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* TM 1-1520-238-10

TECHNICAL MANUAL WARNING DATA

OPERATOR’s MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOR
INTRODUCTION

HELICOPTER, ATTACK, DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION


AH-64A APACHE
AVIONICS

MISSION EQUIPMENT

OPERATING LIMITS AND


RESTRICTIONS

WEIGHT/BALANCE AND LOADING

PERFORMANCE DATA

NORMAL PROCEDURES

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

REFERENCES
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public
release; distribution is unlimited.
ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS

ALPHABETICAL INDEX

HEADQUARTERS,
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
31 AUGUST 1994
* This manual supersedes TM 55-1520-238-10, dated 28 June
1984, including all changes.
URGENT TM 1-1520-238-10
C 11

}
CHANGE HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
NO. 11 WASHINGTON, D.C., 14 FEBRUARY 2003

Operator’s Manual
for
AH-64A HELICOPTER

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar
in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature point
Remove pages Insert pages

A through C/(D blank) A through C/(D blank)


9-21 and 9-22 9-21 and 9-22
9-25 and 9-26 9-25 through 9-27/(9-28 blank)

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

ERIC K. SHINSEKI
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0304204

DISTRIBUTION: To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN 310293)


requirements for TM 1-1520-238-10.
TM 1-1520-238-10
C 10

HEADQUARTERS
CHANGE

NO. 10 } DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


WASHINGTON, D.C., 15 NOVEMBER 2002

Operator’s Manual
for
AH-64A HELICOPTER

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar
in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature point
Remove pages Insert pages

A through C/(D blank) A through C/(D blank)


iii/(iv blank) iii/(iv blank)
2-19 through 2-22 2-19 through 2-22
2-55 and 2-56 2-55 and 2-56
3-63 and 2-64 3-63 and 2-64
3-64.1 and 3-64.2 3-64.1 and 3-64.2
3-64.7 and 3-64.8 3-64.7 and 3-64.8
3-64.15 and 3-64.16 3-64.15 and 3-64.16
3-69 and 3-70 3-69 and 3-70
4-35 through 4-38 4-35 through 4-38
4-49 through 4-52 4-49 through 4-52
4-66.1 and 4-66.2 4-66.1 and 4-66.2
4-66.5/(4-66.6 blank) 4-66.5/(4-66.6 blank)
5-3 and 5-4 5-3 and 5-4
5-15 and 5-16 5-15 and 5-16
7-7 and 7-8 7-7 and 7-8
7-13 and 7-14 7-13 and 7-14
7A-7 and 7A-8 7A-7 and 7A-8
7A-15 and 7A-16 7A-15 and 7A-16
8-9 and 8-10 8-9 and 8-10
8-13 and 8-14 8-13 and 8-14
8-17 and 8-18 8-17 and 8-18
9-3 and 9-4 9-3 and 9-4
9-9 and 9-10 9-9 and 9-10
––––– 9-10.1/(9-10.2 blank)
9-11 through 9-14 9-11 through 9-14
9-19 through 9-26 9-19 through 9-26

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.


TM 1-1520-238-10
C 10

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

Official: ERIC K. SHINSEKI


General, United States Army
Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0228204

DISTRIBUTION: To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN 310293)


requirements for TM 1-1520-238-10.
TM 1-1520-238-10
C9

HEADQUARTERS

}
CHANGE
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
NO. 9 WASHINGTON, D.C., 21 NOVEMBER 2001

Operator’s Manual
for
HELICOPTER, ATTACK, AH-64A APACHE

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar
in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.
Remove pages Insert pages

A through C/(D blank) A through C/(D blank)


i and ii i and ii
1-1 and 1-2 1-1 and 1-2
2-25 and 2-26 2-25 and 2-26
––––– 2-26.1/(2-26.2 blank)
2-29 through 2-34 2-29 through 2-34
2-41 and 2-42 2-41 and 2-42
2-47 and 2-48 2-47 and 2-48
––––– 2-48.1 through 2-48.3/(2-48.4 blank)
2-55 and 2-56 2-55 and 2-56
4-7 through 4-10 4-7 through 4-10
4-15 and 4-16 4-15 and 4-16
4-16.1/(4-16.2 blank) 4-16.1/(4-16.2 blank)
4-61 and 4-62 4-61 and 4-62
4-65 and 4-66 4-65 and 4-66
4-66.1 through 4-66.4 4-66.1 through 4-66.4
––––– 4-66.5/(4-66.6 blank)
5-1 through 5-16 5-1 through 5-16
5-17/(5-18 blank) –––––
8-7 through 8-10 8-7 through 8-10
8-15 and 8-16 8-15 and 8-16
8-19 and 8-20 8-19 and 8-20
9-1 through 9-22 9-1 through 9-22
––––– 9-23 through 9-26
B-1 through B-18 B-1 through B-18
Index 1 and Index 2 Index 1 and Index 2
Index 7 through Index 22 Index 7 through Index 22

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.


TM 1-1520-238-10
C9

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

ERIC K. SHINSEKI
Official: General, United States Army
Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0127804

DISTRIBUTION: To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN 310293)


requirements for TM 1152023810.
TM 1-1520-238-10
C8

HEADQUARTERS

}
CHANGE
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
NO. 8 WASHINGTON, D.C., 18 January 2001

Operator’s Manual
for
HELICOPTER, ATTACK, AH-64A APACHE
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:
1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar
in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.

Remove pages Insert pages

A and B A and B
C/(D blank) C/(D blank)
2-51 and 2-52 2-51 and 2-52
2-83 through 2-88 2-83 through 2-88
––––––– 2-88.1/(2.88.2 blank)
3-63 and 3-64 3-63 and 3-64
3-64.1 through 3-64.28 3-64.1 through 3-64.28
3-69 and 3-70 3-69 and 3-70
4-9 and 4-10 4-9 and 4-10
4-41 and 4-42 4-41 and 4-42
4-51 and 4-52 4-51 and 4-52
4-55 and 4-56 4-55 and 4-56
4-61 through 4-66 4-61 through 4-66
4-66.3/(4-66.4 blank) 4-66.3/(4-66.4 blank)
4-67 through 4-70 4-67 through 4-70
8-9 through 8-16 8-9 through 8-16
8-19 through 8-22 8-19 through 8-22
9-21 and 9-22 9-21 and 9-22
B-1 through B-4 B-1 through B-4
B-9 through B-12 B-9 through B-12
Index 1 and Index 2 Index 1 and Index 2
Index 11 through Index 16 Index 11 through Index 16
Index 19 and Index 20 Index 19 and Index 20

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.


TM 1-1520-238-10
C8

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

ERIC K. SHINSEKI
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
0033605

DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 310293, requirements for
TM 1152023810.
TM 1-1520-238-10
URGENT C7

HEADQUARTERS

}
CHANGE
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
NO. 7 WASHINGTON, D.C., 15 December 1999

Operator’s Manual
for
HELICOPTER, ATTACK, AH-64A APACHE

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar
in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.

Remove pages Insert pages

A and B A and B
–––– C/D blank
9-13 and 9-14 9-13 and 9-14

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

ERIC K. SHINSEKI
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
9933402

DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with initial distribution No. (IDN 310293) requirements for
TM 1-1520-238-10.
TM 1-1520-238-10
C6

HEADQUARTERS

}
CHANGE
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
NO. 6 WASHINGTON, D.C., 4 June 1999

Operator’s Manual
for
HELICOPTER, ATTACK, AH-64A APACHE

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar
in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.

Remove pages Insert pages

A and B A and B
–––– C/(D blank)
2-55 and 2-56 2-55 and 2-56
2-87 and 2-88 2-87 and 2-88
2-93 and 2-94 2-93 and 2-94
2-97 and 2-98 2-97 and 2-98
3-29 through 3-32 3-29 through 3-32
3-63 and 3-64 3-63 and 3-64
3-64.27/(3-64.28 blank) 3-64.27/(3-64.28 blank)
4-49 and 4-50 4-49 and 4-50
5-15 and 5-16 5-15 and 5-16
8-9 through 8-12 8-9 through 8-12
8-15 and 8-16 8-15 and 8-16
9-1 and 9-2 9-1 and 9-2
9-11 through 9-14 9-11 through 9-14

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
9914404

DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with initial distribution No. (IDN 310293) requirements for
TM 1152023810.
TM 1-1520-238-10
C5

HEADQUARTERS

}
CHANGE
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
NO. 5 WASHINGTON, D.C., 27 February 1998

Operator’s Manual
for
HELICOPTER, ATTACK,
AH-64A APACHE

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Remove old pages and insert new pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by
a vertical bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.

Remove pages Insert pages

A and B A and B
i and ii i and ii
2-69 and 2-70 2-69 and 2-70
------ 2-70.1/(2-70.2 blank)
4-75 and 4-76 4-75 and 4-76
4-77/(4-78 blank) 4-77 and 4-78
Index 2.1 and Index 2.2 Index 2.1 and Index 2.2
Index 7 and Index 8 Index 7 and Index 8
Cover 1/(Cover 2 blank) Cover 1/(Cover 2 blank)

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
04914

DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with Initial Distribution No. (IDN) 310293 requirements for
TM 1152023810.
TM 1-1520-238-10
C4

HEADQUARTERS

}
CHANGE
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
NO. 4 WASHINGTON, D.C., 30 July 1997
OPERATOR'S MANUAL
for
HELICOPTER, ATTACK, AH-64A APACHE

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimitd.


TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical bar
in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.

Remove pages Insert pages

A and B A and B
i and ii i and ii
1-1 and 1-2 1-1 and 1-2
2-7 and 2-8 2-7 and 2-8
2-45 through 2-54 2-45 through 2-54
2-71 through 2-74 2-71 through 2-74
2–85 through 2–88 2–85 through 2–88
3-7 and 3-8 3-7 and 3-8
3-18.3 and 3.18.4 3-18.3 and 3.18.4
3-18.9 through 3-18.11/(3-18.12 blank) 3-18.9 through 3-18.12
3-19 and 3-20 3-19 and 3-20
3-33 and 3-34 3-33 and 3-34
–––– 3–34.1/(3-34.2 blank)
3-55 and 3-56 3-55 and 3-56
3-61 through 3-64 3-61 through 3-64
3-64.1 through 3-64.26 3-64.1 through 3-64.26
–––– 3-64.27/(3-64.28 blank)
3-65 and 3-66 3-65 and 3-66
4-1 and 4-2 4-1 and 4-2
4-5 through 4-14 4-5 through 4-14
4-14.1/(4–14.2 blank) 4-14.1/(4–14.2 blank)
4-15 and 4-16 4-15 and 4-16
–––– 4-16.1/(4-16.2 blank)
4-17 through 4-20 4-17 through 4-20
4-33 and 4-34 4-33 and 4-34
4-49 through 4-56 4-49 through 4-56
4–59 and 4–60 4–59 and 4–60
4-63 through 4-66 4-63 through 4-66
4–66.1 through 4–66.3/(4–66.4 blank) 4–66.1 through 4–66.3/(4–66.4 blank)
4–67 through 4–70 4–67 through 4–70
–––– 4–70.1/(4–70.2 blank)
5-9 through 5-14 5-9 through 5-14
6-1 and 6-2 6-1 and 6-2
6-5 and 6-6 6-5 and 6-6
8-9 through 8-16 8-9 through 8-16
TM 1-1520-238-10
C4

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9-3 and 9-4 9-3 and 9-4


9-9 and 9-10 9-9 and 9-10
9-13 through 9-16 9-13 through 9-16
9-21 and 9-22 9-21 and 9-22
Index 1 and Index 2 Index 1 and Index 2
Index 3 through Index 6 Index 3 through Index 6
Index 9 and index 10 Index 9 and index 10
Index 13 through Index 20 Index 13 through Index 20

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
04011

DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0293, requirements for
TM 1-1520-238-10.
TM 1-1520-238-10
C3

CHANGE HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF


THE ARMY AND THE AIR FORCE
NO. 3 WASHINGTON, D.C., 20 September 1996

Operator’s Manual
for
HELICOPTER, ATTACK, AH-64A APACHE

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for publlic release; distribution is unlimited.

TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical
bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.

Remove pages Insert pages


A and B A and B
2-1 and 2-2 2-1 and 2-2
2-15 and 2-16 2-15 and 2-16
2-45 through 2-48 2-45 through 2-48
2-55 and 2-56 2-55 and 2-56
2-67 through 2-70 2-67 through 2-70
3-3 through 3-6 3-3 through 3-6
–––– 3-18.1 through 3-3.18.11/(3-3.18.12 blank)
3-19 and 3-20 3-19 and 3-20
3-29 through 3-64 3-29 through 3-64
–––– 3-64.1 through 3-64.26
3-65 and 3-66 3-65 and 3-66
4-1 through 4-6 4-1 through 4-6
4-9 and 4-10 4-9 and 4-10
4-19 and 4-20 4-19 and 4-20
4-25 and 4-26 4-25 and 4-26
4-33 and 4-34 4-33 and 4-34
4-39 through 4-42 4-39 through 4-42
4-47 through 4-50 4-47 through 4-50
4-61 and 4-62 4-61 and 4-62
4-69 and 4-70 4-69 and 4-70
5-1 through 5-4 5-1 through 5-4
5-9 through 5-14 5-9 through 5-14
6-5 and 6-6 6-5 and 6-6
6-17 and 6-18 6-17 and 6-18
7-1 through 7-4 7-1 through 7-4
TM 1-1520-238-10
C3

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7-11 and 7-12 7-11 and 7-12
7A-1 through 7A-4 7A-1 through 7A-4
7A-65 and 7A-66 7A-65 and 7A-66
8-3 through 8-6 8-3 through 8-6
8-11 and 8-12 8-11 and 8-12
8-15 and 8-16 8-15 and 8-16
9-3 and 9-4 9-3 and 9-4
9-7 through 9-22 9-7 through 9-22
B-1 through B8 B-1 through B8
B-11 and B12 B-11 and B12
B-15 and B16 B-15 and B16
Index 1 and index 2 Index 1 and index 2
–––––– Index 2.1 and Index 2.2
Index 3 through Index 14 Index 3 through Index 14

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
02728

DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0293, requirements for
TM 1-1520-238-10.
TM 1-1520-238-10
C2

CHANGE HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
NO. 2 WASHINGTON, D.C., 5 February 1996

Operator’s Manual
for
HELICOPTER, ATTACK, AH-64A APACHE

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Distribution Statement is changed on the cover as shown above.

2. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical
bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.

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A/(B blank) A and B


2-11 through 2-16 2-11 through 2-16
2-23 through 2-26 2-23 through 2-26
2-29 and 2-30 2-29 and 2-30
2-33 through 2-36 2-33 through 2-36
2-65 and 2-66 2-65 and 2-66
2-79 and 2-80 2-79 and 2-80
– – – – 2-80.1/(2-80.2 blank)
2-83 through 2-88 2-83 through 2-88
3-7 and 3-8 3-7 and 3-8
3-17 and 3-18 3-17 and 3-18
3-69 and 3-70 3-69 and 3-70
4-1 and 4-2 4-1 and 4-2
4-49 and 4-50 4-49 and 4-50
4-63 and 4-64 4-63 and 4-64
4-69 and 4-70 4-69 and 4-70
5-1 and 5-2 5-1 and 5-2
5-9 and 5-10 5-9 and 5-10
6-7 and 6-8 6-7 and 6-8
6-11 and 6-12 6-11 and 6-12
6-15 and 6-16 6-15 and 6-16
7-3 and 7-4 7-3 and 7-4
7-69 and 7-70 7-69 and 7-70
7A-3 and 7A-4 7A-3 and 7A-4
7A-65 and 7A-66 7A-65 and 7A-66
8-7 through 8-16 8-7 through 8-16
TM 1-1520-238-10
C2

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9-3 and 9-4 9-3 and 9-4


9-9 and 9-10 9-9 and 9-10
9-13 through 9-22 9-13 through 9-22
Index 1 through Index 4 Index 1 through Index 4
Index 11 through Index 14 Index 11 through Index 14
Index 17 through Index 20 Index 17 through Index 20

3. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
01478

DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0293, requirements for
TM 1-1520-238-10.
TM 1-1520-238-10
C1

CHANGE HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
NO. 1 WASHINGTON, D.C., 15 May 1995

Operator’s Manual
for
HELICOPTER, ATTACK, AH-64A APACHE

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT C: Distribution is authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their con-
tractors only to protect technical or operational information from automatic dissemination under the In-
ternational Exchange Program or by other means. This determination was made on 1 July 1994. Other
requests for this document will be referred to U. S. Army Aviation and Troop Command, ATTN: AMSAT-
I-MT, 4300 Goodfellow Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63120-1798.

TM 1-1520-238-10, 31 August 1994, is changed as follows:

1. Remove and insert pages as indicated below. New or changed text material is indicated by a vertical
bar in the margin. An illustration change is indicated by a miniature pointing hand.

Remove pages Insert pages

––––– A/(B blank)


1-1 and 1-2 1-1 and 1-2
2-7 and 2-8 2-7 and 2-8
4-7 thru 4-10 4-7 thru 4-10
4-13 and 4-14 4-13 and 4-14
––––– 4-14.1/(4-14.2 blank)
4-15 thru 4-20 4-15 thru 4-20
4-49 thru 4-60 4-49 thru 4-60
4-65 and 4-66 4-65 and 4-66
––––– 4-66.1 thru 4-66.3/(4-66.4 blank)
4-67 and 4-68 4-67 and 4-68
B-3 and B-4 B-3 and B-4
Index 1 thru Index 4 Index 1 thru Index 4
Index 13 and Index 14 Index 13 and Index 14
Index 17 and Index 18 Index 17 and Index 18

2. Retain this sheet in front of manual for reference purposes.


TM 1-1520-238-10
C1

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

GORDON R. SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Official: Chief of Staff

JOEL B. HUDSON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
00151

DISTRIBUTION:
To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-31-E, block no. 0293, requirements for
TM 1-1520-238-10.
TM 1-1520-238-10

WARNING
Personnel performing operations, procedures, and practices which are included
or implied in this technical manual shall observe the following warnings.
Disregard of these warnings and precautionary information can cause serious
injury or loss of life.

WARNING
AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
Aviation life support equipment shall be utilized in accordance with AR 95-1 and
FM 1-302. Failure to do so may result in personal injury or loss of life.

WARNING
BATTERY ELECTROLYTE
Battery electrolyte is harmful to the skin and clothing. Neutralize any spilled
electrolyte by thoroughly flushing contacted area with water.

WARNING
CANOPY JETTISON
Canopy jettison safety pins shall be installed in pilot, copilot/gunner, and
external firing mechanisms when the helicopter is on the ground. The canopy
jettison system is manually operated. The canopy can be jettisoned when no
electrical power is on the helicopter. Pilot and copilot/gunner safety pins shall be
removed before starting engines. Safety pins shall be installed during engine
shutdown check. Debris may be expelled 50 feet outward when system is
actuated. Pilot and copilot/gunner helmet visor should be down to prevent eye
injury.

WARNING
CARBON MONOXIDE
When smoke, suspected carbon monoxide fumes, or symptoms of anoxia exist,
the crew should immediately ventilate the cockpit.

WARNING
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI)
No electrical/electronic devices of any sort, other than those described in this
manual or appropriate maintenance manuals, are to be operated by crew
members during operation of this helicopter. Flights near high power radio
transmitters’ high intensity radio transmission areas (HIRTA) may cause
degraded system operation.

a
TM 1-1520-238-10

WARNING
FIRE EXTINGUISHER
Exposure to high concentrations of extinguishing agent or decomposition
products should be avoided. The liquid should not be allowed to contact the
skin; it may cause frostbite or low-temperature burns.

WARNING
GROUND OPERATION
Engines will be started and operated only by authorized personnel. Reference
AR 95-1 and AR 95-13.

WARNING
HANDLING FUEL, OIL, AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
Turbine and lubricating oils contain additives which are poisonous and readily
absorbed through the skin. Do not allow them to remain on skin longer than
necessary. Prolonged contact may cause skin rash. Prolonged contact with
hydraulic fluid may cause burns. Refer to TM 10-1101 and FM 10-68 when
handling fuel.

WARNING
HIGH VOLTAGE
All ground handling personnel must be informed of high voltage hazards when
working near Target Acquisition Designator Sight (TADS) and Pilot Night Vision
Sensor (PNVS) equipment.

WARNING

laser light hazard

LASER LIGHT
The laser light beam is dangerous and can cause blindness if it enters the eye
either directly or reflected from a surface. Personnel should wear approved laser
protection whenever in a controlled area when laser rangefinder or laser target
designators are being used. Laser shall be used only in controlled areas by
qualified personnel.

b
TM 1-1520-238-10

WARNING
NOISE
Sound pressure levels around helicopters during some operating conditions
exceed the Surgeon General’s hearing conservation criteria as defined in
TB MED 251. Hearing protection devices, such as the aviator helmet or ear plugs,
are required to be worn by all personnel in and around the helicopter during its
operation.

WARNING
STARTING ENGINES AND AUXILIARY POWER UNIT
Be sure that the rotor and blast area is clear, and a fire guard is posted if
available.

WARNING
VERTIGO
The anti-collision strobe lights should be off during flight through clouds to
prevent sensations of vertigo as a result of reflections of the light on the clouds.

WARNING
WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION
Observe all standard safety precautions governing the handling of weapons and
live ammunition. When not in use, point all weapons in a direction away from
personnel and property in case of accidental firing. Do not walk in front of
weapons. SAFE all weapons before servicing. To avoid potentially dangerous
situations, follow the procedural warnings in this text.

WARNING
WING STORES JETTISON
All jettison safety pins shall be installed when the helicopter is on the ground.
Safety pins shall be removed prior to flight. Failure to do so will prevent jettison
of wing stores.

c/(d blank)
TM 1-1520-238-10

INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES: DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.

NOTE: The portion of the text affected by the changes is indicated by a


LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES vertical line in the outer margins of the page. Changes to
illustrations are indicated by miniature pointing hands. Changes
to wiring diagrams are indicated by shaded areas.
Date of issue for original and change pages are:

Original . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . 31 August 1994 Change ......... 6 . . . . . . . . . . 4 June 1999


Change . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . 15 May 1995 Change ......... 7 . . . . 15 December 1999
Change . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . 5 February 1996 Change ......... 8 . . . . . . 18 January 2001
Change . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . 20 September 1996 Change ......... 9 . . . . 21 November 2001
Change . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . 30 July 1997 Change . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . 15 November 2002
Change . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . 27 February 1998 Change . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . 14 February 2003

TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 568, CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:


Page *Change Page *Change
No. No. No. No.
Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2-48.4 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2-50 and 2-51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2-52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2-53 and 2-54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
D blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2-55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
a through c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
d blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-57 through 2-65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
i.................................. 9 2-66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2-68 and 2-69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
iv blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-70.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2-70.2 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2-71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-2 through 2-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2-73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-8 through 2-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2-12 and 2-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2-75 through 2-79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2-80.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-16 through 2-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-80.2 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2-81 and 2-82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2-84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2-22 and 2-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2-86 through 2-88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2-25 and 2-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2-88.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2-26.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2-88.2 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2-26.2 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2-89 through 2-92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-27 and 2-28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-93 and 2-94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2-29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2-95 and 2-96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 2-97 and 2-98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2-31 through 2-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3-1 through 3-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-34 and 2-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3-4 and 3-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2-36 through 2-40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 3-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-41 and 2-42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2-43 through 2-45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 3-8 through 3-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-47 and 2-48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-48.1 through 2-48.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3-18.1 and 3-18.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
*Zero in this column indicates an original page.

Change 11 A
TM 1-1520-238-10

INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES: DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.

LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES

Page *Change Page *Change


No. No. No. No.
3-18.3 and 3-18.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-18.5 through 3-18.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4-34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3-18.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-18.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4-36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
3-18.11 and 3-18.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-38 and 4-39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
3-20 through 3-29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 4-40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3-30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
3-31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4-42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4-43 through 4-47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
3-33 and 3-34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3-34.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-49 through 4-52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-34.2 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-53 and 4-54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-35 through 3-54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4-55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3-55 and 3-56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-56 and 4-57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3-57 through 3-61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4-58 and 4-59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
3-62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4-61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3-64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4-62 and 4-63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3-64.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4-64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-64.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4-65 and 4-66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3-64.3 through 3-64.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4-66.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-64.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4–66.2 through 4-66.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3-64.9 through 3-64.14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4-66.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-64.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4-66.6 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3-64.16 through 3-64.28 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4-67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-68 and 4-69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3-66 through 3-68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 4-70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4-70.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4-70.2 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-71 and 3-72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 4-71 through 4-74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-1 and 4-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4-75 through 4-78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4-3 and 4-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 5-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5-5 through 5-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 5-17 Deleted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4-12 through 4-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5-18 blank Deleted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4-14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6-1 through 6-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-14.2 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6-7 and 6-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6-9 and 6-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6-11and 6-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4-16.2 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6-13 through 6-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-17 through 4-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-21 through 4-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 6-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4-25 and 4-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 7-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-27 through 4-32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 7-2 and 7-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
*Zero in this column indicates an original page.

B Change 10
TM 1-1520-238-10

INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES: DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.

LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES

Page *Change Page *Change


No. No. No. No.
7-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7-5 through 7-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9-10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9-10.2 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7-8 through 7-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9-13 and 9-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7-14 through 7-68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9-15 through 9-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7-69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7-70 through 7-73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7-74 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7A-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7A-2 and 7A-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9-23 through 9-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7A-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9-26 and 9-27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7A-5 through 7A-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9-28 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7A-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 A-1 and A-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
7A-9 through 7A-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 B-1 through B-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7A-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Index 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7A-16 through 7A-65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Index 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
7A-66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Index 2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
7A-67 through 7A-70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
Index 2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
8-1 through 8-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
8-4 through 8-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Index 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
8-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Index 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
8-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Index 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
8-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Index 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
8-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Index 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
8-11 and 8-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Index 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Index 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
8-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Index 10 and Index 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Index 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
8-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Index 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Index 14 and Index 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Index 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Index 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
8-20 and 8-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Index 18 and Index 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Index 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9-1 and 9-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Index 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
9-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Index 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9-4 through 9-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Index 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
9-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Index 24 blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0

*Zero in this column indicates an original page.

Change 11 C/(D blank)


*TM 1-1520-238-10

Technical Manual HEADQUARTERS


DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
No. 1-1520-238-10 WASHINGTON, D. C., 31 August 1994

TECHNICAL MANUAL

OPERATOR’S MANUAL

FOR

HELICOPTER, ATTACK,
AH-64A APACHE

REPORTING ERRORS AND RECOMMENDING IMPROVEMENTS


You can help improve this publication. If you find any mistakes, or if you know of a way to improve these
procedures, please let us know. Mail your letter or DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to
Publications and Blank Forms) directly to: Commander, US Army Aviation and Missile Command, ATTN:
AMSAM–MMC–MA–NP Redstone Arsenal, AL, 35898–5230. You may also submit your recommended
changes by E–mail directly to 2028@redstone.army.mil. A reply will be furnished directly to you.
Instructions for sending an electronic 2028 may be found at the end of this TM immediately preceding the
hard copy 2028.

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

CHAPTER 2 AIRCRAFT AND SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


Section I. Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Section II. Emergency Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
Section III. Engines and Related Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Section IV. Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34
Section V. Flight Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-42
Section VI. Hydraulic and Pressurized Air Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-50
Section VII. Power Train System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-56
Section VIII. Rotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-59
Section IX. Utility Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-60
Section X. Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Environmental Control Systems . . . . 2-64
Section XI. Electrical Power Supply and Distribution Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-66
Section XII. Auxiliary Power Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-72
Section XIII. Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-74
Section XIV. Flight Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-76
Section XV. Servicing, Parking, and Mooring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-86

* This manual supersedes TM 55-1520-238-10, dated 28 June 1984, including all changes.

