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DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING MICROCONTROLLER PIC 16F877A
EA AI CHOON
Submitted to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor in Electrical Engineering (Instrumentation & Control)
Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
iii Dedicated. in thankful appreciation for support. . encouragement and understandings to my beloved mother. father. brothers and sisters.
There is no such meaningful word than…. Encik Mohamad Shukri bin Abdul Manaf for the guidance and enthusiasm given throughout the progress of this project. Nevertheless. I would like to express my heartily gratitude to my supervisor. Pika.Thank You So Much.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost. Say Moon and SEI member’s batch 2000 and those whom involve directly or indirectly with this project. My appreciation also goes to my family who has been so tolerant and supports me all these years. guidance and helps in this project. Choo Chin. Meng Yea. Ching Chiew. my great appreciation dedicated to my best friends Jie. . love and emotional supports that they had given to me. Encik Shaari bin Ani and Encik Mad Rais bin Zakaria for their co-operations. Yan Chiew. I would also like to thank our Control 1 Lab Assistant.. Thanks for their encouragement.
Besides. it also shows a graph of motor speed versus time to let the user monitor the performance of the system easily. where optical encoder (built in this project) is coupled to the motor shaft to provide the feedback speed signal to controller. The PWM signal will send to motor driver to vary the voltage supply to motor to maintain at constant speed. . Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used where its signal is generated in microcontroller. Microcontroller acts as proportional (P) controller with Kp =1 in this study. Through the project. it can be concluded that microcontroller PIC 16F877A can control motor speed at desired speed although there is a variation of load. The ease of control and excellent performance of the DC motors will ensure that the number of applications using them will continue grow for the foreseeable future. It is a closed-loop real time control system. the reading of optical encoder built is quite reliable.v ABSTRACT Direct current (DC) motor has already become an important drive configuration for many applications across a wide range of powers and speeds. A program in Visual Basic 6.0 is developed to provide a graphic user interface (GUI) for the user to enter desired speed at computer. Based on the result. This project is mainly concerned on DC motor speed control system by using microcontroller PIC 16F877A.
Motor arus terus telah menjadi satu komponen yang penting untuk aplikasi dalam julat kuasa dan kelajuan yang tinggi. Kawalan motor arus terus yang mudah dan prestasi yang baik akan menjamin motor arus terus untuk digunakan secara meluas pada masa depan. Projek ini tertumpu kepada rekaaan satu sistem kawalan kelajuan motor arus terus dengan menggunakan mikropengawal PIC 16F877A. Ia merupakan satu kawalan gelung tutup dan masa nyata sistem, di mana pengekod optic(yang dibina dalam projek ini) yang dipasang pada rotor akan menghantar isyarat kelajuan suapbalik kepada pengawal. Teknik Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) digunakan di mana isyarat ini dibekal oleh mikro pengawal. Mikropengawal berperanan sebagai pengawal gandaan, P di dalam projek ini. Isyarat PWM akan dihantar kepada pemacu motor untuk mengubah voltan yang dibekalkan kepada motor supaya ia dapat dikawal pada kelajuan yang ditetapkan. Satu program ditulis dalam Visual Basic 6.0 untuk memudahkan pengguna memasukkan kelajuan yang dikehendaki di komputer dengan pengantaramuka grafik pengguna (GUI). Selain itu, ia juga memaparkan satu graf kelajuan motor melawan masa untuk membolehkan pengguna mengkaji prestasi sistem tersebut. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa bacaan daripada pengekod optik yang dibina adalah boleh dipercayai. Melalui projek ini, boleh disimpulkan bahawa mikropengawal PIC 16F877A dapat mengawal kelajuan motor pada kelajuan tetap walaupun terdapat perubahan beban.
TABLE OF CONTENT
PAGE ii iii iv v vi vii x xi xiii xiv
DECLARATION OF THESIS DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF TABLES LSIT OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF APPENDICES
INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Objective of Project 1.3 Scope of Project 1.4 Outline of Thesis 1.5 Summary of Works 1 2 2 2 3
THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 DC Motor 2.3 Speed Measurement of DC Motor 2.3.1 Speed Measurement by Using Tachometer 2.3.2 Speed Measurement by Using Optical Encoder 2.4 Model of Separately Excited DC motor 2.5 DC motor Speed Controller 2.5.1 Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) Control 2.5.2 Speed Control by Using Thyristor 2.5.3 Speed Control by Using PWM and Full H Bridge Motor Drive 2.6 Microcontroller 2.7 RS232 Serial Port 2.8 MPLAB IDE 2.9 Visual Basic 6.0 17 18 20 20 8 11 12 13 14 5 5 6 6 7
METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Hardware Implementation 3.2.1 DC Motor 3.2.2 Optical Encoder 3.2.3 Power Supply +5V 3.2.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F877A 22.214.171.124 Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in Microcontroller 126.96.36.199 RS232 Serial Communication 3.2.5 DC Motor Drive 3.2.6 Loading Unit LU150L 30 32 34 22 23 24 24 27 28 30
0 3.1 Conclusion 188.8.131.52.2 Experiment: Determine Relationship of Voltage Supply and Motor Speed 184.108.40.206 Procedures 4.3 Recommendation 63 64 64 REFERENCES 66 APPENDICES 68 .1 DC Motor Speed Control Result Analysis 4.3 Software Implementation 3.1 Algorithm and Programming in MPLAB IDE 3.1.1 Processing Explanation of Main Program 3.3.3 DC Motor Speed Control Result 220.127.116.11 Introduction 4.ix 3.2 Plot Graph Speed versus Time 36 36 38 43 48 49 49 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 18.104.22.168 Processing Explanation of Interrupt Process 3.1 Reading Input from User and Microcontroller 3.2.2 Programming in Visual Basic 6.4 Dead Time Analysis 52 53 55 59 61 51 51 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.2 Experimental Result Analysis 4.2.2 Problems 5.
1 2.2 3.x LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2.2 3.3 4.1 TITLE Types of DC Motor and their advantages and disadvantages RS232 pin assignments (DB9 PC signal set) Specification of the motor Pin connection of PIC16F877A for DC motor speed control system Pin function of chip L298 Relationship of voltage supply and motor speed PAGE 6 19 24 29 32 53 .1 3.
2 2.12 3.3 2.xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.6 3.7 Project overview TITLE PAGE 3 4 4 7 8 9 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 19 22 23 24 26 27 27 29 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 1 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 2 Sample disc of encoder Basic schematic circuit of optical encoder Model of separately excited DC motor Basic block diagram for DC Motor speed control Basic flow chart of DC motor speed control Phase-locked loop control system Block diagram of DC Motor speed control by using thyristor Simple motor circuit PWM signal Relation of supply voltage with motor speed Full H bridge motor drive Handshake looping a PC serial connector Block diagram of DC motor speed control system Picture of the project 24V DC motor Optical encoder IC LM7805 Schematic circuit of +5V power supply Schematic circuit of PIC16F877A .1 3.2 1.10 2.9 2.1 1.4 3.5 2.11 2.8 2.3 2.6 2.3 3.2 3.5 3.7 2.1 2.4 2.
21 3.12 4.22 4.43 rpm DC motor running at speed 1716.19 3.7 4.95 rpm DC motor running at speed 953.8 3.5 4.69 rpm DC motor running at speed 1144.2 4. MAX232 and PIC16F877A Bi-direction of DC motor speed control Application of vary load by using Loading Unit LU150L Flow chart of microcontroller’s main program Flow chart of check noise function PWM output Simplified PWM block diagram Timer1 block diagram USART transmit block diagram USART receive block diagram Flow chart of microcontroller’s interrupt process Introduction form Main program form Flow chart of program in Visual Basic 6.xii 3.13 NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format data Connection between D9 Female serial port.15 3.3 4.9 4.18 3.6 4.10 4.74 rpm DC motor running at speed 572.11 4.38 rpm Types of oscillatory response Free body diagram of the disc Graph of dead time versus motor speed 30 31 33 35 37 38 39 39 41 42 42 47 48 48 50 51 52 54 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 59 60 61 .64 rpm DC motor running at speed 1907.8 4.20 3.13 3.17 3.0 Experiment with tachometer Experiment with optical encoder Graph of speed versus voltage supply DC motor running at speed 190.4 4.21 rpm DC motor running at speed 762.9 3.11 3.14 3.10 3.16 3.12 3.1 4.
xiii LIST OF SYMBOLS KE φ If Ia Rf Lf Ra La Kv Kt Td TL B J w α ton T s rpm - A constant based on motor construction Magnetic flux Field current Armature current Field resistor Field inductor Armature resistor Armature inductor Motor constant Torque constant Developed torque Load torque Viscous friction constant Inertia of the motor Motor speed Firing angle of thyristor Time ON of switches Period Standard deviation Rotation per minute .
0 for DC Motor Speed Control Using Microcontroller PIC 16F877A PAGE 68 74 .xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX A B TITLE Program in Microcontroller PIC 16F877A for DC Motor Speed Control Source Code of Visual Basic 6.
