method has been used by Abu Zaharin Ahmad and Mohd Nasir Taib in their study [6].

18 that each pin can drive is usually low. vi. v. Obviously. viii. iii. Most microcontrollers contain circuitry to generate the system clock. xi. ix. We can. To summarize.7 RS232 Serial Port RS232 is a popular communications protocol for connecting modems and data acquisition devices to computers.PROM or EPROM I/O ports Clock generator Reset function Watchdog timer Serial port Interrupts Timers Analog-to-digital converters Digital-to-analog converters 2. iv. then it is essential to use a driver chip or transistor buffer. therefore precisely select the operating speed critical to many applications. All that needed to complete the clock circuit would be the crystal or RC components. Instruction set RAM ROM. xii. This square wave is the heartbeat of the microcontroller and all operations are synchronized to it. it controls the speed at which the microcontroller functions. ii. RS232 devices can be plugged straight into the computer's serial port (also known as the COM or Comms port). a microcontroller contains (in one chip) two or more of the following elements in order of importance [8]: i. vii. x. Examples of . If the output is expected to be a heavy load.

2 RS232 pin assignments (DB9 PC signal set) Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 Pin 9 Input Input Output Output Input Output Input Input DCD RXD TXD DTR DSR RTS CTS RI Data Carrier Detect Received Data Transmitted Data Data Terminal Ready Signal Ground Data Set Ready Request To Send Clear To Send Ring Indicator Normal PC hardware might well run with just Tx. Table 2. The pin connections used are as shown in Table 2. The reliable solution is to loop back the handshake lines if they are not used [9]. data loggers. Depending on the signal state it might sometimes work.19 data acquisition devices include GPS receivers.12 Handshake looping a PC serial connector . temperature interfaces and other measurement instruments. other times it might not. Figure 2. therefore the mating cable needs to terminate in a DB9/F (Female pin) connector. A nine pin D plug has become the standard fitting for the serial ports of PCs. electronic balances.2. most driver software will wait forever for one of the handshaking lines to go to the correct level. Rx and Ground connected. The connector on the PC has male pins.

Each was developed to solve particular type of problem. such as MPLAB SIM. Program firmware into devices with programmers such as PICSTART Plus or PRO MATE II.20 When the lines are handshake looped. such as BASIC. That is.so the PC effectively controls its own handshaking. we can: i. 2. Assemble.9 Visual Basic 6. FORTRAN. An assembler. Make timing measurements. C. linker and librarian come with MPLAB IDE. such as MPLAB IDE. v. iv. compile and link source code using various language tools. COBOL. Most traditional languages. and Pascal are considered procedural languages. In the MPLAB IDE. the program specifies the exact sequence of all operations. View variables in Watch windows. C compilers are available from Microchip and other third party vendors. ii. the RTS output from the PC immediately activates the CTS input . Debug the executable logic by watching program flow with a simulator. . vi. iii.0 There are literally hundreds of programming languages.8 MPLAB IDE MPLAB IDE is a Windows-based Integrated Development Environment for the Microchip Technology Incorporated PIC microcontroller (MCU) and dsPIC digital signal controller (DSC) families [10]. or in real time with an emulator. Third party emulators that work with MPLAB IDE are also available. 2. Create source code using the built-in editor. Program logic determines the next instruction to execute in response to conditions and user request.

programs are no longer procedural. visual basic is one of the languages that changes to accommodate the shift. In the event driven model. there is no need to take control and determine the sequence of execution. and so on.21 The newer language. which has many elements of an object oriented language such as Java. Visual Basic that recently appears as one of the most popular programming language is chose. . check boxes. producing a “standard” windows user interface. use a different approach: object-oriented programming (OOP) and event driven programming. It provided standard windows object and graphic user interface that will make the program become user friendly. As the world turn to graphic user interface (GUI). operates as expected. Microsoft refers to Visual Basic as an event driven programming language. The designed screen can holds standard windows button such as command buttons. text boxes. Visual Basic is designed to allow the program run under the windows without the complexity generally associated with windows programming [11]. they don’t follow a sequential logic. such as C++ and VISUAL BASIC. option buttons. So. Each of these windows object.

1 Block diagram of DC motor speed control system The actual speed of DC motor will be measured by encoder and feedback to microcontroller. Then. It is a closed-loop with real time control system. The block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 3. Microcontroller Motor Driver DC Motor Actual speed Feedback speed Encoder For speed display PC Figure 3. . The error will determine duty cycle of pulse-widthmodulation (PWM) in microcontroller. the duty cycle will send to DC motor driver either accelerate or decelerate DC motor to maintain it at desired speed.23 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. In microcontroller. it will calculate the error between the desired speed with the actual speed.1 Introduction In this project.1. microcontroller will be used as the controller to control DC motor speed at desired speed.

Each part of the project will discuss in the following section. DC Motor drive and loading unit LU150L . pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) and RS232 serial communication of microcontroller. power supply 5V.2 Hardware Implementation This section will discuss about components that had been used included DC motor. Figure 3. microcontroller PIC 16F877A.23 Figure 3.2 shows the picture of the project. The project is divides into two parts that are software and hardware implementation.2 Picture of the project 3. optical encoder.

Figure 3. Ltd 24V 55W 7K100012 3.1. The fundamental reason for the superiority of this system is that the optical encoder used as the velocity sensor.2. is capable of much better performance than the generator type of tachometer (by using back EMF that discussed in section 2. temperature. It is a permanent magnet 24V DC motor. When the optical disc is properly mounted on the motor shaft. it generates a frequency directly proportional to motor speed.1 Specification of the motor Manufacturer Voltage rated Power Type Tohoku Ricoh CO.24 3. and . The specification of this motor is shown in Table 3.2.1 DC Motor Figure 3.3 24V DC motor Table 3.3 shows the DC motor that will be used in this project. an optical encoder will be used to measure the DC motor speed.1).2 Optical Encoder In this project.2. Changes in gap.


magnet strength simply have no effect on the output of the optical tachometer. By contrast, an analog tachometer is directly affected by all the problems listed above. The encoder in the market is very expensive. In order to reduce the cost of the project, an optical encoder is built. Figure 3.4a and Figure 3.4b show the basic configuration and the schematic of the optical encoder in action respectively [7]. The speed accuracy over fractions of a revolution depends on the quality of the optical encoder. The DC motor has an optical disc (made by cardboard) mounted on its shaft. The disc has N radial lines on its surface. In this project, we will make four slots on the disc (N=4). This will give a resolution of 1/4 in one rotation. An LED (light emitting diode) as transmitter is put at one side of the disc and a photodiode, as receiver is fixed on the other side of the disc. Chip OPT 101 is selected as photodiode in this project. To make sure the output waveform in digital signal (High/Low) which is readable by microcontroller, Chip LM324 is used as a comparator. When the Vout of photodiode is less than Vref, the output of LM324 will be 0V (Low) and when the Vout is greater than Vref, the output of LM 324 will be 5V (High). The output signal form LM324 has a frequency which is given by Equation 2.3. Then, the output signal will be sent to microcontroller as representation of actual speed.