Change 9 i
TM 1-1520-238-10

TABLE OF CONTENTS – continued


Page

CHAPTER 3 AVIONICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


Section I. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Section II. Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Section III. Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
Section IV. Transponder and Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-66

CHAPTER 4 MISSION EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


Section I. Mission Avionics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Section II. Armament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Section III. Active and Passive Defense Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-69

CHAPTER 5 OPERATING LIMITS AND RESTRICTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1


Section I. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Section II. System Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Section III. Power Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Section IV. Loading Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Section V. Airspeed Limits Maximum and Minimum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Section VI. Maneuvering Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Section VII. Environmental Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Section VIII. Other Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17

CHAPTER 6 WEIGHT/BALANCE AND LOADING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1


Section I. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Section II. Weight and Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Section III. Fuel and Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Section IV. Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Section V. Mission Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Section VI. Cargo Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Section VII. Center of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17

CHAPTER 7 PERFORMANCE DATA FOR AH-64A HELICOPTERS


EQUIPPED WITH T700-GE-701 ENGINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Section I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Section II. Maximum Torque Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Section III. Hover Ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Section IV. Hover Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Section V. Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Section VI. Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-69
Section VII. Climb-Descent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-72

ii
TM 1-1520-238-10

TABLE OF CONTENTS – continued


Page

CHAPTER 7A PERFORMANCE DATA FOR AH-64A HELICOPTERS


EQUIPPED WITH T700-GE-701C ENGINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-1
Section I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-1
Section II. Maximum Torque Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-4
Section III. Hover Ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-10
Section IV. Hover Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-13
Section V. Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-15
Section VI. Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-66
Section VII. Climb-Descent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7A-69

CHAPTER 8 NORMAL PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


Section I. Crew Duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Section II. Operating Procedures and Maneuvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Section III. Instrument Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
Section IV. Flight Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18
Section V. Adverse Environmental Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19

CHAPTER 9 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1


Section I. Aircraft Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Section II. Mission Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-20
Section III. Caution/Warning Light Emergency Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-22

APPENDIX A REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

APPENDIX B ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

ALPHABETICAL INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 1

Change 10 iii/(iv blank)


TM 1-1520-238-10

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL. The AH-64A helicopter is designed as a weapons-delivery


platform and is equipped with point target (Hellfire mis-
These instructions are for use of the operators. They ap- sile), area weapon (30mm chain gun), and aerial rocket
ply to AH-64A helicopters. (2.75-inch folding-fin type) systems. The AH-64A carries
two crewmembers: a pilot and a copilot/gunner (CPG).
1.2 WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES.
1.4 APPENDIX A, REFERENCES.
Warnings, Cautions, and Notes are used to emphasize
important and critical instruction and are used for the fol- Appendix A is a listing of official publications cited within
lowing conditions: the manual applicable to, and available for, flight crews.

WARNING NOTE

Appendix A shall contain only those publica-


An operating procedure, practice, condi- tions referenced in the manual, and shall not
tion or statement, which if not correctly contain Department of the Army blank
followed, could result in personal injury forms.
or loss of life.
1.5 APPENDIX B, ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS.

Definitions of all abbreviations and terms used throughout


CAUTION the manual are included in Appendix B.

An operating procedure, practice, condition 1.6 INDEX.


or statement, which if not strictly observed,
could result in damage to or destruction of The index lists, in alphabetical order, paragraphs, figures,
equipment, loss of mission effectiveness or and tables contained in this manual by page number.
long term health hazards to personnel.
1.7 ARMY AVIATION SAFETY PROGRAM.
NOTE
Reports necessary to comply with the safety program are
An operating procedure, condition or state- prescribed in AR 385-40.
ment, which is essential to highlight.
1.3 DESCRIPTION. 1.8 DESTRUCTION OF ARMY MATERIAL TO
PREVENT ENEMY USE.
This manual contains the best operating instructions and
procedures for the AH-64A under most circumstances. For information concerning destruction of Army materiel
The observance of limitations, performance, and weight to prevent enemy use, refer to TM 750-244-1-5.
balance data provided is mandatory. The observance of
procedure is mandatory, except when modification is re- 1.9 FORMS AND RECORDS.
quired because of multiple emergencies, adverse weath-
er, terrain, etc. Basic flight principles are not included. Army aviator’s flight record and aircraft maintenance re-
THIS MANUAL SHALL BE CARRIED IN THE HELICOP- cords, which are to be used by crewmembers, are de-
TER AT ALL TIMES. scribed in DA PAM 738-751 and TM 55-1500-342-23.

1-1
TM 1-1520-238-10

1.10 EXPLANATION OF CHANGE SYMBOLS. 1.11 SERIES AND EFFECTIVITY CODES

All AH-64A helicopters have BUCS equipment installed.


Changes to the text and tables, including new material on In most helicopters, the system is deactivated; in some it
added pages, shall be identified by a vertical bar in the is operable. The designator symbol indicates text
outer margin of the column of text in which the change ap- headings, text contents and illustrations pertaining to heli-
pears, extending close to the entire area of the material copters with an operable BUCS.
affected. Change symbols for single column text shall be
placed in the margin opposite the binding. Change sym- Some AH-64A helicopters have T700-GE-701C engines
bols for double column text shall be placed in the margin installed. Those helicopters will have components, instru-
adjacent to the binding for the columns of text nearest the mentation, performance parameters, and procedures dif-
binding. The change symbols shall be placed in the outer ferent from helicopters with T700-GE-701 engines
margin opposite the binding for the column of text farthest installed. The designator symbols and indicate
from the binding. Pages with emergency markings, which material pertaining to those specific engines.
consist of black diagonal lines around three edges, shall
have the vertical bar or change symbol placed in the mar- Some AH-64A helicopters have the 7-319200005-11 Fire
gin between the text and the diagonal lines. Change sym- Control Computer (FCC) with –51 software installed (EGI
bols shall indicate the current changes only. A miniature Mod); others have the 7-319200005-9A Fire Control Com-
pointing hand symbol shall be used to denote a change to puter (FCC) with –49A software installed; others yet have
an illustration. However, a vertical line in the outer margin the 7-319200005-5 FCC with –45 software. Because of
(opposite the binding) rather than miniature pointing differences in operation, displays, etc. designator symbols
hands, shall be utilized when there have been extensive , , and will indicate material peculiar to that
changes made to an illustration. Change symbols shall software installation.
not be used to indicate changes in the following:
1.12 USE OF SHALL, SHOULD, AND MAY.
a. Introductory material.
Within this technical manual, the word shall is used to in-
dicate a mandatory requirement. The word should is
b. Indexes and tabular data where the change cannot used to indicate non-mandatory but preferred method of
be identified. accomplishment. The word may is used to indicate an ac-
ceptable method of accomplishment.

c. Correction of minor inaccuracies, such as spelling, 1.13 PLACARD ITEMS


punctuation, relocation of material, etc., unless such
correction changes the meaning of the instructive infor- All Placard Items (switches, controls, etc.) are shown
mation and procedures. throughout this manual in BOLD FACE capital letters.

1-2 Change 9
TM 1-1520-238-10

CHAPTER 2
AIRCRAFT AND SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

Section I. AIRCRAFT

2.1 GENERAL. transmission drives the main and tail rotors and accessory
gearbox.
The AH-64A helicopter is a twin engine, tandem seat, ae-
rial weapons platform. 2.3 SPECIAL MISSION KITS.

2.2 AIRCRAFT GENERAL ARRANGEMENT. The helicopter can be equipped with an IR jammer kit, ra-
dar jammer kit, radar warning kit, winterization kit, chaff
Figure 2-2 illustrates the general arrangement including kit, and extended range kit. Refer to the applicable system
accessing and some major exterior components. for descriptive information.

2.2.1 Fuselage. The fuselage includes a forward, cen- 2.4 PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS.
ter, and aft section that employ aluminum alloy semi-
monocoque construction. All major weight items (crew, Figure 2-3 illustrates principal helicopter dimensions.
fuel, and ammunition) are supported by bulkheads,
frames, and a longitudinal support structure. The forward 2.5 TURNING RADIUS AND GROUND CLEARANCE.
fuselage contains the copilot/gunner (CPG) station. There
are also provisions for mounting the target acquisition and Figure 2-4 illustrates helicopter turning radius and ground
designation sight (TADS), pilot night vision sensor clearance.
(PNVS), and a 30mm area weapon. The center section
contains the pilot crew station and provides support for the 2.6 DANGER AREAS.
oleo-damped main landing gear, main transmission,
wings, fuel cells, and ammunition bay. The aft section in- 2.6.1 Shaded Areas Illustrated. The illustrated
cludes the vertical stabilizer and has provisions for mount- shaded areas (fig 2-5) can be hazardous. Personnel ap-
ing the tail landing gear. The avionics bay and stowage proaching an operating helicopter must do so at a 45-de-
compartments are contained in the aft section. The tail ro- gree angle from the front. The approach must be made
tor, driveshafts, gearboxes, and stabilator are attached to from well outside the rotor disc area until recognition is re-
the aft section. ceived from the pilot. The pilot will then signal when closer
approach is safe.
2.2.2 Wings. Left and right wings are attached to the
center fuselage. They are of aluminum cantilever, spar, 2.6.2 Air Flow. Air flow from the tail rotor and down-
and rib construction. Each wing provides two hardpoints wash from the main rotor are dangerous, even outside the
for external stores and hydraulic and electrical quick dis- turning radius of the helicopter when it is in hover or oper-
connects. ating at takeoff power.

2.2.3 Rotors. The helicopter has a fully articulated four- 2.6.3 Exhaust Gases. Exhaust gases from the helicop-
blade main rotor system equipped with elastomeric lead- ter engines and auxiliary power unit (APU) can cause
lag dampers. The tail rotor is a semi-rigid design and con- burns. Personnel should remain clear of these areas.
sists of four blades.
2.6.4 Canopy Jettison. During canopy jettison, acrylic
2.2.4 Engines. The helicopter is powered by two hori- fragments will be propelled approximately 50 feet from the
zontally-mounted turbo-shaft engines. Power is supplied helicopter. Personnel approaching a crash-damaged heli-
to the main transmission through engine-mounted nose copter shall look for a signal from the crew that closer ap-
gearboxes, shafts, and overrunning clutches. The main proach is safe.

Change 3 2-1
TM 1-1520-238-10

2.6.5 Laser. The laser shall be given special safety 2.8.3 Canopy Jettison System. The canopy jettison
considerations because of the extreme danger involved system provides rapid egress paths when the helicopter
during its operation. Relatively low laser light levels can access door(s) are jammed or blocked. It consists of three
cause permanent damage to eyes and skin burns. There CANOPY JETTISON handles and detonation cords
is an additional danger of electrical shock from laser com- installed around the periphery of each of the four acrylic
ponents. side panels on the sides of the pilot and CPG stations.
The pilot handle (fig 2-1) is located at the upper left corner
2.7 EQUIPMENT STOWAGE COMPARTMENTS. of the pilot instrument panel (fig 2-7). The CPG handle (fig
2-1) is located at the upper left corner of the CPG panel
(fig 2-8). The external ground crew handle is located un-
The aft storage bay (fig 2-2) is for the stowage of tie down der a quick-release panel directly forward of the CPG
devices, protective covers, and other helicopter equip- windshield (fig 2-2). When operated, the system severs
ment. The loading conditions for this bay are covered in the four side panels. To arm the system, a CANOPY JET-
Chapter 6, Weight/Balance and Loading. The survival TISON handle is rotated 90° left or right, which uncovers
equipment storage bay (fig 2-2) is large enough to store a the word ARMED on both sides of the handle. To activate
combat helmet, an environmental survival kit, a survival the system, the rotated CANOPY JETTISON handle is
weapon, and a box of field-type rations for each crew- pushed in, detonating a primer/initiator within the handle.
member. The loading limitations for this bay are covered The primer/initiator ignites the detonation cord which, in
in Chapter 6, Weight/Balance and Loading. turn, ignites and burns around the periphery of the side
panels. The burning action cuts a fine line around the side
2.8 WINDSHIELD AND CANOPY PANELS. panels, severing them from the fuselage.

ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
2.8.1 Windshield. The windshield consists of two SAFE
heated laminated glass windshields. One is directly for-
ward of the CPG; the other is directly above his head. The
canopy consists of five acrylic panels: Two on each side of ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
the crew stations and one directly above the pilot.
CANOPY TURN
90°
2.8.2 Canopy Panels. The two canopy panels on the
right are independently hinged. They latch and unlatch ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
JETTISON
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
PUSH

separately by interior or exterior handles. They swing up-


ward to provide entrance to, and exit from, the crew sta-
tion. Failure to properly close either canopy causes the
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ SAFE
M01-310
CANOPY caution light on the pilot caution/warning panel
(fig 2-7) to illuminate. The two canopy panels on the left
side are fixed and do not open. Figure 2-1. Canopy Jettison Handle

2-2
TM 1-1520-238-10

3
2

1
12

11
10 4

8 5
7 6

14

15

10

6 13

1. STABILATOR 9. INTERCOMM ACCESS DOOR


2. VERTICAL STABILIZER 10. MAIN TRANSMISSION OIL LEVEL SIGHT GAGE ACCESS
3. AIR DATA SENSOR DOOR
4. TADS AND PNVS TURRETS 11. AFT EQUIPMENT BAY (CATWALK AREA) ACCESS DOORS
5. CANOPY JETTISON HANDLE ACCESS DOOR 12. HYDRAULIC GROUND SERVICE PANEL ACCESS DOOR
6. FORWARD AVIONICS BAY ACCESS DOOR 13. HYDRAULIC OIL LEVEL SIGHT GAGE ACCESS DOOR
7. MOORING LUG ACCESS DOOR 14. INFRARED COUNTERMEASURE DEVICE MOUNT
8. FIRE EXTINGUISHER ACCESS DOOR 15. CHAFF PAYLOAD MODULE MOUNT

M01-094-1

Figure 2-2. General Arrangement (Sheet 1 of 2)

2-3
TM 1-1520-238-10

17

18
16

19

21
20

26

25
22
18

23

16. UTILITY LIGHT AND GROUND POWER RECEPTACLE


ACCESS DOOR
17. AFT STORAGE BAY ACCESS DOOR
24 18. SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT STORAGE BAY ACCESS DOOR
19. MAIN LANDING GEAR
20. PILOT DOOR
21. CPG DOOR
22. SEARCHLIGHT
23. AMMUNITION BAY ACCESS DOOR
24. TAIL LANDING GEAR
25. AFT AVIONICS BAY ACCESS DOOR
26. APU OIL LEVEL SIGHT GAGE ACCESS DOOR

M01-094-2

Figure 2-2. General Arrangement (Sheet 2 of 2)

2-4
TM 1-1520-238-10

48.00 FT DIA

11 FT 2 IN.
6 FT 3 IN.

17 FT 2 IN.
9 FT 1 IN.

15 FT
3 IN. 12 FT
11 FT 10 IN.
1 IN.

FM-AM ANTENNA
6 FT 8 IN. (SOME HELICOPTERS)
43 FT 11 IN.
38 FT 11 IN.
9 FT 2 IN. DIA

IFF ANTENNA
(SOME HELICOPTERS) 18 FT
14 FT
CG 7 IN.
11 FT 1 IN.
9 FT 2 IN. 8 IN.

48 FT 2 IN.
49 FT 1 IN.
57 FT 8 IN.

M01-005

Figure 2-3. Principal Dimensions

2-5
TM 1-1520-238-10

TURNING RADIUS
37 FT 6 IN.

NOTE:

GROUND CLEARANCE
30mm GUN, STOWED - 12.0 IN.
CLEARANCE IS REDUCED IF WIRE STRIKE
PROTECTION SYSTEM IS INSTALLED.
ROCKET LAUNCHER, GROUND STOW - 25.0 IN.
MISSILE LAUNCHER, UNLOADED RAIL - 27.0 IN.
MISSILE LAUNCHER, LOADED RAIL - 18.0 IN.

7 FT 11 IN.
(MIN) AT
MAXIMUM
DROOP

(NOTE)

2 FT 9
(NOTE)
IN.
34 FT 9 IN.

M01-073

Figure 2-4. Turning Radius and Ground Clearance

2-6
TM 1-1520-238-10

30MM GUN AREA APU EXHAUST AREA AND TAIL ROTOR AREA

100

86

86

100

ENGINE EXHAUST AND ROTOR DISC AREA

HELLFIRE AND ROCKET AREA

25 FT

LASER AREA CANOPY JETTISON AREA

110
50 FT

110

M01-113B

Figure 2-5. Danger Areas

Change 4 2-7
TM 1-1520-238-10

2.9 LANDING GEAR. a. Absorb rotor torque reaction during rotor brake op-
eration.
The main landing gear (fig 2-2) supports the helicopter
during ground operation (taxiing, take-off, and towing). b. Prevent shimmy during rolling takeoffs and land-
The landing gear system is a three-point system consist- ings.
ing of the main landing gear, tail landing gear, and main
landing gear brake system. The landing gear system pro- c. Prevent swivel during ground operation in high
vides for ease of maneuvering when taxiing and towing, winds.
has shock struts to absorb normal and high impact land-
ings, and kneels to facilitate transport of the helicopter. d. Prevent swivel during operation on slopes.
2.9.1 Main Landing Gear. Each main landing gear
support consists of a trailing arm and a nitrogen/oil shock
strut. The trailing arms transfer the helicopter landing and
static loads to the airframe, and the shock struts absorb
vertical loads. The upper ends of the left and right trailing
arms attach to a cross tube which passes through the fu-
selage and is supported by fuselage-anchored pivot bear-
ings. The upper ends of the shock struts are attached to
mounts on the fuselage structure. In addition to its normal
energy-absorbing function, each shock strut has a one-
time high impact absorbing feature: shear rings are
sheared and a rupture disk bursts causing a controlled
collapse of the strut.

2.9.2 Tail Landing Gear. The tail landing gear consists


of two trailing arms, nitrogen/oil shock strut, fork, axle, and M01-125
wheel. The shock strut has an impact-absorbing capability
similar to that of the main landing gear shock strut. The tail
wheel is 360° free swiveling for taxiing and ground han- Figure 2-6. Tail Wheel Lock Panel
dling. The tail landing gear system incorporates a spring-
loaded tail wheel lock. However, the tail landing gear is hy- 2.9.3 Landing Gear Brakes.
draulically unlocked from the pilot crew station or
manually unlocked by a ground crewmember using a han- NOTE
dle attached to the actuator. The tail wheel lock system is
It is necessary to maintain pressure on the
actuated by hydraulic pressure from the utility hydraulic
brake until the PARK BRAKE handle is
system. Pressure is routed to the actuator through a con-
pulled out to lock the parking brakes. If the
trol valve located in the tail boom. The valve is controlled
PARK BRAKE handle is pulled out without
by the tail wheel switch (fig 2-6) at the pilot station. When
pressure applied to the brake pedals, the
the tail wheel switch is placed in the UNLOCK position,
PARK BRAKE handle may remain out and
pressure is applied to the actuator to retract the lock pin. A
the brakes will not be set.
proximity switch will cause the advisory light above the
switch to illuminate. When the tail wheel LOCK/UNLOCK The brake system affects only the main landing gear
switch is placed in the LOCK position, a valve shuts off hy- wheels. The main landing gear system consists of two in-
draulic pressure and opens the line to the actuator. This dependent hydromechanical systems, one left and one
relieves the pressure on the lock. Spring force will then right. Braking action is initiated from either crew station by
move the lock pin to the lock position. If the tail wheel is applying foot pressure at the top portion of the directional
unlocked manually, it can be locked from the pilot crew control pedals. This activates a master cylinder attached
station by placing the tail wheel switch in the UNLOCK to each brake pedal (fig 2-7 and 2-8). The master cylin-
position, then returning the switch to the LOCK position. ders pressurize hydraulic fluid in the master cylinder sys-
The tail wheel shall be locked to: tem components. This pressure is

2-8
TM 1-1520-238-10

transmitted through tubing to the transfer valves, and the used to augment the controls, and provide a backup con-
parking brake valve, to the wheel brake assemblies. It ac- trol system (BUCS). Refer to the appropriate system for
tuates pistons in each wheel brake assembly causing fric- complete descriptive information.
tion linings to move against a floating brake disk to stop
wheel rotation. When the helicopter is parked, the pilot or 2.11 PILOT AND CPG INDICATORS, INSTRUMENT
CPG applies and maintains pressure on the brakes until PANELS, CONSOLES, AND ANNUNCIATORS.
the PARK BRAKE handle (fig 2-7) can be pulled out by
the pilot to set the parking brakes. Hydraulic pressure is Figures 2-7 thru 2-12 provide an overview of instrumenta-
maintained in the system by the compensator valves tion in both crew stations. Instruments will be discussed
mounted on the parking brake valve. Additional parking with their associated systems. Flight instruments are de-
brake force may be achieved by holding the PARK scribed in Section XIV of this chapter. Caution, warning,
BRAKE handle out and staging or pumping the brake and advisory lights, as well as audio warning signals, are
pedals once or twice to maximize the holding force. Re- also discussed in Section XIV.
leasing the brake pedals before the PARK BRAKE handle
will again lock the system and maintain the higher brake 2.11.1 Indicators. Indicators for management of the
force. Either crewmember can release the parking brake helicopter systems are located on both pilot and CPG in-
by exerting pressure on the control pedal. strument and control panels. Refer to the applicable sys-
tem for descriptive information.

2.11.2 Pilot Instrument Panel and Consoles. The pi-


2.10 FLIGHT CONTROLS.
lot instrument panel is shown in figure 2-9 and the control
consoles are shown in figure 2-11.

The flight control system consists of hydromechanical 2.11.3 CPG Instrument Panel and Consoles. The
controls for the main and tail rotors and an electrical stabi- CPG instrument panel is shown in figure 2-10 and the
lator. A digital automatic stabilization system (DASE) is control consoles are shown in figure 2-12.

2-9
TM 1-1520-238-10

21
1 2
22

20
18 4

17 5
16
6
8
15
19
24
7
14

8
13

10
23
12
11

1. STANDBY COMPASS 13. AUXILIARY AIR VENT


2. MASTER CAUTION, WARNING PANEL 14. POWER LEVERS
3. CANOPY DOOR RELEASE 15. CENTER CONSOLE
4. INSTRUMENT PANEL 16. FIRE CONTROL PANEL
5. RDRCM, CHAFF, IRCM, AND AN/APR 39(VI) 17. TAIL WHEEL LOCK PANEL
CONTROL PANELS 18. CANOPY JETTISON HANDLE
6. CYCLIC STICK 19. PARKING BRAKE HANDLE
7. CAUTION, WARNING PANEL 20. ENGINE FIRE PULL HANDLES
8. DIRECTIONAL CONTROL AND BRAKE PEDALS 21. CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
9. PEDAL ADJUST LEVER 22. BORESIGHT RETICLE UNIT
10. RIGHT CONSOLE 23. STABILATOR MANUAL CONTROL PANEL
11. COLLECTIVE STICK 24. STOWAGE BOX
12. LEFT CONSOLE

M01-006

Figure 2-7. Pilot Station Diagram

2-10
TM 1-1520-238-10

1 2
20 21 3
23

4
19
18 5

17 6
16
7
7

15 8

14 9

13 10

22
11
12

1. OPTICAL RELAY TUBE AND HANDGRIPS 12. CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS


2. MASTER CAUTION, WARNING PANEL 13. COLLECTIVE STICK
3. CANOPY DOOR RELEASE 14. POWER LEVERS
4. RIGHT INSTRUMENT PANEL 15. LEFT CONSOLE
5. CONDITIONED AIR OUTLET 16. DATA ENTRY KEYBOARD
6. CAUTION/W ARNING PANEL 17. FIRE CONTROL PANEL
7. DIRECTIONAL CONTROL AND BRAKE 18. CANOPY JETTISON HANDLE
PEDALS 19. LEFT INSTRUMENT PANEL
8. CYCLIC STICK 20. ENGINE FIRE PULL HANDLES
9. RIGHT CONSOLE 21. BORESIGHT RETICLE UNIT
10. PEDAL ADJUST LEVER 22. STABILATOR MANUAL CONTROL PANEL
11. MAP STORAGE COMPARTMENT 23. MIRROR

M01-007

Figure 2-8. CPG Station Diagram

2-11
TM 1-1520-238-10

40 1 2

3 4 5 6
38
39 7
37
35 8
36
33
9
31 34 10 11
30 32 12
29

13

14

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16

15

1. STANDBY MAGNETIC COMPASS 22. UTILITY ACCUMULATOR PRESSURE GAGE


2. MASTER CAUTION,WARNING PANEL 23. EMERGENCY HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SWITCH
3. VIDEO DISPLAY UNIT (VDU) 24. HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
4. RADAR ALTIMETER 25. STANDBY ATTITUDE INDICATOR (SAI)
5. RADIO CALL PLACARD 26. ENGINE OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR
6. STABILATOR POSITION INDICATOR 27. ENGINE (NP) AND ROTOR (Nr) INDICATOR
7. STABILATOR/AIRSPEED PLACARD 28. FIRE CONTROL PANEL
8. RADAR JAMMER INDICATOR 29. TAIL WHEEL LOCK CONTROL PANEL
9. RADAR WARNING DISPLAY
30. ARM SAFE INDICATOR
10. ICING SEVERITY METER
31. CANOPY JETTISON HANDLE
11. PRESS-TO-TEST SWITCH
32. FUEL QUANTITY INDICATOR
12. RADAR/INFRARED COUNTERMEASURES
33. FUEL TRANSFER INDICATOR (UNMODIFIED
CONTROL PANEL
CAUTION/WARNING PANEL)
13. CHAFF DISPENSER CONTROL PANEL
14. RADAR WARNING CONTROL PANEL 34. ENGINE GAS GENERATOR (NG) INDICATOR
15. CAUTION/W ARNING PANEL 35. INSTRUMENT DIM/TEST PANEL
16. CLOCK 36. ENGINE TURBINE GAS TEMPERATURE (TGT)
17. ACCELEROMETER INDICATOR
18. VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI) 37. ENGINE TORQUE INDICATOR
19. HARS CONTROL PANEL 38. FIRE EXTINGUISHER BOTTLE SELECT SWITCH
20. ENCODING BAROMETRIC ALTIMETER 39. AIRSPEED INDICATOR
21. DUAL HYDRAULIC PRESSURE INDICATOR 40. ENGINE FIRE PULL HANDLES

M01-008A

Figure 2-9. Pilot Instrument Panel

2-12 Change 2
TM 1-1520-238-10

2 1 2 3 4
5

19 6

7
8
18 21

9
10

11

12

17 20 16 15 14 13

1. FIRE EXTINGUISHER BOTTLE SELECT SWITCH


2. ENGINE FIRE PULL HANDLES
3. MASTER CAUTION, WARNING PANEL
4. AIRSPEED INDICATOR
5. REMOTE ATTITUDE INDICATOR
6. RADIO CALL PLACARD
7. STABILATOR POSITION INDICATOR
8. STABILATOR/AIRSPEED PLACARD
9. RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR (RMI)
10. VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
11. CLOCK
12. CAUTION/WARNING PANEL
13. BAROMETRIC ALTIMETER
14. ENGINE (NP), ROTOR (Nr) INDICATOR
15. ENGINE TORQUE INDICATOR
16. SELECTABLE DIGITAL DISPLAY PANEL
17. FIRE CONTROL PANEL
18. CANOPY JETTISON HANDLE
19. ARM SAFE INDICATOR
20. ENGINE INSTRUMENT DIM/TEST PANEL
21. FUEL TRANSFER INDICATOR (UNMODIFIED
CAUTION/WARNING PANEL)

M01-010A

Figure 2-10. CPG Instrument Panel

Change 2 2-13
TM 1-1520-238-10

25 6

27

26 28
24 1 7
2

23 22
3 8
20
21

ÎÎÎ 4
19
ÎÎÎ
18 ÎÎÎ 5 9

17

10

1. REMOTE TRANSMITTER INDICATOR / SELECTOR PANEL 11


2. COMM SYSTEM CONTROL PANEL
16 3. BLANK PANEL
4. BLANK PANEL
5. DIRECTIONAL PEDAL ADJUSTMENT CONTROL
6. BLANK PANEL
12
7. BLANK PANEL
8. ARC-164 UHF AM RADIO CONTROL PANEL
9. AN/ARC-186 VHF FM-AM RADIO CONTROL PANEL
15 10. KY-58 SECURE VOICE CONTROL (PROVISIONS)
11. AN/APX-100 IFF TRANSPONDER CONTROL PANEL
12. C-7392A/ARN-89B ADF CONTROL PANEL OR C-12192/ARN-149
(V) ADF CONTROL PANEL
13. APU/FIRE TEST PANEL
14. ANTI-ICE CONTROL PANEL
13
15. INTR/EXT LIGHTING CONTROLS PANEL
14 16. FUEL CONTROL PANEL
17. FREE AIR TEMPERATURE (FAT) GAUGE
18. POWER LEVER QUADRANT
19. ENGINE OVERSPEED TEST CONTROL PANEL
20. COLLECTIVE SWITCH BOX
21. ELECTRICAL POWER CONTROL BOX
22. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM (ECS) PANEL
23. STORES JETTISON CONTROL PANEL
24. ROCKET CONTROL PANEL (ARCS)
25. MISSILE CONTROL PANEL
26. CONDITIONED AIR OUTLET
27. AUTOMATIC STABILIZATION EQUIPMENT (ASE) PANEL
28. PARKING BRAKE M01-009

Figure 2-11. Pilot Control Consoles

2-14
TM 1-1520-238-10

2
11 11
1

13
3 12

4
13

ÎÎ
5

ÎÎ
ÎÎ 12
7

17
14
10 8
14

15
9
15

1. MISSILE CONTROL PANEL


2. DATA ENTRY KEYBOARD
16
3. RECORDER CONTROL PANEL 16
4. BLANK
5. AUX/ANTI-ICE CONTROL PANEL
6. COLLECTIVE SWITCH BOX
7. POWER LEVER QUADRANT
8. FUEL CONTROL PANEL
9. INTERIOR LIGHTING CONTROL PANEL
10. CIRCUIT BREAKER PANELS
10 11. COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
CONTROL PANEL
12. AN/ARC-186 VHF-FM-AM RADIO
CONTROL PANEL
13. COMPUTER DISPLAY UNIT
14. KY-58 SECURE VOICE CONTROL
(PROVISIONS)
15. BLANK EGI MODIFICATION
16. MAP STOWAGE
17. DATA TRANSFER UNIT
M01-011B

Figure 2-12. CPG Control Consoles

Change 3 2-15
TM 1-1520-238-10

2.12 CREW COMPARTMENTS. 2.13.1 Seat Height Adjustment. Vertical seat adjust-
ment is controlled by a lever on the right front of the seat
The crew compartments are arranged in tandem and are bucket. When the lever is pulled out (sideways), the seat
separated by a ballistic shield (fig 2-13). The pilot sits aft can be moved vertically approximately 4 inches and
of the CPG. Handholds and steps permit both crewmem- locked at any 3/4-inch interval. Springs counterbalance
bers to enter and exit at the right side of the helicopter. A the weight of the seat. The lever returns to the locked
canopy covers both crew stations. The canopy frame and position when released.
the transparent ballistic shield form a rollover structure. To
provide for maximum survival and minimum vulnerability,
armored seats are installed in both crew compartments. WARNING

2.13 CREWMEMBER SEATS.


With the collective in other than fulldown
position, the inertia reel control handle
WARNING may be inaccessible.
2.13.2 Shoulder Harness Inertia Reel Lock Lever. A
Seats stroke downward during a crash two-position shoulder harness inertia reel lock lever is
and any obstruction may increase the installed on the lower left side of each seat (fig 2-14).
possibility of injury. Items should not be When the lever is in the aft position, the shoulder harness
placed beneath seats. lock will engage only when a forward force of 1-1/2 to 2Gs
The pilot and CPG seats (fig 2-14) provide ballistic protec- is exerted on the mechanism. In the forward position, the
tion and can be adjusted for height only. They are one- shoulder harness lock assembly is firmly locked. Whenev-
piece armored seats equipped with back, seat, and lum- er the inertia reels lock because of deceleration forces,
bar support cushions. Each seat is equipped with a they remain locked until the lock lever is placed in forward
shoulder harness lap belt, crotch belt, and inertial reel. and then aft position.
The shoulder harness and belts have adjustment fittings
and come together at a common attachment point. This 2.13.3 Chemical, Biological, Radiological (CBR) Fil-
provides a single release that can be rotated either clock- ter/Blower Mounting Bracket. The left side armored
wise or counterclockwise to simultaneously release the wing of each seat has a mounting bracket (fig 2-14) with
shoulder harness and all belts. an electrical interface connector for a CBR filter/blower.