These applications may demand high-speed control accuracy and good dynamic responses. gyroscope controls and so on.xv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. if we have a DC motor in a robot. DC motor plays a significant role in modern industrial. Why do we need a speed motor controller? For example. pumps. It will go slower over carpet. like centrifuges. DC motor can provide a high starting torque and it is also possible to obtain speed control over wide range. if we just apply a constant power to each motor on a robot. robotic arm controls. In aerospace. These are several types of applications where the load on the DC motor varies over a speed range. . there are a number of applications. In home appliances.1 Background Direct current (DC) motors have variable characteristics and are used extensively in variable-speed drives. In automotive. So. then the poor robot will never be able to maintain a steady speed. electronic steering control. faster over smooth flooring. faster down hill. dryers and compressors are good examples. it is important to make a controller to control the speed of DC motor in desired speed. washers. engine control and electric vehicle control are good examples of these. fuel pump control. etc. slower up hill.
a graph of speed versus time is obtained by using Visual Basic 6.2 Objective of Project The main core of this project is to design a speed control system of DC Motor by using microcontroller. In first chapter. The scope of this project includes using MPLAB IDE to program microcontroller PIC 16F877A.0 at computer to observe the performance of the system. phase-lock loop and PWM technique) that can be used to control the speed of the motor. It well discuss about types of motor.2 1. Chapter 5 discusses the conclusion of this project and future work that can be done. the discussion will be on the methodology hardware and software implementation of this project. it discuss about the objective and scope of this project as long as summary of works. Last but not least. . 1. various kind of speed measurement and controllers (thyristor.4 Outline of Thesis This thesis consists four chapters. This system will be able to control the DC motor speed at desired speed regardless the changes of load. there are several scope had been outlined. The result and discussion will be presented in Chapter 4. build hardware for the system. 1.3 Scope of Project In order to achieve the objective of the project. In Chapter 3. Last but not least. and interface the hardware to computer by using RS232 serial port communication. While Chapter 2 will discuss more on theory and literature reviews that have been done.
3 1. Summary of Works Implementation and works of the project are summarized into the flow chart as shown in Figure 1.5.2 and Figure 1. Gantt charts as shown in Figure 1.1.3 show the detail of the works of the project that had been implemented in the first and second semester.1 Project overview . DC Motor controller Design VB programming writing for input desired speed and display graph speed versus time Interfacing with computer and controller Control DC motor speed Real Speed detection Feedback and display real speed on screen computer Speed error correction Figure 1.
Literature and theoritical study Study Week 9 4. Presentation Figure 1. Report preparation Semester break Figure 1.2 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 1 Week Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1. Hardware design 5. Modification and evaluation 6. Construction of hardware 7. Report preparation 8. Presentation 8. Brief idea 2. Construction of hardware 3. Programming for plotting graph 4. Study MPLAB Semester Break . Interfacing with computer 5. discussion & conclusion 7. Results. Literature and theoritical study 2.Week Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1. Order part of hardware 6.3 Gantt Chart of the project schedule for semester 2 Exam Week 3.
2 DC Motor There are several types of DC motors that are available. MPLAB IDE and Visual Basic 6. and other basic information are listed below in the Table 2.1 Introduction This chapter includes the study of different types of DC motors. several types of DC motor speed controller. speed measurement of DC motor.0. disadvantages. RS232 serial port. .1. Their advantages. model of separately excited DC motor. 2.CHAPTER 2 THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. It also brief discuss about microcontroller.
1 Speed Measurement by Using Tachometer Tachometer is an instrument that measure speed motor based on concept of back EMF induced in motor when it is running. loud. Here. since field coil must be energized. we need a device that will measure the speed of the motor shaft. Very inexpensive Very high power/weight Expensive.6 Table 2. and easy to find. No batteries required. More powerful than permanent magnet motors Disadvantages Expensive and hard to find. Provide Extremely high mount. Cannot vary magnetic field strength. we will only discuss about speed measurement by using tachometer and optical encoder.1 Advantages and disadvantages of various types of DC motor. compact. Wide range of speeds and torques. . More difficult to obtain. 2. Generally heavier than permanent magnet motors. Generally small. 2. High Torque at low speed. torque. difficult to ratio.3 Speed Measurement of DC Motor To start with this project. There are several methods which can use to measure the speed of motor. very high vibration. The EMF is voltages appear on the commutator segments caused by rotated in the magnetic field by some external force. DC Motor w/field coil DC permanent magnet motor Gasoline (small two stroke) Small. Type Stepper Motor Advantages Very precise speed and position control.3. Require a switching control circuit Require more current than permanent magnet motors.
1. 2. So. the speed of the motor is also increases with the gain. which has slots cut into it.1 Sample disc of encoder .3. the motor speed is directly proportional to the EMF voltage ad inversely proportional to the field flux.7 The magnitude of the EMF is given by . For permanent magnet DC motor. the speed of motor can be measured by measuring the back EMF using tachometer. Figure 2. EMF = K E φ N (2. when the EMF measured is increases. This shines a beam of light from a transmitter across a small space and detects it with a receiver the other end.2 Speed Measurement by Using Optical Encoder The best way to measure speed is to fit an optical encoder.1) where KE = a constant based on motor construction φ = magnetic flux N = speed of motor (in rpm) The actual relationship between motor speed and EMF follows and is derived from Equation 2.1. An example of a disc is shown as Figure 2. then the signal will only be picked up when a slot is between the transmitter and receiver. N= EMF K Eφ (2.2) Thus. If a disc is placed in the space.
the speed of DC motor in rpm is given by. the motor develops a back EMF and a torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed. from Equation 2. The If is independent of the Ia.8 The encoder transmitter must be supplied with a suitable current. Each winding are .3. rpm = f out × 60 N (2.3 shows a model of separately excited DC motor . f out = N × rpm 60 (2.2 Basic schematic circuit of optical encoder This will have an output which swings to +5v when the light is blocked.4) 2.4 Model of Separately Excited DC motor Figure 2.3) where fout = frequency of output waveform rpm = speed in revolutions per minutes N = number of slots at disc So. When a separately excited motor is excited by a field current of If and an armature current of Ia flows in the circuit. Figure 2.5 volts when light is allowed to pass through the slots in the disc. The frequency of the output waveform is given by. and the receiver biased as Figure 2. and about 0.2.
7) where Kv is the motor constant (in V/A-rad/s) and w is the motor speed (rad/s).6) where Ra and La are the armature resistor and inductor respectively. The torque developed by the motor is Td = K t φ i f (2. The If is normally much less than the Ia. Instantaneous armature current: v a = R a i a + La dia + eg dt (2.3 Model of separately excited DC motor Instantaneous field current: vf = Rf if + Lf di f dt (2.5) where Rf and Lf are the field resistor and inductor respectively. The motor back EMF which is also known as speed voltage is expressed as e g = K v wi f (2.9 supplied separately. Figure 2. The relationship of the field and armature are shown in Equation 2. .8) where (Kt=Kv) is the torque constant (in V/A-rad/s). Any change in the armature current has no effect on the field current.5.
: Td = J dw + Bw + TL dt (2.15) f That is if the field current is kept constant. Va = I a Ra + E g = I a Ra + K v wI f The motor speed can be easily derived: w= Va − I a Ra Kv I f (2.e.13) (2. Assuming the motor is not saturated. .12) (2.m) J = inertia of the motor (kg. or when the motor is lightly loaded. i.10) where B = viscous friction constant (N.10 Sometimes it is written as: Td = K t φ ia (2. These observation leads to the application of variable DC voltage to control the speed and torque of DC motor.m/rad/s) TL = load torque (N.e.11) If Ra is a small value (which is usual). the speed motor speed depends on the supply voltage. w = Va K vI (2. the developed torque must be equal to the load torque plus the friction and inertia.9) For normal operation. a time derivative is zero.m2) Under steady-state operations. i. For field circuit. Vf = I f Rf The back EMF is given by: E g = K v wI f The armature circuit.14) (2. Ia is small.
the block diagram and the flow chart of the speed control are shown in Figure 2.g.11 2.5 Basic flow chart of DC motor speed control There are several controllers that can used to control the speed of the motor such as by using thyristor.5 respectively. . chopper circuit. The speed. which is sensed by analog sensing devices (e.4 Basic block diagram for DC Motor speed control Start Start Motor drive Detect motor speed Speed < Ref? No Deceleration Yes Acceleration Figure 2. tachometer) is compared with the reference speed to generate the error signal and to vary the armature voltage of the motor. closed-loop control is normally used. Basically. Controller Feedback Speed Motor Driver DC Motor Actual Speed Speed sensor Figure 2.4 and Figure 2. phase-locked-loop control. Here. Fuzzy Logic Controller and etc. we will discuss only at the speed control system by using thyristor. phase-locked loop and PWM technique.5 DC motor Speed Controller For precise speed control of servo system..
1 Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) Control The block diagram of a converter-fed dc motor drive with phase-locked-loop control is shown in Figure 2. K2 Va DC motor Ve w Speed Encoder Figure 2. In a phase-locked-loop (PLL) control system. the motor speed is converted to a digital pulse train by using a speed encoder. which varies the output of the power converter and in turn the motor speed.6.5. The phase detector (or comparator) is available in integrated circuits.6 Phase-locked loop control system When the motor runs at the same speed as the reference pulse train. . fi f0 Phase detector Low Pass Filter Vc Converter. The phase detector compares the reference pulse train (or frequency) fr with the feedback frequency f0 and provides a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output voltage Ve that is proportional to the difference in phases and frequencies of the reference and feedback pulse trains. the two frequencies would be synchronized (or locked) together with a phase difference. Any disturbances contributing to the speed change would result in a phase difference and the output of the phase detector would respond immediately to vary the speed of the motor in such direction and magnitude as to retain the locking of the reference and feedback frequencies. The output of the encoder acts as the speed feedback signal of frequency f0. A low-pass loop filter converts the pulse train Ve to continuous dc level Vc.12 2. The response of the phase detector is very fast. The output of the phase detector would be a constant voltage proportional to the phase difference and the steady-state motor speed would be maintained at a fixed value irrespective of the load on the motor.