Figure 3.4 Optical encoder (a) Basic configuration (b)Schematic circuit




Power Supply +5V

Most digital logic circuits and processors need a +5 volt power supply. To use these parts we need to build a regulated +5 volt source. Usually we start with an unregulated power supply ranging from 9 volts to 24 volts DC.

To make a +5 volt power supply, we use a LM7805 voltage regulator IC (Integrated Circuit). The IC is shown below.

Figure 3.5 IC LM7805

Sometimes the input supply line may be noisy. To help smooth out this noise and get a better 5 volt output, capacitors is usually added to the circuit.

Figure 3.6 Schematic circuit of +5V power supply

Its size is small and equipped with sufficient output ports without having to use a decoder or multiplexer. Figure 3.2. v. microcontroller will receive desired speed from PC through serial port. Users would only need to learn 35 single word instructions in order to program the chip.28 3. It is a very simple but powerful microcontroller. This chip is selected based on several reasons [8]: i.000 cycles) using the universal programmer in robotics lab. It has PWM inside the chip itself which allow us to vary the duty cycle of DC motor drive. Its portability and low current consumption.000. The detected motor speed from optical encoder will feedback to microcontroller through RA0 of PIC16F877A.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F877A The microcontroller acts like the brain of the DC motor speed control system.7 shows the schematic circuit of microcontroller PIC16F877A. It can be programmed and reprogrammed easily (up to 10. Refer to Table 3. . The microcontroller will operate as it programmed (detail program at section 3.1) to produce a new duty cycle (from CCP2) that proportional to the error speed. Pins not stated in the table are not used and left hanging. ii. At the beginning.3. iv.2 for the pin connection of PIC16F877A in DC Motor speed control system. The microcontroller chip that has been selected for the purpose of controlling the speed of DC motor is PIC16F877A manufactured by Microchip. Thus. average of voltage supply from DC motor drive can be varied in order to maintain the speed at desired value. iii.

7 Schematic circuit of PIC16F877A .2 Pin connection of PIC16F877A for DC motor speed control system Pin Name VDD VSS OSC1 OSC2 MCLR\ RA0 RB1 RB2 Pin No.32 12.31 13 14 1 2 34 35 Capture/Compare/P WM Description Positive Supply (+5V) Ground Reference For oscillator or resonator Reset Input Input/Output pin Application Power Supply to chip Ground Reference Connected to resonator 20MHz with 22pF Always connected to +5V Input of Vout from LM324 as speed counter Output to control CW/CCW of left motor Output of duty cycle(PWM) to control motor speed Input/Output pin CCP2 16 Figure 3. 11.29 Table 3.

PWM is an entirely different approach to controlling the speed of a DC motor.8 NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format data .1 Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in Microcontroller The Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in microcontroller is used to control duty cycle of DC motor drive. The expression of duty cycle is determined by. Thus the power increases duty cycle in PWM. It provides RS232 serial communication with PC easily.30 3. the duty cycle of PWM is determined by the pulse width.4.2 RS232 Serial Communication SCI is an abbreviation for Serial Communication Interface and.2.4. Figure 3. Since the frequency is held constant while the on-off time is varied.2. as a special subsystem of microcontroller PIC16F877A. 3. % Dutycylcle = t on × 100% T (3. the speed of a DC motor is a function of the input power and drive characteristics. While the area under an input pulse width train is measure of the average power available from such an input. Duty cycle refers to the percentage of one cycle during which duty cycle of a continuous train of pulses.1) Basically. Power is supplied to the motor in square wave of constant voltage but varying pulse-width or duty cycle.

One chip specially designed for this task is MAX232. and +10V for logic one.9 Connection between D9 Female serial port. The circuit for this interface is shown in the Figure 3. has the status of logic zero. Free line is defined as the status of logic one. MAX232 and PIC16F877A . In order to connect a microcontroller to a serial port on a computer. and after the bits we place the Stop Bit of logic one.31 As with hardware communication. The signal level on a PC is -10V for logic zero. T is 104µs. we need to adjust the level of the signals so communicating can take place.Start Bit. The duration of the stop bit 'T' depends on the transmission rate and is adjusted according to the needs of the transmission. we use standard NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format also known as 8 (9)-N-1. we need an intermediary stage that will convert the levels. This chip receives signals from -10 to +10V and converts them into 0 and 5V. or 8 or 9 data bits. For the transmission speed of 9600 baud. without parity bit and with one stop bit. Start of transmission . Since the signal level on the microcontroller is +5V for logic one and 0V for logic zero.9 Figure 3. The data bits follow the start bit (the first bit is the low significant bit).

The DC motor drive that will be used in this project is a dual full bridge driver.11 8 9 10. Supply Voltage for the Power Output Stages. chip L298. EnableB GND Vss Input 3. Input 4 Out 3.2.32 3. A non-inductive 100nF capacitor must be connected between this pin and ground.10 shows the schematic circuit of L298 with a 24V DC motor.5 DC Motor Drive If a DC motor is connected directly to the voltage supply. The operating supply voltage of chip L298 is up to 46V and the total DC current up to 4A. A100nF capacitor must be connected between this pin and ground. Out 4 Function Between this pin and ground is connected the sense resistor to control the current of the load. The current that flows through the load connected between these two pins is monitored at pin 15. Due to the constant power to motor.15 2. the constant power will be supplied to the DC motor all the time. The time to enable the chip L298 will be determined by the duty cycle pulse that sent from PWM in microcontroller. Figure 3. the current that flows through the load connected between these two pins is monitored at pin 1.7 6. Outputs of the Bridge A. TTL Compatible Inputs of the Bridge A. Supply Voltage for the Logic Blocks.14 Name Sense A. the speed of motor will slow down when the load is heavier and speed up when the load is lighter.17. TTL Compatible Inputs of the Bridge B. DC motor drive is needed where we can control the magnitude of supply voltage in order to control the speed of DC motor. Ground. Input 2 Enable A. Table 3. If the chip is disabled. So. The average of voltage that supply to DC motor is given by Equation 2. there is no .12 13. Table 3. Vave is zero.3 shows function of each pin of chip L298. TTL Compatible Enable Input: the L state disables the bridge A (enable A) and/or the bridge B (enable B).3 4 5. Outputs of the Bridge B. Sense B Out 1.3 Pin function of chip L298 Pin 1. Out 2 Vs Input 1. To supply the voltage to motor through L298. it should be enabled by +5V at pin 6 (Enable A) or pin 11 (Enable B).