2-16
TM 1-1520-238-10

ÇÇÇÇ
ÇÇÇÇ
CREW COMPARTMENT ARMOR

BLAST / FRAGMENT SHIELD

TRANSPARENT BLAST SHIELD

M01-080

Figure 2-13. Armor Protection

2-17
TM 1-1520-238-10

CBR
MOUNTING
BRACKET
ARMORED
BACK ARMORED WING WING
HEADREST CUSHION

SHOULDER
HARNESS CBR ELECTRICAL
INTERFACE
CONNECTOR

LUMBAR
SUPPORT
CUSHION

SEAT
CUSHION

RESTRAINT
SYSTEM
ARMORED SEAT INERTIA
BUCKET REEL
LOCK
LEVER
CROTCH
BELT
LAP BELTS
VERTICAL ADJUST
CONTROL HANDLE

M01-041

Figure 2-14. Crewmember Seat (Both Crew Stations)

2-18
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section II. EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

2.14 GENERAL. handle is located on the APU panel on the pilot right con-
sole.
Emergency equipment on the helicopter consists of fire
extinguishing equipment and two first aid kits (fig 9-1). 2.16.1 Engine and APU Fire Detector Testing. FIRE
PULL handle lamps are tested by pressing the PRESS
TO TEST pushbutton on the MASTER CAUTION panel in
WARNING either crew station. The fire detector circuits receive 28
vdc from the emergency dc bus through the FIRE DETR
circuit breakers (ENG 1, ENG 2 and APU) on the pilot
overhead circuit breaker panel (fig 2-39). The fire detector
Exposure to high concentrations of fire
circuits are tested by turning the FIRE TEST DET rotary
extinguishing agent or decomposition
switch located on the pilots aft right console (fig 2-15). The
products should be avoided. The gas
switch is spring-loaded to OFF. When set at 1, the first
should not be allowed to contact the
sensor circuit for No. 1 engine, No. 2 engine, APU, and
skin; it could cause frostbite or low tem-
left and right firewall louver door fire detectors are tested,
perature burns. If agent comes in contact
which causes all FIRE PULL handles to illuminate. The
with skin, seek medical help immediate-
FIRE APU segments on both MASTER CAUTION panels
ly.
also illuminate. When the FIRE TEST DET switch is set at
2.15 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER. 2, the second sensor circuit for No. 1 engine, No. 2 en-
gine, APU, and main transmission support fire detector
are tested; and all FIRE PULL handles and both FIRE
A pressurized fire extinguisher is mounted on a quick re-
APU MASTER CAUTION panel segments will illuminate.
lease support located in the FAB fairing aft of the right FAB
In either test, failure of a handle to light up indicates a fault
door and above the main landing gear wheel (fig 2-2). It is
in that particular sensor circuit.
accessible through a hinged access panel and the panel
is marked FIRE EXTINGUISHER INSIDE. The fire extin-
guisher compound is released by a hand-operated lever 2.17 ENGINE AND APU FIRE EXTINGUISHING
on top of the extinguisher. Inadvertent discharge of the SYSTEM
bottle is prevented by a breakaway safety wire across the
actuating lever. Operating instructions are printed on the The fire extinguishing agent is stored in two spherical
extinguisher. bottles, each containing a nitrogen precharge. The
bottles, designated as primary (PRI) and reserve (RES)
are mounted on the fuselage side of the No. 1 engine fire-
2.16 ENGINE AND AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU) wall. Tubing is installed to distribute the extinguishing
FIRE DETECTION. agent to either of the engine nacelles or to the APU
compartment. Bottle integrity may be checked by inspect-
Two optical sensors, which react to visible flames, are lo- ing the thermal relief discharge indicator which is viewed
cated in each engine compartment and in the APU from below the left engine nacelle. A pressure gage on
compartment. Three pneumatic fire/overheat detectors each bottle provides an indication of the nitrogen prechar-
are located in the aft deck area. One detector is mounted ge pressure. Each bottle has three discharge valves that
on the main transmission support, and one on each of the can be individually actuated by an electrically ignited pyro-
two firewall louver doors. Amplified electrical signals from technic squib. There is one valve for each of the engine
the sensors located in the engine compartment will illumi- nacelles and one for the APU compartment. When a FIRE
nate the respective ENG FIRE PULL handle (fig 2-15) in PULL handle is pulled, four events occur: fuel is shut off to
both crew stations. The APU compartment sensors, or the the affected engine, engine cooling louvers to the affected
aft deck fire/overheat detectors, will illuminate the FIRE engine close (not applicable to the APU), the appropriate
APU PULL handle (fig 2-15) in the pilot station and the squib firing circuit is armed, and the ENCU is shut off (not
FIRE APU segment on the MASTER CAUTION panel in applicable to the APU). The extinguishing agent is not re-
both crew stations. The engine fire pull handles (ENG leased to the fire area, however, until the FIRE BTL
FIRE 1 PULL and ENG FIRE 2 PULL) are located in simi- switch, located near each fire pull handle, is activated.
lar positions in both crew stations; they are at the upper The FIRE BTL switch is first set at PRI (primary bottle).
left corner of the instrument panel. The FIRE APU PULL When the fire is extinguished, the light in the

2-19
TM 1-1520-238-10

PILOT STATION

PILOT

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ FIRE BTL

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
PRI RES

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
APU/FIRE TEST

BTL DISCHARGE APU


PRI RES

ÎÎÎÎÎÎ
DISCH DISCH
CPG STATION
FIRE BTL
FIRE TEST
ÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎ
DET PRI RES

START 95%
2
RUN NORM
1
OFF
OFF

CPG
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ FIRE BTL

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
PRI RES

M01-124

Figure 2-15. Fire Detection and Extinguishing Controls

2-20
TM 1-1520-238-10

FIRE PULL handle will go out. If the fire is not extin- 2.19 CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND
guished, setting the switch at RES discharges the second RADIOLOGICAL (CBR) FILTER/BLOWER.
bottle. Bottle discharge is indicated on the FIRE TEST
panel by illumination of the PRI DISCH and RES DISCH The CBR filter/blower provides filtered air to the flight crew
displays. The fire extinguishing equipment receives 28 when cockpit air is contaminated. Each crew member car-
vdc from the emergency dc bus through the PILOT, CPG ries his own CBR blower/mask on board and connects it to
and APU FIRE EXTGH circuit breakers on the pilot over- the external power source, located on the left side ar-
head circuit breaker panel. mored wing of his seat (fig 2-14).

Refer to TM 3-4240-312-12&P for CBR filter blower op-


2.18 FIRST AID KITS.
eration, installation and maintenance instructions.

Two first aid kits are provided: one on the inside, aft por- 2.20 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES.
tion of the pilots right canopy panel and one on the lower
side of the CPG left console. Chapter 9 describes emergency procedures.

2-21
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section III. ENGINES AND RELATED SYSTEMS

2.21 ENGINES. 2.22 ENGINE COOLING.

The AH-64A helicopter can be equipped with either two Each engine is cooled by air routed through the engine
T700-GE-701 engines or two T700-GE-701C nacelle. Airflow is provided by eductor pumping action of
engines. The engines are mounted horizontally and the infrared suppressor. Fixed louvers on the top and bot-
housed in engine nacelles one on each side of the fuse- tom of the aft portion of each nacelle and moveable doors
lage aft of the main transmission above the wing. The en- in the bottom center forward portion of each nacelle accel-
gines (fig 2-16) are a front-drive turboshaft engine of mod- erate convective engine cooling after shutdown. The
ular construction. The engines are divided into four moveable door is shut by engine bleed-air pressure dur-
modules: cold section, hot section, power turbine section, ing engine operation and is spring-loaded to open during
and accessory section. engine shutdown.

2.21.1 Cold Section Module. The cold section module 2.23 ENGINE AIR INDUCTION.
(fig 2-16) includes the main frame, diffuser and mid frame
assembly, the inlet particle separator, the compressor, the The engines receive air through a bellmouth shaped na-
output shaft assembly, and associated components. The celle inlet at the front of the engine. Air flows around the
compressor has five axial stages and one centrifugal nose gearbox fairing before entering the engine nacelle
stage. There are variable inlet guide vanes and variable inlet. From the inlet, air continues through canted vanes in
stage-1 and stage-2 stator vanes. Components mounted the swirl frame where swirling action separates sand,
on the cold section module are: the digital electronic con- dust, and other particles. Separated particles accumulate
trol unit (DECU) , the electrical control unit (ECU) by centrifugal force in a scroll case. The particles are
, anti-icing and start bleed valve, history recorder/his- ejected overboard by a blower which forces them through
tory counter, ignition system, and electrical cables as well a secondary nozzle of the infrared suppression device.
as the accessory section module. Clean air, meanwhile, has passed through a deswirl vane
which straightens the airflow and channels it into the com-
2.21.2 Hot Section Module. The hot section module pressor inlet.
(fig 2-16) consists of three subassemblies: the gas gen-
erator turbine, the stage one nozzle assembly, and the an- 2.24 INFRARED (IR) SUPPRESSION SYSTEM.
nular combustion liner.
The IR suppression system consists of two assemblies:
2.21.3 Power Turbine Section Module. The power the primary nozzle and three secondary nozzles. The pri-
turbine module (fig 2-16) includes a two stage power tur- mary nozzle is mounted to the engine exhaust frame and
bine and exhaust frame. Mounted on the power turbine directs exhaust gases into the secondary nozzle. The
module is the thermocouple harness, the torque and over- three secondary nozzles are attached and sealed to the
speed sensor, and the Np sensor. engine nacelle with an adapter. During engine operation,
exhaust gases are cooled by air drawn through the trans-
2.21.4 Accessory Section Module. The accessory mission area by a low pressure area created by the educ-
section module (fig 2-16) includes the top mounted acces- tion action of the primary nozzle. The angles of the prima-
sory gearbox and the following components: a hydrome- ry and three secondary nozzles prevents a direct view of
chanical unit (HMU), a fuel boost pump, oil filter, oil cooler, the hot internal engine components. This also creates a
alternator, oil lube and scavenge pump, particle separator low pressure area which causes an eduction action by
blower, fuel filter assembly, chip detector, oil/filter bypass drawing cooling air through the system. The cool air is
sensors, oil/fuel pressure sensor, overspeed and drain mixed with the hot air in the three secondary nozzles
valve (ODV), and an air turbine starter. which results in cooling the exhaust gases.

2-22
TM 1-1520-238-10

FUEL FILTER IMPENDING FUEL PRESSURE SENSOR


BYPASS BUTTON INLET PARTICLE NP
SEPARATOR BLOWER (% RPM)
OIL SENSOR
COOLER

FUEL
PUMP

OIL LEVEL
INDICATOR ANTI-ICING AND IGNITOR PLUG
START BLEED VALVE MAIN FUEL NOZZLE
LEFT SIDE

ACCESSORY SECTION MODULE HISTORY


HYDROMECHANICAL RECORDER
UNIT AIR HISTORY
LCFI LCF2 INDEX HOURS OIL FILLER
THERMOCOUPLE TURBINE STARTER CAP COUNTER
HARNESS

TORQUE AND
OVERSPEED
SENSOR
IGNITER PLUG

BLEED AIR
PORT
HOT SECTION
MODULE (INTERNAL) IGNITION EXCITER
DEC
OIL LEVEL INDICATOR
ECU
POWER TURBINE
MODULE COLD SECTION MODULE

RIGHT SIDE M01-012-2

Figure 2-16. T700-GE-701 / T700-GE-701C Engine (Sheet 1 of 2)

2-23
TM 1-1520-238-10

ALTERNATOR OIL FILTER BYPASS SENSOR


OIL FILTER IMPENDING BYPASS BUTTON

OIL PRESSURE
SENSOR CHIP DETECTOR

FUEL PUMP

FUEL FILTER

SWIRL VANES

OIL DRAIN PLUG

FRONT M01-012-1

Figure 2-16 T700-GE-701 / T700-GE-701C Engine (Sheet 2 of 2)

2.25 ENGINE AND ENGINE INLET ANTI-ICE ANTI ICE fail lights on the pilots caution/warning panel
SYSTEM. and the ENG ANTI ICE fail light on the CPG’s caution/
warning panel will illuminate until the nose gearbox fairing
electrical heaters reach 205 °F and the temperature sen-
CAUTION
sors within the engine inlets reach 150 °F. The time re-
quired to reach these temperatures will vary with OAT.
To prevent damage to engines, the en- When the nose gearbox fairings and the bleed air heated
gine anti-ice system shall be activated engine inlet reach operating temperatures, the caution/
when the aircraft is flown in visible mois- warning lights will extinguish. When the engine anti-ice
ture and the outside air temperature system is turned off, the ANTI ICE panel advisory lights
(OAT) is less than +5 C (+41 F).
will extinguish and the caution/warning ENG ANTI ICE fail
The engine anti-ice system includes the engine inlet fair- lights will illuminate and remain on until the engine inlet
ings, and the nose gearbox fairings. Engine fifth stage temperature sensors cool below 150 °F. The amount of
bleed air is used to heat the swirl vanes, nose splitter, and time required for sensors to cool is dependent on OAT and
engine inlet guide vanes of each engine. The nose gear- the length of time the engine anti-ice system has been op-
box fairing is an electrically heated fairing to prevent the erating. The ENG ANTI ICE fail lights may remain illumi-
formation of ice on each engine nose gearbox fairing. nated for several minutes after the switch is placed in the
2.25.1 Engine and Engine Inlet Anti-Ice Opera- OFF position. When the switch is OFF, the advisory lights
tion. The engine anti-ice system is controlled by a two- on the pilot ANTI ICE panel indicate when the engine
position ON/OFF toggle switch located on the pilot ANTI bleed-air valves are open. These lights will illuminate
ICE panel (fig 2-17). When the switch is placed to the ON when engine speed is below 91% NG (bleed valve open)
position, the ENG 1 ANTI ICE and ENG 2 ANTI ICE advi- and will extinguish when engine is above 91% NG (bleed
sory lights will illuminate and remain on during normal op- valve closed). When the switch is ON, the advisory lights
eration of the system. The ENG 1 ANTI ICE and ENG 2 will

2-24 Change 2
TM 1-1520-238-10

remain continuously illuminated unless the nose gearbox If this filter becomes clogged and impedes the passage of
fairings overheat +121 °C (250 °F) or under heat 96 °C fuel, a bypass valve permits fuel to bypass the filter. The
(205 °F) or if the engine inlet section receives anti-ice air differential pressure initiating bypass actuates the fuel-
at less than 150 °F. If any of these three conditions occur, pressure bypass sensor, thus causing the FUEL BYP
the advisory lights extinguish and the ENG ANTI ICE fail ENG 1 or FUEL BYP ENG 2 segment on the pilot caution/
lights illuminate. warning panel to illuminate (fig 2-44). An impending filter
bypass button on the filter housing pops out when filter
element differential pressure indicates impending bypass.

2.26.3 Hydromechanical Unit (HMU). The HMU pro-


vides metered fuel to the combustor to control the gas
generator (NG) speed. The HMU contains a high pressure
fuel pump to supply fuel to the metering section. The HMU
responds to mechanical inputs from the crewmembers
through the power available spindle (PAS) and the load
demand spindle (LDS). The PAS is mechanically con-
nected to the pilot PWR levers while the LDS is connected
to a bellcrank attached to the collective servo. The HMU
regulates fuel flow and controls positioning of the inlet
guide vanes, variable compressor stage 1 and 2 vanes as
well as the anti-ice and start bleed valve in response to
engine inlet air temperature, compressor discharge air
M01-143
pressure, NG speed, PAS and LDS positioning, and the
ECU or DECU . The torque motor feedback sig-
Figure 2-17. Pilot/Engine Anti-Ice Panel nals from the HMU to the ECU/DECU are provided by the
linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) to com-
2.26 ENGINE FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM. plete the control activated within the HMU at 100 – 112%
NG speed. The HMU uses signals from the ECU/DECU to
The engine has a conventional fuel control system: PWR interpret fuel requirements and to vary fuel flow for auto-
lever position and the degree of collective pitch basically matic power control. The HMU will additionally provide NG
establish the power output demands placed on the en- overspeed protection in the event the gas generator ex-
gines. Engine power is trimmed automatically through in- ceeds 108 – 112% NG. The reaction of the HMU to an NG
teraction of the engine HMU and the ECU or DECU overspeed is the same as for an Np overspeed. Over-
. The ECU/DECU of each engine exchanges torque speed protection protects the gas generator turbine from
signals with the opposite engine to achieve automatic destructive overspeeds. When an N G overspeed is
load-sharing between engines. sensed, fuel is directed to the MIN pressure valve of the
HMU which causes it to close and shut off fuel to the en-
2.26.1 Fuel Boost Pump. A low-pressure suction fuel gine.
boost pump is installed on the front face of the engine ac-
cessory gearbox. It ensures that the airframe fuel supply
system is under negative pressure, thus reducing the dan- 2.26.4 Overspeed and Drain Valve (ODV). The ODV
ger of fire in case of fuel system damage. If the FUEL PSI responds to a signal from the ECU/DECU. Under normal
ENG 1 or FUEL PSI ENG 2 segment on the pilot caution/ operation, fuel is routed from the HMU via the oil cooler
warning panel illuminates at idle speed and above, it could and through the ODV to the combustor. When an over-
indicate a leak or restriction in the helicopter fuel system speed condition is sensed, a signal from the ECU or
or a failed engine boost pump. DECU closes a solenoid in the ODV, thus routing fuel
back into the HMU. All residual fuel is drained overboard.
2.26.2 Fuel Filter. A fuel filter is located between the Fuel flow to the fuel manifold ceases, and the engine
fuel boost pump and the high-pressure pump in the HMU. flames out.

Change 9 2-25
TM 1-1520-238-10

NOTE ECU by momentarily advancing the engine PWR lever to


LOCKOUT. The DECU, which incorporates improved
The ECU and DECU are not inter- technology, performs the same functions as the ECU ex-
changeable between -701 and -701C en- cept for the following functional and control improve-
gines. ments.
2.26.5 Electrical Control Unit (ECU) . The ECU
(fig 2-16) controls the engine and transmits operational in- The DECU can be fully powered by either the engine alter-
formation to the crew stations. It is a solid-state device nator or by 400 Hz, 115 vac aircraft power. It incorporates
mounted below the engine compressor casing. Powered logic which will eliminate torque spike signals during en-
by the engine alternator, the ECU receives inputs from the gine start-up and shutdown. The DECU control logic con-
thermocouple harness, Np sensor, torque and overspeed tains a Maximum Torque Rate Attenuator (MTRA) feature
sensor, opposite engine torque for load sharing, NG signal designed to reduce the risk of exceeding the dual engine
from the alternator, Np reference signal from the turbine torque limit during uncompensated maneuvers. These are
speed control unit, and a feedback signal from the HMU any maneuvers where pedal or cyclic inputs are made but
for system stabilization. The torque-sharing system in- no collective control inputs occur. For example, large tran-
creases power on the lower-output engine to match it with sient engine torque increases can occur during left pedal
the higher output engine. The ECU also receives opposite and left lateral cyclic inputs when performing maneuvers
engine torque inputs to enable contingency power. When such as rapid hovering turns or forward flight roll rever-
this input signal is 51% torque or below, contingency pow- sals. The MTRA is designed to reduce fuel flow and limit
er is automatically enabled. However, contingency power rate of torque increase to approximately 12% per second
is not applied until the flight crew pulls in collective above when at transient engine torque during an uncompen-
867 °C TGT. The ECU automatically allows the normally sated maneuver. However, any collective control increase
operating engine to increase its TGT limit, thereby in- during the maneuver can override the MTRA and normal
creasing its torque output. The overspeed protection sys- maximum engine torque rate increase can be achieved.
tem senses a separate Np signal independently of the The MTRA feature is not active in the DECU logic under
governing channel. ECU also provides signals to the Np single engine conditions. The DECU contains an automat-
indicator, TORQUE indicator, and history recorder. In case ic hot start preventer (HSP). The DECU also provides sig-
of the ECU malfunction, system operation may be overrid- nal validation for selected input signals within the electri-
den by momentarily advancing the engine PWR lever to cal control system. Signals are continuously validated
LOCKOUT and then retarding the lever past the FLY posi- when the engine is operating at flight idle and above. If a
tion to manually control engine power. This locks out the failure has occurred on a selected input signal, the failed
ECU from all control/limiting functions except N p over- component or related circuit will be identified by a pre-se-
speed protection, which remains operational. To remove lected fault code. Fault codes will be displayed on the en-
the ECU from lockout operation, the engine PWR lever gine torque meter (fig 2-18), which defines fault codes in
must be moved to IDLE, then back to FLY. terms of engine torque. Fault codes will be displayed start-
ing with the lowest code for four seconds on/two seconds
a. Engine TGT Limiter Function . The ECU in- off, rotating through all codes and then repeating the
corporates a steady state dual and single engine TGT lim- cycle. The fault codes will be displayed on the engine
iting function which restricts fuel flow within the HMU to torque meter only when all of the following conditions are
prevent an engine over–temperature. The limiting function met:
has an inherent ±4C variance. The resistance in the cab-
ling and circuitry between the ECU and TGT gauge is • NG less than 20%
enough to produce a ±5C variance factor. Applying the
sum of these two factors, the dual engine limiter setting is
• Np less than 35%
allowed a value of 860±9C (851– 869C) and the • Other engine shutdown
single engine (contingency power) limiter setting is al-
lowed a value of 917±9C (908– 926C). The TGT lim-
• Aircraft 400 Hz power available
iter setting for a particular engine can change within these
ranges over a period of time. The fault codes can be suppressed by pressing either
OVSP TEST switch. The fault codes can be recalled by
again pressing either OVSP TEST switch. Once a failure
2.26.6 Digital Electronic Control Unit (DECU) has been identified, the fault code will remain available for
. The DECU (fig 2-16) is mounted in the same loca- diagnostic indication until starter dropout on the next en-
tion as the ECU. The DECU can be overridden like the gine start.

2-26 Change 9
TM 1-1520-238-10

a. Engine TGT Limiter Function . The DECU b. Hot Start Prevention (HSP). The HSP system is
incorporates a steady state dual and single engine TGT a part of the DECU and prevents overtemperature during
limiting function which restricts fuel flow within the HMU to engine start, such as a compressor stall. The HSP system
prevent an engine over–temperature. The limiting function receives power turbine speed (Np) signal, gas generator
has an inherent ±4C variance. The resistance in the cab- speed (NG) signal, and TGT. When Np and NG are below
ling and circuitry between the DECU and TGT gauge is their respective hot start reference, and TGT exceeds
enough to produce a ±5C variance factor. Applying the 900° C an output from the HSP system activates a sole-
sum of these two factors, the dual engine limiter setting is noid in the ODV valve. This shuts off fuel flow and causes
allowed a value of 866±9C (857– 875C) and the the engine to shut down. The HSP system will not operate
single engine (contingency power) limiter setting is al- if aircraft 400 Hz power is not present at the DECU. The
lowed a value of 896±9C (887– 905C). The TGT lim- HSP system can be turned off by pressing and holding ei-
iter setting for a particular engine can change within these ther OVSP TEST switch during the engine starting se-
ranges over a period of time. quence.

Change 9 2-26.1/(2-26.2 blank)


TM 1-1520-238-10

Î ÎÎ
Î ÎÎ
Î ÎÎ

ÎÎÎ
LEGEND

ÎÎÎ RED

ENGINE TORQUE INDICATOR

SIGNAL FAILED DIAGNOSTIC INDICATION ON TORQUE METER


( +/-3% Tolerance)

DECU 15%
NP DEMAND CHANNEL 25%
LOAD SHARE 35%
TGT CHANNEL 45%
ALTERNATOR POWER 55%
NG CHANNEL 65%
NP CHANNEL 75%
TORQUE AND OVERSPEED 85%
CHANNEL
HOT START PREVENTION 95%
CHANNEL
AIRCRAFT 400 HZ POWER 105%
COLLECTIVE CHANNEL 115%

M01-222

Figure 2-18. Signal Validation - Fault Codes

2-27
TM 1-1520-238-10

2.26.7 Fuel Pressure Warning System. The engine 2.28.1 Emergency Oil System. Small oil reservoirs,
fuel pressure warning system for each engine consists of built into the engine oil sumps, are kept full during normal
a pressure switch that illuminates the FUEL PSI segment operation by the oil pump. If oil pressure is lost, oil will
on the pilot caution/warning panel. The FUEL PSI ENG 1 bleed slowly out of these reservoirs and be atomized by
and FUEL PSI ENG 2 segments will illuminate when fuel air jets thus providing an oil mist lubrication for the engine
pressure drops below 9 psi. bearings for thirty seconds at 75% NG. An OIL PSI ENG 1
or OIL PSI ENG 2 light on the pilot caution/warning panel
will illuminate when oil pressure drops below 20 – 25 psi.
2.27 ENGINE ALTERNATOR.

2.28.2 Oil Tank. Pertinent oil grades and specifications


2.27.1 Engine Alternator . The engine alternator are in table 2-7. The filler port is on the right side of the
(fig 2-16 ) supplies AC power to the ignition circuitry and engine (fig 2-16). The oil level is indicated by a sight gage
the ECU. It also supplies a signal to the NG speed indica- on each side of the tank. Oil is supplied to the oil pump
tor. All essential engine electrical functions are powered through a screen. The scavenge pump returns oil from the
by the alternator. When the alternator power to the ECU is sumps to the oil tank through six scavenge screens.
interrupted, a loss of Np and torque indications will occur
on the affected engine(s), and the engine(s) will increase
to the maximum power. Percent Np/Nr will increase above 2.28.3 Oil Cooler and Filter. Scavenge oil passes
100% and T4.5 limiting will be inoperative. When the alter- through an oil cooler (fig 2-16) before returning to the tank.
nator power providing the NG signal is interrupted, a loss It is cooled by transferring heat from the oil to fuel routed
of NG indications will occur with a corresponding engine through the cooler. If the oil cooler pressure becomes too
out audio signal and warning light being activated. Actual high, a relief valve will open to dump scavenge oil directly
engine operation is unaffected. A complete loss of engine into the oil tank. Oil discharged from the oil pump is routed
alternator power results in affected engine(s) increasing through a disposable element filter. As the pressure differ-
to maximum power with a loss of of Np, NG indication, ential across the filter increases, the first indication will be
torque and engine out audio signal and warning light be- a popped impending bypass button. As the pressure in-
ing activated, and by an inability to start the engine. creases further, the OIL BYP ENG 1 or OIL BYP ENG 2
segment on the pilot caution/warning panel will illuminate.
During engine starting, with oil temperature below the nor-
2.27.2 Engine Alternator . When the engine alter- mal operating range, pressure may be high enough to
nator (fig 2-16 ) power supply to the DECU is interrupted, close the oil filter bypass sensor switch. In this situation,
400 Hz, 115 vac aircraft power is used to power the the caution light or lights will remain on until the oil warms
DECU, therefore preventing an engine (high side) failure. up and oil pressure decreases. The impending bypass in-
Np/torque indications will not be affected. When alternator dicator has a thermal lockout below +38 ° C (100 °F) to
power supply for the NG signal is interrupted, a loss of the prevent the button from popping.
associated engine NG indication and an engine out audio
signal and warning light will occur. Actual engine opera- 2.28.4 Chip Detector. Each engine chip detector (fig
tion is unaffected. Complete failure of the alternator will 2-16) is mounted on the forward right side of the accesso-
cause loss of NG indication, activation of an engine out au- ry gearbox. It consists of an integral magnet, electrical
dio and warning light, and inability to start the engine. Op- connector, and a housing. A removable screen surrounds
eration of the engine and all other indications will be nor- the magnet. The detector attracts magnetic particles at a
mal. primary chip detecting gap. If chips are detected, a signal
is sent to the pilot caution/warning panel to illuminate a
2.28 ENGINE OIL SYSTEM. CHIPS ENG 1 or CHIPS ENG 2 segment. These chip de-
tectors are of the non-fuzz burning type.