In journals by Christopher A. iii. PLL controlled motor drives have the following shortcomings. thus it can control the speed of motor (Equation 2. SCR DC Load Motor Speed Sensor Figure 2. The average output of voltage is given by Vave = Vm (1 + cos α ) 2π (2. However.15).8 shows the block diagram of DC motor speed control by using thyristor.16) where Vm = peak voltage of voltage supply of thyristor and α = firing angle of thyristor Reference Frequency Frequency or Phase Comparator Firing Circuit Thyristor. PLL-controlled motor system tend to be unstable for low-speed operation PLL-controlled motor systems have large response time.13 As long as the two frequencies are locked. 2. .7 Block diagram of DC Motor speed control by using thyristor . the speed regulation should ideally be zero. The thyristor is used to supply a variable DC voltage to motor. PLL controlled motor systems may get out of synchronization for an abrupt load variation.5. i.2 Speed Control by Using Thyristor Figure 2. ii. it has developed a model for the components of PLL servo control system using both linear and nonlinear techniques . Adkins and Moore respectively.
α. by controlling the firing angle. Sen and M. this method has been used by P.L.8 Simple motor circuit Let us consider a simple circuit that connects a battery as power supply through a switch MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) as shown in Figure 2. and will run more slowly accordingly. From review.3 Speed Control by Using PWM and Full H Bridge Motor Drive Figure 2.8 . If the motor speed is low. the motor sees 12 Volts.16. the motor will see an average of 6 Volts. if the speed sensor output frequency is above the reference. 2. MacDonald in their research . There is a resulting increase in motor speed which brings the output speed back up to the value which is equal to the reference signal. the decrease in conduction reduces the DC motor speed. Conversely. If the switch is open for the same amount of time as it is closed. and when it is open it sees 0 Volts.5. then the firing circuit will be modified to allow the SCR to conduct for a shorter period of time.C.14 From Equation 2. SCR to fire sooner (firing angle. When the switch is closed. the speed sensor frequency will be below the reference frequency. α is reduced). the average of output DC voltage can be varied. . The frequency difference produces a change in the firing circuit that causes the thyristor.
The time that it takes a motor to speed up and slow down under switching conditions is depends on the inertia of the rotor (basically how heavy it is). duty cycle T Figure 2. The average of voltage that supply to DC motor is given by. Vave = t on × Vin T (2.10 shows the speed of a motor that is being turned on and off fairly slowly: . A MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is a device that can turn very large currents on and off under the control of a low signal level voltage. the average speed of the motor increases and vice versa.17) where Vave = average voltage supply to DC motor ton = time ON of switches T = period of PWM t on = DC .15 This on-off switching is performed by power MOSFETs.9 PWM signal As the amount of time that the voltage is on increases compared with the amount of time that it is off. and how much friction and load torque there is. Figure 2.
it won’t have time to change speed much. Each side of the motor can be connected either to battery positive.11 Full H bridge motor drive . Figure 2. or to battery negative. This is the principle of switch mode speed control. A full bridge circuit is shown in the diagram below.10 Relation of supply voltage with motor speed We can see that the average speed is around 150 rpm.16 Figure 2. although it varies quite a bit. Only one MOSFET on each side of the motor must be turned on at any one time otherwise they will short out the battery and burn out. If the supply voltage is switched fast enough. and the speed will be quite steady. Thus the speed is set by PWM – Pulse Width Modulation.
While RAM is used to hold any kind of data. and the instructions are fetched as the microcontroller runs. this method has been used by Abu Zaharin Ahmad and Mohd Nasir Taib in their study . programmable read-only memory (PROM). and Q1 has the PWM signal applied to it. they are contained in external ICs. 2. plus each I/O pin can be programmed as an input or output (or even switch during the running of a program). Most microcontrollers also contain read-only memory (ROM). Q4 is turned on. to make the motor go backwards.6 Microcontroller Microcontrollers must contain at least two primary components – random access memory (RAM). They are used to store the firmware that tells the microcontroller how to operate. They are also used to store permanent lookup tables. Q3 is turned on. instead. RAM is a type of internal logic unit that stores information temporarily. The number of I/O pins per controllers varies greatly. Meanwhile. RAM contents disappear when the power is turned off. The instruction set is a list of all commands and their corresponding functions. Often these memories do not reside in the microcontroller. Each valid instruction set and the matching internal hardware that differentiate one microcontroller from another . some RAM is specialized. The load (current draw) . Al1 of these memories are permanent: they retain what is programmed into them even during loss of power. Where would a microcontroller be without some way of communicating with the outside world? This job is left to input/output (I/O) port pins. or erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). This enables quick and low-cost updates to the firmware by replacing the ROM. referred to as registers. and Q2 has the PWM signal applied to it: From review. and an instruction set. the microcontroller will step through a program (the firmware). During operation.17 To make the motor go forwards.
x.18 that each pin can drive is usually low. it controls the speed at which the microcontroller functions. If the output is expected to be a heavy load. This square wave is the heartbeat of the microcontroller and all operations are synchronized to it. iii. RS232 devices can be plugged straight into the computer's serial port (also known as the COM or Comms port).7 RS232 Serial Port RS232 is a popular communications protocol for connecting modems and data acquisition devices to computers. ix. Obviously. We can. xi. Most microcontrollers contain circuitry to generate the system clock. Examples of . a microcontroller contains (in one chip) two or more of the following elements in order of importance : i. therefore precisely select the operating speed critical to many applications. ii. To summarize. vi. vii. viii.PROM or EPROM I/O ports Clock generator Reset function Watchdog timer Serial port Interrupts Timers Analog-to-digital converters Digital-to-analog converters 2. Instruction set RAM ROM. All that needed to complete the clock circuit would be the crystal or RC components. v. iv. then it is essential to use a driver chip or transistor buffer. xii.
The reliable solution is to loop back the handshake lines if they are not used .12 Handshake looping a PC serial connector . The connector on the PC has male pins. The pin connections used are as shown in Table 2. therefore the mating cable needs to terminate in a DB9/F (Female pin) connector. most driver software will wait forever for one of the handshaking lines to go to the correct level.2. other times it might not. temperature interfaces and other measurement instruments. A nine pin D plug has become the standard fitting for the serial ports of PCs.19 data acquisition devices include GPS receivers. electronic balances. Table 2.2 RS232 pin assignments (DB9 PC signal set) Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Pin 8 Pin 9 Input Input Output Output Input Output Input Input DCD RXD TXD DTR DSR RTS CTS RI Data Carrier Detect Received Data Transmitted Data Data Terminal Ready Signal Ground Data Set Ready Request To Send Clear To Send Ring Indicator Normal PC hardware might well run with just Tx. Rx and Ground connected. Depending on the signal state it might sometimes work. data loggers. Figure 2.
C compilers are available from Microchip and other third party vendors. C. An assembler.0 There are literally hundreds of programming languages. such as BASIC. Third party emulators that work with MPLAB IDE are also available. 2. Program firmware into devices with programmers such as PICSTART Plus or PRO MATE II. Each was developed to solve particular type of problem. compile and link source code using various language tools.9 Visual Basic 6. Assemble. Program logic determines the next instruction to execute in response to conditions and user request. v.so the PC effectively controls its own handshaking. FORTRAN. That is. Most traditional languages. such as MPLAB SIM. linker and librarian come with MPLAB IDE. the program specifies the exact sequence of all operations. iv. we can: i. .8 MPLAB IDE MPLAB IDE is a Windows-based Integrated Development Environment for the Microchip Technology Incorporated PIC microcontroller (MCU) and dsPIC digital signal controller (DSC) families .20 When the lines are handshake looped. vi. the RTS output from the PC immediately activates the CTS input . or in real time with an emulator. ii. such as MPLAB IDE. Debug the executable logic by watching program flow with a simulator. and Pascal are considered procedural languages. In the MPLAB IDE. View variables in Watch windows. COBOL. 2. Create source code using the built-in editor. iii. Make timing measurements.
In the event driven model. operates as expected. It provided standard windows object and graphic user interface that will make the program become user friendly. . As the world turn to graphic user interface (GUI). The designed screen can holds standard windows button such as command buttons. producing a “standard” windows user interface. use a different approach: object-oriented programming (OOP) and event driven programming. programs are no longer procedural. there is no need to take control and determine the sequence of execution. they don’t follow a sequential logic. Microsoft refers to Visual Basic as an event driven programming language. Visual Basic that recently appears as one of the most popular programming language is chose. which has many elements of an object oriented language such as Java. Each of these windows object. such as C++ and VISUAL BASIC. option buttons. text boxes.21 The newer language. So. Visual Basic is designed to allow the program run under the windows without the complexity generally associated with windows programming . and so on. visual basic is one of the languages that changes to accommodate the shift. check boxes.