When input of C (pin 10) is High (H). the motor will run in forward direction and vice versa.33 voltage supply to motor.1. . we know that the motor will continuous running (as long as the motor is not overloaded) when the C and D of L298 have different input. In this project. When both C and D have same input (H/L). D (pin12) is Low (L). the motor is running all the time in forward direction by receiving C=H (RB1) and D=L (RB2) from microcontroller during the initialization of the program. the motor will stop running. the different input have to sent to C and D. the motor will stop running.3. In this project. to make sure the motor is running all the time. From table. Figure 3.1(a)). the duty cycle of PWM will sent to Ven to drive the motor.10 Bi-direction of DC motor speed control So. (detail in part 3.

With the presence of LU150L when the motor is running. Thus. In this project. motor will slow down. a controller has been designed to maintain speed back to the desired speed by using microcontroller.11.34 3. the disc will cut the magnetic flux field and it becomes a load to the motor. a loading unit LU150L is used. . the disc that fixed at the motor shaft can run smoothly at the constant speed.2. normal load and overload condition as shown in Figure 3.6 Loading Unit LU150L For DC motor speed control with application of varies loads. It has two U shape magnets with a small space between it. Without LU150L. The position of the magnets have been defined as no load.

11 Application of vary load by using Loading Unit LU150L (a) Loading Unit LU150L (b) No load condition (c) Normal load condition (d) Overload condition .35 (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 3.

the algorithm is established and represented by a flowchart in Figure 3.3 Software Implementation For software implementation. The actual speed will be compared with the desired speed and the correction will be done by microcontroller to always maintain the DC motor speed at the desired speed.3. The microcontroller will always run the main program until there is an interrupt occurred. Visual Basic 6. . MPLAB IDE is used to program microcontroller in assembly language. It will receive the desired speed from user through PC that interface with RS232 serial port. These flowcharts are then translated into assembly language and compiled using MPLAB. 3. When microcontroller receives an interrupt flag.1 Algorithm and Programming in MPLAB IDE Microcontroller acts as brain of the whole DC motor speed control system. Besides.12 and Figure 3. Therefore.36 3. The program in assembly language can be referred in Appendix A. An algorithm has to be developed to make the microcontroller to read the input and respond accordingly. then it will jump to interrupt process. the PIC16F877A software development tool.0 is used for user interface purpose and for monitoring the speed response of the system. There are two parts of the program which are main program and interrupt program.13.

37 Start • • • • Initialization Initialize PORT Initialize PWM Initialize TIMER1 in timer mode Initialize USART (serial port) Set up timer Obtain reference speed from PC? Yes No Yes Test PORTA.0 =1? No Yes Check Noise Test PORTA.12 Flow chart of microcontroller’s main program .0 =0? No Figure 3.

the counter will remain its value.38 Call Delay 1ms t > 1ms ? Yes No Test PORTA. we use pin 0th of the Port A (RA0) as digital input where it receives input (H/L) from LM324 (pin1).1 (f)). A user register.B In this project. Otherwise.3.1. When the input of RA0 is High (H). get reference speed and check noise function. PWM.3.13 Flow chart of check noise function 3.0 =0? Yes No counter = counter + 1 Return Figure 3. it will increase speed counter X1 where X1 = X1 + 1 (if it is not noise after check noise.1. X1 has been defined as speed counter for pulses receive from RA0.1 Processing Explanation of Main Program There are six main parts of main program in microcontroller. . detail in section 3. a) Initialization of the mode of ports A . Timer1. There are initialization of ports. setup for serial port.

2.39 All pins of Port B are set to output. the following steps should be taken when configuring the CCP module for PWM operation: i.15 Simplified PWM block diagram To setup for PWM operation. Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register. The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period (1/period).14 PWM output Figure 3.5.14) has a time-base (period) and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). RB1 is always set to High (H) and RB2 set to Low (L) to make the motor run in forward direction as describe in section 3.15 shows a simplified block diagram of the CCP module in PWM mode. b) Initialization of PWM A PWM output (Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. .

. v. This 10-bit value is represented by CCPR2L:CCP2CON<5:4>. iv. The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula: PWM period = [(PR2) + 1] * 4 * TOSC *(TMR2 prescale value) (3. iii.. PR2 is set to 255(maximum value of 8 bit for maximum range).2µs = 19.3) CCPR2L and CCP2CON<5:4> can be written to at any time.e. so the PWM period is then become PWM period = (255+1)* 4 * (1/20M) * (1) = 51. The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register.40 ii. Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2 by writing to T2CON. Configure the CCP2 module for PWM operation.53kHz where Fosc = 20MHz and TMR2 prescale =1 The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the CCPR2L register and to the CCP2CON<5:4> bits. Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit. Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the CCPR2L register and CCP2CON<5:4> bits. Up to 10-bit resolution is available. The CCPR2L contains eight MSbs and the CCP2CON<5:4> contains two LSbs. but the duty cycle value is not latched into CCPR2H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2 occurs (i. the period is complete). The following equation is used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time: PWM duty cycle =(CCPR2L:CCP2CON<5:4>)*TOSC* (TMR2 prescale value) (3.2) In this project.

39321s where the pulses counted in X1 will be converted to speed and correction taken. if enabled.41 c) Initialization of TIMER1 in Timer Mode The Timer1 module in PIC16F877A is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L). Gain. it takes 65535 cycle and the time consumed is given by. TMR1IE (PIE1<0>).107ms = 30 Besides. . the interruption enable bit of CCP2 is set. Also GIE and PIE are set. This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1 interrupt enable bit. t = (65535 . The TMR1 Interrupt. In this mode. Figure 3. Timer mode is selected by clearing the TMR1CS (T1CON<1>) bit.0) * (1/(20MHz/4)) = 13. TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). which is latched in interrupt flag bit. is generated on overflow. Fosc = 20MHz . X2 is defined as gain for this purpose. A user register. The TMR1 Register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh (decimal from 0 to 65535) and rolls over to 0000h. which are readable and writable.39321s / 13. Figure 3.16 Timer1 block diagram When Timer1 increases from 0000h to FFFFh. In this project. X2 = 0.107 ms. the input clock to the timer is FOSC/4.16 shows the Timer1 block diagram which operate in timer mode. the interrupt is required to occur each 0.