Each engine is lubricated by a self-contained, pressur-


2.29 ENGINE IGNITION SYSTEM.
ized, recirculating, dry sump system. Included are oil sup-
ply and scavenge pumps, an emergency oil system, an in-
tegral oil tank, a filter, an oil cooler, and seal pressurization Each engine has an ignition exciter unit with two igniter
and venting. A chip detector that illuminates the CHIPS plugs. The exciter unit receives power from its engine al-
ENG 1 or CHIPS ENG 2 segment on the pilot caution/ ternator. The MASTER IGN keylock switch on the pilot en-
warning panel is in line downstream of the scavenge gine PWR lever quadrant (fig 2-19) is an enabling switch
pump. to the ENG START switches. When an

2-28
TM 1-1520-238-10

ENG START switch is placed to START, pneumatic mo- must be placed in IGN OVRD (which aborts the automatic
toring of the engine starter takes place and the ignition engine start sequence).
system is energized. Ignition cutout is automatic after the
engine starts. Following aborted starts (Chapter 9, Emer- 2.30.1 Engine Start Using APU. The APU provides
gency Procedures), the engine must be motored with the on-board power for system check by ground personnel.
ignition system disabled. This is done by placing the ENG The APU is capable of driving the main transmission ac-
START switch to IGN OVRD. Chapter 5 contains the start- cessories which include the ac generators, the hydraulic
ing cycle limitations. pumps, and the shaft driven compressor (SDC). The APU
is normally left on during both engine starts, but it may be
shut down after one engine has reached 100% Np. When
2.30 ENGINE STARTING SYSTEM.
Np has reached 100% and the APU shut down, that en-
gine may be used to drive the SDC through the transmis-
The engine uses an air turbine starter (fig 2-16) for engine sion and accessory gear train for starting the second en-
starting. System components for starting consist of the gine. A complete description of the auxiliary power unit
engine starter, a start control valve, an external start con- appears in Section XII.
nector, check valves, controls, and ducting. Three
sources may provide air for engine starts: The shaft driv- 2.30.2 Engine Start Using External Source. An exter-
en compressor (SDC) (normally driven by the APU for en- nal air receptacle under the No. 1 engine nacelle provides
gine starts), No. 1 engine compressor bleed air, or an ex- an attachment point for an air line to start either engine
ternally connected ground source. In any case, the start from an external source. The assembly contains a check
sequence is the same. With the ENG FUEL switch ON valve to prevent engine bleed air or SDC pressurized air
and MASTER IGN switch ON, placing the ENG START from being vented overboard. An external air source of 40
switch momentarily to START will initiate an automatic psig and 30 pounds per minute (ppm) pressurizes the
start sequence. This will be evidenced by the illumination start system up to the engine start control valves which re-
of the ENG 1 or ENG 2 advisory light above the ENG quires only that electrical power be applied for a normal
START switch on the pilot PWR lever quadrant. Com- start sequence.
pressed air is then directed through the start control valve
to the air turbine starter. As the air turbine starter begins to 2.30.3 Engine Start Using Engine Bleed Air
turn, an overrun clutch engages which causes the engine Source. When the No. 1 engine is operating and it is
to motor. The starter turbine wheel and gear train auto- necessary to start the No. 2 engine, bleed air may be used
matically disengage from the engine when engine speed from the No. 1 engine compressor under certain circum-
exceeds starter input speed. At approximately 52% NG, stances. This technique is not normally used; however, it
air to the starter shuts off, and ignition is terminated. If the is fully automatic, and provides an alternative starting ca-
engine does not start, the PWR lever must be returned to pability if the SDC shaft fails or if the SDC throttle valve or
OFF and the ENG START switch must be placed at IGN surge valve clogs (Section VI, Pressurized Air System).
OVRD (which aborts the automatic engine start se- The starting sequence is the same as for APU starting;
quence) momentarily before another start is attempted. If only the source of air to the start motor is different. When
the engine is equipped with a DECU , fuel flow to the using this technique to ensure an adequate air pressure
engine will be automatically shut off if TGT exceeds 900 and flow to the No. 2 engine starter, collective pitch must
°C during the start sequence. If this occurs, the PWR lever be increased to a value that will increase the NG of the
must be returned to OFF and the ENG START switch No. 1 engine to a minimum of 95%.

Change 9 2-29
TM 1-1520-238-10

BAT OVRD PWR

PILOT PWR LEVER QUADRANT CPG PWR LEVER QUADRANT


AND
EMER PWR CHK OVSP TEST PANEL M01-017

Figure 2-19. Pilot Emergency Check Overspeed Test Panel Power Lever Quadrant and CPG Power Lever
Quadrant

2.31 ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEM. monitored and controlled. The overspeed protection sys-
tem is not disabled in the LOCKOUT position.
The engine control system consists of the engine power
lever quadrant, the engine chop controls, the load de- CAUTION
mand system, and the overspeed protection system.

2.31.1 Engine Power (PWR) Lever Quadrants. The Physically confirm that engine chop col-
lar is seated in its latched/centered posi-
PWR lever quadrants for the pilot and CPG (fig 2-19) al-
tion.
low either crewmember to manage engine power. The two
quadrant control panels are different, although the PWR 2.31.2 Pilot and CPG Engine Chop Control. The
levers are identical. Friction however, can be set on only position of a knurled ring on each collective stick grip con-
the pilot levers. The PWR levers have four detent posi- trols engine chop. The ring is placarded UNLATCH,
tions: OFF, IDLE, FLY and LOCKOUT. The pilot detent CHOP and RESET. When the ring is pushed forward (UN-
override controls are mechanical while the CPG’s are LATCH) and rotated 45° to the right to CHOP, the speed of
electrically operated. Movement of either PWR lever both engines is reduced to idle. This is done by a switch in
moves a cable to mechanically shut off fuel (stop cock) or the grips that cuts out the power turbine speed reference
to set NG speed. For flight, the lever is advanced to FLY. signals for both engines. At this time, the ENGINE CHOP
By moving the PWR lever momentarily to LOCKOUT, warning light will illuminate. The ENG 1 OUT and ENG 2
then retarding past FLY, NG speed may be manually con- OUT lights and audio will not activate because engine
trolled. When the PWR lever is in LOCKOUT, the TGT lim- chop activation disables this feature. The LOW RPM RO-
iting system is deactivated, and TGT must be closely TOR

2-30
TM 1-1520-238-10

warning light and audio will activate. If the knurled ring is testing of the OPS A and B circuits in normal power tur-
released after turning to CHOP, it will snap back to the bine speed range. An advisory light on the panel indicates
center position, but the engines will remain at idle and the emergency airframe electrical power. The system normal-
ENGINE CHOP warning light will remain illuminated. Re- ly uses engine alternator power. The overspeed test
tard both PWR levers to IDLE. If the knurled ring is then switches are used during maintenance operational
turned 45° to the left to RESET the engines will perform in checks.
accordance with PWR lever settings. When the knurled
ring is released from RESET, it will snap back to the center
position, but the circuit will remain in the RESET normal
2.32 ENGINE INSTRUMENTS.
condition. Power for the engine-cut circuit is obtained by
way of the ENG CUT circuit breaker on the pilot overhead The engine instruments are vertical scale type. A common
circuit breaker panel. feature of all vertical-scale instruments is the power-on in-
dication: when electrical power is supplied to these instru-
2.31.3 Engine Load Demand System. When the en- ments, the blue segment of each vertical-scale is illumi-
gine PWR lever is in FLY, the ECU/DECU and HMU re- nated. Another common feature is indicator-light dimming
spond to collective pitch position to automatically control (not dimming of the edge-lighted panels but dimming of
engine speed and provide required power. During emer- the vertical-scale segments and the digital displays). This
gency operations when the PWR lever is moved to LOCK- dimming is accomplished for each crew station by the DIM
OUT and then retarded to an intermediate position, be- control on the engine instrument test panels (fig 2-20) lo-
tween IDLE and FLY, the engine will respond to collective cated in each crew station. An additional feature of the pi-
signals, but control of engine speed is no longer automatic lot engine instrument test panel is automatic dimming of
and must be managed manually using the PWR lever. the pilot engine instruments by a photoelectric cell located
on the test panel. The cell dims or brightens in response to
ambient crew station light but may be overridden by
WARNING manual control. A third common feature of all engine in-
struments in each crew station is that they share power
supplies. Each power supply energizes alternate lamp
The T700-GE-701 and T700-GE-701C en- segments and one digital readout for all engine instru-
gine is designed to shut down when an ments in each respective crew station. If one power sup-
overspeed condition is sensed. The ply fails, every other lamp segment and all of ENG 1 or all
OVSP TEST circuit trips at 95 – 97% NP of ENG 2 digits will extinguish. In addition, if one of the pi-
and should never be performed in flight. lot power supplies fails, the AUX PWR light on the pilot
A power loss will result. ONLY mainte- engine instrument test panel illuminates. The CPG test
nance personnel are authorized to per- panel does not have this feature. One of the pilot power
form this check. supplies receives 28 vdc from the emergency dc bus
through the ENG INST circuit breaker on the pilot circuit
a. Engine Overspeed Protection System (OPS). breaker panel. The other pilots power supply and both
The engine overspeed protection system prevents power CPG power supplies receive 28 vdc from the emergency
turbine overspeed. The system receives power turbine dc bus through the ENG INST circuit breaker on the CPG
speed signals from the torque and overspeed sensors lo- No. 1 circuit breaker panel. The illuminated segments at
cated in the exhaust frame section of the engine. When Np the vertical scale instruments are referenced to the adja-
meets or exceeds 119.6% 1%, two frequency sensing cent instrument indices and utilize a technique called opti-
circuits output a signal to the overspeed system which mistic scaling. This means, for example, that for proper in-
causes the ODV to shut off fuel to the engine. Two over- dication of 100% Np/Nr the segments immediately above
speed test switches are located on the EMER PWR CHK the instrument index line for 100% should be at the thresh-
OVSP TEST panel (fig. 2–19). These switches permit old of illumination.

Change 9 2-31
TM 1-1520-238-10

the TGT will increase until the sum of the actual TGT mi-
nus the 71 °C bias equals a positive number, then the indi-
cated TGT values will be correct.

b. Torque Indicator (TORQUE %). The torque indi-


cator is a dual vertical-scale instrument with dual digital
readouts beneath the scales. The engine torque sensor
sends pulsed signals to the engine ECU/DECU where
torque signals are computed and sent to the crew station
indicators. Engine torque is also displayed in the flight
symbology as a single value for both engines. The torque
value represented indicates the highest engine torque of
the two engines. If a greater than 12% torque split occurs
between the engines, the displayed torque value will
M01-123 flash. At an engine torque value of 98% or greater, a box
around the torque value will be present and begin to flash,
indicating an impending continuous torque limit of 100%.
The maximum displayed torque value is 120%.
Figure 2-20. Engine Instrument Test Panel
c. Gas Generator Turbine Speed Indicator (NG
2.32.1 Pilot Engine Instruments. All of the pilot en- RPM %). This is a dual, vertical-scale instrument with
gine instruments are on the left side of his instrument pan- dual digital readouts beneath the scales. Speed signals
el. These instruments are tested by the pilot engine instru- are taken from the engine alternators and sent directly to
ment test panel (fig 2-20). When the switch on the test the crew station indicators.
panel is set at NORM, all instrument lights are operated by
their functional inputs. When the switch is set at DGT OFF, d. Power Turbine and Main Rotor Speed Indicator
all digital displays turn off. When the switch is set at TST, (ENG-RTR RPM %). This is a triple, vertical-scale in-
all digital displays indicate 888, and all vertical-scale read- strument. The two outer scales (Np 1 and Np 2) indicate
ings are illuminated sequentially from the bottom to full speeds of the power turbines. The engine power turbine
scale for 3 seconds, then extinguish. The following engine driveshaft sensors transmit pulsed signals to the engine
instruments are located on the pilot instrument panel: ECU/DECU where they are computed into speed signals
and then sent to the crew station indicators. The middle
scale registers main rotor speed (Nr) and receives inputs
a. Turbine Gas Temperature Indicator (TGT °C directly from a magnetic pickup-type tachometer genera-
x 100). The TGT indicator is a dual, vertical-scale instru- tor on the transmission.
ment with dual digital readouts beneath the scales. Tem-
perature is sensed at the power turbine inlets by seven e. Oil Pressure Indicator (ENG OIL PSI x 10). This
thermocouple probes. These signals are averaged and is a dual, vertical-scale instrument. Pressure signals are
routed through the ECU/DECU, processed by the data taken from the engine oil system transducers and are dis-
signal converter, and transmitted to the crew station indi- played on the crew station indicators.
cators. The DECU incorporates a 71 °C bias in its
software which results in the indicated TGT reading cooler 2.32.2 CPG Engine Instruments. The CPG instru-
than the actual TGT. This permits use of the same TGT ment panel has a power turbine and main rotor speed ver-
gauge for the -701 and -701C engines. When the helicop- tical-scale indicator and an engine torque vertical-scale
ter is on battery power only and a given engine has not indicator identical to those on the pilot instrument panel.
been started, the TGT signal is passed through the DECU To compensate for the absence of TGT, NG, and oil pres-
to the TGT gauge without the 71 °C bias. When the heli- sure indicators, a selectable digital display (SDD) panel
copter has 115 vac, 400 Hz power applied, and a given (fig 2-21) is installed to the right of the CPG engine torque
engine has not been started, the DECU is powered and indicator. To obtain a readout, the SELECT knob is turned
applies the 71 °C bias to the TGT signal for display. If until an advisory light is displayed in the desired position
when the helicopter has 115 vac, 400 Hz power applied on the right side of the panel. When the SELECT knob is
prior to starting a given engine and the actual TGT minus rotated fully clockwise, no advisory light will be illuminated
the 71 °C bias results in a negative number, the indicated and the digital readout should be disregarded. Simulta-
TGT may be erroneous with a significant mismatch be- neously, left engine and right engine digital readouts ap-
tween pilot and CPG TGT gauges. During engine start, pear in the left upper corner of the panel for FWD and AFT

2-32 Change 9
TM 1-1520-238-10

cell fuel quantity. The CPG engine instruments are tested and their fault indicators, are summarized in Section XIV,
by pressing the TEST pushbutton on the SDD panel which tables 2-5 and 2-6. It should be noted that the CPG cau-
causes all vertical-scale readings to be fully illuminated, tion/warning panel has fewer segments than the pilot cau-
and all digital displays to indicate 888. The engine instru- tion/warning panel and that specific faults are often not
ment test panel (fig 2-20) also has the capability of testing displayed. Illumination of any one of the pilot caution/
the CPG engine instruments by selecting the TST position warning segments that indicates an engine problem will
of the DGT/OFF/NORM/TST switch. In this position all simultaneously illuminate the CPG ENG 1 or ENG 2 seg-
vertical-scale displays will be fully illuminated and the digi- ment.
tal displays will indicate 888. Selecting the DGT OFF posi-
tion will blank all CPG digital displays.
2.34 ENGINE HISTORY RECORDER

An engine history recorder is mounted to the forward right


side of the engine (fig 2-16). Signals are sent to the
history recorder by the ECU. The recorder displays two
readouts of low cycle fatigue (LCF) events, a time temper-
ature index, and engine operating hours. These readouts
cannot be reset to zero. The engine history recorder is
present only on the -701 engine.

2.35 ENGINE HISTORY COUNTER


M01-016

An engine history counter is mounted to the forward right


Figure 2-21. Selectable Digital Display Panel side of the engine (fig 2-16). Signals are sent to the
history counter by the DECU. The counter displays two
2.33 ENGINE CAUTION/WARNING ANNUNCIATORS. readouts of LCF events, a time-temperature index and en-
gine operating hours. These readouts cannot be reset to
All cautions/warnings for the engines have been dis- zero. The engine history counter is present only on the
cussed in this section. These caution/warning segments, -701C engine.

Change 9 2-33
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section IV. FUEL SYSTEM

2.36 FUEL SYSTEM. 2.36.1 Pilot Fuel Control Panel. Table 2-1 outlines the
effects of switch settings on the pilot fuel control panel (fig
The fuel system provides fuel and fuel management provi-
2-22). Some fuel control panels have been modified with
sions (fig 2-22) to operate both engines and the APU. Fuel
switch barriers located on the ENG 1 and ENG 2 fuel
is stored in two crash-resistant, self-sealing fuel cells: one
switches (fig 2-22.1). The following paragraphs contain a
forward and one aft of the ammunition bay (fig 2-23). Fuel
description of fuel system provisions controlled by the
may be transferred from either cell to the other. The sys-
panel.
tem is also equipped to crossfeed (select which fuel cell
supplies fuel to the engines). The helicopter has provi-
sions for carrying either two or four external fuel tanks on a. Fuel Switch. Two switches, ENG 1 and ENG 2,
the wing pylon attach points. Approved primary fuel control the activation of the crossfeed shutoff valves. In or-
grades and acceptable alternates are listed in Section XV, der for fuel to flow to the engines (or crossfeed to the op-
table 2-8. posite engine if selected), the respective fuel switch must
be ON. When in the ON position, the crossfeed switch is
enabled. This controls the positioning of the crossfeed
valve.

WARNING

• The crossfeed switch shall be set to


the NORM position at all times, in
flight, unless executing emergency
procedures for FUEL PSI ENG 1 and
FUEL PSI ENG 2 warning advisory. A
malfunctioning crossfeed valve could
PILOT result in a single engine flameout.
• Do not switch directly from AFT TK to
M01-015 FWD TK crossfeed (or FWD TK to AFT
Figure 2-22. Pilot Fuel Control Panel TK) without pausing for at least 15
seconds in the NORM position to en-
sure both valves are sequencing to
their proper positions. Failure to fol-
low this procedure may result in a dual
engine flameout if one of the cross-
feed valves fails to properly position.
b. Crossfeed Switch. This switch simultaneously
controls the position of both crossfeed/shutoff valves.
SWITCH Three discrete positions, FWD TK, NORM and AFT TK al-
BARRIER
low the pilot to select the fuel cell(s) to feed both engines.
The NORM setting feeds the No. 1 engine from the for-
ward cell and the No. 2 engine from the aft cell. Both en-
gines will feed from either the FWD TK or AFT TK when
selected. This allows the pilot an emergency means to
continue flight to a safe area after sustaining fuel system
PILOT damage. The crossfeed switch can still be used on the
M01-325 ground to control fuel feed during hot refueling. CROSS-
FEED switch must be placed in the NORM position at
Figure 2-22.1 Pilot Fuel Control Panel least 30 seconds prior to takeoff. If the ENG 1 or ENG 2
(Modified) fire pull handle is pulled, the

2-34 Change 2
TM 1-1520-238-10

selected engine crossfeed/shutoff valve automatically d. Transfer Switch (TRANS). The TRANS switch
closes. controls the position of the fuel transfer air valve. The fuel
transfer air valve directs pressurized air to the bi-direction-
Some helicopters have been modified with green and am- al transfer pump which allows fuel transfer between fuel
ber crossfeed (X FEED) annunciator lights located on the cells. With the switch in the TO AFT or TO FWD position,
pilot and CPG caution/warning panels (fig 2-44.1). The pressurized air is directed to the air motor which turns the
green X FEED annunicator light will illuminate on both transfer pump and transfers fuel forward or aft. If the
caution/warning panels when crossfeed is selected by the transfer pump is transferring fuel and the fuel cell to which
pilot and both engine fuel valves are correctly positioned it is transferring becomes full, a fuel level control valve will
for the selection. The green X FEED annunicator light will shut off the fuel flow through the pump. There is no need
also illuminate when override and crossfeed is selected to stop the transferring operation until the fuel cells are at
by the CPG and both valves are correctly positioned. the desired level.
When the CROSSFEED switch on the pilot fuel control
panel is placed in the FWD TK or AFT TK position the X
FEED caution/warning lights will be inhibited for 3 1 Some helicopters have been modified with green and am-
second while the fuel valves move to their selected posi- ber transfer (FUEL XFR) annunciator lights located on the
tion. The amber X FEED annunicator light and the MAS- pilot and CPG caution/warning panels (fig 2-44.1). The
TER CAUTION light (fig 2-43) will illuminate on both cau- green FUEL XFR annunicator light will illuminate on both
tion/warning panels when the pilot has selected crossfeed caution/warning panels when the pilot or CPG fuel trans-
or the CPG has selected override and one or both fuel fer switch is in the transfer position and transfer occurs.
valves are incorrectly positioned. The amber X FEED cau- The amber FUEL XFR annunicator light and the MASTER
tion/warning lights will also illuminate when a fuel valve is CAUTION light (fig 2-43) will illuminate on both caution/
in the CLOSED position (in response to actuation of a fire warning panels when the pilot or CPG fuel transfer switch
handle or pilot fuel control panel ENG 1 or ENG 2 fuel is in the transfer position and transfer does not occur.
switch in the OFF position.
NOTE
During engine start the amber X FEED cau- WARNING
tion/warning lights will illuminate if the
CROSSFEED switch is not in the AFT TK
position.
The CROSSFEED switch shall be set to
c. External Tank Switch (EXT TK). The pilot acti- the NORM position at all times unless ex-
vates fuel transfer from as many as four external fuel ecuting emergency procedures for FUEL
tanks to the internal fuel cells by positioning the EXT TK PSI ENG 1 and FUEL PSI ENG 2. Using
switch to ON. The switch opens the auxiliary fuel tank the fuel system crossfeed may result in a
shutoff valve and the two transfer shutoff valves. Opening dual engine flameout if one of the engine
the auxiliary fuel tank shutoff valve allows pressurized air fuel valves fails to properly position.
to force fuel from the left auxiliary fuel tank into the forward
fuel cell and from the right auxiliary fuel tank into the aft e. BOOST Switch. The boost pump (located in the
fuel cell. When all auxiliary tanks are empty, the EXT EMP aft fuel cell) is used for starting the engines and when the
caution light on the pilot caution/warning panel illumi- FUEL PSI ENG 1 and FUEL PSI ENG 2 caution lights illu-
nates. minate. The BOOST switch electrically opens the boost
pump shutoff valve which directs pressurized air to the air
NOTE driven boost pump. When the switch is in the OFF posi-
tion, the engines receive fuel (through a suction feed sys-
• The REFUEL VALVE switch (located on tem) via the engine-mounted fuel pumps. When the
the external fuel servicing panel (fig 2-45) BOOST switch is in the ON position, and the CROSS-
must be closed for operation of the FEED switch is in the AFT TK position, both engines feed
TRANS switch to be effective. The trans- from the aft fuel cell. The boost pump is automatically
fer pump will not transfer fuel if the refuel started and shut down during the engine start sequence.
valve is open. Shutdown occurs at approximately 52% NG. It should be
noted that the pilot CROSSFEED switch must be in the
• The fuel transfer system is the primary AFT TK position in order for the BOOST switch to latch
method of balancing loads. on.

Change 2 2-35
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-1. Pilot Fuel Control Panel Switch Functions

Switch Position Result Indication

ENG 1 set OFF Energizes fuel crossfeed/shutoff None


valve of the No. 1 engine to the
closed position thus shutting off fuel
flow to that engine.

ENG 1 set ON Energizes fuel crossfeed/shutoff None


valve of the No. 1 engine to the
position commanded by the
CROSSFEED switch.

ENG 2 set OFF Energizes fuel crossfeed/shutoff None


valve of the No. 2 engine to the
closed position, thus shutting off fuel
flow to that engine.

ENG 2 set ON Energizes fuel crossfeed/shutoff None


valve of the No. 2 engine to the
position commanded by the
CROSSFEED switch.

CROSSFEED set FWD TK Both engines feed from the forward FWD cell fuel quantity indicators
fuel cell. register fuel decrease while AFT cell
indicators remain constant.

CROSSFEED set NORM ENG No. 1 feeds from the forward Both fuel quantity indicators register
fuel cell; ENG No. 2 feeds from the fuel decrease from consumption.
aft fuel cell.

CROSSFEED set AFT TK Both engines feed from the aft fuel AFT cell fuel quantity indicators
cell. register fuel decrease while FWD cell
indicators remain constant.

EXT TK switch set ON Pressurized air is made available to Both fuel quantity indicators register
all external tanks for transfer of fuel fuel increase during fuel transfer
to the main fuel cells. operation.

TRANS set TO FWD Fuel is being pumped from AFT cell AFT cell fuel quantity indicators
to FWD cell by the transfer pump. register fuel decrease while FWD cell
indicators register fuel increase.

TRANS set TO AFT Fuel is being pumped from FWD cell FWD cell fuel quantity indicators
to AFT cell by the transfer pump. register fuel decrease while AFT cell
indicators register fuel increase.

BOOST set ON Pneumatically driven boost pump (in BOOST PUMP ON segment of C/W
AFT cell) is delivering fuel to both panel illuminates. (Crossfeed must
engine CROSSFEED/ SHUTOFF be set to AFT TK in order to latch
VALVES. BOOST switch.)

2-36
TM 1-1520-238-10

TO NO. 2 ENGINE

TO APU APU FUEL FIREWALL


SHUTOFF VALVE RIGHT CROSSFEED
SHUTOFF VALVE

APU FUEL
BOOSTER PUMP
TO LEFT CROSSFEED
SHUTOFF VALVE
AIR, FUEL TRANSFER
AIR FUEL CONTROL VALVE
PRESSURE IN N2 INERTING
UNIT PRESSURE
SWITCH
BOOST
PUMP GRAVITY
SHUTOFF FILLER FUEL
VALVE PORT N2 TO FWD TRANSFER PUMP
FUEL CELL
AIR VENT AND
FUEL PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE

FUEL AIR
QUANTITY PRESSURE IN
FUEL XMTR
BOOST TO FORWARD
PUMP PILOT
FUEL CELL
VALVE FUEL
TRANSFER
FUEL EXTERNAL SHUTOFF EXTERNAL
AIR VALVE FUEL TANK
SHUTOFF TANK PRESSURE SHUTOFF
VALVE CHECK IN VALVE
VALVE
TO LEFT
EXTERNAL
FUEL
WING JOINT TANK(S)

EXTERNAL
4-WAY FUEL TRANSFER
OVERBOARD FUEL SUPPLY SHUTOFF
LOW
VENT CHECK VALVE VALVE
LEVEL
SENSOR
SUMP
OVERBOARD DRAIN VALVE
DRAIN

AFT FUEL CELL

PULLAWAY
COUPLINGS

EXTERNAL FUEL TANK (S)


RIGHT SIDE

M01-040-2

Figure 2-23. Fuel System (Sheet 1 of 2)

2-37
TM 1-1520-238-10

LEFT CROSSFEED TO NO. 1 ENGINE


SHUTOFF VALVE

FIREWALL

TO RIGHT CROSSFEED GRAVITY


SHUTOFF VALVE FILLER PORT

N2 FROM
AFT FUEL CELL
AIR VENT AND
FUEL PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE
SINGLE POINT
ADAPTER
PRESSURE
FUEL SERVICING
MANIFOLD

PILOT VENT TUBE


VALVE

CLOSED
CIRCUIT
ADAPTER
FUEL AFT FUEL
SHUTOFF QUANTITY XMTR FORWARD
TO AFT
VALVE FUEL
FUEL CELL
QUANTITY
XMTR
EXTERNAL TANK
CHECK VALVE LOW LEVEL
SENSOR

TO EXTERNAL EXTERNAL FUEL


FUEL TANK TRANSFER
SHUTOFF SHUTOFF VALVE FUEL SUPPLY CHECK VALVE
VALVE OVERBOARD WITH THERMAL RELIEF
VENT
SUMP DRAIN VALVE FORWARD FUEL CELL

OVERBOARD
WING JOINT DRAIN

PULLAWAY
COUPLINGS

EXTERNAL FUEL TANK(S)


LEFT SIDE

M01-040-1

Figure 2-23. Fuel System (Sheet 2 of 2)

2-38
TM 1-1520-238-10

a. Override Switch (ORIDE). With the ORIDE


switch in the PLT position, only the pilot fuel control panel
switches have control of fuel system operation. When the
ORIDE switch is placed in the CPG position, The CPG
fuel control panel switches are enabled. The switches that
are not duplicated on the CPG FUEL panel are still active
on the pilot FUEL panel, (i.e., ENG 1, ENG 2 fuel
switches, and EXT TK switch).
CPG
M01-309
b. Transfer (TRANS) Switch. Operates the same
as the pilot TRANS switch (paragraph 2.36.1 d ).
Figure 2-24. CPG Fuel Control Panel
c. BOOST Switch. Operates the same as the pilot
BOOST switch (paragraph 2.36.1 e).
2.36.2 CPG Fuel Control Panel. Table 2-2 outlines the
effects of switch settings on the CPG fuel control panel (fig d. Tank Select (TK SEL) Switch. Operates the
2-24). The following paragraphs contain a description of same as the pilot CROSSFEED switch (paragraph 2.36.1
fuel system provisions controlled by the panel: b).