.23 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. It is a closed-loop with real time control system.1. The error will determine duty cycle of pulse-widthmodulation (PWM) in microcontroller.1 Introduction In this project. the duty cycle will send to DC motor driver either accelerate or decelerate DC motor to maintain it at desired speed. microcontroller will be used as the controller to control DC motor speed at desired speed. In microcontroller. Then. it will calculate the error between the desired speed with the actual speed. Microcontroller Motor Driver DC Motor Actual speed Feedback speed Encoder For speed display PC Figure 3. The block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 3.1 Block diagram of DC motor speed control system The actual speed of DC motor will be measured by encoder and feedback to microcontroller.
power supply 5V. DC Motor drive and loading unit LU150L . The project is divides into two parts that are software and hardware implementation. Figure 3.2 Hardware Implementation This section will discuss about components that had been used included DC motor.23 Figure 3.2 Picture of the project 3. microcontroller PIC 16F877A.2 shows the picture of the project. optical encoder. pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) and RS232 serial communication of microcontroller. Each part of the project will discuss in the following section.
1.1 Specification of the motor Manufacturer Voltage rated Power Type Tohoku Ricoh CO. temperature.3 shows the DC motor that will be used in this project.1). The specification of this motor is shown in Table 3. and . an optical encoder will be used to measure the DC motor speed. Ltd 24V 55W 7K100012 3. It is a permanent magnet 24V DC motor. is capable of much better performance than the generator type of tachometer (by using back EMF that discussed in section 2.2. The fundamental reason for the superiority of this system is that the optical encoder used as the velocity sensor.2 Optical Encoder In this project. Changes in gap. it generates a frequency directly proportional to motor speed.2.3 24V DC motor Table 3. When the optical disc is properly mounted on the motor shaft.24 3.1 DC Motor Figure 3. Figure 3.2.
magnet strength simply have no effect on the output of the optical tachometer. By contrast, an analog tachometer is directly affected by all the problems listed above. The encoder in the market is very expensive. In order to reduce the cost of the project, an optical encoder is built. Figure 3.4a and Figure 3.4b show the basic configuration and the schematic of the optical encoder in action respectively . The speed accuracy over fractions of a revolution depends on the quality of the optical encoder. The DC motor has an optical disc (made by cardboard) mounted on its shaft. The disc has N radial lines on its surface. In this project, we will make four slots on the disc (N=4). This will give a resolution of 1/4 in one rotation. An LED (light emitting diode) as transmitter is put at one side of the disc and a photodiode, as receiver is fixed on the other side of the disc. Chip OPT 101 is selected as photodiode in this project. To make sure the output waveform in digital signal (High/Low) which is readable by microcontroller, Chip LM324 is used as a comparator. When the Vout of photodiode is less than Vref, the output of LM324 will be 0V (Low) and when the Vout is greater than Vref, the output of LM 324 will be 5V (High). The output signal form LM324 has a frequency which is given by Equation 2.3. Then, the output signal will be sent to microcontroller as representation of actual speed.
Figure 3.4 Optical encoder (a) Basic configuration (b)Schematic circuit
Power Supply +5V
Most digital logic circuits and processors need a +5 volt power supply. To use these parts we need to build a regulated +5 volt source. Usually we start with an unregulated power supply ranging from 9 volts to 24 volts DC.
To make a +5 volt power supply, we use a LM7805 voltage regulator IC (Integrated Circuit). The IC is shown below.
Figure 3.5 IC LM7805
Sometimes the input supply line may be noisy. To help smooth out this noise and get a better 5 volt output, capacitors is usually added to the circuit.
Figure 3.6 Schematic circuit of +5V power supply
2 for the pin connection of PIC16F877A in DC Motor speed control system. Pins not stated in the table are not used and left hanging. The microcontroller will operate as it programmed (detail program at section 3. It is a very simple but powerful microcontroller. Users would only need to learn 35 single word instructions in order to program the chip. This chip is selected based on several reasons : i. At the beginning. Its size is small and equipped with sufficient output ports without having to use a decoder or multiplexer.1) to produce a new duty cycle (from CCP2) that proportional to the error speed.000 cycles) using the universal programmer in robotics lab. It can be programmed and reprogrammed easily (up to 10. microcontroller will receive desired speed from PC through serial port. It has PWM inside the chip itself which allow us to vary the duty cycle of DC motor drive. The detected motor speed from optical encoder will feedback to microcontroller through RA0 of PIC16F877A.4 Microcontroller PIC 16F877A The microcontroller acts like the brain of the DC motor speed control system. Its portability and low current consumption. Refer to Table 3. ii. iii.3.7 shows the schematic circuit of microcontroller PIC16F877A. average of voltage supply from DC motor drive can be varied in order to maintain the speed at desired value. v. The microcontroller chip that has been selected for the purpose of controlling the speed of DC motor is PIC16F877A manufactured by Microchip. iv.2.28 3.000. Figure 3. Thus. .
2 Pin connection of PIC16F877A for DC motor speed control system Pin Name VDD VSS OSC1 OSC2 MCLR\ RA0 RB1 RB2 Pin No. 11.32 12.7 Schematic circuit of PIC16F877A .29 Table 3.31 13 14 1 2 34 35 Capture/Compare/P WM Description Positive Supply (+5V) Ground Reference For oscillator or resonator Reset Input Input/Output pin Application Power Supply to chip Ground Reference Connected to resonator 20MHz with 22pF Always connected to +5V Input of Vout from LM324 as speed counter Output to control CW/CCW of left motor Output of duty cycle(PWM) to control motor speed Input/Output pin CCP2 16 Figure 3.
1 Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in Microcontroller The Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) in microcontroller is used to control duty cycle of DC motor drive. Figure 3.2 RS232 Serial Communication SCI is an abbreviation for Serial Communication Interface and. Since the frequency is held constant while the on-off time is varied.4. PWM is an entirely different approach to controlling the speed of a DC motor. % Dutycylcle = t on × 100% T (3. the duty cycle of PWM is determined by the pulse width. While the area under an input pulse width train is measure of the average power available from such an input. Duty cycle refers to the percentage of one cycle during which duty cycle of a continuous train of pulses. It provides RS232 serial communication with PC easily. Thus the power increases duty cycle in PWM.2. 3.1) Basically. the speed of a DC motor is a function of the input power and drive characteristics. The expression of duty cycle is determined by. as a special subsystem of microcontroller PIC16F877A.4.30 3.8 NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format data . Power is supplied to the motor in square wave of constant voltage but varying pulse-width or duty cycle.2.
In order to connect a microcontroller to a serial port on a computer. Free line is defined as the status of logic one. For the transmission speed of 9600 baud.31 As with hardware communication. we need an intermediary stage that will convert the levels. The duration of the stop bit 'T' depends on the transmission rate and is adjusted according to the needs of the transmission. The data bits follow the start bit (the first bit is the low significant bit).9 Connection between D9 Female serial port. T is 104µs. has the status of logic zero. The signal level on a PC is -10V for logic zero. we need to adjust the level of the signals so communicating can take place. and +10V for logic one.Start Bit. Start of transmission . we use standard NRZ (Non Return to Zero) format also known as 8 (9)-N-1. The circuit for this interface is shown in the Figure 3. This chip receives signals from -10 to +10V and converts them into 0 and 5V. or 8 or 9 data bits. without parity bit and with one stop bit. One chip specially designed for this task is MAX232. and after the bits we place the Stop Bit of logic one.9 Figure 3. MAX232 and PIC16F877A . Since the signal level on the microcontroller is +5V for logic one and 0V for logic zero.
3 shows function of each pin of chip L298. the current that flows through the load connected between these two pins is monitored at pin 1. TTL Compatible Inputs of the Bridge A. Due to the constant power to motor.7 6. Sense B Out 1. The time to enable the chip L298 will be determined by the duty cycle pulse that sent from PWM in microcontroller. If the chip is disabled. The operating supply voltage of chip L298 is up to 46V and the total DC current up to 4A.5 DC Motor Drive If a DC motor is connected directly to the voltage supply. A non-inductive 100nF capacitor must be connected between this pin and ground. TTL Compatible Inputs of the Bridge B.2.17. Out 2 Vs Input 1. Vave is zero. Figure 3. Supply Voltage for the Power Output Stages. Ground. So. there is no . To supply the voltage to motor through L298. DC motor drive is needed where we can control the magnitude of supply voltage in order to control the speed of DC motor.12 13. The current that flows through the load connected between these two pins is monitored at pin 15. The DC motor drive that will be used in this project is a dual full bridge driver. A100nF capacitor must be connected between this pin and ground.3 Pin function of chip L298 Pin 1. Supply Voltage for the Logic Blocks. Outputs of the Bridge A.15 2.11 8 9 10.10 shows the schematic circuit of L298 with a 24V DC motor. chip L298. the constant power will be supplied to the DC motor all the time. TTL Compatible Enable Input: the L state disables the bridge A (enable A) and/or the bridge B (enable B).3 4 5. Table 3. Input 4 Out 3. Outputs of the Bridge B. The average of voltage that supply to DC motor is given by Equation 2. it should be enabled by +5V at pin 6 (Enable A) or pin 11 (Enable B). Input 2 Enable A. Out 4 Function Between this pin and ground is connected the sense resistor to control the current of the load. the speed of motor will slow down when the load is heavier and speed up when the load is lighter.32 3.14 Name Sense A. EnableB GND Vss Input 3. Table 3.
