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Chapter 1 - Electric Circuit Variables

# Chapter 1 - Electric Circuit Variables

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Introdução Aos Circuitos Elétricos - 7th ed - Dorf Svoboda - Resolução - Capitulo 1
Introdução Aos Circuitos Elétricos - 7th ed - Dorf Svoboda - Resolução - Capitulo 1

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06/07/2014

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# Design Problems

DP 1-1
The voltage may be as large as 20(1.25) =25 V and the current may be as large as (0.008)(1.25)
=0.01 A. The element needs to be able to absorb (25 V)(0.01 A) =0.25 W continuously. A
Grade B element is adequate, but without margin for error. Specify a Grade B device if you trust
the estimates of the maximum voltage and current and a Grade A device otherwise.

DP 1-2
( ) ( ) ( )
8 8 8 8
20 1 0.03 0.6 1 W
t t t t
p t e e e e
− − − −
= − × = −

Here is a MATLAB program to plot p(t):

cl ear

t 0=0; %i ni t i al t i me
t f =1; %f i nal t i me
dt =0. 02; %t i me i ncr ement
t =t 0: dt : t f ; %t i me

v=20*( 1- exp( - 8*t ) ) ; %devi ce vol t age
i =. 030*exp( - 8*t ) ; %devi ce cur r ent

f or k=1: l engt h( t )
p( k) =v( k) *i ( k) ; %power
end

pl ot ( t , p)
xl abel ( ' t i me, s' ) ;
yl abel ( ' power , W' )

Here is the plot:

The circuit element must be able to absorb 0.15 W.
1-9
Problems
Section 1-2 Electric Circuits and Current Flow

P1.2-1
( ) ( )
5 5
4 1 20
t t
d
i t e e
dt
− −
= − = A

P1.2-2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5 5
0 0 0 0
4 4
0 4 1 0 4 4 4
5 5
t t t t
t
q t i d q e d d e d t e
τ τ
τ τ τ τ τ
− −
= + = − + = − = +
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
5 −
− C

P1.2-3
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0 0
4 4
0 4sin3 0 cos3 cos3 C
3 3
t t
t
q t i d q d t τ τ τ τ τ = + = + = − = − +
∫ ∫
4
3

P1.2-4
( ) ( ) 0
t t
q t i d d τ τ
−∞ −∞
= =
∫ ∫
τ = 0 C for t ≤ 2 so q(2) =0.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 2 2
t t
t
q t i d q d τ τ τ τ = + = =
∫ ∫
= 2t−4 C for 2 ≤ t ≤ 4. In particular, q(4) =4 C.
( ) ( ) ( )
4
4 4
4 1 4 4
t t
t
q t i d q d τ τ τ τ = + = − + = − +
∫ ∫
= 8−t C for 4 ≤ t ≤ 8. In particular, q(8) =0 C.
( ) ( ) ( )
8 8
8 0 0
t t
q t i d q d τ τ τ = + = +
∫ ∫
= 0 C for 8 ≤ t .

P1.2-5

( )
( )
( ) 2 2
0 0
( ) 2 0 2
2 2
t
t
dq t
i t i t t
dt
e t
− −
⎧ <

= =

− >

< <

P1.2-6

5
C
=600 A =600
s
C s mg
Silver deposited =600 20min 60 1.118 =8.05 10 mg=805 g
s min C
i
× × × ×

1-2
Section 1-3 Systems of Units

P1.3-1
( )( ) 4000 A 0.001 s 4 C q i t Δ = Δ = =

P1.3-2
9
6
3
45 10
9 10
5 10
q
i
t

Δ ×
= = = ×
Δ ×
=9 μA

P1.3-3
19 9 19
10 19
9
electron C electron C
= 10billion 1.602 10 = 10 10 1.602 10
s electron s electron
electron C
= 10 1.602 10
electron s
C
1.602 10 1.602 nA
s
i
− −

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
× × ×
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
× ×
= × =

Section 1-5 Power and Energy

P1.5-1

a.) ( )( )( )
4
= = 10A 2hrs 3600s/hr =7.2 10 C q i dt i t = Δ ×

b.) ( )( ) 110V 10 A 1100 W P v i = = =
c.)
0.06\$
Cost = 1.1kW 2hrs =0.132\$
kWhr
× ×

P1.5-2

( )( )
3
= 6V 10mA 0.06 W
200 Ws
3.33 10 s
0.06 W
P
w
t
P
=
Δ ⋅
Δ = = = ×

1-3
Section 1-3 Systems of Units

P1.3-1
( )( ) 4000 A 0.001 s 4 C q i t Δ = Δ = =

P1.3-2
9
6
3
45 10
9 10
5 10
q
i
t

Δ ×
= = = ×
Δ ×
=9 μA

P1.3-3
19 9 19
10 19
9
electron C electron C
= 10billion 1.602 10 = 10 10 1.602 10
s electron s electron
electron C
= 10 1.602 10
electron s
C
1.602 10 1.602 nA
s
i
− −