Table 2-2. CPG Fuel Control Panel Switch Functions

Switch Position Result Indication


ORIDE set PLT Only the pilot fuel control panel is None
enabled.

ORIDE set CPG CPG Fuel control panel is enabled. None

TRANS switch See Table 2-1.

BOOST switch See Table 2-1.

TK SEL set FROM FWD See Table 2-1, CROSSFEED set


FWD TK.

TK SEL set NORM See Table 2-1, CROSSFEED set


NORM.

TK SEL set FROM AFT See Table 2-1, CROSSFEED set


AFT TK.

2-39
TM 1-1520-238-10

2.36.3 Fuel Quantity Indicators. The pilot vertical- NOTE


scale fuel quantity indicator (fig 5-1) indicates the quantity
(in pounds X 10) of fuel remaining in the forward and aft For gravity refueling, the closed vent system
fuel cells. A digital display at the bottom of the indicator requires the refuel valve to be open to obtain
shows the combined total of remaining fuel (in pounds X maximum fill above the opening of the filler
10). The CPG selectable digital display (SDD) indicates neck. When fuel has reached this level, the
the pounds of fuel remaining in the forward and aft fuel fuel flow rate will have to be decreased to
cells. The SELECT knob is rotated until the FUEL QTY X accommodate the restricted vent flow rate.
10 display is illuminated thus causing the pounds of fuel
b. Pressure Refueling. The pressure service man-
remaining in each cell to appear on the digital display.
ifold, located forward of the right wing, has two adapters
Combined total fuel is not indicated. The fuel quantity
for accommodating either a single point adapter (SPA) or
transmitters are capacitance-type transmitters. There are
a closed-circuit adapter (CCA). Using either nozzle, for-
three fuel quantity transmitters: two are in the forward fuel
ward and aft cells may be filled separately or simulta-
cell because of the shape of the fuel cell, and one is in the
neously dependent upon the refueling panel switch set-
aft fuel cell. The transmitters provide data to the fuel signal
tings (fig 2-45). The shutoff valve at the bottom of each
conditioner which, in turn, provides a readout to the fuel
fuel cell responds to an adjoining float-type pilot valve at
quantity indicators in the crew stations.
the top of the cell. This valve will automatically stop fuel
flow when the cell is full. Shutoff is set to allow space for a
2.36.4 Fuel System Caution/Warning Lights. Fuel 3% expansion in each cell. The IND switch to the left of the
system caution/warning segments on the caution/warning FUEL QTY indicator on the refueling panel energizes the
panel are discussed in Section XIV, (tables 2-4 and 2-5). quantity indicator and advisory lights. After refueling, the
Their positions are shown on the caution/warning panel REFUEL VALVE switch must be returned to the CLOSED
(fig 2-44). position, or fuel transfer from cell-to-cell cannot be accom-
plished by either crewmember. The inside panel of the re-
fueling panel access door contains servicing instructions.
2.36.5 Auxiliary Fuel Tank. For ferry missions, there Section XV contains complete pressure refueling proce-
are provisions for as many as four external fuel tanks to be dures.
carried on the wing pylon attachment points. The external
tanks can be jettisoned in the same manner as any other 2.36.7 APU Fuel Supply. The APU receives fuel from
externally mounted stores. the aft fuel cell. Fuel is routed from the aft fuel cell through
the APU fuel shutoff valve to the APU boost pump and on
2.36.6 Refueling Provisions. All fuel service points to the APU.
are located on the right side of the helicopter. For all re-
fueling operations, the REFUEL valve switch must be a. APU Fuel Shutoff Valve. The APU fuel shutoff
placed in the OPEN position and then CLOSED after valve is controlled by the APU OFF,-RUN, and,-START
completion of refueling. Section XV contains fuel specifi- switch When the switch is moved to the RUN position, the
cations and weights. Chapter 6 describes the effects of shutoff valve is electrically opened to allow fuel flow to the
fuel loading on weight and balance. APU boost pump. If the FIRE APU PULL handle is pulled,
the APU fuel shutoff valve will close.

a. Gravity Filling. The forward and aft cells and the b. APU Boost Pump. The electrically-driven APU
external auxiliary tanks are gravity-filled separately. Fuel boost pump is energized when the APU START/RUN
cell filler ports are located forward and aft of the wing. Re- switch is at the START or RUN position. The pump will
fueling time required for gravity refueling depends on the continue to run until the APU is shut down. The pump de-
flow-rate capability of the servicing equipment. Section livers fuel to the APU integral fuel shutoff valve. Pulling the
XV contains specific filling procedures. FIRE APU PULL handle will stop the pump.

2-40
TM 1-1520-238-10

2.36.8 Nitrogen Inerting Unit (NIU). The NIU reduces controlled by the APU control switch, receive 28 vdc from
fire hazards associated with fuel cell ullages (airspace) by the emergency dc bus through the FUEL BST and APU
filling the ullage with oxygen-depleted air. The NIU is self- HOLD circuit breakers on the pilot overhead circuit break-
contained and automatically operated whenever pressur- er panel and the APU circuit breaker in the aft avionics
ized air and 115 vac power is available. A go/no-go press- bay.
to-test monitor is located in the aft avionics bay. The NIU
uses pressurized air from the pressurized air manifold and
purges about 70% of the oxygen present. This air is then d. ENG INST Circuit Breakers. All fuel system
sent to the aft fuel cell and onward to the forward fuel cell. gauges and caution/warning lights (except those on the
refueling panel and the pilot EXT EMP caution light), re-
2.36.9 Fuel System Electrical Power Sources. Elec- ceive 28 vdc from the emergency dc bus through the ENG
trical power for the fuel system is controlled by the follow- INST circuit breakers on the CPG No. 1 circuit breaker
ing circuit breakers (fig 2-39): panel and pilot overhead circuit breaker panel.

a. FUEL FILL Circuit Breaker. The refuel panel re- e. ENG START Circuit Breaker. Fuel supply sys-
ceives 24 vdc power directly from the battery through the tem components, automatically controlled by the automat-
FUEL FILL circuit breaker on the pilot overhead circuit ic-engine start circuits, receive 28 vdc from the emergen-
breaker panel. cy dc bus through the ENG START circuit breaker on the
pilot overhead circuit breaker panel.
b. FUEL BST, FUEL TRANS, and FUEL XFEED Cir-
cuit Breakers. Circuits controlled from the pilot and
CPG FUEL control panels receive 28 vdc from the emer- f. JETT Circuit Breakers. External jettison circuits
gency dc bus through the FUEL BST, FUEL TRANS, and (pilot selectable stores jettison switches) receive 28 vdc
FUEL XFEED circuit breakers on the pilot overhead circuit from the No. 2 essential dc bus through the JETT circuit
breaker panel. The EXT EMP light on the pilot caution/ breaker on the pilot overhead forward circuit breaker pan-
warning panel receives 28 vdc from the No. 2 essential dc el. In the event of a dual generator failure, this circuit is in-
bus through the FUEL TRANS circuit breaker on the pilot operative as the No.2 essential dc bus is not powered.
overhead circuit breaker panel. The second JETT circuit breaker (center circuit breaker
panel) receives 28 vdc through the emergency dc bus and
c. FUEL BST and APU HOLD Circuit Break- allows stores jettison through the collective stores jettison
ers. Fuel supply system components, automatically switches.

Change 9 2-41
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section V. FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM

2.37 FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM. 2.37.1 Cyclic Sticks. The cyclic sticks, one in each
crew station, provide for helicopter movement about the
The flight control system (fig 2-25) consists of hydrome- pitch and roll axes. The CPG stick has a lockpin release
chanical flight controls, augmented by digital automatic mechanism at the base of the stick. This allows the CPG
stabilization equipment (DASE), and an automatically or to fold the stick down while viewing the heads-down dis-
manually controlled stabilator. The flight control system play and provides greater ease for ingress/egress. The
establishes vertical, longitudinal, lateral, and directional cyclic stick remains functional in this position and is re-
flight of the helicopter. The flight controls provide a cyclic turned to the extended position by pulling aft on a lever in
stick, collective stick, and directional pedals in each crew front of the stick grip. Both cyclic stick grips (fig 2-26) have
station, connected in tandem, to provide control inputs to switches for weapons firing, DASE disengagement, trim
the main and tail rotor hydraulic servo actuators. A mixing
feel, radio and intercommunications, and flight modes
unit combines inputs from the servoactuators, and trans-
symbology. The pilot grip also has a remote transmitter
mits them to a non-rotating swashplate. The swashplate
selector switch for radio selection. These switches will be
changes the linear motion from the mixer unit to rotating
described in more detail with their associated systems.
motion. The swashplate provides pitch changes for the
four main rotor blades. Pedal inputs are transmitted in a
similar manner to the tail rotor blades, except the mixer
unit is not required. Description and operation of the main
and tail rotor systems is in Section VIII. 2.37.2 Collective Sticks. The collective sticks in both
crew stations (fig 2-26) provide the crew with a means of
NOTE adjusting pitch angle of the main rotor blades and fuel flow
metering requirements of the gas generator turbine. Each
Helicopters with operable BUCS have collective stick has an engine chop collar just aft of the col-
shear pins installed in the SPADs in place of lective stick switch box (see Section III) to permit both en-
steel pins. They also have servos equipped gines to be reduced to idle without moving the PWR lev-
for BUCS operation. ers. A switch panel at the end of each collective stick
contains a searchlight (SRCH LT) switch, an extend-re-
Each mechanical flight control linkage has a shear pin tract (EXT-RET) momentary searchlight switch, a wing
actuated decoupler (SPAD) installed. The SPADs allow stores jettison guarded button (ST JTSN), a NVS switch,
backup control system (BUCS) engagement by means of a BRSIT HMD/PLRT switch, and a radio frequency over-
a microswitch inside each SPAD if a jam occurs in the me- ride (RF OVRD) switch. The RF OVRD switch is nonfunc-
chanical flight controls. The shear pins in the pilot SPADs tional. Both collective sticks have a BUCS select trigger
shear at a force lower than those in the CPG SPADs. The switch. The switch in the Pilot station is non functional.
SPADs are continuously monitored by the FD/LS. A single
The switch in the CPG station is utilized to select BUCS.
microswitch failure in one or more axes will cause a FD/LS
These switches will be discussed in more detail with their
message to appear.
respective systems. A twist-type friction adjustment is
installed on the collective assembly to prevent the collec-
CAUTION tive stick from creeping during flight.

• Do not move flight controls without


2.37.3 Directional Control Pedals. The directional
hydraulic power. You may damage or
control pedals, one set in each crew station, provide for
shear pins in the SPADs.
helicopter movement about the yaw axis. Both sets of
• Care shall be exercised in extending pedals are adjusted by applying foot pressure and moving
or folding down the CPG cyclic stick a pedal adjust quick-release lever. Pressing the upper
when the rotors are turning. Cyclic portion of either pedal actuates a master brake cylinder
control system inputs may occur. It is which delivers hydraulic power to a brake disc at the re-
recommended that the pilot hold his spective main landing gear wheel. Section I contains de-
cyclic stick steady while the CPG is scriptions of the main landing gear and brake system.
extending or folding his cyclic stick.

2-42 Change 9
TM 1-1520-238-10

UPPER FLIGHT CONTROLS

LONGITUDINAL SERVOCYLINDER

COLLECTIVE SERVOCYLINDER

LONGITUDINAL LATERAL
MECHANICAL CONTROL LINKAGE SERVOCYLINDER

PILOT CYCLIC CONTROL STICK (LVDT,


SPAD, AND 1G SPRING
ASSEMBLIES UNDER COVER)

PILOT DIRECTIOAl
CONTROL PEDALS

CPG CYCLIC CONTROL STICK


(LVDT, SPAD, AND 1G SPRING
ASSEMBLIES UNDER COVER)

LATERAL
MECHANICAL CONTROL LINKAGE

PILOT COLLECTIVE CONTROL STICK

(PILOT ONLY) LATERAL AND LONGITUDINAL


FEEL SPRING ASSEMBLIES AND MAGNETIC BRAKES

CPG COLLECTIVE CONTROL STICK

CPG DIRECTIONAL CONTROL PEDALS


M01-215

Figure 2-25. Primary Flight Control System

2-43
TM 1-1520-238-10

3 4
1
5

ÎÎÎ
10

ÎÎÎ Ë
ÎÎÎ Ë
11

ÎÎÎ
16
12
9

8 13
7
6 14

15

PILOT CYCLIC STICK GRIP

4
5 PILOT AND CPG
3 STABILATOR
MANUAL CONTROL
2
PILOT AND CPG COLLECTIVE STICK

1. PILOT FORCE TRIM RELEASE SWITCH


2. CPG TRIM PUSHBUTTON
3. WEAPONS ACTION SWITCH (MOMENTARY)
4. FLIGHT MODE SYMBOLOGY SWITCH
5. INOPERATIVE
6. DASE RELEASE SWITCH
7. GUARDED TRIGGER SWITCH
8. REMOTE TRANSMITTER SELECTOR SWITCH (PILOT GRIP ONLY)
9 7 9. RADIO, ICS ROCKER SWITCH
10. NIGHT VISION SWITCH
11. BORESIGHT HMD/POLARITY SWITCH
6 12. ENGINE CHOP COLLAR
13. COLLECTIVE GRIP
14. STABILATOR MANUAL CONTROL SWITCH
15. AUTOMATIC OPERATION/AUDIO WARNING RESET BUTTON
16. BUCS SELECT TRIGGER SWITCH (CPG ONLY)

CPG CYCLIC STICK GRIP

M01-014

Figure 2-26. Cyclic Stick Grip and Collective Stick Controls

2-44
TM 1-1520-238-10

2.37.4 Trim Feel. of a trim system failure such as with the magnetic brake or
spring capsule. Trim feel is operable throughout all ranges
of cyclic stick or pedal travel. The trim system receives 28
CAUTION vdc from the emergency dc bus through the TRIM circuit
breaker on the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel.
Use of the pilot FORCE TRIM REL switch
in the force trim off position with the heli- 2.37.5 Flight Control Servos. The four primary flight
copter on the ground is not authorized. control servos are tandem units that use hydraulic pres-
Inflight operation with the pilot FORCE sure from both the primary and utility hydraulic systems.
TRIM REL switch in the force trim off The primary and utility sides of the servos are indepen-
position is authorized when briefed and dent of each other which provides redundancy in the ser-
the force trim off selection is acknowl- vos. If one hydraulic system fails, the remaining system
edged by both crewmembers. can drive the flight control servos. If both systems fail si-
multaneously during flight, either crewmember can use
Either crewmember can trim the cyclic and pedal controls.
stored accumulator hydraulic pressure to provide limited
A lateral, longitudinal, and directional trim feel magnetic
hydraulics for safe landing. Section VI contains a detailed
brake and spring assembly is incorporated into each con-
description of the emergency hydraulic system. The pri-
trol system. Setting the pilot FORCE TRIM REL switch to
mary side of each flight control servo has two electrohy-
the on position will engage the magnetic brakes in the lon-
draulic solenoid valves. One responds to DASE computer
gitudinal, lateral, and directional flight controls. The spring
signals for stability augmentation.
assemblies will hold the cyclic stick and directional pedals
in trim. Movement of the cyclic or directional controls, by
either the pilot or CPG, with FORCE TRIM REL switch on, The second electrohydraulic solenoid valve responds to
will cause the spring assemblies to compress and provide DASE computer inputs for BUCS.
feel to the controls. When control pressure is released, the
controls will return to their trimmed position. Retrimming is 2.37.6 Digital Automatic Stabilization Equipment
accomplished by a TRIM pushbutton on the CPG cyclic (DASE). The DASE augments stability and enhances
stick or by a FORCE TRIM REL switch on the pilot cyclic maneuverability of the helicopter. DASE includes and/or
stick grip. Pressing the button or pressing up on the switch controls the following: stability and command augmenta-
releases the magnetic brake and allows the springs to tion in pitch, roll, and yaw; attitude hold; heading hold;
travel to the new control position. Additionally, this action hover augmentation; turn coordination; and the BUCS.
also allows the SAS actuators to recenter, if necessary. Major components include an ASE control panel (fig
Releasing the button or switch will then allow the magnetic 2-27), a DASE computer, eight linear variable differential
brake to engage and hold the springs at the new position. transducers (LVDT), two 26 vac transformers, and four
The pilot may press the FORCE TRIM REL switch to the hydraulic servo actuators.
full down position to disable trim feel entirely.
a. DASE Computer. The DASE computer receives
For the CPG, trim feel is lost in the affected axis when 28 vdc from the No. 3 essential dc bus through the ASE
the respective SPAD shear pin is broken or if mechanical BUCS circuit breaker and a stepped down 26 vac refer-
linkage severance has occurred between the pilot and ence voltage from the No. 1 essential ac bus through the
CPG stations. ASE AC circuit breaker. Both circuit breakers are on the
pilot overhead circuit breaker panel. The DASE computer
With the pilot FORCE TRIM REL switch in the down posi- automatically disengages a mistrack of more than 35%
tion, the ATTD/HOVER HOLD and SAS actuator center- and lights the ASE FAIL indicator on both caution/warning
ing capabilities of the DASE are inoperative. The capabili- panels; concurrently, the PITCH, ROLL, and YAW
ties will return when the switch is returned to the center switches on the ASE control panel will drop to OFF. The
position. The full down position of the pilot FORCE TRIM squat switch on the left main landing gear disables the
REL switch may be used momentarily to unlatch the mag- YAW CAS function during ground taxi to prevent overcon-
netic latch of the ATTD/HOVER HOLD switch on the ASE trol of the helicopter. The YAW channel circuitry in the
control panel (fig 2-27). The DASE capabilities of the pilot DASE computer receives sideslip data from the air data
FORCE TRIM REL switch remain unaffected in the event sensor which provides turn coordination above 60 KTAS.

2-45
TM 1-1520-238-10

b. ASE Control Panel. The ASE control panel (fig and the air data sensor system (ADSS). The DASE
2-27) located in the pilot left console, has five single- computer provides positioning commands to a two-
throw, two-position magnetic switches labeled PITCH, stage electrohydraulic SAS servo valve on the primary
ROLL, YAW, and ATTD/HOVER HOLD and a BUCS side of the longitudinal, lateral, and directional flight con-
TEST (BUCS TST) switch. trol servoactuators. The position of the SAS servo valve
The BUCS TST switch on the ASE control panel per- determines the amount and direction of movement of the
mits the pilot to perform a go no-go check of the BUCS. SAS actuators. The position of each of the SAS actuators
is transmitted to the DASE computer by the LVDTs. The
The NOE/APRCH switch is part of the stabilator system. motion of each SAS actuator is summed with the mechan-
The ASE release button at the base of each cyclic stick ical input to each flight control servo, but the SAS actuator
grip, when pressed, causes the three channel switches authority is limited to 10% bidirectional motion in all axes
and the ATTD/HOVER HOLD switch to drop to OFF. The except the longitudinal where the authority is 10% aft and
ASE control panel receives 28 vdc from the No. 3 essen- 20% forward. The DASE is engaged through the pilot ASE
tial dc bus through the ASE DC circuit breaker on the pilot control panel.
overhead circuit breaker panel.
d. Attitude/Hover Hold. The hover augmentation
system (HAS) or HOVER HOLD mode of the DASE uses
SAS actuators to maintain position and damp external dis-
ASE turbances to the helicopter. HAS is set by engaging the
ATTD/HOVER HOLD switch or by using the momentary
BUCS TST YAW
OFF (up) position of the pilot FORCE TRIM REL switch.
HAS provides the pilot with limited station-keeping or ve-
PLT CPG locity-hold during hover or low speed flight. Position-hold
accuracy is a function of inertial velocity drift errors of the
OFF HARS which can vary with time. The SAS authority mar-
gin will be biased from its center position as these errors
NOE/APRCH ROLL build with time. The attitude hold is a limited authority
mode of the DASE in pitch and roll axes. This mode pro-
vides the pilot with limited hands-off flight capabilities in
cruise flight. Attitude hold will only function if: (1) the
OFF OFF ATTD/HOVER HOLD, PITCH, and ROLL switches on the
ATTD/HOVER ASE panel are engaged; (2) force trim is on, and (3) longi-
HOLD PITCH
tudinal airspeed of the helicopter is greater than 60 KTAS.
CAS is removed when the attitude hold mode is engaged.

OFF OFF CAUTION


M01-290
HAS should not be used as the sole
Figure 2-27. ASE Control Panel method for station keeping. Cross-
checking obstacle clearance using visu-
al or NVS means shall be accomplished.
c. Automatic Stabilization. The DASE has a sta- Do not activate HAS on the ground or
bility augmentation system (SAS) and a command aug- land with HAS on. Uncommanded air-
mentation system (CAS). The SAS reduces pilot workload craft attitude changes may result.
by dampening airframe movement caused by external
forces such as in air turbulence and weapons recoil. The The initialization and stability of the HAS is affected by the
CAS augments helicopter response by mechanical con- HARS velocity drift. A HARS velocity error at HAS initiali-
trol inputs and commands to the longitudinal (pitch), later- zation will cause initial aircraft movement (at a rate pro-
al (roll), and directional (yaw) flight control servoactuators. portional to the HARS velocity error) that may be trimmed
CAS signals are generated by movement of crew station using the cyclic force trim. Subsequent changes in the
flight controls which are sent to the DASE computer. The HARS velocity accuracy, during prolonged engagement of
DASE computer sums the SAS/CAS information with in- the HAS, will cause additional aircraft movement that may
puts from the heading and attitude reference set (HARS) be re–trimmed.

2-46 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

NOTE NOTE
Backup Control Systems (BUCS) are not in-
• If the GPS system is not keyed or is corporated on aircraft PV-529 (S/N
tracking less than 4 satellites, HAS per- 88–0199) and prior.
formance may degrade over time. Hover
2.37.7 Backup Control System (BUCS).
Position Box and Velocity Vector accura-
cy will be degraded.
CAUTION
• Over time the SAS actuators may reach
saturation limit if not centered by reinitial-
izing. The ATTD/HOVER HOLD features
• Engagement of the BUCS system may
occur without Shear Pin Actuated De-
in pitch, roll, or yaw will be lost if satura-
coupler (SPAD) breakout during crew
tion occurs. The ATTD/HOVER HOLD
force fights if a CPG BUCS select
feature is a limited hands off feature and
switch failure has also occurred.
the controls should always be monitored
Servoactuator LVDT probe migration
carefully.
may aggravate the force fight condi-
Heading hold is a function of HAS. The HAS mode will tion. If, during a force fight with the
function only if: (1) the ATTD/HOVER HOLD and all ASE CPG BUCS select switch activated, a
channels are engaged; (2) force trim is on, and (3) air- breakout of the SPAD occurred, the
speed is below 50 KTAS and ground speed is less than BUCS would not provide a three sec-
15 knots. Degraded conditions will occur in attitude hold ond easy on and would subject the air-
or HAS if individual ASE channel switches are not en- craft to a large control transient. If a
gaged. The ATTD/HOVER HOLD switch will disengage BUCS engagement occurs after a con-
automatically when transitioning between modes; attitude trol force fight, attempt to recover the
hold will disengage at approximately 55 KTAS when de- aircraft without severing the mechani-
celerating. HAS will disengage when 15 knots ground cal controls and follow established
speed or 50 KTAS is exceeded; or when ADSS fails or is procedures for BUCS ON flight.
turned off.
• Breakout of the SPAD at the base of
the collective control will eliminate the
normal mass of the control system
and may cause the collective to move
slightly in response to rotor system
vibration. This slight movement will
be detected by the LVDT and can pro-
duce an unwanted collective pitch ap-
plication. Increasing collective friction
can eliminate this characteristic.
a. Description. The Back–Up Control System
(BUCS) is a single–channel, non–redundant, fly–by–wire
control system that can electronically operate all four con-
trol axes. The BUCS is modeled to duplicate the mechani-
cal flight controls without the Stability Augmentation Sys-
tem (SAS) engaged. This provides identical control
authority and handling qualities as SAS–OFF flight in any
given flight control axis. A shear pin is located on each of
the flight control actuators and a Shear Pin Actuated De-
coupler (SPAD) is located on each control, in each
crewstation. This allows the shear pin to break and the
SPAD to decouple in the event of a control jam. This sys-
tem allows the controls to decouple regardless of where
the jam takes place. The DASEC uses Linear Variable
Displacement Transducers (LVDT) control position and

Change 9 2-47
TM 1-1520-238-10

actuator position to calculate the equivalent mechanical


control command when in BUCS. The SPAD assemblies WARNING
incorporate two switch assemblies to sense a decoupling
of the SPADs and LVDTs are used to sense a mistrack A BUCS jam engagement in the aft cyclic
and send control movement information to the DASEC. longitudinal control direction or in the
The DASEC electronically controls the BUCS servo valve left or right pedal tail rotor control direc-
on the primary side of the affected flight control actuator. tion may result in limited control author-
The primary hydraulic system and the DASEC must be ity (from the point of the jam) because
operational for BUCS to operate. the actuator is unable to break the actua-
tor shear pin. The worst case jam condi-
tion in the longitudinal aft cyclic (jam oc-
WARNING curs at the actuator) will result in a 12%
aft control authority from the point of the
• When BUCS is engaged do not release
jam. Forward cyclic can break the shear
pin and gain full control. the yaw axis
the flight controls until the flight has
may be limited to +/– 25% control author-
been completed and the main rotor
ity from the point of jam. If flight control
has come to a complete stop. Force
authority is insufficient for a hover, at-
trim may or may not be available in the
tempt a roll–on landing.
BUCS ON axis.
• During the execution of the emergen- CAUTION
cy procedure for either BUCS FAIL or
BUCS ON, the APU must be on prior to After a BUCS engagement and transition
engine shutdown to provide electrical to BUCS controlled flight, a flight con-
power to the DASEC. trols controllability check (small control
• BUCS can become engaged when a
inputs in each axis to check for correct
response) should be conducted to es-
mistrack between the controls and the
tablish if any other control axis has been
actuator is sensed. This commonly
affected.
occurs when external power is pro-
vided to the aircraft without hydraulic c. Control System Engagement Logic (Pilot
power. Applying hydraulic power and crewstation – pilot flying the aircraft).
completing an DASEC FD/LS check (1) Jams. A jam can occur anywhere in the flight
may clear the BUCS engagement. control system through malfunction or battle damage.
b. Operation When BUCS is engaged, the BUCS Should the pilot be unable to move the controls in one or
ON caution/warning light will illuminate and DASE will dis- more axes, he should aggressively decouple into the ap-
engage in the affected axis (axes) resulting in ASE cau- propriate axis. The pilot can expect the control to displace
tion/warning light illuminating (ASE not applicable for col- to full throw when the SPAD releases. The DASEC will
lective). Several types of engagements are possible and wash in full authority over a period of approximately three
are covered, by crewstation, in the following paragraphs. (3) seconds allowing the pilot to center the controls and
transition to BUCS controlled flight. The BUCS ON and
ASE (ASE not applicable for collective) caution/warning
lights will illuminate. SAS will be OFF in the engaged axis.
Force trim will be available in all axes. Attitude/Hover hold
will be available in the axes that SAS is available.
(2) Severances.
(a) Severance aft of the pilot’s control. A
severance can occur due to malfunction or battle damage
between the pilot’s controls and the actuator. In this case
the BUCS will automatically engage when the pilot
achieves the sufficient mistrack with respect to RAM

2-48 Change 9
TM 1-1520-238-10

LVDT (17.5% or approximately 1.75 INCHES, except in for collective) caution/warning lights will illuminate. SAS
longitudinal aft where the mistrack must be 22.5% or will be OFF in the engaged axis. Force trim will be avail-
approximately 2.25 INCHES). The BUCS flight control able in all axes. Attitude/Hover hold will be available in the
logic will wash in full authority over a period of approxi- axes that SAS is available.
mately one (1) second allowing the pilot to transition to
BUCS controlled flight. The BUCS ON and ASE (ASE not
applicable for collective) caution/warning lights will illumi- CAUTION
nate. SAS will be OFF in the engaged axis. Force trim will
be available in all axes. Attitude/Hover hold will be avail-
able in the axes that SAS is available. The effect of the CPG assuming control
with the BUCS trigger select is to trans-
fer control of the aircraft from a flight
(b) Severance between crewstations. If a
control that still retains some integrity to
severance occurs between the crewstations the pilot will
that of a non–redundant electronic
retain full mechanical control. The pilot should keep flying
means of flight control. This shall only
on the mechanical flight controls. The BUCS FAIL warn-
be activated if the pilot is incapable of
ing light and ASE (ASE not applicable for collective) cau-
flying the aircraft.
tion/warning light will illuminate when a mistrack is de-
tected between the pilot control LVDT and the CPG NOTE
control LVDT. The CPG control will not follow control in-
puts in the axis that is severed. SAS will be OFF in the en- The CPG must create sufficient mistrack. If
gaged axis. Force trim feel will not be available to the CPG the CPG repositions the flight control (af-
in the engaged axis. Attitude/Hover hold will be available fected axis) to a position that is is less than
in the axes that SAS is available. the appropriate mistrack value and engages
the BUCS trigger, engagement will not oc-
d. Control System Engagement Logic (Copilot cur. The CPG may engage the trigger and
crewstation – CPG flying the aircraft). hold it prior to achieving the mistrack. BUCS
engagement will occur when the proper mis-
(1) Jams. The CPG will have to decouple the track is reached.
SPAD. BUCS will automatically engage in the affected
axis. Breakout values will be approximately 15% higher
than the pilot’s values. The CPG can expect the control to (b) Severance between crewstations. If suf-
displace to full travel when the SPAD releases. The DA- ficient mistrack is detected between the pilot control posi-
SEC will wash in full authority over a period of approxi- tion and the CPG control position the BUCS FAIL and
mately three (3) seconds allowing the CPG to center the ASE (ASE not applicable for collective) caution/warning
controls and transition to BUCS controlled flight. The lights will illuminate. In this instance the pilot still has full
BUCS ON and ASE (ASE not applicable for collective) mechanical control. The CPG should transfer control of
caution/warning lights will illuminate. SAS and force trim the aircraft to the pilot. If it is necessary for the CPG to fly
will be OFF in the engaged axis. Attitude/Hover hold will the aircraft, the BUCS trigger should be engaged and
be available in the axes that SAS is available. BUCS control will be established after sufficient mistrack
between the CPG control position and the RAM position is
(2) Severances. reached. The DASEC will wash in full authority over a pe-
riod of approximately one (1) second allowing the CPG to
(a) Severance aft of the pilot’s control. A transition to BUCS controlled flight. SAS will be OFF in the
severance can occur due to malfunction or battle damage engaged axis. Force trim feel will not be available to the
between the pilots’ controls and the actuator. Because the CPG in the engaged axis.
two crewstations are still mechanically linked together,
this type of severance will operate the same as in the pilot e. BUCS–Flight Transfer of Controls. Transfer of
station. BUCS will automatically engage when both the pi- controls should only be accomplished if the flying crew-
lot and CPG LVDTs achieve the proper mistrack with re- member is incapacitated or in the case of the CPG flying
spect to the RAM LVDT. The DASEC will wash in full au- the aircraft and a severance occurs between the crewsta-
thority over a period of approximately one (1) second tions. Table 2–3 lists the procedures for transfer of control
allowing either crewmember to transition to BUCS con- between the crewmember in BUCS and the opposite
trolled flight. The BUCS ON and ASE (ASE not applicable crewmember.