.33 voltage supply to motor. From table. Figure 3.1(a)). the motor is running all the time in forward direction by receiving C=H (RB1) and D=L (RB2) from microcontroller during the initialization of the program.3. the duty cycle of PWM will sent to Ven to drive the motor. When input of C (pin 10) is High (H).10 Bi-direction of DC motor speed control So.1. (detail in part 3. the motor will stop running. to make sure the motor is running all the time. In this project. the different input have to sent to C and D. When both C and D have same input (H/L). In this project. D (pin12) is Low (L). the motor will run in forward direction and vice versa. we know that the motor will continuous running (as long as the motor is not overloaded) when the C and D of L298 have different input. the motor will stop running.
Thus. normal load and overload condition as shown in Figure 3. a loading unit LU150L is used. With the presence of LU150L when the motor is running. motor will slow down. It has two U shape magnets with a small space between it. Without LU150L.2. a controller has been designed to maintain speed back to the desired speed by using microcontroller. the disc that fixed at the motor shaft can run smoothly at the constant speed. In this project.34 3.6 Loading Unit LU150L For DC motor speed control with application of varies loads. the disc will cut the magnetic flux field and it becomes a load to the motor.11. . The position of the magnets have been defined as no load.
35 (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 3.11 Application of vary load by using Loading Unit LU150L (a) Loading Unit LU150L (b) No load condition (c) Normal load condition (d) Overload condition .
There are two parts of the program which are main program and interrupt program. When microcontroller receives an interrupt flag.3. Therefore.12 and Figure 3. It will receive the desired speed from user through PC that interface with RS232 serial port. An algorithm has to be developed to make the microcontroller to read the input and respond accordingly.0 is used for user interface purpose and for monitoring the speed response of the system.36 3.3 Software Implementation For software implementation. Visual Basic 6. MPLAB IDE is used to program microcontroller in assembly language.13. The program in assembly language can be referred in Appendix A. . the PIC16F877A software development tool. 3. The actual speed will be compared with the desired speed and the correction will be done by microcontroller to always maintain the DC motor speed at the desired speed. Besides. the algorithm is established and represented by a flowchart in Figure 3. The microcontroller will always run the main program until there is an interrupt occurred. then it will jump to interrupt process. These flowcharts are then translated into assembly language and compiled using MPLAB.1 Algorithm and Programming in MPLAB IDE Microcontroller acts as brain of the whole DC motor speed control system.
0 =1? No Yes Check Noise Test PORTA.12 Flow chart of microcontroller’s main program .37 Start • • • • Initialization Initialize PORT Initialize PWM Initialize TIMER1 in timer mode Initialize USART (serial port) Set up timer Obtain reference speed from PC? Yes No Yes Test PORTA.0 =0? No Figure 3.
A user register.13 Flow chart of check noise function 3. X1 has been defined as speed counter for pulses receive from RA0. a) Initialization of the mode of ports A . There are initialization of ports.3. we use pin 0th of the Port A (RA0) as digital input where it receives input (H/L) from LM324 (pin1). PWM. When the input of RA0 is High (H).1 Processing Explanation of Main Program There are six main parts of main program in microcontroller. the counter will remain its value. setup for serial port.1 (f)).1. Otherwise.B In this project. . detail in section 3.38 Call Delay 1ms t > 1ms ? Yes No Test PORTA.1.3. Timer1. it will increase speed counter X1 where X1 = X1 + 1 (if it is not noise after check noise. get reference speed and check noise function.0 =0? Yes No counter = counter + 1 Return Figure 3.
39 All pins of Port B are set to output. Figure 3. .15 Simplified PWM block diagram To setup for PWM operation.15 shows a simplified block diagram of the CCP module in PWM mode. the following steps should be taken when configuring the CCP module for PWM operation: i.2.5. RB1 is always set to High (H) and RB2 set to Low (L) to make the motor run in forward direction as describe in section 3.14 PWM output Figure 3. Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register.14) has a time-base (period) and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). The frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period (1/period). Figure 3. b) Initialization of PWM A PWM output (Figure 3.
53kHz where Fosc = 20MHz and TMR2 prescale =1 The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the CCPR2L register and to the CCP2CON<5:4> bits.3) CCPR2L and CCP2CON<5:4> can be written to at any time. Configure the CCP2 module for PWM operation.2) In this project. Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the CCPR2L register and CCP2CON<5:4> bits. This 10-bit value is represented by CCPR2L:CCP2CON<5:4>. The PWM period can be calculated using the following formula: PWM period = [(PR2) + 1] * 4 * TOSC *(TMR2 prescale value) (3.e. Up to 10-bit resolution is available. the period is complete). iii. PR2 is set to 255(maximum value of 8 bit for maximum range).. Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2 by writing to T2CON. The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2 register. . iv. so the PWM period is then become PWM period = (255+1)* 4 * (1/20M) * (1) = 51.2µs = 19. The CCPR2L contains eight MSbs and the CCP2CON<5:4> contains two LSbs. but the duty cycle value is not latched into CCPR2H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2 occurs (i. v. The following equation is used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time: PWM duty cycle =(CCPR2L:CCP2CON<5:4>)*TOSC* (TMR2 prescale value) (3. Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit.40 ii.
X2 = 0. Figure 3. if enabled. The TMR1 Register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh (decimal from 0 to 65535) and rolls over to 0000h.16 Timer1 block diagram When Timer1 increases from 0000h to FFFFh. Gain.39321s / 13.41 c) Initialization of TIMER1 in Timer Mode The Timer1 module in PIC16F877A is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L).107 ms. which is latched in interrupt flag bit. In this project. TMR1IE (PIE1<0>). the input clock to the timer is FOSC/4. Fosc = 20MHz . Figure 3. A user register. the interrupt is required to occur each 0. the interruption enable bit of CCP2 is set. The TMR1 Interrupt. X2 is defined as gain for this purpose. . Timer mode is selected by clearing the TMR1CS (T1CON<1>) bit. In this mode. t = (65535 .0) * (1/(20MHz/4)) = 13. Also GIE and PIE are set.39321s where the pulses counted in X1 will be converted to speed and correction taken. This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1 interrupt enable bit.107ms = 30 Besides. which are readable and writable.16 shows the Timer1 block diagram which operate in timer mode. it takes 65535 cycle and the time consumed is given by. is generated on overflow. TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
An on-chip.17 USART transmit block diagram Figure 3.18 USART receive block diagram . The transmitter and receiver are functionally independent. 8-bit baud rate generator can be used to derive standard baud rate frequencies from the oscillator. eight or nine data bits. the USART uses standard non-return-to zero (NRZ) format (one START bit. dedicated. In this mode. The most common data format is 8-bits and it is used in this project. and one STOP bit).42 d) Setup for serial port The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. Baud Rate = Fsoc /(16(SPBRG+1)) (3.4) Figure 3. The USART transmits and receives the LSb first. but use the same data format and baud rate.) The USART is configuring in asynchronous mode. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI.
43 To set baud rate at 9600bps. 3.1. But if the pulse detected is Low (L).3. If the pulse detected still High (H). it will hold for 1ms. So. microcontroller will get the reference speed from user at PC through RS232 serial communication. then it is noise and ignored where X1 remains its value. it is found that the noise have a bandwidth less than 1ms (bandwidth of real pulses always greater than 1ms). The microcontroller will execute the program in interrupt process instead of main program that is running when it . when a High (H) pulses is receive at RA0. if is found that there are some noise besides real pulses from LM324. From experiment.39321s. X1 if it is not filter out.2 Processing Explanation of Interrupt Process Interrupt process is occurs each 0. especially when motor running at high speed. f) Check Noise function From experimental result. we have to set SPBRG as SPBRG = (Fsoc/ Baud Rate / 16)-1 = 20M / 9600 / 16 -1 = 129 Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) is set as 1 and bits TRISC<7:6> are set as 0 in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT as the Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. it means that the received is real pulse and the X1 will increase it value with one. e) Get reference speed At beginning of the program. It will wait there until it gets the reference speed from user. This noise can cause over reading pulses at speed counter.
When not clearing this.44 receive the interrupt flag. b) Speed counter At each interruption (each 0. ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ det ected speed = ⎜ ⎟*⎜ ⎟ N ⎝ ⎠ ⎝t⎠ where N = number of slots t = time of getting data in second round/s (3. So.5) 1 ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ det ected speed = ⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0. Each part of interrupt process is discussed in the following section. X1 will be taken as detected pulses.39321s.6) c) Error speed The detected speed will be compared to reference speed to calculate the error between them. .39321 ⎠ round/s 1 ⎛ det ected pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ =⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ ∗ 60 round/minit (RPM) 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0.39321 ⎠ (3.39321s with CCP2.39321s). the following interruption occurs without waiting desired time. Data from speed counter. X1 in microcontroller will be loaded to PC each 0. the motor speed is given by. the value of speed counter. we know that it will produces 4 pulses when motor turn for 1 round. The interruption flag of CCP2 should be cleared first. a) Clearing of interruption flag The interruption is occurs every 0. From optical encoder with 4 slots that built in this project.
17 to determine to speed up or slow down the motor. . a duty ratio is increased and a motor drive electric current is increased.10) d) Speed down process When the detected speed of the motor is higher than the reference speed. e) Speed up process When the detected speed of the motor is lower than the reference speed.7) 1 ⎛ Error pulses ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ Error speed = ⎜ ⎟∗⎜ ⎟ ∗ 60 round/min (3. Error voltage where Vin = 12V Vin Error DC = (3. If there is no error.39321 ⎠ The error speed will then converted into error voltage by using Equation 4. the duty cycle of PWM is remained.8) 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0.89 207. The rate that the duty ratio becomes bigger is decided by error speed. The rate that the duty ratio becomes smaller is decided by error speed.45 Error pulses = Reference pulses – Detected pulses and (3. the error voltage will be converted to duty cycle based on Equation 2.16 Error voltage = (3. Error speed + 80.2 from experiment with optical encoder that has been built. a duty ratio is decreased and a motor drive electric current is suppressed.9) Finally.