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
× × ×
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
× ×
= × =

Section 1-5 Power and Energy

P1.5-1

a.) ( )( )( )
4
= = 10A 2hrs 3600s/hr =7.2 10 C q i dt i t = Δ ×

b.) ( )( ) 110V 10 A 1100 W P v i = = =
c.)
0.06\$
Cost = 1.1kW 2hrs =0.132\$
kWhr
× ×

P1.5-2

( )( )
3
= 6V 10mA 0.06 W
200 Ws
3.33 10 s
0.06 W
P
w
t
P
=
Δ ⋅
Δ = = = ×

1-3
P1.5-3

30
for 0 t 10s: =30 V and = 2 A 30(2) 60 W
15
v i t t P t ≤ ≤ = ∴ = = t
( ) ( )
( )( )
2
25
for 10 15s: 10 30 V 80 V
5
( ) 5 80 and ( ) 2 A 2 5 80 10 160 W
t v t t b v b
v t t i t t P t t t t
≤ ≤ = − + ⇒ = ⇒ =
= − + = ⇒ = − + = − +

( )( )
30
for 15 t 25s: 5 V and ( ) A
10
(25) 0 b =75 ( ) 3 75 A
5 3 75 15 375 W
v i t t
i i t t
P t t
≤ ≤ = = − +
= ⇒ ⇒ = − +
b
∴ = − + = − +

( ) ( )
10 15 25
2
0 10 15
15 25
10
2 2 3 2
0
10 15
Energy 60 160 10 375 15
10 15
30 80 375 5833.3 J
3 2
Pdt t dt t t dt t dt
t t t t t
= = + − + −
= + − + − =
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

1-4
P1.5-4

a.) Assuming no more energy is delivered to the battery after 5 hours (battery is fully
charged).
( )
( ) 5 3600
5 3600
2
0
0
0
3
0.5 0.5
2 11 22
3600 3600
= 441 10 J 441 kJ
t
w Pdt vi d d t
τ
τ τ
⎛ ⎞
= = = + = +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
× =

∫ ∫
τ

b.)
1 hr 10¢
Cost =441kJ 1.23¢
3600s kWhr
× × =

P1.5-5
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1
4cos3 sin3 sin0 sin6 sin6 W
12 6 6
p t v t i t t t t t
⎛ ⎞
= = = + =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

( )
1
0.5 sin3 0.0235 W
6
p = =
( )
1
1 sin6 0.0466 W
6
p = = −

Here is a MATLAB program to plot p(t):

cl ear
t 0=0; %i ni t i al t i me
t f =2; %f i nal t i me
dt =0. 02; %t i me i ncr ement
t =t 0: dt : t f ; %t i me

v=4*cos( 3*t ) ; %devi ce vol t age
i =( 1/ 12) *si n( 3*t ) ; %devi ce cur r ent

f or k=1: l engt h( t )
p( k) =v( k) *i ( k) ; %power
end

pl ot ( t , p)
xl abel ( ' t i me, s' ) ;
yl abel ( ' power , W' )
1-5

P1.5-6
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) 8sin3 2sin3 8 cos0 cos6 8 8cos6 W p t v t i t t t t t = = = − = −

Here is a MATLAB program to plot p(t):

cl ear

t 0=0; %i ni t i al t i me
t f =2; %f i nal t i me
dt =0. 02; %t i me i ncr ement
t =t 0: dt : t f ; %t i me

v=8*si n( 3*t ) ; %devi ce vol t age
i =2*si n( 3*t ) ; %devi ce cur r ent

f or k=1: l engt h( t )
p( k) =v( k) *i ( k) ; %power
end

pl ot ( t , p)
xl abel ( ' t i me, s' ) ;
yl abel ( ' power , W' )
1-6
P1.5-7
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
4 1 2 8 1 W
t t t t
p t v t i t e e e e
− − − −
= = − × = −

Here is a MATLAB program to plot p(t):

cl ear

t 0=0; %i ni t i al t i me
t f =2; %f i nal t i me
dt =0. 02; %t i me i ncr ement
t =t 0: dt : t f ; %t i me

v=4*( 1- exp( - 2*t ) ) ; %devi ce vol t age
i =2*exp( - 2*t ) ; %devi ce cur r ent

f or k=1: l engt h( t )
p( k) =v( k) *i ( k) ; %power
end

pl ot ( t , p)
xl abel ( ' t i me, s' ) ;
yl abel ( ' power , W' )

P1.5-8

=3 0.2=0.6 W
0.6 5 60=180 J
P V I
w P t
= ×
= Δ = × ×

1-7

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