Change 9 2-48.1
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-3. BUCS Flight – Transfer of Controls

CONDITION CREWMEMBER IN BUCS TRANSFER TO ACTION


JAM PILOT CPG The CPG must decouple
the SPAD and press the
BUCS select trigger switch
JAM CPG PILOT The pilot must decouple
the SPAD
SEVERANCE AFT OF PILOT CPG No action required
PILOT SEAT
SEVERANCE AFT OF CPG PILOT No action required
PILOT SEAT
SEVERANCE BETWEEN (NOT IN BUCS) CPG The CPG must achieve
CREWSTATIONS PILOT REMAINS IN sufficient mistrack and
NORMAL MECHANICAL press the BUCS select trig-
CONTROL ger switch

f. BUCS–Flight Procedural Steps (d) If a severance occurs aft of the crewsta-


tions:
(1) Crewmember Control of BUCS
1 Either pilot obtains control as soon as
(a) If the pilot decouples his SPAD first: a mistrack is sensed.

1 The pilot will have control. 2 There is a one (1) second easy–on to
achieve 100% control.
2 The CPG can obtain control if he de-
couples his SPAD and presses the CPG BUCS select trig- (e) If the CPG BUCS select trigger is pressed:
ger switch.
1 BUCS is engaged under CPG control.
3 Control cannot be transferred back to
the pilot. 2 Control cannot be transferred back to
the pilot.
(b) If the GPG decouples his SPAD first:
(2) Jam and Severance BUCS Engagements
1 The CPG will have control.
(a) Jam engagement.
2 The pilot can obtain control by decoup-
ling the applicable pilot SPAD. 1 If it is determined that a BUCS jam en-
gagement is warranted, make an aggressive application
(c) If a severance occurs between crewsta- of force in the jammed axis.
tions:
2 If more than one axis is jammed, de-
1 The pilot has mechanical control. couple the axis that has the highest priority first.

2 The CPG can obtain control by press- 3 After decoupling the SPAD, center the
ing the CPG BUCS select trigger switch and creating a control.
sufficient mistrack.
4 Fly the aircraft. Some control will be
3 Control cannot be transferred back to available immediately and full control will be phased in
the pilot. over a three (3) second period.

2-48.2 Change 9
TM 1-1520-238-10

(b) Severance engagement. on-command DASE FD/LS test. The self-test verifies the
integrity of BUCS before starting engines. The BUCS self-
1 The crewmembers will most likely dis- test requires primary hydraulic pressure within normal lim-
cover the aircraft to be in BUCS after the flying pilot moves its, RTR BRAKE switch set to BRAKE, flight controls cen-
the controls enough to satisfy the mistrack engagement tered, collective friction off, both PWR levers in the IDLE
criterion causing the MASTER CAUTION light and BUCS position or below, the helicopter on the ground and BUCS
ON and ASE (ASE not applicable for collective) caution/ not engaged. All DASE channels must be off.
warning lights to illuminate.
h. Control Locks. The control locks protect the
2 Fly the aircraft. Some control will be shear pins in the pilot and CPG cyclic longitudinal and lat-
available immediately and full control will be phased in eral SPADS, and pedal directional SPADS (fig 2-25) from
over a one (1) second period. accidental breaking when the helicopter is on the ground
without hydraulic power. They consist of two rig pins to
(3) BUCS ON Procedures prevent cyclic longitudinal and lateral movement and two
pedal lock fixtures to prevent pedal movement, one set for
(a) If the BUCS ON caution/warning light is il- the pilot station and one for the CPG station.
luminated, pilot and CPG coordinate to determine in
which station and axis (axes) BUCS is activated (affected The two sets, comprising four rig pins and four pedal
axis (axes) should be indicated by a disengaged SAS locks, are in a pouch located in the crew station. Each rig
channel switch(s) and an ASE caution/warning light illumi- pin and pedal lock are attached together by a lanyard with
nation; if no SAS channel switch(s) are disengaged and a warning streamer.
the ASE caution/warning light is not illuminated, the sev-
erance is in the collective control system) and transfer
control as necessary. CAUTION

(b) Perform aircraft emergency procedure for


When installing and removing the con-
BUCS ON.
trol locks, hydraulic power must be on
the helicopter to prevent damage to the
(4) BUCS FAIL Procedures
SPAD shear pins.
(a) If the BUCS FAIL light illuminates, avoid One rig pin is installed in the left side of the cyclic stick
rapid or erratic flight control inputs. base to prevent longitudinal movement. The other rig pin,
to prevent lateral movement, is installed in the lower right
(b) Pilot attempt to reset the BUCS FAIL by side of the cyclic stick shroud cover where it has been cut
toggling the appropriate SAS channel on the ASE panel. away to allow access for rig pin installation.

(c) Perform aircraft emergency procedure for After each pedal is moved forward, the pedal lock fixture is
BUCS FAIL. installed through the brushes and cutout in the floor so it
rests on the edge of a shelf. The pedal lock fixture is
g. BUCS FD/LS. BUCS is monitored continuous- aligned so that when the pedal is moved aft, the pedal
ly. If a BUCS failure is detected, BUCS will not engage in support fits into the fork of the pedal lock fixture. The pedal
the affected axis and the BUCS FAIL warning light in each is then moved aft so the fork tightly engages the pedal
crew station illuminates. To assure that BUCS is fully op- support to prevent movement and the pedal adjust is tight-
erational, a preflight self-test is provided in addition to the ened.

Change 9 2-48.3/(2-48.4 blank)


TM 1-1520-238-10

2.37.8 Stabilator System. A variable angle of inci- speed from a magnetically held switch. Transitioning past
dence stabilator is installed to enhance helicopter han- 80 knots will result in normal stabilator scheduling. Failure
dling characteristics. The stabilator is designed so that it to revert to normal stabilator scheduling will result in the
will automatically be positioned by stabilator control units. following:
These units determine stabilator position from airspeed,
pitch rate, and collective stick position inputs. Automatic (1) NOE/APRCH switch goes to OFF.
stabilator range of travel is from 5° trailing edge up
through 25° trailing edge down. Manual control is from 10° (2) Pilot and CPG MASTER CAUTION light starts
trailing edge up to 35° trailing edge down. The stabilator is flashing.
driven by two independent dc motors. Stabilator opera-
tion, in either manual or automatic mode, requires both ac (3) Pilot and CPG caution/warning MAN STAB
and dc power supplies. Associated crew station controls light starts flashing.
and indicators are as follows:
(4) Stabilator aural tone comes on.
a. Stabilator Circuit Breakers. The stabilator re-
ceives 115 vac from the No. 1 essential ac bus through the
STAB MAN AC and STAB AUTO AC circuit breakers. It Regaining auto mode after the NOE/APRCH mode is se-
also receives 28 vdc from the No. 1 essential dc bus lected is accomplished by momentarily pressing the auto-
through the STAB MAN DC circuit breaker and from the matic operation/audio tone RESET button on either col-
No. 3 essential dc bus through the STAB AUTO DC circuit lective stick or setting the NOE/APRCH switch to OFF.
breaker. These circuit breakers are on the pilot overhead Manual mode may be regained by selecting manual mode
circuit breaker panel. with the NU/ND switch.

b. Stabilator Manual Control Switch. The stabila- d. Stabilator Position Indicator. The STAB POS
tor manual control switch is located on the stabilator con- DEG indicator (fig 2-28), located in the upper right section
trol panel (fig 2-26) installed inboard and forward of the of the pilot and CPG instrument panels, provides a visual
friction grip on each collective stick. The switch, nose up indication of stabilator angle of incidence in either manual
(NU), and nose down (ND), permits crewmembers to con- or automatic modes of operation. It is calibrated from 10°
trol the stabilator angle of incidence. The manual mode trailing edge up to 35° trailing edge down to reflect the
will disengage both the normal auto and NOE/APRCH position of the stabilator trailing edge. An OFF flag is dis-
modes below 80 KTAS. Selection of the manual mode will played on the indicator face when the instrument is not op-
cause the pilot and CPG MAN STAB caution lights to illu- erating and dc electrical power is applied to the indicator.
minate. Transitioning above 80 KTAS in the manual mode With ac or dc power loss, both the OFF flag and pointer
will result in automatic switchover to auto mode. Failure of are not displayed.
the automatic switchover to auto mode will result in the fol-
lowing:

(1) Pilot and CPG MASTER CAUTION light starts


STAB
flashing.
POS
(2) Pilot and CPG caution/warning MAN STAB
light starts flashing. DEG

(3) Stabilator aural tone is heard.

Below 80 KTAS automatic mode is regained after selec-


tion of manual mode by momentarily pressing the auto- M01-311
matic operation/audio tone RESET button on either col-
lective stick. Figure 2-28. Stabilator Position Indicator

c. NOE/APRCH Switch. The NOE/APRCH switch, e. Stabilator Placard. A placard installed to the
located on the ASE control panel (fig 2-27), positions the right of the position indicator in each crew station lists sta-
stabilator at 25 degrees (trailing edge down) below 80 bilator incidence angles for given airspeeds. Refer to
KTAS. If auto mode is on, this mode is selectable at any Chapter 5 for limitations.

2-49
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section VI. HYDRAULIC AND PRESSURIZED AIR SYSTEMS

2.38 HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS. b. Primary Pump. The primary hydraulic pump is


mounted on the accessory drive case of the main trans-
mission (left side). The pump is of constant-pressure vari-
Two independent hydraulic systems are installed so that
able-displacement design driven by the transmission ac-
failure of one system will not affect operation of the other.
cessory gear train.
They are designated as the primary and utility hydraulic
systems. They are similar but not identical; they have sep-
arate, as well as shared functions. c. Primary Manifold. The primary manifold is
installed on the left forward quadrant of the transmission
2.38.1 Primary Hydraulic System. The primary hy- deck. Its function is to store, filter, supply, and regulate the
draulic system (fig 2-29) provides hydraulic power to the flow of hydraulic fluid. The manifold reservoir is pressur-
primary side of the lateral cyclic, longitudinal cyclic, collec- ized on the return side by PAS air acting on the manifold
tive, and directional servoactuators. Only the primary reservoir piston. This prevents pump inlet cavitation. Ser-
sides of these servoactuators (discussed in more detail in vicing crews introduce fluid to the reservoir through
Section V) have electrohydraulic valves that allow the ground support equipment (GSE) connections or the hand
DASE and BUCS to affect the flight controls. Consequent- pump. Low pressure fluid entering the fill port is filtered by
ly, failure of the primary hydraulic system will result in the a 45 micron screen filter (before MWO 1-1520-238-50-52)
loss of DASE and BUCS. The primary hydraulic equip- or a 5 micron cartridge filter (after MWO
ment includes the hydraulic pump, manifold, and servoac- 1-1520-238-50-52). The primary hydraulic system fluid
tuators. The heat exchanger may still be installed in the capacity is six pints. The reservoir stores about one pint.
primary system on some helicopters. The heat exchanger Section XV contains specifications, capacities, and proce-
is obsolete and is being removed through attrition. dures for oil system servicing. Other provisions within the
primary manifold are described below:

a. Servoactuators. The servoactuators (fig 2-29)


can be commanded mechanically or electrically. Each ac- (1) Air-Bleed Valve. Used to deplete the pres-
tuator contains two hydraulic pistons on a common piston surized air on the manifold for system repair or service.
rod. One piston is driven by the primary hydraulic system,
the other by the utility hydraulic system. The hydraulic pro-
(2) High-Pressure and Low-pressure Relief
visions in the actuator are completely independent of
Valves. Regulates fluid pressure from the pump and the
each other; there is no exchange of fluid between sys-
return to the manifold.
tems.

Each actuator is controlled by a common manual tan- (3) Reservoir Low-Level Indication Switch.
dem servo valve which ports hydraulic pressure to each of Switch is activated by the manifold reservoir piston. This
the pistons. The servo valve spool is positioned by the as- illuminates an OIL LOW PRI HYD segment light on the pi-
sociated mechanical control system to provide full author- lot caution/warning panel to indicate minimum operating
ity control. Each actuator is also electrically controlled level.
through the electrohydraulic valve sleeve to provide SAS
or BUCS control. Each actuator is equipped with a hy- (4) Fluid Level Indicator. Located in the man-
draulically powered plunger which locks the manual servo ifold reservoir housing allows visual inspection of the res-
valve spool at mid position when the DASEC powers the ervoir oil level.
BUCS solenoid valve for BUCS engagement. Each actua-
tor is also equipped with a DASEC controlled SAS sole-
noid valve that ports primary hydraulic pressure to the ser- (5) Filters. Filters on both manifold pressure
vo valve and the BUCS solenoid. Position transducer and return sides have mechanical impending bypass indi-
LVDT’s measure the position of the servo valve sleeve cators for visual inspection. These indicators operate on
and the actuator position. Each actuator incorporates a differential pressure. Both impending bypass indicators il-
shear pin in the feedback linkage to decouple the actuator luminate the OIL BYP PRI HYD segment on the pilot cau-
motion from a jammed mechanical control and prevent tion/warning panel. Only the return filter has bypass provi-
damage to the bellcrank attachments. sions.

2-50 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

DIRECTIONAL
SERVOACTUATOR

HEAT
PRIMARY EXCHANGER
PUMP EDUCTOR

LATERAL
SERVOACTUATOR

PAS SIGHT
GAGE

COLLECTIVE
SERVOACTUATOR
HAND FILTERS
PUMP

LONGITUDINAL
SERVOACTUATOR
PRIMARY
MANIFOLD
FILTER
INDICATORS

FILTER
(BEFORE
ÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉ
FILTER
(AFTER

ÉÉÉÉÉ
MWO 1-1520-238-50-52) MWO 1-1520-238-50-52)

PRIMARY ÉÉ
ÉÉ
FLUID
ÉÉ ÉÉ LEGEND
FILL
ÉÉ ÉÉ PRESSURE
RETURN

PRIMARY

M01-090A

Figure 2-29. Primary Hydraulic System

Change 4 2-51
TM 1-1520-238-10

(6) Pressure Switch. Senses primary system also illuminates the CPG UTIL HYD light. The utility man-
pressure and informs the pilot and CPG of a low oil pres- ifold also incorporates several other features not dupli-
sure condition by illuminating the PRI HYD PSI segment cated on the primary manifold. These are the utility accu-
on the pilot caution/warning panel and PRI HYD segment mulator hydraulic pressure transducer and rotor brake
on the CPG panel. This switch illuminates the segments solenoids.
until the system pressure is above 2050 psi and will again
illuminate the segments when pressure falls below (1) Low-Level and Auxiliary Isolation
1250 psi. Valves. Permit hydraulic fluid to flow to the external
stores, ammo carrier drive, tail wheel lock actuator, and
(7) Pressure Transducer. Measures hydraulic area weapon turret. If the reservoir fluid level decreases
pressure on the pressure side of the manifold and trans- significantly, the reservoir piston, driven by PAS air, will
mits this value to the left side of the pilot dual hydraulic contact and close the low-level valve. The auxiliary isola-
gauge. tion valve, which normally requires two sources of pres-
sure to permit fluid flow, will then close and deny hydraulic
power to the area weapon turret, the external stores ac-
2.38.2 Utility Hydraulic System. The utility hydraulic tuators, and the ammo carrier drive.
system (fig 2-30) provides hydraulic power to the utility
side of the lateral cyclic, longitudinal cyclic, collective, and (2) Shutoff Valve. Located in the pressure line
directional servo actuators. This system also provides hy- to the directional servo and TAIL WHL lock actuator is ac-
draulic power to the rotor brake, area weapon, external tuated by the low-level switch in the utility system reser-
stores, tail-wheel lock, ammo carrier drive, and APU start- voir. The utility side of the directional servo actuator and
er. The utility hydraulic pump (on the accessory drive case the TAIL WHL lock actuator will be inoperative if a low util-
of the main transmission right side) is identical to that in ity system fluid level is sensed.
the primary system. The hydraulic heat exchanger may
still be installed on some helicopters. The heat exchanger (3) Accumulator Isolation Valve. Normally iso-
is obsolete and is being removed through attrition. The lates accumulator pressure from the rest of the utility sys-
only significant difference in the two systems is the man- tem but allows system flow from the pump to pass through
ifold, with an associated accumulator and gas reservoir. a portion of the valve and on to the utility side of the tan-
Additional components in the system are the accumulator, dem servo actuators.
rotor brake, and the utility hydraulic return accumulator
that dampens hydraulic pressure surges caused by sud- (4) Override Solenoid Valve. Normally de-en-
den actuation of the gun turret. ergized closed, permits crew management of the accumu-
lator reserve pressure. When the pilot or CPG places his
a. Utility Manifold. The utility manifold (fig 2-31) is EMER HYD switch ON, the override solenoid valve will
installed on the aft main fuselage deck on the right side. It energize open and accumulator fluid will pass to the accu-
stores, filters, supplies, and regulates the flow of utility hy- mulator isolation valve via emergency routing. In this
draulic fluid. Demands on the utility system are much case, another portion of the accumulator isolation valve
greater than those on the primary system, and the utility will permit accumulator fluid to flow to the utility side of the
manifold installation is therefore larger, with a reservoir servo actuators. The EMER HYD switch is powered
capacity of 1.3 gallons. Total system capacity is about 2.6 through the EMERG HYD circuit breaker on the pilot over-
gallons. An air-pressure relief valve, low-pressure relief head circuit breaker panel.
valve, high-pressure relief valve, reservoir low-level indi-
cating switch, fluid-level indicator, return filter, pressure fil- (5) Accumulator Hydraulic Pressure Transduc-
ter, pressure switch, and pressure transducer, are identi- er. Located in the manifold will provide the pilot with a
cal in function to the primary system components. The continual indication of accumulator pressure on the accu-
pilot caution/warning panel provisions are also similar; but mulator hydraulic pressure indicator. During normal op-
the lights are labeled OIL LOW UTIL HYD, OIL BYP UTIL eration, the indicated pressure will be the same as that of
HYD, and UTIL HYD PSI. Low utility hydraulic pressure the utility hydraulic system.

2-52 Change 8
TM 1-1520-238-10

ÎÎ
Î Î
LONGITUDINAL AREA WEAPON
LATERAL COLLECTIVE TURRET

ÎÎ
Î ÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎ ÎÎ
SERVOACTUATORS
DIRECTIONAL

ÎÎ
Î Î ÎÎ
SERVOCYLINDER

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ
Î Î
ÏÏ ÎÎ RETURN

ÎÎ
Î ÎÎ
ACCUMULATOR

ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ ÎÎ
Î ÏÏ ÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ
Î ÎÎ 55

ÎÎ
Î ÎÎ
PSI

ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ
Î ÎÎ
PRESSURE GAGE
PAS
ROTOR MANIFOLD

ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ ÎÎ
Î
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎ ÎÎÎÎ BRAKE

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ
Î
TAIL
WHEEL PRESSURE

ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎ ÎÎ
LOCK FILTERS
SWITCH

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ Î ÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
CONTROL

ÎÎÎ Î
ÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
VALVE UTILITY

Î Î
MANIFOLD

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ
UTILITY

ÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î Î Î ÎÎ
ÎÎ Î
PUMP

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ Î Î ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎ ÎÎ
CHECK

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
VALVE

Î Î ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î Î ÎÎ
ÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î Î
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î Î Î
Î Î ÎÎ
Î ÎÎ
SHUTOFF
FILTER
VALVE

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î Î Î Î ÎÎ
INDICATORS
HAND

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î Î
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î Î Î
ÎÎÎÎ
Î Î ÎÎ PUMP

ÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î Î Î
ÎÎÎÎÎ
Î ÎÎ
ÎÎ
HEAT EXCHANGER
UTILITY

ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î ÏÏ
ÏÎ ÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎ
APU

Î
START
MOTOR

Ï
CHECK

Î
Î Ï
UTILITY
ACCUMULATOR
VALVE

Î Ï
Ï
Î Ï
LEGEND
Î Ï UTILITY

ÎÎÎÎ ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏ
Ï
PRESSURE

Ï
GAS
RESERVOIR

ÏÏÏÏ
ÎÎÎÎ ÏÏ
Ï
RETURN

ÏÏÏÏ AIR
PRESSURE GAGE

M01-089A

Figure 2-30. Utility Hydraulic System

Change 4 2-53
TM 1-1520-238-10

(6) Rotor Brake Solenoid Valves. Valves are 2.38.3 Hand Pump. A hand pump is installed next to
controlled by a three-position switch OFF, BRAKE, and the primary system GSE panel on the right side of the heli-
LOCK on the pilot PWR lever quadrant adjacent to the copter. The pump provides one method of charging the
PWR levers (fig 2-19). When the switch is positioned to fluid pressure in the utility accumulator as well as a meth-
BRAKE, utility system pressure regulated to 337 psi is ap- od for the ground crew to fill both the primary and utility
plied to stop the rotor brake disc on the main transmission. reservoirs. Low pressure fluid entering the fill port is fil-
When positioned to LOCK, the brake off solenoid valve tered by a 45 micron screen filter (before MWO
traps 3000 psi pressure between the manifold and the ro- 1-1520-238-50-52) or a 5 micron cartridge filter (after
tor brake actuator. MWO 1-1520-238-50-52). A lever may be moved to any of
three positions. This, in turn, will open one of three me-
chanically operated check valves to the accumulator or to
either reservoir. Section XV contains servicing instruc-
b. Utility Accumulator. The accumulator is a multi- tions.
purpose installation unique to the utility hydraulic system.
It is located on the right side of the helicopter directly be- 2.39 PRESSURIZED AIR SYSTEM (PAS).
neath the APU. It stores hydraulic fluid at 3000 psi. The
accumulator is charged by nitrogen gas. A gas storage The PAS cleans, pressurizes, regulates, and distributes
tank supplies the charge and is serviced through a charg- air to the air turbine starters, fuel boost pump, fuel trans-
ing port (fig 2-31). The utility hydraulic manifold pressure fer pump, external fuel tanks, hydraulic reservoirs, heat
is used for rotor brake application, APU starting, and exchangers, defog nozzles, engine cooling louver actua-
emergency use of flight control operation. tors, utility receptacle, ice detector sensor, and environ-
mental control unit (ENCU). The pressurized air system
has three sources of air: The primary source is the shaft
driven compressor; the other sources are bleed air from
the No. 1 engine and from an external air source.

UTILITY
MANIFOLD

CHARGING
PORT

M01-137

Figure 2-31. Utility Manifold

2-54 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

2.39.1 Shaft Driven Compressor (SDC). The SDC is 2.39.2 No. 1 Engine Bleed Air. The No. 1 engine pro-
mounted on the main transmission accessory case and vides an alternative source of pressurized air in case of
uses outside air. The air passes through a particle separa- SDC failure. The engine compressor bleed air selector
tor and then through a butterfly-type throttle valve. This valve opens automatically if SDC output falls below 10 psi.
valve is closed by a time-delay solenoid when the APU Simultaneously, a spring-operated check valve opens.
START switch is engaged. The valve remains closed for When closed, this valve prevents pressurized air from go-
60 seconds after the APU START switch is released. The ing to the engine compressor when the SDC is operating.
purpose of the time-delay solenoid is to reduce starting Each engine provides bleed air to its engine inlet to pre-
loads on the APU during external power starts. It is not ac-
vent ice formation and to keep the engine cooling louvers
tivated during a battery start. The shaft driven compressor
closed while the engine is operating. The bleed air used in
will compress air at 3:1 ratio and route it through a surge
valve. This valve, mounted on top of the SDC, will open or these last two instances is independent of the pressurized
close as necessary to keep SDC air pressure constant air system.
with variable system demand. Pressurized air then
passes through a spring-operated check valve and into
the PAS manifold. This check valve prevents pressurized
air, from sources other than the SDC, from reverse routing 2.39.3 External Air Source Receptacles. The recep-
back to the SDC. The SDC is lubricated by the main trans- tacle for external air source connection (fig 2-46) is on the
mission accessory oil pump and has its own scavenge. If lower portion of No. 1 engine nacelle. When the air source
the SDC oil temperature exceeds 182 °C (360 °F), or if the is connected and operating, a normally closed check
SDC fails, the pilot SHAFT DRIVEN COMP caution light valve to the pressurized air system opens to allow air to
illuminates. pressurize the manifold.