Before that.3.1) g) Interruption ending process The RETFIE instruction is executed at end of the interruption processing. detected speed will sent to PC each 0.0 program.39321s as detected pulses. (detail in section 3. This value will then convert to represent the detected speed (rpm) in PC by using Visual Basic 6.2. .46 f) Send detected speed to PC To monitor the performance of the system. the counter and timer have to clear and reset.
Error Send the value of detected pulses to PC Clear counter Reset timer Return from interrupt Figure 3.19 Flow chart of microcontroller’s interrupt process .39321s? Yes Get value of speed counter Error = Ref – detect speed Error > 0? Yes No Ref = detect speed? Yes No DCnew = DCold + Error DCnew = DCold .47 Clear interruption flag Gain = gain -1 No td = 0.
This program is able to send data (desired speed from user) to microcontroller and plot a graph of detected speed versus time to monitor the performance of the system.0.20 Introduction form Figure 3. They are introduction form and main program form which are shown in Figure 3.20 and Figure3.21 Main program form .0. Figure 3. a program will be developing using Visual Basic 6.21 respectively.48 3.0 In this project.3. There are two forms in Visual Basic 6.2 Programming in Visual Basic 6.
The desired speed (rpm) will then convert into desired pulses before send to microcontroller through serial port.1 Reading Input from User and Microcontroller To obtain desired speed from user. It is also allowed to get a new graph by click on the New Graph command button. The user will sent the desired speed to microcontroller by click on Run command button. desired speed * 4 * 0.2.39321 60 desired pulses = (3.3. desired pulses is given by. 3.11) 3. a graph of detected speed versus time will be obtained by using Visual Basic. From Equation 3.2 Plot Graph Speed versus Time To monitor performance of the system. . the user is required to select a desired speed at computer.49 The source code of this project is shown in Appendix B and the flow chart of the program is shown in Figure 22.214.171.124.22. Two main tasks of the program in Visual Basic which are reading input from user and microcontroller and plot a graph of speed versus time.
0 .22 Flow chart of program in Visual Basic 6.39321 Send desired pulses to microcontroller Read detected pulses from microcontroller? Yes No detected speed = detected pulses / 4 / 0.39321 * 60 Plot graph Stop motor? No Yes Figure 3.50 Start Read selected desired speed from user? Yes No desired pulses = desired speed / 60 * 4 * 0.
1 Experiment with tachometer . 4. an experiment is conducted to find out the relationship between voltage supply and motor speed. data collection is done at each speed for DC motor speed control system to observe performance of the system.2 Experiment: Determine Relationship of Voltage Supply and Motor Speed An experiment is conducted to determine the relationship between voltage supply and speed . Power Supply DC Motor Tachometer Figure 4. First and foremost.1 Introduction Some experiments had been conducted for the project. Then. an analysis on the dead time of the system is made. Last but not least.6 CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4. The procedures and the result will be discussed in following sections.
both result was compared and the accuracy of optical encoder that has been built is found. 10) Based on graphs. f × 60 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ . 7) The readings for the frequency of oscilloscope were recorded. N=4.1.1 Procedures 1) The circuit was connected as Figure 4. ⎜ rpm = out N ⎠ ⎝ 8) Step 4 was repeated.2 was completed by changing tachometer with the optical encoder that has been built.52 4.5V until 16V and step 3 was repeated. 2) Voltage of 0. 6) Step 2 was repeated.2.5V was supplied to motor. Power Supply DC Motor Optical Encoder Oscilloscope Figure 4. . 9) A graph of rpm-voltage was plotted for both tachometer and optical encoder. The output waveform from optical encoder was connected to oscilloscope.1.2 Experiment with optical encoder 5) Circuit as Figure 4. 4) The voltage increased in steps of 0. 3) Value of rpm at tachometer was recorded in Table 4.
5 6.05 0.0 1.05 3.0 10.04 1.69 2.5 2.0 9. the data was recorded in Table 4.26 854.06 315.0 12. A graph of speed versus voltage supply by using tachometer and optical encoder is shown in Figure 4.26 1870.60 230.2 Experimental Result Analysis From experiment.40 4.5 5.95 1164.02 767.59 3.41 2.0 8.70 940.5 15.00 0.80 2702.05 2.34 3.58 3048.0 5.5 8.62 3. Table 126.96.36.199 553.00 0.52 3232.0 2.5 12.49 0.2.0 14.0 15.59 3.07 2.69 2228.5 3.0 6.5 1.95 1.0 0.91 2958.77 2.03 3.36 0.50 2074.23 2.51 655.68 3.53 4.73 2400.0 11.95 1.5 11.0 4.00 2516.00 99.0 Speed (rpm1) Tachometer 0 0 100 240 330 410 550 640 770 860 970 1090 1200 1280 1400 1490 1590 1700 1820 1920 2030 2140 2230 2340 2480 2570 2690 2810 2890 2990 3130 3230 3370 Speed (rpm2) Optical Encoder 0.70 1.5 7.44 1048.78 2617.05 2.0 7.87 3.35 1794.5 16.5 4.50 2.82 1.00 0.39 1358.0 13.35 0.76 % Error = rpm1 − rpm 2 × 100% rpm1 0.5 14.80 1648.5 13.64 2.31 2.05 4.07 .83 2272.70 2840.60 1258.78 3131.5 9.0 3.70 1467.71 1552.32 1968.5 10.79 420.14 4.1 Relationship of voltage supply and motor speed Voltage Supply (V) 0.
rpm = 207.54 Graph Speed versus Voltage Supply Speed (rpm) 4000 3500 3000 Tachometer y = 213.3 Graph of speed versus voltage supply The accuracy of the optical encoder can be checked by calculate its standard deviation.991 2500 2000 1500 Optical Encoder y = 207.0 2.16x .1. s for percentage of error by using Equation 4. s= ∑ (x i i − x)2 n −1 (4.0 12.2801 The standard deviation percentage of error is quite small.62x .16V -80.80.0 14.0 6.0 16.0 10.0 8.89 (4.94.0 18.2) where rpm = motor speed V = voltage supply to motor .0 Voltage Supply (V) Figure 4.0 4.89 1000 500 0 0.1) s = 1. so it can be concluded that the reading of the optical encoder for speed measurement is quite reliable which is given by.
3 DC Motor Speed Control Result Microcontroller acts as proportional (P) controller in the DC motor speed control system.4 to Figure 4. At each speed.74 rpm . overload and then suddenly the load was as no load condition (Refer Figure 3.4 DC motor running at speed 190.10 respectively. the result was collected by applying normal load. The performance of the system at each speed is shown in Figure 4.11).55 4. No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.
21 rpm No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.95 rpm .6 DC motor running at speed 762.5 DC motor running at speed 572.56 No Load Normal Load Overload Figure 4.
7 DC motor running at speed 953.43 rpm .57 Normal Load Overload No Load Figure 4.8 DC motor running at speed 1144.69 rpm No Load Normal Load Overload Normal Load Figure 4.
38 rpm .58 No Load Normal Load Overload Normal Load Figure 4.9 DC motor running at speed 1716.10 DC motor running at speed 1907.64 rpm Normal Load No Load Figure 4.
the response to set point changes becomes more oscillatory. as the controller proportional gain. (a) (b) (c) Figure 4.59 4. commonly called underdamped (Figure 4. In this project. If the gain is increased past the point where steady oscillation is observed. the speed response will give an underdamped response when Kp=1. the control loop will become unstable and the oscillations will increase in amplitude (Figure 4.11c) . At some greater gain.3. The system is called “marginally stable”.11b).11 Types of oscillatory response: (a) underdamped (b) sustained oscillation (c) unstable.1 DC Motor Speed Control Result Analysis For P controller. . the response of the control loop becomes a steady-state oscillation (Figure 4. Kp is increased.14a).
Figure 4. the motor is able to maintain back to the desired speed in a period of time. With controller.12 shows a free body diagram of the disc . the controller can control at normal load but not in overload condition. the motor will speed up before Tmotor motor is changed (as seen in graph in no load condition). the controller is unable to control the motor speed although just apply with normal load for motor speed which is higher than 1907. Due to voltage limitation.95 rpm.15 rpm when at the steady state. Without controller. For motor speed in the range of 953. the speed response is oscillating until the load is removed. This is due to over one count or miss one count pulse of the speed counter that sent . the controller is able to control the speed at their desired speed when applying normal load and overload.64 rpm. there is a error speed of ±38.3. The motor speed response will become oscillate and unstable.38 rpm. Based on Equation 4. At each speed.74 rpm to 762.12 Free body diagram of the disc Tmotor – Tload = Jω where (4.3) J = moment of inertia of the wheel about the axis of rotation Tload = torque induced by load Tmotor = torque induced by voltage supply ω = speed motor Figure 4. In overload condition. if the load is removed suddenly where Tload = 0. It is because Tmotor induced by the voltage supply (maximum 12V) is not enough to overcome the Tload of overload condition within these speed.60 From graph speed versus time for speed from 190.69 rpm to 1716. the motor will slow down or maybe die out.