4) Figure 3. Baud Rate = Fsoc /(16(SPBRG+1)) (3. but use the same data format and baud rate. eight or nine data bits. The most common data format is 8-bits and it is used in this project. and one STOP bit).42 d) Setup for serial port The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. 8-bit baud rate generator can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies from the oscillator.17 USART transmit block diagram Figure 3.) The USART is configuring in asynchronous mode. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI. The transmitter and receiver are functionally independent. An on-chip. The USART transmits and receives the LSb first. In this mode. dedicated. the USART uses standard non-return-to zero (NRZ) format (one START bit.18 USART receive block diagram .

From experiment. especially when motor running at high speed. then it is noise and ignored where X1 remains its value. But if the pulse detected is Low (L). If the pulse detected still High (H).43 To set baud rate at 9600bps. f) Check Noise function From experimental result. So. The microcontroller will execute the program in interrupt process instead of main program that is running when it . it will hold for 1ms. e) Get reference speed At beginning of the program.1. it means that the received is real pulse and the X1 will increase it value with one. 3.2 Processing Explanation of Interrupt Process Interrupt process is occurs each 0. when a High (H) pulses is receive at RA0. microcontroller will get the reference speed from user at PC through RS232 serial communication. it is found that the noise have a bandwidth less than 1ms (bandwidth of real pulses always greater than 1ms). X1 if it is not filter out. It will wait there until it gets the reference speed from user.39321s.3. This noise can cause over reading pulses at speed counter. if is found that there are some noise besides real pulses from LM324. we have to set SPBRG as SPBRG = (Fsoc/ Baud Rate / 16)-1 = 20M / 9600 / 16 -1 = 129 Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) is set as 1 and bits TRISC<7:6> are set as 0 in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.

the value of speed counter. The interruption flag of CCP2 should be cleared first.39321s). From optical encoder with 4 slots that built in this project. a) Clearing of interruption flag The interruption is occurs every 0. the motor speed is given by. X1 in microcontroller will be loaded to PC each 0. Each part of interrupt process is discussed in the following section. ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ det ected speed = ⎜ ⎟*⎜ ⎟ N ⎝ ⎠ ⎝t⎠ where N = number of slots t = time of getting data in second round/s (3.39321 ⎠ round/s 1 ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ =⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ ∗ 60 round/minit (RPM) 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0. Data from speed counter.39321 ⎠ (3.6) c) Error speed The detected speed will be compared to reference speed to calculate the error between them.44 receive the interrupt flag.5) 1 ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ det ected speed = ⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0. . When not clearing this. we know that it will produces 4 pulses when motor turn for 1 round. So. X1 will be taken as detected pulses. b) Speed counter At each interruption (each 0. the following interruption occurs without waiting desired time.39321s with CCP2.39321s.

17 to determine to speed up or slow down the motor.2 from experiment with optical encoder that has been built.7) 1 ⎛ Error pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ Error speed = ⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ ∗ 60 round/min (3.16 Error voltage = (3. Error voltage where Vin = 12V Vin Error DC = (3. The rate that the duty ratio becomes bigger is decided by error speed. e) Speed up process When the detected speed of the motor is lower than the reference speed. a duty ratio is decreased and a motor drive electric current is suppressed.10) d) Speed down process When the detected speed of the motor is higher than the reference speed.8) 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0. a duty ratio is increased and a motor drive electric current is increased. If there is no error. the duty cycle of PWM is remained.9) Finally. Error speed + 80.45 Error pulses = Reference pulses – Detected pulses and (3. the error voltage will be converted to duty cycle based on Equation 2.39321 ⎠ The error speed will then converted into error voltage by using Equation 4. . The rate that the duty ratio becomes smaller is decided by error speed.89 207.

detected speed will sent to PC each 0. .1) g) Interruption ending process The RETFIE instruction is executed at end of the interruption processing. This value will then convert to represent the detected speed (rpm) in PC by using Visual Basic 6.0 program. the counter and timer have to clear and reset.2.46 f) Send detected speed to PC To monitor the performance of the system.39321s as detected pulses. Before that. (detail in section 3.3.

Error Send the value of detected pulses to PC Clear counter Reset timer Return from interrupt Figure 3.39321s? Yes Get value of speed counter Error = Ref – detect speed Error > 0? Yes No Ref = detect speed? Yes No DCnew = DCold + Error DCnew = DCold .19 Flow chart of microcontroller’s interrupt process .47 Clear interruption flag Gain = gain -1 No td = 0.

20 Introduction form Figure 3.21 Main program form .0 In this project.0.2 Programming in Visual Basic 6. They are introduction form and main program form which are shown in Figure 3.48 3. There are two forms in Visual Basic 6.0. a program will be developing using Visual Basic 6. Figure 3.3. This program is able to send data (desired speed from user) to microcontroller and plot a graph of detected speed versus time to monitor the performance of the system.20 and Figure3.21 respectively.

desired speed * 4 * 0.49 The source code of this project is shown in Appendix B and the flow chart of the program is shown in Figure 3. From Equation 3.2.2 Plot Graph Speed versus Time To monitor performance of the system. It is also allowed to get a new graph by click on the New Graph command button. desired pulses is given by. Two main tasks of the program in Visual Basic which are reading input from user and microcontroller and plot a graph of speed versus time.22. a graph of detected speed versus time will be obtained by using Visual Basic.2. 3. The desired speed (rpm) will then convert into desired pulses before send to microcontroller through serial port.11) 3.39321 60 desired pulses = (3.7. The user will sent the desired speed to microcontroller by click on Run command button.3.3. the user is required to select a desired speed at computer.1 Reading Input from User and Microcontroller To obtain desired speed from user. .

0 .50 Start Read selected desired speed from user? Yes No desired pulses = desired speed / 60 * 4 * 0.39321 * 60 Plot graph Stop motor? No Yes Figure 3.22 Flow chart of program in Visual Basic 6.39321 Send desired pulses to microcontroller Read detected pulses from microcontroller? Yes No detected speed = detected pulses / 4 / 0.