Change 9 2-55
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section VII. POWER TRAIN SYSTEM

2.40 POWER TRAIN. the rotor brake disc. The main transmission is mounted
below the main rotor static mast base which allows its re-
The power train (fig 2-32) transmits engine power to the moval without removing the upper controls, mast, hub, or
rotors and transmission-mounted accessories. The power blades. The main rotor drive shaft is designed to carry
train includes two engine nose gearboxes, two shafts to torque loads only. The rotor hub is on a static mast which
the main transmission, the main transmission, main rotor carries vertical and bending loads. The drive shaft rotates
drive shaft, tail rotor drive shafts, intermediate gearbox, inside the static mast. The main transmission has primary
tail rotor gearbox, and APU drive shaft, and couplings. and accessory drive trains. The primary drive train,
through three stages, changes the angle and speed of the
2.40.1 Engine Nose Gearboxes. The engine nose power drives to the main rotor, tail rotor, and rotor brake.
gearboxes are mounted on the nose of each engine. They Overrunning clutches allow the APU to drive the transmis-
reduce nominal engine speed and change the angle of sion accessory gearbox when the engines are not operat-
drive. Both nose gearboxes have self-contained pressur- ing. The transmission accessories consist of two alternat-
ized oil systems with provisions to ensure limited opera- ing-current generators, two hydraulic pumps, and a shaft
tion if a total loss of pressurized lubrication occurs. These driven compressor. A magnetic pickup measures main ro-
self-contained systems feature a pressure pump driven by tor rpm.
the gearbox output shaft, filter with impending bypass fil-
ter indicator and filter bypass capability, high-pressure re- a. Main Transmission Lubrication. The main
lief valve, and sump. Mounted on the nose gearbox output transmission has two independent oil systems. Each sys-
drive is an axial-type fan that draws air through the gear- tem has its own sump, pump, filter and heat exchanger.
box fairing and past cooling fins on the gearbox. The input Oil level sight gauges are located in the transmission
drive shafts have flexible couplings that require no lubrica- housing at each oil sump. These systems are not totally
tion. Externally accessible accessories include a filler, independent in the usual sense because during normal
breather, oil level sight gage, chip detector/temperature operation, the oils will mix. If oil loss occurs in either sump
sensor, pressure transducer, and temperature probe. or in either heat exchanger, the diverter (float) valve will
seal off that sump to prevent a total loss of oil. There are
a. Engine Nose Gearbox Caution Light Provi- provisions throughout the transmission so that even with a
sions. High oil temperature, low oil pressure, and the total loss of oil there will be limited lubrication. Each oil fil-
presence of chips are detected in each gearbox. The pilot ter has a bypass capability, an impending bypass capabili-
is alerted to the condition by six caution segments: OIL ty and an impending bypass filter indicator. If a filter be-
HOT NOSE GRBX 1, OIL HOT NOSE GRBX 2, OIL PSI comes partially clogged, differential pressure causes the
NOSE GRBX 1, OIL PSI NOSE GRBX 2, CHIPS NOSE impending bypass indicator to pop. Further clogging
GRBX 1, and CHIPS NOSE GRBX 2. Either the ENG 1 or causes the filter bypass valve to close, routing oil directly
ENG 2 segment will simultaneously illuminate on the CPG to the pump. The pilot/CPG has no cockpit indication of
caution/warning panel (fig 2-44). either occurrence. Each sump has a chip detector/tem-
perature sensor and temperature transducer. Pressure is
2.40.2 Main Transmission. The main transmission measured downstream of each heat exchanger. Oil pass-
combines the two engine nose gearbox inputs and pro- ing through the heat exchanger mounted inboard on each
vides drive to the main rotor, tail rotor, accessories, and engine firewall, is air cooled. The heat exchangers have
rotor brake disc. Two overrunning clutches at the main thermal bypass provisions for cold starts. A third oil pump,
transmission permit either engine to be disengaged from driven by the accessory drive, lubricates the accessory
the transmission during autorotation. The main transmis- gears during APU operation. This pump draws oil from the
sion reduces the rpm input to the main rotor, tail rotor, and right oil system sump.

2-56 Change 9
TM 1-1520-238-10

TAIL ROTOR
STATIC MAST

TAIL ROTOR FLEXIBLE COUPLING


GEARBOX (TYPICAL)

TAIL ROTOR AND


INTERMEDIATE GEARBOX
COOLING FAN

TAIL ROTOR
DRIVE SHAFTING HANGER BEARING MAIN ROTOR
(TYPICAL) DRIVE SHAFT
ANTIFLAIL
SLEEVE
INTERMEDIATE COOLING FANS
GEARBOX STATIC
(2)
MAST
ANTIFLAIL
SLEEVE

DRIVE SHAFT
DAMPER
DRIVE SHAFT
DAMPER

APU DRIVE SHAFT


MAIN
NOSE GEARBOX TRANSMISSION
(2)
INPUT DRIVE
SHAFTS (2)
M01-020

Figure 2-32. Power Train


b. Main Transmission Caution Lights. Sensors in
the transmission sense adverse conditions which are dis- CAUTION
played as caution lights (fig 2-44) in the crew stations. The
pilot station has six caution/warning lights: OIL PSI MAIN With rotors turning, do not place the RTR
XMSN 1, OIL PSI MAIN XMSN 2, OIL HOT MAIN BK switch in LOCK position.
XMSN 1, OIL HOT MAIN XMSN 2, CHIPS MAIN XMSN, NOTE
and OIL PSI ACC PUMP. Activation of any of these lights, • When engaging rotor lock, pause in the
except the OIL PSI ACC PUMP, simultaneously illumi- BRAKE position until the RTR BK cau-
nates either MAIN 1, MAIN XMSN 2, or CHIPS MAIN tion/warning light has illuminated prior to
XMSN on the CPG caution/warning panel. placing the switch in the lock position.
The PWR levers will not advance past the
ground idle detent with the rotor brake
switch in the LOCK position.
2.40.3 Rotor Brake. The rotor brake reduces turn-
around time for aircraft loading and servicing and pre-
• When operating engines with the rotor
brake locked, monitor the main transmis-
vents windmilling of the rotor system during gusty wind
sion temperature. If the transmission
conditions. The rotor brake disc is visible at the aft end of
temperature reaches 130 °C (266 °F), se-
the transmission.
cure operation, or release the rotor brake
and turn the rotors until transmission tem-
perature returns to normal.

2-57
TM 1-1520-238-10

a. Rotor Brake (RTR BK) Switch. The rotor brake


is controlled by the RTR BK switch on the pilot PWR lever CAUTION
quadrant (fig 2-19). The switch has three positions: OFF,
BRAKE, and LOCK. When set at LOCK with full utility hy- Prolonged out of ground effect hovering
draulic system pressure, the brake prevents the gas tur- (20 – 30 min.) with outside air tempera-
bines from driving the power turbines when both engines tures above 75 F (24 C) may cause the
are at idle. When the rotor is stopped, the switch may be intermediate gearbox to overheat.
set at LOCK which causes solenoid valves in the manifold 2.40.5 Intermediate Gearbox. The intermediate gear-
to deenergize and all available utility hydraulic system or box, at the base of the vertical stabilizer, reduces the rpm
accumulator pressure to be applied to the brake. A system and changes the angle of drive. A fan mounted on the
of interlocks prevents the rotor brake from being locked gearbox input shaft draws air from an inlet on the vertical
when the PWR levers are in any position except IDLE and stabilizer. This air cools both the tail rotor gearbox and the
OFF. When the switch is set at BRAKE, solenoid valves in intermediate gearbox. Four thermistors monitor tempera-
ture and an accelerometer measures vibration limits. The
the utility hydraulic manifold operate to actuate the brake.
intermediate gearbox is a grease-lubricated sealed unit.
With the switch at OFF, the only hydraulic pressure to the
brake is 30 psi from the pressurized air system which, a. Intermediate Gearbox Caution Light Indica-
when operating, pressurizes the return side of the utility tors. The four thermistors and the accelerometer pro-
hydraulic system. vide crewmembers with temperature and vibration caution
lights. Both crew stations have TEMP INT and VIB GRBX
light segments.

b. Rotor Brake Solenoid and Pressure


Switch. Rotor brake electrical solenoids and the pres- CAUTION
sure switch receive 28 vdc from the emergency dc bus
through the RTR BRK circuit breaker on the pilot over- Prolonged out of ground effect hovering
head circuit breaker panel. If this circuit breaker is open, (20 – 30 min.) with outside air tempera-
or if helicopter emergency electrical power is lost for any tures above 75 F (24 C) may cause the
reason, the rotor brake, if previously set at LOCK, will re- tail rotor gearbox to overheat.
main locked as long as accumulator pressure is available. 2.40.6 Tail Rotor Gearbox. The tail rotor gearbox,
mounted on the vertical stabilizer, reduces the output rpm
and changes the angle of drive. The tail rotor output shaft
passes through the gearbox static mast. All tail rotor loads
2.40.4 Tail Rotor Drive Shafts. There are four tail rotor are transmitted to the static mast. The output shaft trans-
drive shaft sections. Three tail rotor drive shafts lead from mits only torque to the tail rotor. Lubrication of this gear-
the transmission to the intermediate gearbox. Two are of box is identical to that of the intermediate gearbox.
equal length. The last shaft is installed on the vertical sta-
bilizer between the intermediate and tail rotor gearboxes.
Hanger bearings support the longer shafts. They are cov-
a. Tail Rotor Gearbox Caution Light Indica-
ered by aerodynamic fairings which may be opened for
tors. The four thermistors and the accelerometer func-
maintenance and inspection. The two equal-length shafts tion in the same way as for the intermediate gearbox. The
incorporate friction dampers and antiflails. Flexible cou- associated caution light on the pilot and CPG caution/
plings, attached to the shaft ends, are capable of accom- warning panels are labeled TEMP TR and VIB GRBX.
modating shaft misalignments throughout the power (Both the intermediate and tail rotor gearboxes activate
range. the VIB GRBX light segment).

2-58
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section VIII. ROTORS

2.41 ROTOR SYSTEM. d. Damper Assemblies. Two damper assemblies


control the lead-lag movement of each main rotor blade.
The rotor system consists of a single, four-bladed, fully ar- Each damper attaches outboard to a link lug and inboard
ticulated main rotor and a four-bladed tail rotor assembly to a trunnion at the pitch housing. The damper contains
with two teetering rotor hubs. elastomeric elements that distort to allow the blade to lead
or lag.
2.41.1 Main Rotor. The main rotor has four blades. The e. Main Rotor Blades. Each main rotor blade is a
head is a fully articulated system that allows the four constant-chord asymmetrical airfoil. The outboard tip is
blades to flap, feather, lead, or lag independent of one swept aft 20° and tapers to a thinner symmetrical section.
another. The head consists of a hub assembly, pitch hous- The blade has a 21-inch chord. Tip weights are installed
ings, rotor dampers, and lead-lag links. Attached to the ro- within the blade. Chord-wise, the leading-edge and for-
tor head are four easily removable blades. The main rotor ward half of the blade is a four-cell structural box of stain-
is controlled by the cyclic and collective sticks through a less steel and fiberglass with a stainless steel spar. The
swashplate mounted about the static mast. aft half of the blade has fiberglass skin with a nomex hon-
a. Hub Assembly. The main rotor hub is a steel and eycomb core and a bendable trailing edge strip to aid in
aluminum assembly that supports the main rotor blades; it blade tracking. Each blade secured to its lead-lag link by
is driven by the main rotor drive shaft. The hub rotates two blade attachment pins. These pins can be removed
about a static mast, which supports it. This arrangement without the use of tools and they pass vertically through
allows the static mast, rather than the main rotor drive the lead-lag link and blade root fittings which are both
shaft, to assume all flight loads. The hub is splined to the made of titanium. Five sets of stainless steel doublers are
main rotor drive shaft by means of a drive plate adapter located on the upper and lower surfaces of the blade at
that is bolted to the hub. The hub is secured to the static the blade root. The blades may be folded by removing the
mast by a large locknut secured by multiple bolts. The hub appropriate blade attachment pin (one for each blade)
houses two sets of tapered roller bearings that are and any two adjacent pitch link bolts and pivoting the
grease-lubricated and sealed. These bearings transfer blade to the rear position using a hand-held blade support
hub loads to the static mast. Mechanical droop stops limit device.
blade droop. When blade droop occurs, a striker plate on 2.41.2 Tail Rotor. The tail rotor is of semirigid, teetering
the pitch housing contacts a roller. The roller presses a design. Two pairs of blades, each pair fastened to its own
plunger against a droop stop ring on the lower portion of delta hinged hub, provide antitorque action and directional
the hub. control. A titanium fork houses two elastomeric teetering
b. Pitch Housing. The pitch housing permits blade bearings and drives the rotating swashplate through an
pitch changes in response to flight control movements attached scissors assembly. The tail rotor assembly is
transmitted through the swashplate. This is made pos- splined to, and driven by, the tail rotor gearbox drive shaft
sible within the four pitch housings by V-shaped stainless which passes through a static mast. Blade pitch changes
steel strap assemblies that are able to twist and flap to when directional control inputs cause the non-rotating
permit blade feathering and flapping. Cyclic and collective swashplate to act upon the rotating swashplate. One pitch
stick inputs are transmitted to the pitch housing horns by link for each blade, attached to the rotating swashplate
pitch links attached to the swashplate. Feather bearings and pitch horn, causes blade movement about two pitch-
are installed inboard on the pitch housing to allow vertical change bearings in the blade root. Centrifugal forces are
and horizontal loads to be transferred from the pitch hous- carried by stainless steel strap assemblies that attach out-
ing to the hub. Centrifugal loads are transmitted by each board to the blade root and inboard at the hub center. An
strap assembly to the hub. elastomeric bearing assembly positions the hub and strap
pack in the tail rotor fork. Each blade has one stainless
c. Lead-Lag Links. The lead-lag link for each blade steel spar and two aluminum spars. Doublers and rivets
is connected to the outboard end of each pitch housing attach the blade to the blade root. Brackets on the root fit-
and is secured in place by a pin and two bearings that al- ting hold chord-wise balance weights. Spanwise balance
low the link to move horizontally. The pin goes through the weights are installed at the tip of each blade in an alumi-
V-portion of each strap within the pitch housing. num tip cap.

2-59
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section IX. UTILITY SYSTEMS

2.42 DEFOGGING SYSTEM. 2.43 ANTI-ICING AND DE-ICING.

The CANOPY DEFOG switch on the pilot ANTI ICE panel Multiple anti-icing and de-icing protection is available for
allows the pilot to direct pressurized air (with ECS on or the windshields, pitot tubes, air data sensor, pilot night vi-
off) to diffuser outlets at each canopy side panel. When sion sensor (PNVS), target acquisition designation sight
the CANOPY DEFOG switch is set to ON, 28 vdc from the (TADS), engine inlets, nose gearboxes, and main and tail
No. 1 essential dc bus through the ECS CANOPY ANTI rotor blades. The 30mm weapon and the wing pylons are
ICE circuit breaker causes the defog valve to open. This also susceptible to icing and may be de-iced by periodic
allows hot air from the pressurized air system to flow flexing in azimuth or elevation. The pilot and CPG have
through the shutoff valve to the air mixers. The hot pres- ANTI-ICE panels on their left consoles (fig 2-33).
surized air mixes with the crew station conditioned air in
the air mixers. This partially cooled air is directed against 2.43.1 Windshield Anti-Ice/De-Ice. The two wind-
the canopy side panels to defog them. shields, one in front, and the other directly above the
CPG, have built-in transparent anti-ice elements that are
heated by 115 vac to prevent ice accumulation. The pilot
activates windshield heating by setting a two-position
CANOPY HTR toggle switch on his ANTI-ICE panel to
ON. In the ON position, the CANOPY HTR switch pro-
vides 28 vdc from the No. 1 essential dc bus through the
CANOPY ANTI-ICE CONTR circuit breaker on the pilot
overhead circuit breaker panel to turn on the windshield
anti-ice control unit. When the control unit is operating,
115 vac from the No. 2 essential ac bus through the CAN-
OPY ANTI-ICE circuit breaker on the pilot overhead circuit
breaker panel is provided to the control unit. The 115 vac
is distributed by the control unit to the window heater ele-
ments. The control unit is provided with temperature con-
trol and fail-safe features. When there is a failure in the
windshield anti-ice system, the control unit will remove the
115 vac power from the unit. If the cause for the failure is
an overheat or false temperature sensor signal, the con-
PILOT ANTI-ICE PANEL trol unit can be reset by turning the CANOPY HTR switch
OFF and then back ON. Whenever the control unit, cano-
AUX ANTI–ICE py heaters, canopy temperature sensors, or input power
TADS/PNVS fails, or if the canopy overheats with the CANOPY HTR
ADSS STBY FAN GND
switch in the ON position, the CANOPY ANTI-ICE FAIL
ON
light on the pilot caution/warning panel will illuminate.
OFF OFF OFF
2.43.2 Pitot Tube and Air Data Sensor Anti-Ice/De-
W WIPER
CPG
Ice. The pitot tubes, installed outboard on the leading
edge of both wings, and the air data sensor, attached to
the top of the main rotor de-ice distributor are protected
PILOT
from ice accumulation by internal heating elements. The
PITOT AD SNSR switch, located on the pilot ANTI-ICE
panel, is a dual function switch. In the ON position, the
CPG AUX/ANTI-ICE PANEL M01-018 right hand pitot heater receives 28 vdc from the emergen-
cy dc bus through the PITOT HTR circuit breaker. The
second function of the switch provides 28 vdc from the No.
Figure 2-33. Pilot and CPG Anti-Ice Control Panels 3 essential dc bus through the

2-60
TM 1-1520-238-10

AIR DATA DC circuit breaker to the left wing pitot heater. switch will illuminate when the system is functioning prop-
Both circuit breakers are on the pilot overhead circuit erly. The engine anti-ice valves and engine gearbox heat-
breaker panel. The AIR DATA DC circuit breaker also pro- er blanket controller receive 28 vdc from the No. 1 essen-
vides 28 vdc to the ADS control relay. When energized, tial dc bus through the ENG ANTI-ICE circuit breaker on
this relay sends 115 vac from the No. 1 essential ac bus the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel. The ENG INLET
through the AIR DATA AC circuit breaker to the air data switch in the OFF position energizes both engine anti-ice
sensor for anti-icing. In addition, the CPG AUX panel valves to the closed position. In the ON position, the ENG
ADSS switch, when set to on, energizes the ADS control INLET switch deenergizes the anti-ice valves thus allow-
relay to provide the air data sensor with 115 vac from the ing them to open and furnish hot air to the engine inlet for
No. 3 essential ac bus through the AIR DATA AC circuit anti-icing. It also energizes the engine gearbox heater
breaker. blanket controller. The energized controller allows 115 vac
to be supplied from the No. 1 essential ac bus through the
NOSE GRBX HTR circuit breaker on the pilot overhead
2.43.3 PNVS and TADS Anti-Ice/De-Ice. Three posi- circuit breaker panel for the nose gearbox heater blan-
tion TADS/PNVS toggle switches on the pilot ANTI-ICE kets.
panel and the CPG AUX/ANTI-ICE panel control the op-
eration of the TADS/PNVS window heaters. These
switches receive 28 vdc from the No. 1 essential dc bus
through the CANOPY ANTI-ICE CONTR circuit breaker. 2.43.5 Rotor Blade De-Icing System. The rotor blade
Window heating is automatically controlled by a thermal de-ice three-position ON, OFF, and TEST toggle switch,
control sensor in the respective heater power return cir- located on the pilot ANTI-ICE panel receives 28 vdc from
cuits. the No. 3 essential dc bus through the BLADE DE-ICE
CONTR circuit breaker on the pilot overhead circuit break-
er panel. In the ON position, the switch will provide 28 vdc
a. In Flight TADS/PNVS Anti-Ice/De-Ice. With the power to the main rotor and-tail rotor de-icing controller
helicopter in flight and the pilot or CPG TADS/PNVS and turn on the controller. When the controller is turned
switch set to ON, the squat switch relay closes to provide on, it collects data from the signal processor unit, ice de-
28 vdc from the pilot or CPG TADS/PNVS switch to the tector/rate sensor, and the outside air temperature sensor.
MRTU. This causes the MRTU to send a signal to ener- If icing conditions are present, the controller will energize
gize anti-ice relays in the TADS power supply and PNVS the blade de-ice control relay. The energized blade de-ice
electronic unit. The TADS and PNVS anti-ice relays then control relay provides a ground to the blade de-ice contac-
provide the TADS and PNVS window heaters with 115 vac tor control relay that receives 28 vdc from the No. 3 es-
from the No. 1 essential ac bus through the TADS AC on sential dc bus through the BLADE DE-ICE circuit breaker.
the CPG circuit breaker panel and the PNVS AC circuit With the blade de-ice contactor energized, 115 vac, 3
breakers on the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel. phase power is furnished from Gen 2 through the blade
de-ice contactor to the de-ice controller. (Gen 1 will only
furnish power when an overload is sensed on Gen 2, and
b. On Ground TADS/PNVS Anti-Ice/De-Ice. When the contactor is caused to trip). The de-ice controller recti-
the helicopter is on the ground, the squat switch opens re- fies the 115 vac to 268 vdc (134 vdc) for the rotor blade
moving power from the TADS/PNVS switches and the heaters. The main rotor blades receive 134 vdc through
TADS and PNVS window heaters. When either TADS/ slip rings at the main rotor distributor. The main rotor dis-
PNVS switch is set to GND, a signal is sent to the MRTU tributor provides a sequential delivery to the blade heater
which energizes the TADS/PNVS anti-ice relays. These elements. In the TEST position, the rotor blade de-ice
relays then provide the TADS and PNVS window heaters switch provides that the controller will complete one full
with 115 vac from the No. 1 essential ac bus through the cycle of the blade anti-ice circuits. The tail rotor blades re-
TADS AC and PNVS AC circuit breakers. ceive 134 vdc from the de-icing controller through tail
rotor slip rings. Power to the tail rotor blade elements and
main rotor blade elements is controlled by the de-icing
2.43.4 Engine Inlet and Nose Gearbox Anti-Ice. En- controller which times the amount of current allowed to the
gine bleed air is used to heat the engine air inlet, and heat- blades for heating. The de-icing controller will detect faults
er blankets are used to anti-ice the nose gearbox. Engine within the system. When a fault occurs, the controller
anti-ice protection is controlled by a ENG INLET ON/OFF shuts off power to the blades and illuminates the BLADE
toggle switch on the pilot ANTI-ICE panel. In the ON posi- ANTI ICE FAIL segment on the pilot caution/warning pan-
tion, ENG 1 and ENG 2 advisory lights located above the el.

2-61
TM 1-1520-238-10

a. Rotor Blade De-Icing Rotary Switch Opera- 2.44 RAIN REMOVAL.


tion. When the rotor blade de-ice system is operating,
the BLADE ON advisory light on the pilot ANTI-ICE panel
illuminates. The rotary switch above the ON, OFF, and CAUTION
TEST toggle switch on the pilot ANTI-ICE panel provides
manual override. When the rotary switch is turned out of Windshield wipers should not be oper-
the AUTO position, it permits manual control to select ated when canopies are dry. Scratches
conditions that provide manual heating to the rotor blades may result.
for TRACE, light (LT) and moderate (MOD) icing condi-
tions. Two wipers are mounted on the canopy frame to wipe the
two windshields. Both wipers are electrically driven and
are normally controlled by a four-position WSHLD WIPER
rotary switch on the pilot ANTI-ICE panel. The pilot wiper
2.43.6 Icing Severity Meter. An icing severity meter moves horizontally and the CPG wiper moves vertically.
(fig 2-34) is provided in the right portion of the pilot instru- They receive 28 vdc from the emergency dc bus through
ment panel. An aspirated ice detector sensing head, lo- the WSHLD WPR circuit breaker on the pilot overhead cir-
cated on the doghouse fairing assembly, provides input cuit breaker panel. Two speeds, HIGH and LOW may be
signals to a processor. These signals are proportional to selected by the pilot. To return the wipers to their static
liquid water content (LWC). The signals are sent to the ic- position adjacent to the canopy frame, the WSHLD WIP-
ing severity meter to give the pilot a numerical indication ER knob is turned to PARK and held momentarily until the
of intensity. The meter is marked with both intensities and blades stop. The knob is spring-loaded from PARK to
categories of ice accumulation. A PRESS TO TEST OFF. The CPG has limited control over the windshield
switch is provided adjacent to the meter. When this switch wipers. Normally, the W WIPER switch on the CPG ANTI-
is pressed, the meter pointer will move to 1.5. Both the ICE panel is left in the PLT position. When the switch is set
BLADE de-ice and the PITOT AD SNSR switches on the at CPG, the CPG wiper blade moves at low speed.
pilot ANTI-ICE panel (fig 2-33) must be on for the ice de-
tector/rate sensor to operate properly. 2.45 WIRE STRIKE PROTECTION SYSTEM (WSPS).

The WSPS (fig 2-35) consists of six cutter assemblies and


eleven deflectors. An upper cutter assembly is mounted
on top of the pilot station canopy on the left side of the heli-
copter. A lower cutter assembly is mounted on the bottom
of the helicopter, forward of the gun turret bay. A main
landing gear cutter assembly is mounted on each main
landing gear strut by the lower step on the forward side of
the strut. A PNVS cutter assembly is mounted on the top
LWC
of the TADS/PNVS. A gun turret deflector and cutter as-
PRESS TO TEST sembly is mounted on the forward side of the gun cradle.
A forward and aft deflector are mounted on each of the pi-
M01-177 lot and CPG door hinges. An upper wiper deflector as-
sembly is mounted by the upper windshield on the left for-
ward side of the CPG station. A lower wiper deflector
assembly is mounted by the lower windshield on the right
forward side of the CPG station. A tailboom jack pad de-
flector assembly is mounted on the bottom of the tailboom
just forward of the jack pad. A tail landing gear deflector
Figure 2-34. Icing Severity Meter and Press-to-Test
assembly is mounted on the tail landing gear forward of
Switch
the tail wheel. The wire strike protection system is de-
signed to protect the helicopter from wire obstructions at
low levels of flight.

2-62
TM 1-1520-238-10

HINGE
DEFLECTORS

LOWER WIPER
TADS/PNVS
DEFLECTOR
CUTTER

TADS/PNVS
FORWARD DEFLECTOR

UPPER CUTTER
ASSY

UPPER WIPER
DEFLECTOR ASSY

TAIL BOOM JACK PAD


DEFLECTOR ASSY
TAIL LANDING
LOWER GEAR DEFLECTOR
CUTTER ASSY
MAIN LANDING GEAR
GUN TURRET DEFLECTOR CUTTER ASSY
AND CUTTER ASSY

M01-221

Figure 2-35. Wire Strike Protection System

2-63
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section X. HEATING, VENTILATION, COOLING, AND


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

2.46 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM (ECS). speed. When the CPG switch is set to STBY FAN, the
speed of the FAB fans is increased.

2.46.1 ECS Description. Crew compartment ventilat-


ing, heating, and air conditioning are provided by the ECS.
In addition, the ECS is the primary source of conditioned
air for the two forward avionics bays (FAB) and the TADS/
PNVS turret. The ECS is comprised of the environmental
control unit (ENCU), ECS shutoff valve, ECS control pan-
el, and ducting to deliver pressurized air from the engines
to the ENCU, and to route conditioned air from the ENCU
to the crew stations, FABs, and TADS/PNVS turret. It in-
cludes an exhaust fan for the aft avionics bay, one fan in
each FAB, and one fan in the electrical power center. The
ENCU, located on the left side of the aft equipment bay,
produces conditioned air with low moisture content. It
takes hot pressurized air from the pressurized air system
and cools it through a heat exchange and air expansion
M01-091
process. The ECS shutoff valve receives 28 vdc from the
emergency dc bus through the ECS CAB circuit breaker.
The FAB fans and aft avionics bay fan receive 28 vdc con- Figure 2-36. ECS Control Panel
trol voltage from the emergency dc bus through the ECS
CAB circuit breaker and 115 vac from the No. 2 essential The TEMP control on the pilot ECS panel controls the
ac bus through the ECS FAB FANS circuit breaker. In temperature of conditioned air to the crew stations, FABS,
addition, the electrical power center fan and aft avionics and TADS/PNVS turret. Moving the control between
bay fan receive 115 vac from the No. 2 essential ac bus COLD and WARM operates the ENCU temperature con-
through the ECS AFT FAN circuit breaker. All circuit trol valve that determines the amount of hot pressurized
breakers are located on the pilot overhead circuit breaker air that will be allowed to mix with conditioned air. Setting
panel. Thermal switches in the FABs will illuminate the the ENCU switch to ON opens the ECS shutoff valve and
ECS segment on the pilot caution/warning panel if the air allows pressurized air to enter the ENCU. In addition, it
temperature in either FAB is greater than 105 5F. The aft provides 28 vdc to the temperature control sensor for op-
avionics bay fan is controlled by a separate automatic eration of the pilot TEMP control and the ENCU tempera-
thermostat which turns the fan on and off depending on ture control valve.
the temperature of the aft avionics bay.
b. Temperature Control Sensor. The temperature
sensor is located in the ENCU outlet duct. It positions the
2.46.2 ECS Normal Operation. Operation of the ECS temperature control valve to maintain the selected tem-
is by the pilot ECS control panel (fig 2-36) located on the perature in the crew stations. It receives inputs from the
pilot left console (fig 2-11) and by the CPG AUX panel (fig TEMP control on the ECS panel, the FAB thermal
2-33) located on the CPG left console (fig 2-12). Normal switches and the outlet duct air temperature. An output
operation is as follows: voltage proportional to the difference between the se-
lected temperature and the outlet duct air temperature is
applied to the temperature control valve to position the
a. ECS Control Panel. The NORM-STBY FAN valve to maintain the selected temperature. Thermal
switch is normally set at NORM. When the switch is set to switches in the left FAB, in conjunction with the ECS panel
STBY FAN, the speed of the FAB fans is increased to circuitry, send signals to the temperature control sensor at
draw additional air from the crew stations for avionics 75 F and 85 F to reduce the temperature. When the left
cooling. The CPG has a two-position STBY FAN switch, FAB temperature is below 75 F, the TEMP control estab-
located on the AUX panel. This switch is normally in the lishes the reference voltage sent to the temperature con-
OFF position to allow the pilot to control the FAB fan trol sensor,

2-64
TM 1-1520-238-10

thereby controlling the crew station temperature. If, during outlets are open. For heating mode the crew shoulder out-
cold weather operations, the pilot adjusts the TEMP con- lets are closed and the waist and floor outlets are open.
trol to a position such that the temperature of the mixed air The FAB and TADS/PNVS fans draw CPG cabin air for-
would be too hot for the FABs, the temperature sensor will ward and expel it overboard. Pilot crew station air is drawn
automatically reduce the demanded air temperature. The through the electrical power center by a ventilation fan
amount that the temperature sensor can reduce the de- and then exhausted into the transmission bay.
manded air temperature is limited.

c. ECS Caution/Warning Light. If the air tempera- 2.46.3 ECS Emergency Operation. In the event of an
ture in either FAB exceeds 105 °F, the ECS caution/warn- ENCU failure, the actions of the pilot depend on the nature
ing light will illuminate. If this occurs, the pilot should re- of the ambient temperature conditions. Crew station air
duce the demanded air temperature, but not to a level that flow with the ENCU inoperative is through the pilot’s sta-
adversely affects crew comfort, until the ECS caution/ tion into the CPG station, and out through the FABs. Dur-
warning light extinguishes. During hot weather operations ing cold weather operations, the pilot may, at his discre-
if the ECS caution/warning light illuminates, the pilot tion, open the auxiliary ventilation door to periodically
should adjust the TEMP control to full COLD. In all cases ventilate both crew stations. No other action is required.
of ECS light illumination, the mission may be continued. During hot or warm weather operations, the pilot should
open the auxiliary ventilation door to provide crew station
d. ECS Air Outlets. Conditioned air leaving the ventilation. If the ambient temperature is below 100 °F, no
ENCU is routed to both crew stations. The crew stations further action is recommended. If the ambient tempera-
each have four controllable crew air outlets. The CPG sta- ture is above 100 °F, the NORM-STBY FAN switch on the
tion has an additional four nonadjustable outlets to pro- pilot ECS control panel should be set to the STBY FAN
vide ECS air directly to each FAB, the TADS/PNVS turret, position. Depending on the ambient outside air tempera-
and the ORT. In the ECS cooling mode the two crew sta- ture, the ECS caution/warning light may illuminate if either
tion floor outlets are closed and the waist and shoulder FAB temperature is greater than 105 °F.