8 3.4. Graph Dead Time versus Motor Speed Dead time (s) 6 5 5 4.5 4 3.3 2 1. for one count pulse. Based on Equation 3.4 Dead Time Analysis Dead time is the time of values of the quantity being measured for which it gives no reading .6 2. 1 count speed = 1 1 * * 60 4 0. There is a dead time at each speed.8 2.3 3 2.13 Graph of dead time versus motor speed .4 2.61 by the optical encoder. Figure 4.8 2 1 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Motor Speed (rpm) Figure 4.15 rpm 4. The motor that does not respond at very low input voltage supply due to frictional forces exhibits nonlinearity.13 shows a graph of dead time versus motor speed.N =1.39321 = 38. the speed is given by.
the motor will start running earlier and the dead time become smaller.62 From Figure 4. the dead time of the system is decreasing as the motor speed is increasing. more voltage will supply to motor to induce more Tmotor to overcome frictional forces. the error speed at starting up condition will be higher. Thus. .13. So. This is because for higher speed.
torque and even direction of rotation can be changed at anytime to meet new condition. At some greater gain. motor speed can be controlled back to desired value easily. DC motors have speed control capabilities. electric trains. the speed response of the control loop becomes a steady-state oscillation. For this project. By varying the PWM signal from microcontroller (P controller) to the motor driver. If Kp <1. If the gain is increased past the point where steady oscillation is observed. chemical process. the control loop will become unstable and the oscillations will increase in amplitude. by applying Kp =1 to P controller in microcontroller. It is a closed-loop real time control system. which means that speed. The controller will maintain the speed at desired speed when there is a variation of load.1 Conclusion Recent developments in science and technology provide a wide range scope of applications of high performance DC motor drives in area such as rolling mills. The motor will suddenly speed up and it will damage the motor. the speed response become underdamped response. The goal of this project is to design a DC motor speed control system by using microcontroller PIC16F877A. the speed response is not satisfied. robotic manipulators and the home electric appliances require speed controllers to perform tasks.6 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. .
the time for getting data and for microcontroller take correct action will be reducing where t < 0. Based on Equation 3. As a result. due to the size of photodiode which is quite big. if we can increase the resolution of optical encoder by increasing its number of slots. However. there is a constraint with the optical encoder that had been built. the light of the LED cannot be blocked by the cardboard and photodiode will always give High (H) output. but the performance is slightly sluggish where it takes about 2 or 3 second to react properly when there is a disturbance especially at low speed. The objective of the project is successfully fulfilled. then the sensitivity of optical encoder can be increased. the motor speed response can be maintained at desired value although there is a variation of load. For future works. . Besides.4. 5. This is what we need to overcome in order to achieve quick control of motor speed smoothly. 5. Then.3 Recommendation The performance of the system is slightly sluggish.64 In conclusion. the controller can react faster when there is a disturbance.2 Problems Although the controller can function as we expected.39321s. Otherwise. with the Kp =1 for P controller at microcontroller PIC 16F877A. the speed sensor is fail. some recommendations have been listed based on the problems in order to improve the performance. the number of slots at cardboard that can be used is only four. So.
4). Hardware Improvement Use infra red (IR) as transmitter and receiver for optical encoder for more narrow light.65 i. these will allow us to increase the resolution of optical encoder by increasing the number of slots. it can be simulated using software such as Matlab to get the improved motor speed response by using controller packages such as PID controller. time for getting data and for controller to take action also can be reduced. ii. Besides. it will reduce the steady state error (based on Equation 3. iii. . Fuzzy Logic Controller and others. the motor speed response will become better. So. Software Improvement Use fuzzy logic microcontroller which combine the idea of fuzzy logic in microcontroller to obtain a DC motor speed control system with excellent regulation and high robustness. it will reduce the total hardware complexity and cost at the same time. from the mathematical model. Then. Besides. Mathematical modeling of motor response Mathematical model can be obtained from the graph of motor speed response. Thus. So.
August 1999. 121-123. Moore. The Microcontroller Beginner’s Handbook. Singapore: Mc Graw-Hill. 2. 2000. Adkins and Michael A. Lawrence A. 359364 7. 3. 2nd Edition. Vol. http://homepages. Rashid. IEEE Spectrum. P. A. A study On the DC Motor Speed Control by Using Back-EMF Voltage. AsiaSENSE SENSOR. 5. United States of America: Prentice Hall. Muhammad H.66 REFERENCES 1.W. 4: 347-354. 1998. PIC Microcontroller Project Book. C. 4. IEEE Spectrum. . 2nd Edition. No. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. Devices and Applications. 8.hills/SpeedControl/SpeedControllersBody. Marra. April 1973. 2004. Sen and M. Abu Zaharin Ahmad and Mohd Nasir Taib. 3rd edition.ht ml 6. Modeling of a Phase-Locked Loop Servo Controller with Encoder Feedback. Thyristorized DC Drives with Regenerative Braking and Speed Reversal. Iovine John.which. Phase-Locked Loops for Motor-Speed Control. 2003. Power Electronics Circuits.net/paul. 3-5. Duarte. 51-56. 61-67. United States of America: Prompt Publication. L. pg. MacDonald. IECI-25. Christopher A. 1978.
N. Programming in Visual Basic 6. New York: Marcel Dekker. Redwood City. Julia Case Bradley. Simulator. 2nd Edition. http://www. 2nd Edition.au/rs232. Sistem Kawalan Halaju. Paraskevopoulos. 2003. Inc. FG. Sjhinskey. P.seattlerobotics. Version 6. Modern Control Engineering. Inc. http://www. 2002.67 9.airborn. . Anita C. Kertas Kerja Makmal Kawalan I 15.html 10.org/encoder 13. 2002 12. 1995. http://www.com. Millspaugh.com 14. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. MPLAB IDE. Singapore: McGrawHill Book Company. Process Control Systems.microchip. 16. California: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. Control Systems Engineering. 17. Nise. Editor User’s Guide 11.0. Norman S.
Set Baud Rate 9600 for 20MHZ for USART Communication CBLOCK 0X20 D1 . CCP2 (PIN16) .Change to BANK1 BSF STATUS.Change to BANK0 BCF STATUS.For error correction ENDC .RP0 BCF STATUS. Crystal .For Counter X2 .For Reference Speed CHANGE . Capacitor .============= HARDWARE CONNECTION=========================== .68 APPENDIX A Program in Microcontroller PIC 16F877A for DC Motor Speed Control .inc> .RP1 ENDM BANK1 MACRO .CONNECT TO L298(H.=============================================================== .For Delay D2 .asm . Project : Dc Motor Speed Control by Using Microcontroller PIC16F877A . BAUD_RATE EQU 0X81 . list directive to define processor ERRORLEVEL -302 ERRORLEVEL -305 #include <p16f877A.=============================================================== . File name : psm.For Delay X1 .20MHZ .22pF . Date : 27/1/2005 .For Delay D3 . RA0 as speed counter .----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . Programmer : EA AI CHOON .CONNECT TO ENABLE L298 . RB1(PIN34) & RB2 (PIN35) .===============MACRO CHANGE BANK ============================ BANK0 MACRO .RP0 BCF STATUS.L) .=============================================================== .Set up initialize value and cblock for the variables needed.For Gain REFERENCE . processor specific variable definitions __CONFIG _CP_OFF & _WDT_OFF & _BODEN_OFF & _PWRTE_ON & _HS_OSC & _WRT_OFF & _LVP_ON & _CPD_OFF .RP1 ENDM .=============================================================== list p=16f877A . Supervisor : MOHAMAD SHUKRI ABDUL MANAF .
RA0 .If bandwith is less than 1ms.------------------------------.39321 where X2 as gain X2 .Z . Reference speed = 0? STANDBY .107ms = 0. then it is noise BTFSC PORTA.##########################INITIALIZATION################################ INIT BANK0 CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF CLRF PORTA PORTB PORTC PORTD X1 X2 REFERENCE .0 GOTO $-1 CALL CHECKNOISE BTFSC PORTA.Interrupt Process . Get data again D'30' .============== MAIN PROGRAM =================================== MAIN STANDBY BANK0 CALL CALL MOVF SUBLW BTFSC GOTO MOVLW MOVWF INIT .AS SPEED COUNTER ----------------------------------------LOOP BTFSS PORTA.TMR1IF GOTO LOOP .0 INCF X1. Get data for reference speed REFERENCE. Intialization SERIALSCAN .================================================================= . Set Timer1 as 30*13.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1 .W 0X00 STATUS.0 GOTO $-1 BTFSS PIR1. Yes. increase counter RETURN .Not noise.Check Noise function CHECKNOISE CALL DELAY1 .69 ORG GOTO ORG GOTO 0x00 MAIN 0x04 INT .