1 Introduction Some experiments had been conducted for the project. an experiment is conducted to find out the relationship between voltage supply and motor speed.6 CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4. First and foremost. Then. 4.1 Experiment with tachometer . data collection is done at each speed for DC motor speed control system to observe performance of the system.2 Experiment: Determine Relationship of Voltage Supply and Motor Speed An experiment is conducted to determine the relationship between voltage supply and speed [14]. Last but not least. The procedures and the result will be discussed in following sections. an analysis on the dead time of the system is made. Power Supply DC Motor Tachometer Figure 4.

both result was compared and the accuracy of optical encoder that has been built is found.2.5V until 16V and step 3 was repeated. 6) Step 2 was repeated.1 Procedures 1) The circuit was connected as Figure 4. f × 60 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ .1. 4) The voltage increased in steps of 0. 7) The readings for the frequency of oscilloscope were recorded.2 was completed by changing tachometer with the optical encoder that has been built. N=4.2 Experiment with optical encoder 5) Circuit as Figure 4. . 3) Value of rpm at tachometer was recorded in Table 4. ⎜ rpm = out N ⎠ ⎝ 8) Step 4 was repeated. The output waveform from optical encoder was connected to oscilloscope. 9) A graph of rpm-voltage was plotted for both tachometer and optical encoder.52 4.1. 2) Voltage of 0. 10) Based on graphs.5V was supplied to motor. Power Supply DC Motor Optical Encoder Oscilloscope Figure 4.

53 4.0 8.41 2.50 2.68 3.0 2.78 2617.0 11.83 2272.35 0.06 315.31 2.0 4.05 2.69 2.52 3232.0 3.07 2. A graph of speed versus voltage supply by using tachometer and optical encoder is shown in Figure 4.32 1968.78 3131.0 13.3.5 5.5 1.0 1.26 854.76 % Error = rpm1 − rpm 2 × 100% rpm1 0.05 4.00 0.5 12.0 Speed (rpm1) Tachometer 0 0 100 240 330 410 550 640 770 860 970 1090 1200 1280 1400 1490 1590 1700 1820 1920 2030 2140 2230 2340 2480 2570 2690 2810 2890 2990 3130 3230 3370 Speed (rpm2) Optical Encoder 0.2 Experimental Result Analysis From experiment.5 8.39 1358.05 0.69 2228.77 2.1.79 420.70 940.87 3.82 1.5 7.00 0.62 3.80 1648.5 15.0 6.70 2840. Table 4.0 5.91 2958.50 2074.95 1.49 0.07 .70 1467.71 1552.04 1.64 2.73 2400.21 553.80 2702.60 230.5 6.5 13.02 767.59 3.95 1.70 1.59 3.14 4.36 0.35 1794.00 99.2.05 2.23 2.5 9.5 10.0 0.40 4.95 1164.0 10.44 1048.5 4.03 3.34 3.0 7.26 1870.0 15.00 0.5 14.0 14.5 3.0 9.5 11.51 655.0 12.1 Relationship of voltage supply and motor speed Voltage Supply (V) 0.5 16.00 2516.5 2.58 3048. the data was recorded in Table 4.05 3.60 1258.

0 16.0 2.2) where rpm = motor speed V = voltage supply to motor .89 (4.0 10.16V -80.16x .62x . s for percentage of error by using Equation 4.80.3 Graph of speed versus voltage supply The accuracy of the optical encoder can be checked by calculate its standard deviation.0 6.54 Graph Speed versus Voltage Supply Speed (rpm) 4000 3500 3000 Tachometer y = 213.2801 The standard deviation percentage of error is quite small.0 4.0 14. s= ∑ (x i i − x)2 n −1 (4.89 1000 500 0 0. so it can be concluded that the reading of the optical encoder for speed measurement is quite reliable which is given by. rpm = 207.1) s = 1.0 18.0 12.0 8.94.0 Voltage Supply (V) Figure 4.1.991 2500 2000 1500 Optical Encoder y = 207.

10 respectively. At each speed. The performance of the system at each speed is shown in Figure 4. No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.55 4.74 rpm .4 to Figure 4.11).3 DC Motor Speed Control Result Microcontroller acts as proportional (P) controller in the DC motor speed control system. the result was collected by applying normal load. overload and then suddenly the load was as no load condition (Refer Figure 3.4 DC motor running at speed 190.

95 rpm .56 No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.6 DC motor running at speed 762.5 DC motor running at speed 572.21 rpm No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.

8 DC motor running at speed 1144.57 Normal Load Overload No Load Figure 4.7 DC motor running at speed 953.69 rpm No Load Normal Load Overload Normal Load Figure 4.43 rpm .

9 DC motor running at speed 1716.58 No Load Normal Load Overload Normal Load Figure 4.10 DC motor running at speed 1907.38 rpm .64 rpm Normal Load No Load Figure 4.

commonly called underdamped (Figure 4. the response to set point changes becomes more oscillatory.3.11 Types of oscillatory response: (a) underdamped (b) sustained oscillation (c) unstable.1 DC Motor Speed Control Result Analysis For P controller.59 4.11c) [15]. the speed response will give an underdamped response when Kp=1. as the controller proportional gain. In this project. The system is called “marginally stable”. At some greater gain.14a). . the control loop will become unstable and the oscillations will increase in amplitude (Figure 4. (a) (b) (c) Figure 4.11b). the response of the control loop becomes a steady-state oscillation (Figure 4. If the gain is increased past the point where steady oscillation is observed. Kp is increased.

Figure 4.12 Free body diagram of the disc Tmotor – Tload = Jω where (4. the speed response is oscillating until the load is removed. In overload condition.3) J = moment of inertia of the wheel about the axis of rotation Tload = torque induced by load Tmotor = torque induced by voltage supply ω = speed motor Figure 4. the motor is able to maintain back to the desired speed in a period of time.69 rpm to 1716. With controller.38 rpm. the controller can control at normal load but not in overload condition.3. Based on Equation 4. At each speed. For motor speed in the range of 953. Without controller.74 rpm to 762. This is due to over one count or miss one count pulse of the speed counter that sent . the motor will speed up before Tmotor motor is changed (as seen in graph in no load condition). if the load is removed suddenly where Tload = 0.60 From graph speed versus time for speed from 190. the controller is able to control the speed at their desired speed when applying normal load and overload. Due to voltage limitation. The motor speed response will become oscillate and unstable.95 rpm. It is because Tmotor induced by the voltage supply (maximum 12V) is not enough to overcome the Tload of overload condition within these speed. the motor will slow down or maybe die out.12 shows a free body diagram of the disc [16].15 rpm when at the steady state. there is a error speed of ±38.64 rpm. the controller is unable to control the motor speed although just apply with normal load for motor speed which is higher than 1907.

There is a dead time at each speed.8 2. 1 count speed = 1 1 * * 60 4 0.13 shows a graph of dead time versus motor speed.N =1.6 2.3 2 1. the speed is given by. Figure 4.13 Graph of dead time versus motor speed . Based on Equation 3.8 3.4.5 4 3. for one count pulse.15 rpm 4.4 2.4 Dead Time Analysis Dead time is the time of values of the quantity being measured for which it gives no reading [17]. Graph Dead Time versus Motor Speed Dead time (s) 6 5 5 4.39321 = 38.8 2 1 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Motor Speed (rpm) Figure 4. The motor that does not respond at very low input voltage supply due to frictional forces exhibits nonlinearity.61 by the optical encoder.3 3 2.

This is because for higher speed. more voltage will supply to motor to induce more Tmotor to overcome frictional forces. Thus. So. the error speed at starting up condition will be higher.62 From Figure 4.13. the dead time of the system is decreasing as the motor speed is increasing. . the motor will start running earlier and the dead time become smaller.

the control loop will become unstable and the oscillations will increase in amplitude. chemical process. torque and even direction of rotation can be changed at anytime to meet new condition. electric trains. robotic manipulators and the home electric appliances require speed controllers to perform tasks.6 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. DC motors have speed control capabilities. By varying the PWM signal from microcontroller (P controller) to the motor driver.1 Conclusion Recent developments in science and technology provide a wide range scope of applications of high performance DC motor drives in area such as rolling mills. If Kp <1. It is a closed-loop real time control system. The motor will suddenly speed up and it will damage the motor. motor speed can be controlled back to desired value easily. The goal of this project is to design a DC motor speed control system by using microcontroller PIC16F877A. For this project. The controller will maintain the speed at desired speed when there is a variation of load. the speed response is not satisfied. which means that speed. by applying Kp =1 to P controller in microcontroller. If the gain is increased past the point where steady oscillation is observed. At some greater gain. the speed response become underdamped response. . the speed response of the control loop becomes a steady-state oscillation.

2 Problems Although the controller can function as we expected. the speed sensor is fail. then the sensitivity of optical encoder can be increased. some recommendations have been listed based on the problems in order to improve the performance. Then. For future works. the light of the LED cannot be blocked by the cardboard and photodiode will always give High (H) output. if we can increase the resolution of optical encoder by increasing its number of slots. Otherwise. 5. Based on Equation 3.39321s.3 Recommendation The performance of the system is slightly sluggish. . the controller can react faster when there is a disturbance. However.64 In conclusion. there is a constraint with the optical encoder that had been built. the motor speed response can be maintained at desired value although there is a variation of load. with the Kp =1 for P controller at microcontroller PIC 16F877A. Besides. As a result. The objective of the project is successfully fulfilled. This is what we need to overcome in order to achieve quick control of motor speed smoothly. the number of slots at cardboard that can be used is only four. 5. due to the size of photodiode which is quite big. but the performance is slightly sluggish where it takes about 2 or 3 second to react properly when there is a disturbance especially at low speed.4. So. the time for getting data and for microcontroller take correct action will be reducing where t < 0.

ii. So. . Software Improvement Use fuzzy logic microcontroller which combine the idea of fuzzy logic in microcontroller to obtain a DC motor speed control system with excellent regulation and high robustness. these will allow us to increase the resolution of optical encoder by increasing the number of slots.65 i. Thus. it can be simulated using software such as Matlab to get the improved motor speed response by using controller packages such as PID controller. it will reduce the total hardware complexity and cost at the same time. iii. Mathematical modeling of motor response Mathematical model can be obtained from the graph of motor speed response. Fuzzy Logic Controller and others. Besides. it will reduce the steady state error (based on Equation 3. the motor speed response will become better.4). from the mathematical model. So. Besides. time for getting data and for controller to take action also can be reduced. Hardware Improvement Use infra red (IR) as transmitter and receiver for optical encoder for more narrow light. Then.

Thyristorized DC Drives with Regenerative Braking and Speed Reversal.net/paul. PIC Microcontroller Project Book. Singapore: Mc Graw-Hill. 2004. 359364 7. Marra.which. 61-67. 1998. Devices and Applications. MacDonald. http://homepages. 121-123.W.ht ml 6. AsiaSENSE SENSOR. Vol. 1978. Modeling of a Phase-Locked Loop Servo Controller with Encoder Feedback. 3-5. 2nd Edition. Muhammad H. IEEE Spectrum. Phase-Locked Loops for Motor-Speed Control. 2. Iovine John. 4: 347-354.hills/SpeedControl/SpeedControllersBody. 3rd edition. Power Electronics Circuits. L. No. IECI-25. 2003. Abu Zaharin Ahmad and Mohd Nasir Taib. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. IEEE Spectrum. Moore. A. 8. C. The Microcontroller Beginner’s Handbook. August 1999. 2nd Edition. Christopher A. United States of America: Prompt Publication. P. Duarte. 5. A study On the DC Motor Speed Control by Using Back-EMF Voltage.66 REFERENCES 1. 2000. Sen and M. 4. 3. Lawrence A. Rashid. Adkins and Michael A. . April 1973. pg. United States of America: Prentice Hall. 51-56.

airborn. 16. California: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.html 10. . http://www.microchip. FG. Editor User’s Guide 11. http://www. 2nd Edition.seattlerobotics. Programming in Visual Basic 6. Inc. 1995. Inc. Norman S. Redwood City. Modern Control Engineering. MPLAB IDE. Sjhinskey. 2nd Edition. Paraskevopoulos. Control Systems Engineering.N.67 9. Millspaugh.com 14.0. Anita C. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. New York: Marcel Dekker. Nise. Kertas Kerja Makmal Kawalan I 15. 17.org/encoder 13. Version 6. Singapore: McGrawHill Book Company. P. Simulator. 2002. http://www.au/rs232. 2003. Sistem Kawalan Halaju. Process Control Systems.com. Julia Case Bradley. 2002 12.