---Initialize PORT---------------------------BANK1 MOVLW 0x06 MOVWF ADCON1 MOVLW 0xFF MOVWF TRISA MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 BSF BCF 0x00 TRISB PORTB.Others output .RC6&7->Input.Set PortB as output .-----Set TIMER1 AS TIMER MODE-----------------BANK0 MOVLW 0X00 MOVWF TMR1H .RB2(pin 34 and 35) sambung ke pin 10 dan 12 of L298 .Pre=1:1 TMR1=Int TMR1=ON MOVWF T1CON BANK1 MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 MOVLW MOVWF b'00000001' PIE1 b'11000000' INTCON .2 . 65535*1/(20M/4)=13.152KHZ) .70 . PRESCALE = 1 .ON TMR2.PortA as digital input .1 PORTB. PEIE=1 .Timer= 0000-FFFFH = .2 BANK0 CLRF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF TMR2 0X00 CCPR2L 0x04 T2CON 0x0C CCP2CON .Duty Cycle = 0% .Keep in file register .107ms MOVLW 0X00 MOVWF TMR1L MOVLW b'00000001' .----Initialize PWM----------------------------BANK1 MOVLW 0xFF MOVWF PR2 BCF TRISC.F MOVLW MOVWF BAUD_RATE SPBRG .PWM Setup: Period KHZ(19.PortA as input .------Set up Serial Port----------------------SERIAL_SETUP: BANK1 MOVLW 0XC0 IORWF TRISC.GIE=1.PWM Mode .1 BCF TRISC.RB1.TMR1IE=1 .
CREN .RCIF .Check if data receive $-1 .Disable continuous reception RCSTA.W .CREN .######################## END OF INITIALIZATION########################## .------------Short Delay----------------------------------------DELAY1 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF DECFSZ GOTO D'5' D3 D'9' D2 D'36' D1 D1 $-1 .Get received data to W .71 MOVLW MOVWF BANK0 MOVLW MOVWF RETURN 0X24 TXSTA .Correction of Overrun Error FERR_ERROR .^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ SUBROUTIONE^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ .W REFERENCE .Discard Framming Error .-----------Correction of Framming Error-----------FERR_ERROR MOVF RETURN RCREG.Correction of Framming Error PIR1.Enable transmission & high baud rate 0X90 RCSTA .PAUSE FOR ABOUT 1mS .Wait until new data RCREG.Enable srial port & continuous reception .-----------Correction of Overrun Error-------------OVERRUN_ERROR BCF BSF RETURN RCSTA.TXIF $-1 TXREG .-----------Get data for reference speed ------------------SERIALSCAN CALL CALL BTFSS GOTO MOVF MOVWF RETURN OVERRUN_ERROR .Enable continuous reception .----------Send the detect speed to PC------------SERIAL_TRANSMIT: BTFSS GOTO MOVWF RETURN PIR1.Check if data TXREG is transfer to TSR ->TXREG is empty .
Detect speed CHANGE .detect speed REFERENCE. No.72 DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO RETURN DELAY2 MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF MOVLW MOVWF DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO DECFSZ GOTO RETURN D2 $-5 D3 $-9 D'255' D3 D'255' D2 D'36' D1 D1 $-1 D2 $-5 D3 $-9 .Correction of Framming Error X1 .F CONTINUE .W SERIAL_TRANSMIT OVERRUN_ERROR .W GREATER . . Yes. Detect speed > ref speed.C GREATER . Clear interruption flag .Z .W .W CCPR2L.*********************** INTERRUPT PROCESS****************************** INT CLRF DECFSZ GOTO MOVF SUBWF MOVWF BTFSC GOTO LESS MOVF ADDWF GOTO BTFSC GOTO MOVF SUBLW SUBWF SHOWSPEED MOVF CALL CALL CALL CLRF PIR1 X2. Add duty cycle with error correction SHOWSPEED STATUS.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ . CHANGE = error correction STATUS.F . decrease duty cycle with error correction 0XFF.W .F X1.PAUSE FOR ABOUT 1mS .799527s . no need correction. Reference = Detect? SHOWSPEED .Correction of Overrun Error FERR_ERROR . Jump to > or = check CHANGE. Ref speed . Continue counter GETDATA X1. Reference < Detect ? . Haven't reach 0.Reset Counter CHANGE. Convert the negative value to positive value CCPR2L. Get value of counter.
Z CONTINUE 0X00 CCPR2L DELAY2 . continue the process .73 MOVLW MOVWF CALL MOVF SUBLW BTFSS GOTO STOPMOTOR MOVLW MOVWF CALL RETFIE D'30' X2 SERIALSCAN REFERENCE. No. Reference speed = 0? .-------------------------------------END OF PROGRAM------------------------------------------------ .******************** END OF INTERRUPT PROCESS************************* END . Stop motor CONTINUE .Reset Timer . Yes. Get data for reference speed .W 0X00 STATUS.
Value = 0 Counter2.Sheets("Sheet1").Update Counter1.Workbook Dim xlchart As Excel.Visible = True End End Sub Private Sub cmdNew_Click() 'Clear the graph Workbooks("Speed2").Value = 0 End Sub Private Sub cmdRun_Stop_Click() If cmdRun_Stop.Range("A1:E1000") = "" j=2 OLE_Speed.Value = 0 Counter3.39321) 'Convert the desired speed into desired pulse 'Exit the form and show the graph in Microsoft Excel .Caption = "&Run" Then desired_speed = Val(cboSpeed.0 for DC Motor Speed Control Using Microcontroller PIC 16F877A Option Explicit Dim pulse As Integer 'Varible for desired_pulse Dim str As Variant 'Count pulse received from microcontroller Dim speed As Double 'Real speed Dim desired_speed As Double Dim Error_speed As Double Dim objExcel As Excel.Application ' Setup for OLE graph Dim wExcel As Excel.Chart Dim j As Integer Private Sub cmdExit_Click() objExcel.Text) ' Get desired speed from user pulse = Round(desired_speed / 60 * 4 * 0.74 APPENDIX B Source Code of Visual Basic 6.
Caption = "&Stop" Then Counter1.Caption = "&Stop" cmdExit. 1 stop bit .Output = Chr$(pulse) ' Send desired count pulse to microcontroller lblPulse.75 If Val(cboSpeed.InputMode = comInputModeText ' Set the incoming messages to ve ASCII text characters .Caption = pulse Counter1.RThreshold = 1 ' Set the Receive Oncomm event to occur after 1 byte of data have been received .EOFEnable = False ' Disable the End of File type .Enabled = True End If End Sub Private Sub Form_Load() 'MSComm setup With MSComm1 .Text) > 0 Then ' If receive desired speed from user MSComm1.Settings = "9600.DTREnable = True ' Enable the Data Terminal Ready signal . 8 data bits.1" ' Baud rate 9600.Handshaking = comNone ' Disable all network handshaking .N.TimerEnabled = True ' Start the counter as timer cboSpeed.TimerEnabled = False ' Stop the timer cmdRun_Stop.8.Enabled = False Else MsgBox "You must select a desired speed first!".CommPort = 2 ' Use CommPort2 to communicate with microcontroller .Output = Chr$(0) ' Send speed = 0 rpm to stop the motor cboSpeed.Enabled = True cmdNew.Locked = False cmdExit. "Invalid Data" ' If no desired speed receive from user MSComm1.Output = Chr$(0) cmdExit.Locked = True ' Lock the desired speed selection cmdRun_Stop. none parity.NullDiscard = False ' Discard bytes that are all zero's .OutBufferSize = 1024 ' Transmitter buffer = 1024 bytes .Enabled = False ' Disable the command of Exit and New Graph cmdNew. vbOKOnly.Caption = "&Run" pulse = 0 MSComm1.Enabled = True cmdNew.Enabled = True End If ElseIf cmdRun_Stop.InputLen = 1 ' Read all the charater in buffer .InBufferSize = 1024 ' Receiver buffer = 1024 bytes .
Sheets("Sheet1") .Value * 60) + Counter1.Value * 60 * 60) + (Counter2. 2) = Format(speed.CommEvent = comEvReceive Then ' This is used when data is received str = Asc(MSComm1.Caption = speed lblError.Caption = Error_speed MSComm1. "##.xls") ' File Speed2 as storage objExcel.Sheets("Sheet1") .Value * 60) + Counter1.Value Then 'Plotting graph With Workbooks("Speed2").Cells(j.Open("C:\Speed2. 2) ' Calculate the error between detected speed with the desired speed lblSpeed.Value * 60 * 60) + (Counter2.Output = Chr$(pulse) 'Always send desired pulse to microcontroller End If If Counter1.Update End Sub Private Sub MSComm1_OnComm() If MSComm1. 1).39321 * 60.Visible = False j=2 With Workbooks("Speed2").Application") Set wExcel = objExcel.Value > Workbooks("Speed2"). 1) = (Counter3.Cells(j. 2) ' Convert counter pulse into speed(rpm) Error_speed = Round((speed .Cells(1.RTSEnable = True .##") .Cells(j.Cells(j .Caption = str speed = Round(str / 4 / 0.SThreshold = 1 .Workbooks.Input) 'Get the counter pulse from microcontroller lblCount_pulse.76 .PortOpen = True End With 'Setup for excel file ' Enable the request to send data ' Set the Transmitter Oncomm event to occur after 1 byte of data have been received ' Open CommPort Set objExcel = GetObject("".Value > 0 Then If (Counter3.Sheets("Sheet1").desired_speed). 1) = 0 . "Excel.Cells(2.Value . 1) = 0 End With OLE_Speed.1. 3) = desired_speed .
and Counter3 as hour If Counter1.TimerEnabled = True If Counter2.77 End With j=j+1 OLE_Speed.Update ' Update the graph End If End If 'Timer : Counter1 as second.Value = 60 Then Counter3.Value = Counter2.Value + 1 Counter1.Value + 1 Counter2. Counter2 as minute.Value = Counter3.Value = 60 Then Counter2.Value = 0 Counter1.Value = 0 End If End If End Sub .
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