22pF .For Delay X1 . Date : 27/1/2005 .asm .Set Baud Rate 9600 for 20MHZ for USART Communication CBLOCK 0X20 D1 .For Delay D2 .CONNECT TO ENABLE L298 .Change to BANK1 BSF STATUS.CONNECT TO L298(H. RB1(PIN34) & RB2 (PIN35) .=============================================================== .RP0 BCF STATUS. Project : Dc Motor Speed Control by Using Microcontroller PIC16F877A . processor specific variable definitions __CONFIG _CP_OFF & _WDT_OFF & _BODEN_OFF & _PWRTE_ON & _HS_OSC & _WRT_OFF & _LVP_ON & _CPD_OFF .For Delay D3 . BAUD_RATE EQU 0X81 . CCP2 (PIN16) .=============================================================== .RP1 ENDM .For error correction ENDC . list directive to define processor ERRORLEVEL -302 ERRORLEVEL -305 #include <p16f877A.=============================================================== list p=16f877A .68 APPENDIX A Program in Microcontroller PIC 16F877A for DC Motor Speed Control .20MHZ .===============MACRO CHANGE BANK ============================ BANK0 MACRO .----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . Crystal . File name : psm.For Reference Speed CHANGE .RP0 BCF STATUS.RP1 ENDM BANK1 MACRO . Capacitor .=============================================================== . RA0 as speed counter .Change to BANK0 BCF STATUS. Supervisor : MOHAMAD SHUKRI ABDUL MANAF .For Counter X2 .Set up initialize value and cblock for the variables needed. Programmer : EA AI CHOON .============= HARDWARE CONNECTION=========================== .L) .For Gain REFERENCE .inc> .

W 0X00 STATUS. increase counter RETURN .============== MAIN PROGRAM =================================== MAIN STANDBY BANK0 CALL CALL MOVF SUBLW BTFSC GOTO MOVLW MOVWF INIT .Z .Interrupt Process . then it is noise BTFSC PORTA.107ms = 0.------------------------------. Set Timer1 as 30*13.0 GOTO $-1 CALL CHECKNOISE BTFSC PORTA.TMR1IF GOTO LOOP .0 INCF X1.RA0 . Get data for reference speed REFERENCE.If bandwith is less than 1ms.Not noise.================================================================= . Yes. Reference speed = 0? STANDBY .Check Noise function CHECKNOISE CALL DELAY1 .-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.##########################INITIALIZATION################################ INIT BANK0 CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF PORTA PORTB PORTC PORTD X1 X2 REFERENCE .AS SPEED COUNTER ----------------------------------------LOOP BTFSS PORTA.1 .69 ORG GOTO ORG GOTO 0x00 MAIN 0x04 INT . Intialization SERIALSCAN . Get data again D'30' .39321 where X2 as gain X2 .0 GOTO $-1 BTFSS PIR1.

---Initialize PORT---------------------------BANK1 MOVLW 0x06 MOVWF ADCON1 MOVLW 0xFF MOVWF TRISA MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 BSF BCF 0x00 TRISB PORTB.152KHZ) .PWM Setup: Period KHZ(19.Keep in file register .70 .1 BCF TRISC.RC6&7->Input.107ms MOVLW 0X00 MOVWF TMR1L MOVLW b'00000001' .TMR1IE=1 .PortA as input .------Set up Serial Port----------------------SERIAL_SETUP: BANK1 MOVLW 0XC0 IORWF TRISC.Set PortB as output . 65535*1/(20M/4)=13.1 PORTB.2 BANK0 CLRF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF TMR2 0X00 CCPR2L 0x04 T2CON 0x0C CCP2CON . PEIE=1 .Duty Cycle = 0% .RB1.ON TMR2.----Initialize PWM----------------------------BANK1 MOVLW 0xFF MOVWF PR2 BCF TRISC.RB2(pin 34 and 35) sambung ke pin 10 dan 12 of L298 .F MOVLW MOVWF BAUD_RATE SPBRG .Timer= 0000-FFFFH = . PRESCALE = 1 .PortA as digital input .Others output .GIE=1.2 .PWM Mode .Pre=1:1 TMR1=Int TMR1=ON MOVWF T1CON BANK1 MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 MOVLW MOVWF b'00000001' PIE1 b'11000000' INTCON .-----Set TIMER1 AS TIMER MODE-----------------BANK0 MOVLW 0X00 MOVWF TMR1H .

Get received data to W .######################## END OF INITIALIZATION########################## .Correction of Overrun Error FERR_ERROR .-----------Correction of Framming Error-----------FERR_ERROR MOVF RETURN RCREG.Correction of Framming Error PIR1.Check if data receive $-1 .Discard Framming Error .W REFERENCE .-----------Get data for reference speed ------------------SERIALSCAN CALL CALL BTFSS GOTO MOVF MOVWF RETURN OVERRUN_ERROR .Enable srial port & continuous reception .-----------Correction of Overrun Error-------------OVERRUN_ERROR BCF BSF RETURN RCSTA.TXIF $-1 TXREG .PAUSE FOR ABOUT 1mS .------------Short Delay----------------------------------------DELAY1 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF DECFSZ GOTO D'5' D3 D'9' D2 D'36' D1 D1 $-1 .Wait until new data RCREG.RCIF .W .Check if data TXREG is transfer to TSR ->TXREG is empty .CREN .71 MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 MOVLW MOVWF RETURN 0X24 TXSTA .CREN .Enable continuous reception .Disable continuous reception RCSTA.----------Send the detect speed to PC------------SERIAL_TRANSMIT: BTFSS GOTO MOVWF RETURN PIR1.Enable transmission & high baud rate 0X90 RCSTA .^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ SUBROUTIONE^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ .

72 DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO RETURN DELAY2 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO RETURN D2 $-5 D3 $-9 D'255' D3 D'255' D2 D'36' D1 D1 $-1 D2 $-5 D3 $-9 .F .W . Convert the negative value to positive value CCPR2L. Ref speed . CHANGE = error correction STATUS.W SERIAL_TRANSMIT OVERRUN_ERROR . Continue counter GETDATA X1. Get value of counter.C GREATER .W GREATER .Correction of Framming Error X1 .W CCPR2L. .799527s . Haven't reach 0.*********************** INTERRUPT PROCESS****************************** INT CLRF DECFSZ GOTO MOVF SUBWF MOVWF BTFSC GOTO LESS MOVF ADDWF GOTO BTFSC GOTO MOVF SUBLW SUBWF SHOWSPEED MOVF CALL CALL CALL CLRF PIR1 X2.Reset Counter CHANGE. Reference < Detect ? .F CONTINUE .F X1.Z .W .detect speed REFERENCE. no need correction. Reference = Detect? SHOWSPEED .Detect speed CHANGE . decrease duty cycle with error correction 0XFF. Jump to > or = check CHANGE.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ . Detect speed > ref speed. Clear interruption flag . No. Yes.PAUSE FOR ABOUT 1mS .Correction of Overrun Error FERR_ERROR . Add duty cycle with error correction SHOWSPEED STATUS.

Yes.Reset Timer . Get data for reference speed .******************** END OF INTERRUPT PROCESS************************* END . continue the process .-------------------------------------END OF PROGRAM------------------------------------------------ .Z CONTINUE 0X00 CCPR2L DELAY2 . No.W 0X00 STATUS.73 MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVF SUBLW BTFSS GOTO STOPMOTOR MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETFIE D'30' X2 SERIALSCAN REFERENCE. Stop motor CONTINUE . Reference speed = 0? .

Update Counter1.39321) 'Convert the desired speed into desired pulse 'Exit the form and show the graph in Microsoft Excel .Range("A1:E1000") = "" j=2 OLE_Speed.Caption = "&Run" Then desired_speed = Val(cboSpeed.Application ' Setup for OLE graph Dim wExcel As Excel.Sheets("Sheet1").Chart Dim j As Integer Private Sub cmdExit_Click() objExcel.Value = 0 Counter3.74 APPENDIX B Source Code of Visual Basic 6.Text) ' Get desired speed from user pulse = Round(desired_speed / 60 * 4 * 0.Visible = True End End Sub Private Sub cmdNew_Click() 'Clear the graph Workbooks("Speed2").Workbook Dim xlchart As Excel.0 for DC Motor Speed Control Using Microcontroller PIC 16F877A Option Explicit Dim pulse As Integer 'Varible for desired_pulse Dim str As Variant 'Count pulse received from microcontroller Dim speed As Double 'Real speed Dim desired_speed As Double Dim Error_speed As Double Dim objExcel As Excel.Value = 0 Counter2.Value = 0 End Sub Private Sub cmdRun_Stop_Click() If cmdRun_Stop.

TimerEnabled = False ' Stop the timer cmdRun_Stop.CommPort = 2 ' Use CommPort2 to communicate with microcontroller .InBufferSize = 1024 ' Receiver buffer = 1024 bytes .1" ' Baud rate 9600.Handshaking = comNone ' Disable all network handshaking .Output = Chr$(0) cmdExit.Output = Chr$(0) ' Send speed = 0 rpm to stop the motor cboSpeed.Caption = pulse Counter1.Caption = "&Stop" cmdExit.Locked = False cmdExit.Enabled = True End If End Sub Private Sub Form_Load() 'MSComm setup With MSComm1 . vbOKOnly.EOFEnable = False ' Disable the End of File type .OutBufferSize = 1024 ' Transmitter buffer = 1024 bytes .Enabled = False ' Disable the command of Exit and New Graph cmdNew.8.Enabled = False Else MsgBox "You must select a desired speed first!".NullDiscard = False ' Discard bytes that are all zero's .TimerEnabled = True ' Start the counter as timer cboSpeed.Enabled = True End If ElseIf cmdRun_Stop. 8 data bits.Enabled = True cmdNew.Caption = "&Stop" Then Counter1.Enabled = True cmdNew.InputMode = comInputModeText ' Set the incoming messages to ve ASCII text characters .Output = Chr$(pulse) ' Send desired count pulse to microcontroller lblPulse.InputLen = 1 ' Read all the charater in buffer .N.Text) > 0 Then ' If receive desired speed from user MSComm1. 1 stop bit .DTREnable = True ' Enable the Data Terminal Ready signal . none parity.Caption = "&Run" pulse = 0 MSComm1.Locked = True ' Lock the desired speed selection cmdRun_Stop. "Invalid Data" ' If no desired speed receive from user MSComm1.Settings = "9600.75 If Val(cboSpeed.RThreshold = 1 ' Set the Receive Oncomm event to occur after 1 byte of data have been received .

SThreshold = 1 . "Excel.Caption = speed lblError. 2) = Format(speed.1.Caption = Error_speed MSComm1.Value Then 'Plotting graph With Workbooks("Speed2").Sheets("Sheet1"). "##.Sheets("Sheet1") .Workbooks.Cells(j.Visible = False j=2 With Workbooks("Speed2").Application") Set wExcel = objExcel. 3) = desired_speed .Value * 60) + Counter1.desired_speed). 2) ' Calculate the error between detected speed with the desired speed lblSpeed.Caption = str speed = Round(str / 4 / 0.Value * 60 * 60) + (Counter2.Value * 60) + Counter1.Value .Value * 60 * 60) + (Counter2. 1) = (Counter3.Value > Workbooks("Speed2").Output = Chr$(pulse) 'Always send desired pulse to microcontroller End If If Counter1.Update End Sub Private Sub MSComm1_OnComm() If MSComm1.Cells(j .RTSEnable = True .Cells(j.Input) 'Get the counter pulse from microcontroller lblCount_pulse.Cells(1.76 . 1) = 0 .Sheets("Sheet1") .Open("C:\Speed2.##") . 1) = 0 End With OLE_Speed.39321 * 60. 2) ' Convert counter pulse into speed(rpm) Error_speed = Round((speed .xls") ' File Speed2 as storage objExcel. 1).CommEvent = comEvReceive Then ' This is used when data is received str = Asc(MSComm1.PortOpen = True End With 'Setup for excel file ' Enable the request to send data ' Set the Transmitter Oncomm event to occur after 1 byte of data have been received ' Open CommPort Set objExcel = GetObject("".Cells(j.Value > 0 Then If (Counter3.Cells(2.

Value + 1 Counter1.Value = 60 Then Counter3.Value = Counter3.Update ' Update the graph End If End If 'Timer : Counter1 as second.77 End With j=j+1 OLE_Speed.Value + 1 Counter2. and Counter3 as hour If Counter1. Counter2 as minute.Value = 0 Counter1.Value = 60 Then Counter2.Value = 0 End If End If End Sub .TimerEnabled = True If Counter2.Value = Counter2.

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