2-65
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section XI. ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION


SYSTEMS

2.47 ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM. T/R No. 2 fails. If both T/Rs fail, the ELEC SYS FAIL cau-
tion light on the CPG caution/warning panel will illuminate.
All the helicopter electrical power requirements are sup- The caution/warning lights receive 28 vdc from the emer-
plied by two ac generators, two transformer/rectifiers gency dc bus through the CAUT circuit breaker on the pi-
(T/Rs) and in the case of complete failure, a 24-volt bat- lot overhead circuit breaker panel and the EMERG BATT
tery will supply flight critical systems. For ground opera- CAUT circuit breaker on the CPG main circuit breaker
tions, 115 vac external power can be supplied to the heli- panel (fig 2-40).
copter through the external power receptacle. The
electrical power distribution system is shown in figure
2-38. The system caution lights are listed in tables 2-4 and a. Battery. A 24-volt, 13 ampere-hour, 19 cell, nick-
2-5. el-cadmium battery provides emergency power. The bat-
tery is located in the aft avionics bay. The battery is
charged by the battery charger which receives 28 vdc
CAUTION power from the No. 1 essential dc bus through the BATT
CHGR DC circuit breaker and 115 vac from the No. 2 es-
sential ac bus through the BATT CHGR AC circuit break-
In the event any circuit breaker opens for
er. Both circuit breakers are on the pilot overhead circuit
unknown reasons, do not attempt to re-
breaker panel. The battery charger will completely charge
set the breaker more than one time. Re-
the battery and then maintain a trickle charge. The battery
peated tripping of a circuit breaker is an
charger also contains fault sensing that monitors battery
indication of a possible problem with
temperature, cell balance, and charger operation. If a fault
equipment or electrical wiring. Multiple
occurs, either the HOT BAT or CHARGER caution light
attempts to reset the circuit breaker may
will illuminate on the pilot caution/warning panel. The heli-
result in equipment damage and/or an
copter is equipped with a battery heater which operates
electrical fire.
automatically when the battery is on.
2.47.1 DC Power Supply System. Two essential ac
busses supply power to the two 350-ampere T/Rs through
the XFMR RECT 1 and XFMR RECT 2 circuit breakers on b. CPG Battery Override Switch. A two-position
the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel (fig 2-39). The guarded toggle BAT OVRD switch is located on the CPG
No.1 and No. 2 T/Rs convert the ac input to 28 vdc. The 28 PWR lever quadrant (fig 2-12). With the guard down, the
vdc power is applied to a dc contactor, which routes 28 switch is in the NRML position and enables the pilot EXT
vdc from T/R No. 1 to the No. 1 essential dc bus and from PWR/BATT switch on the pilot ELEC PWR control panel
T/R No.2 to the No. 2 essential dc bus. The No. 1 and No. (fig 2-37) located on the left console (fig 2-11). When the
2 essential dc buses each apply 28 vdc, in parallel, guard is positioned up and the switch is set to OVRD, the
through isolation diodes to power the emergency dc bus pilot EXT PWR/BATT switch is inoperative, and the bat-
during normal operation. For emergency operation, the tery is disconnected from the emergency dc bus.
battery powers the emergency dc bus, and the emergen-
cy dc bus diodes isolate the battery from the noncritical
loads. The two essential dc buses also supply 28 vdc 2.47.2 AC Power Supply System. The ac power sup-
power to the No. 3 essential dc bus. The T/Rs are self- ply system is the primary source of electrical power. It sup-
monitoring for overtemperature and will illuminate the plies 115 vac from two 35 kilovolt-ampere generators.
HOT RECT 1 and HOT RECT 2 caution lights on the pilot Each generator and its associated components comprise
caution/warning panel when an overheat condition exists. an independent ac generating system that supplies about
The dc contactor monitors the T/Rs for output loss or drop one-half of the total electrical requirements to the ac
in voltage. If the dc contactor senses a fault in T/R No. 1, buses. The generators are mounted on, and driven by, the
it disconnects T/R No. 1 from the No. 1 essential dc bus main transmission accessory gear box. The 115 vac pow-
and illuminates the RECT 1 caution light on the pilot cau- er is monitored and regulated by the generator control unit
tion/warning panel. At the same time, it connects No. 1 es- (GCU). If the generator output is normal, the GCU applies
sential dc bus to No. 2 essential dc bus through relay ac- voltage to the ac contactor which energizes and connects
tion inside the contactor. The same action takes place if the generator output

2-66 Change 2
TM 1-1520-238-10

to the ac essential buses. The No. 1 ac contactor con- external power access door, informs the pilot when the
nects the No. 1 generator output to the No. 1 essential ac door is open by illuminating the EXT PWR caution lamp
bus, and the No. 2 ac contactor connects the No. 2 gener- on his caution/warning panel. The system is controlled
ator to the No. 2 essential ac bus. If one generator fails, its from the ELEC PWR control panel. When the BATT/EXT
load is automatically connected to the remaining genera- PWR switch is at EXT PWR position, the external power
tor. monitor checks the GPU for proper phase sequence, volt-
age, and frequency. The power monitor also inhibits con-
a. Generators. Two generators, located on the necting and charging of the battery. The EXT PWR cau-
main transmission accessory gearbox, supply 115 vac, tion light receives 28 vdc from the emergency dc bus
three-phase power for operating the helicopter electrical through the CAUT circuit breaker on the pilot overhead
equipment. Generator operation is controlled from the pi- circuit breaker panel (fig 2-39).
lot ELEC PWR control panel (fig 2-37). When a generator
control switch is in GEN 1 or GEN 2 position, the selected
generator(s) are brought on-line. When the switch is
placed to OFF/RESET, the generator is taken off-line and
fault sensing is reset. Two caution lights, GEN 1 and
GEN 2 on the pilot caution/warning panel illuminate when-
ever the generator control unit senses a fault. These lights
receive 28 vdc from the emergency dc bus through the
CAUT circuit breaker on the pilot overhead circuit breaker
panel (fig 2-39).

b. External Power Receptacle. The external pow- M01-203


er receptacle is located aft of the aft avionics bay. It pro-
vides a means of connecting external power to the heli-
copter. A microswitch, which is actuated by opening the Figure 2-37. Pilot Electrical Power Control Panel

Change 3 2-67
TM 1-1520-238-10

115/200 VAC 3 PHASE 400 HERTZ


NO. 1 AC NO. 2 AC
GENERATOR GENERATOR

SQUAT GCU 2 GEN 2


GEN 1 GCU 1
SWITCH

GEN 1 AC GEN 2
AC
CONTROL CONTACTOR CONTROL
CONTACTOR
SWITCH SWITCH

115/200 VAC

Î ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
28 VDC 3 PHASE
AC ESS BUS 1 AC ESS BUS 2

GROUND
SERVICE
HOT
ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ
Î 115/200 VAC
3 PHASE TO 28 VDC
UTILITY T/R1 T/R 2 HOT
RECEPTACLE RECT 1 RECT 2

FAIL
ELECT
SYSTEM

RECT 1 DC CONTACTOR ASSEMBLY RECT 2

DC ESS BUS 1 DC ESS BUS 2

BLOCKING NI CAD
DC ESS BUS 3 BATTERY
DIODES

28 VDC FROM
BATTERY DC ESS BUS 1
DC EMERGENCY BUS RELAY
BATT
CHARGER
OFF
BATTERY OVRD
NORMAL (CPG)
EXT PWR
(PILOT)
HOT BAT

ÎÎ AC POWER
DC POWER
CHARGER

M01-088-1

Figure 2-38. Electrical Power Distribution System (Sheet 1 of 2)

2-68
TM 1-1520-238-10

ÎÎÎÎ
ÎÎAC ESS
NO. 1 ESSENTIAL AC BUS NO. 1 ESSENTIAL DC BUS

w ASE AC w MISSION PNVS AC w CBR BLWR (PILOT)


BUS 1 w ATTD IND w MISSION RDR JAM AC

ÎÎ
w CBR BLWR (CPG)
w AWS AWS AC w MISSION SYM GEN w DC ELEC UTIL PWR
w ECS L NOSE w MSL L INBD LCHR AC w ECS CANOPY ANTI-ICE CONTR
GEARBOX HTR w MSL R INBD LCHR AC w ECS ENG ANTI-ICE

ÎÎ
w ECS R NOSE w MSL L OUTBD LCHR AC w ECS WSHLD WPR
GEARBOX HTR w MSL R OUTBD LCHR AC w POWER BATT CHGR DC
w FC FCC AC w NAV AIR DATA AC w STAB MAN DC

ÎÎ
w LASER w NAV HARS AC w TADS DC
w LT ANTI COL w NAV HSI
w LT FORM w POWER ENG 1
w LT PRI w POWER XMFR RECT 1

ÎÎ
w MISSION EL AC w STAB AUTO AC NO. 2 ESSENTIAL DC BUS
w MISSION FC AC w STAB MAN AC
w MISSION IHADSS w TADS AC w FUEL BST w MSL ARM

Î
w FUEL TRANS w MSL L INBD
w IR JAM PWR LCHR DC

ÎÎÎÎ ÎÎ
AC ESS w
w
IR JAM XMTR
LT NAV
w MSL R INBD
LCHR DC

ÎÎÎÎ
BUS 2
NO. 2 ESSENTIAL AC BUS w MISSION ARM w MSL L OUTBD

ÎÎ Î
CONTR LCHR DC
w MISSION JETT w MSL R OUTBD
w AC ELEC UTIL PWR w POWER BATT w MISSION PEN AIDS LCHR DC
w AWS AMMO CHGR AC CONTR w NAV VDU
w AWS MTR w POWER ENG 2 w MISSION RDR w RDR JAM
w ECS CANOPY ANTI-ICE w POWER XMFR JAM DC w T WHL LOCK
w ECS AFT FAN RECT 2 w VIB MON
w ECS FAB FANS w PRI LT
w ECS ICE DET HTR
w RCDR
w NITROGEN INERT EMERGENCY DC BUS

w APU HOLD w FIRE DETR APU


w CHAFF w FIRE DETR ENG 1
w COMM ADF w FIRE DETR ENG 2
w COMM ICS w FIRE EXTGH APU
DC ESS BUS 1 w COMM IFF w FIRE EXTGH CPG
w COMM KY 28 w FIRE EXTGH PILOT
DC ESS BUS 2 w COMM KY 58 w FUEL APU
w COMM UHF AM w FUEL FILL
w COMM VHF FM w FUEL VLV ACTR
w ECS CAB w FUEL XFEED
NO. 3 ESSENTIAL DC BUS w EMER BATT CAUT w JETT
w EMERG BATT ICS w LT CAUT
w EMERG BATT ENG w LT SRCH/LDG
w ASE DC w MISSION EL DC INST w LT SRCH LDG
w ASE BUCS w MISSION FC DC w EMERG BATT VHF CONTR
w AWS AWS DC w MISSION RKT ELEX AM/FM w PITOT HTR
w CDU w MISSION PNVS DC w EMERG BATT UTIL w RDR ALT
w ECS BLADE DE-ICE w MSL DC ELEC SEC LT w RDR WARN
w ECS BLADE w MUX CPG w EMERG HYD w RTR BRK
DE-ICE CONTR w MUX FAB L w ENG CUT w STBY ATT
w ECS ICE DET w MUX FAB R w ENG INST w THROT
w FC FCC DC w MUX L PYL INBD w ENG LVR w TRIM
w NAV AIR DATA DC w MUX R PYL INBD w ENG START
w NAV DPLR w MUX L PYL OUTBD w ENG WARN
w NAV HARS DC w MUX R PYL OUTBD
w STAB AUTO DC

M01-088-2

Figure 2-38. Electrical Power Distribution System (Sheet 2 of 2)

2-69
TM 1-1520-238-10

FORWARD CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

FORWARD CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL (EGI MODIFICATION)

MO1-038B-1

Figure 2-39. Pilot Overhead Circuit Breaker Panels (Sheet 1 of 2)

2-70 Change 5
TM 1-1520-238-10

CENTER CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

CENTER CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL (LASER DETECTING SET MODIFICATION)

AFT CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL


MO1-038B-2

Figure 2-39 Pilot Overhead Circuit Breaker Panels (Sheet 2 of 2)

Change 5 2-70.1/(2-70.2 blank)


TM 1-1520-238-10

CPG NO. 2 CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

CPG NO. 1 CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

M01-019

Figure 2-40. CPG Circuit Breaker Panels (Typical)

2-71
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section XII. AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

2.48 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU). time, send a signal to open the utility accumulator start so-
lenoid valve to allow hydraulic pressure to turn the starter,
WARNING and shut off the SDC inlet throttle valve to unload the SDC
for an APU start. The APU ON caution light on the pilot
caution/warning panel illuminates when the APU is oper-
To prevent an accidental APU start, the ating.
APU circuit breaker in the aft avionics
bay and the APU HOLD circuit breaker 2.48.4 APU Controller. The APU controller provides
on the pilot overhead circuit breaker for automatic start and operation of the APU and power
panel shall be out when battery or exter- take-off clutch (PTO) engagement. The controller moni-
nal electrical power is connected to the tors the APU for loss of thermocouple, overtemperature,
helicopter and unqualified personnel are overspeed, overcurrent, low oil pressure, percent rpm,
in or around the pilot crew station. and exhaust gas temperature. The APU controller trans-
The APU indirectly provides hydraulic, pneumatic, and mits a shutdown signal to the APU whenever the APU
electrical power for the operation of helicopter systems control panel switch is set to OFF. The controller also
whenever the engines are not driving the main transmis- transmits the shutdown signal automatically for fault
sion accessory section. The APU provides the means of detection of any of the monitored functions. The APU
engine starting without the need for an aircraft ground FAIL caution light on the pilot caution/ warning panel is il-
power unit (AGPU). It is located just inboard of the right luminated by the low oil pressure switch when automatic
engine nacelle in the aft equipment bay. The APU consists shutdown occurs. The PTO clutch actuation is also con-
of a gearbox, a compressor, and a turbine section, togeth- trolled by the APU controller. Normally, PTO clutch en-
er with associated fuel, lubrication, and electrical systems. gagement occurs at 60% APU speed if the main rotor is
The APU controller and the APU control panel are below 90% speed; however, if the main rotor is above
installed separately from the APU. The utility hydraulic ac- 90% speed, it will engage at 95% APU speed. For cold
cumulator, located on the deck of the aft equipment bay weather starts below 0 °F (–18 °C), PTO clutch engage-
below the APU, provides hydraulic pressure to the APU ment is at 95% APU speed using a cold start switch on the
hydraulic starter through a solenoid-operated hydraulic APU control panel.
start valve. The start valve opens when the APU START
switch is positioned to START and closes automatically at 2.48.5 APU Control Panel. The APU control panel (fig
60% APU speed. The utility hydraulic accumulator is dis- 2-41), on the pilot right console, has the following three
cussed in more detail in Section VI of this chapter. distinct functions:
2.48.1 Fuel System. The aft fuel cell provides fuel for
APU operation and is discussed in more detail in Section a. APU Control Switch. A three-position APU con-
IV of this chapter. The APU fuel control automatically reg- trol switch allows the pilot to START, RUN, and shut down
ulates fuel flow. The APU burns approximately (OFF) the APU. This switch is spring-loaded from the
135 pounds of fuel per hour. START to RUN position. Pilot pressure at the START
position is required for only one or two seconds to ensure
electrical circuit latching.
2.48.2 Lubrication System. The APU has a self-con-
tained oil system. An oil filler cap is located on the left side
of the unit. Oil cooling is provided by airflow over cooling CAUTION
fins at the compressor inlet. The oil level sight gage (fig
2-45) is located on the right side and is an integral part of
the oil sump. The sight gage can be inspected through an Do not use APU 95% cold start switch
opening just below the right engine nacelle. when the ambient temperature is above 0
F (–18 C). Use of this switch will reduce
2.48.3 Electrical System. The APU electrical system the power takeoff (PTO) clutch life drasti-
requires dc power which is normally delivered by the heli- cally, and could cause premature failure
copter battery when the APU control switch is set to RUN. of the clutch duplex bearing/needle bear-
This switch will apply dc power to energize the APU boost ing as well as main transmission acces-
pump, open the APU fuel shutoff valve, and at the same sory gear case component failure.

2-72 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

b. 95% Cold Start Switch. A spring-loaded 95% c. APU Fire Warning and Extinguishing Con-
switch allows the pilot to delay APU PTO clutch engage- trol. APU fire warning is provided by a warning light in
ment during APU starts at temperatures below 0 °F (–18 the FIRE APU PULL handle and a FIRE APU warning
°C). Delaying PTO clutch engagement until the APU is at light on the pilot and CPG MASTER CAUTION panels.
95% operating speed allows successful engagement in a Section II of this chapter describes emergency equipment
cold weather environment. The switch is spring-loaded to operation. An APU fire can be extinguished by pulling the
the NORM position and must be held in the 95% position pilot FIRE APU PULL handle and placing the FIRE BTL
when used. PTO clutch engagement is inhibited until the selector switch either to PRI (primary) or RES (reserve).
switch is released and returned to the NORM position. The fire test portion of the panel is discussed in detail in
The switch is used with the APU ON advisory light that in- Section II of this chapter.
dicates the APU is operating at or above 95% speed.

BTL DISCHARGE APU

PRI RES

DISCH DISCH

ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
FIRE BTL
FIRE TEST
DET ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ
PRI RES

START 95%

2
RUN NORM

1
OFF
OFF

M01319

Figure 2-41. APU Control Panel

2-73
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section XIII. LIGHTING

2.49 LIGHTING EQUIPMENT. lights, anticollision lights, a searchlight, and an inspection


maintenance light.
The lighting equipment consists of exterior and interior
lighting systems. The lighting equipment is controlled by a. Formation Lights. The formation lights (green)
the pilot and CPG lighting control panels (fig 2-42). are located on the upper surface of each wing, the upper
centerline of the aft fuselage, and on the upper surface of
the vertical stabilizer. Power for operation of the lights is
EXT LT INT LT 115 vac provided by the FORM circuit breaker on the pilot
FORM INST overhead circuit breaker panel (fig 2-39). Operation of the
lights is controlled by the FORM rotary control on the pilot
EXT LT panel.

OFF BRT OFF BRT


b. Navigation Lights. The navigation lights are lo-
NAV
cated on the wingtips (right side green, left side red, and
FLOOD
BRT BRT the aft white) and on the top aft side of the vertical stabiliz-
OFF OFF
er. Power for operation of the lights is 28 vdc and is pro-
vided by the NAV circuit breaker on the pilot overhead cir-
DIM DIM
cuit breaker panel. Operation of the lights is controlled by
ANTI COL L CSL R/CTR CSL the NAV switch on the pilot EXT LT panel.
WHT

OFF
c. Anticollision Lights. High-intensity flashing red
and white anticollision lights are located on each wingtip.
RED
OFF BRT OFF BRT Power for their operation is 115 vac through the ANTI
COL circuit breaker and 28 vdc through the LT NAV circuit
PILOT breaker on the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel. Op-
eration of the lights is controlled by the ANTI-COL switch
on the pilot EXT LT panel.
INTR LT
INST CAUTION
FLOOD
BRT The searchlight can reach temperatures
OFF OFF BRT
capable of igniting fires if contact is
made with combustible/flammable mate-
DIM L CSL R CSL rials. Do not land in areas such as high
grassy meadows with the searchlight
ON.
OFF BRT
OFF BRT
NOTE

CPG M01-022 Searchlight motion is inhibited for 60 sec-


onds after the SRCH LT switch is placed in
the STOW position.
Figure 2-42. Pilot and CPG Lighting Control Panels
d. Searchlight. The searchlight (fig 2-2) is located
NOTE in a fairing under the forward end of the forward avionics
bay just forward of the landing gear attachment and can
be used as a landing light. Power for the searchlight is 28
The searchlight, crew station floodlights,
vdc routed through a relay by the SRCH LDG CONTR and
and utility lights are the only lights available
SRCH LDG circuit breakers on the pilot overhead circuit
with battery power.
breaker panel. Operation of the light is controlled by the
2.49.1 Exterior Lighting System. The aircraft exterior SRCH LT and EXT-RET switches on the pilot and CPG
lighting system consists off formation lights, navigation collective stick switchboxes (fig 2-26).

2-74 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

e. Inspection and Maintenance Light. The in- pilot also has an EDGE LT PNL ON/OFF switch located
spection and maintenance light is stored in the left equip- on the overhead circuit breaker panel that allows him to
ment stowage compartment (fig 2-2). Two plug-in recep- turn off circuit breaker edge lights independent of other
tacle locations provide electrical power and will facilitate console lights.
inspection and maintenance at all points on the helicopter.
The receptacle is located adjacent to the CPG station on b. CPG Interior Lighting. The CPG interior lighting
the underside of the right FAB, forward of the searchlight operation of the INTR LT switch/rheostats and the multi-
(fig 2-2). The second receptacle is located in the right aft channel dimmer are the same as for the pilot operation.
avionics bay (fig 2-2). Power for operating the light is 24 The INST switch/rheostat controls outputs to channel 1
vdc directly from the battery through the MAINT LT circuit (right side instruments), channel 2 (left side instruments),
breaker in the right aft avionics bay. Operation of the in- and the ORT. The R CSL controls outputs to channel 3
spection and maintenance light is controlled by an OFF- which is split into sections A and B. A: to the avionics
BRT rheostat switch which is integral with the light. lights; B: to the ASN 128 panel lights. The L CSL controls
the circuit breaker and collective stick grip lights.
2.49.2 Interior Lighting System. The helicopter interi-
c. Emergency Floodlight System. The emergen-
or lighting system consists of dimming lighting for engine
cy floodlight system is installed under the glareshields of
instruments, flight instruments, avionics panels, console
the pilot and CPG instrument panels. Power for the emer-
panels, and circuit breaker panels. All engine and flight in-
gency floodlight system is emergency bus 28 vdc power
struments are equipped with red surface mounted edge
through the UTIL SEC circuit breaker on the pilot over-
lighting fixtures, and the avionics console and circuit
head circuit breaker panel and the UTIL SEC LT circuit
breaker panel lights are integrally illuminated. Light is re-
breaker on the CPG main circuit breaker panel (fig 2-40).
flected to illuminate the panel markings and the clear edg-
Operation of the emergency floodlight system is con-
ing around each switch or circuit breaker. In the event of
trolled by the FLOOD three-position toggle switch on the
total electrical power generation failure, the pilot and CPG
pilot and CPG INTR LT control panel. When the switch is
flood lights, utility lights, and searchlight remain operable
positioned to the BRT position, it turns on the blue green
through the dc emergency bus.
secondary lights to the brightest level. When in the dim
position, the secondary lighting is dimmed.
a. Pilot Interior Lighting. Interior lighting for the pi-
lot is controlled by three switch/rheostats and a three- d. Utility Light. A detachable utility light with a
position FLOOD toggle switch located on the pilot INTR coiled extension cord is located to the left of the pilot and
LT control panel. The three switch/rheostats provide a de- CPG seats. The utility light provides emergency red or
tented OFF position and dim to BRT position. AC voltage white lighting in case instrument panel lighting fails. The
is the primary power for the interior lights. The ac voltage light is operated by an OFF BRT rheostat switch integral
is applied to a multichannel dimmer assembly through the with the light. Rotating the front section of the light selects
PRI circuit breaker on the pilot overhead circuit breaker white flood or red flood. The utility light receives 28 vdc
panel. The multichannel dimmer converts 115 vac to the from the emergency dc bus through the UTIL SEC LT cir-
proper dc levels for the three switch/rheostats. The INST, cuit breaker on the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel
L CSL, and R/CTR CSL switch/rheostats vary the multi- and the UTIL SEC LT circuit breaker on the CPG No. 1
channel dimmer output. The INST switch/rheostat con- circuit breaker panel.
trols channels 1 and 2 of the multichannel dimmer. Chan-
nel 1 is for the right instrument panel, and channel 2 is for e. Dimming, MASTER CAUTION Panel, and Cau-
the left instrument panel. Both channels vary the multi- tion/Warning Panel Advisory Segment Lights. Dim-
channel output from OFF position to BRT. The R/CTR ming of all caution/warning lights is controlled by the INST
CSL control is split into two sections; A: OFF position, and control on both the pilot and CPG INTR LT control panels
BRT for APU FIRE TEST and APX100 control panel. B: for the respective crew station. When the INST control is
OFF position, and BRT for the avionics control box lights is in the OFF position, caution/warning lights are bright;
in the center and right console. The L CSL controls the cir- any other position will cause the respective lights to go to
cuit breaker panels and the collective stick grip lights. The a preset dim condition.

2-75
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section XIV. FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS

2.50 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS. power applied to the instrument will cage the motor-driven
internal gyroscope and level the background horizon line
The instruments discussed in this section are, for the most to 0° in pitch and roll. The knob may be turned to adjust
part, those that directly measure flight performance. Cau- the pitch of the artificial horizon relative to the fixed aircraft
tion, warning, audio systems, and some flight instruments symbol. The indicator receives 28 vdc from the emergen-
are common to both crew stations. The instruments are cy dc bus through the STBY ATTD circuit breaker on the
grouped as common, pilot, and CPG flight instruments. pilot overhead circuit breaker panel.

2.50.1 Common Flight Instruments. The flight instru- f. CPG Remote Attitude Indicator. The CPG re-
ments found in both the pilot instrument panel (fig 2-9) and mote attitude indicator (RAI) displays helicopter attitude
the CPG instrument panel (fig 2-10) are the pressure from information obtained from the heading and attitude
(barometric) altimeter, instantaneous vertical speed indi- reference system (HARS). The indicator can display 360°
cator, airspeed indicator, attitude indicator, and the clock. of roll and 90° of pitch. HARS input drives roll and/or
pitch servos, which results in the appropriate roll or pitch
a. Pilot Barometric Altimeter. The pilot has an of the artificial horizon. If HARS input ceases or becomes
AAU-32/A encoding barometric altimeter. This altimeter is unreliable, 28-vdc power will cause an OFF flag to appear
the same as the CPG’s except the AAU-32/A interfaces at the window on the left side of the instrument face. A
with the IFF for Mode C operation. pitch trim knob at the lower right corner may be turned to
adjust the pitch of the artificial horizon relative to the fixed
b. CPG Barometric Altimeter. The CPG has an aircraft reference symbol. The RAI receives 115 vac from
AAU-31/A barometric altimeter. The altimeter is graduat- the No. 1 essential ac bus through the ATTD IND circuit
ed in 50-foot increments and marked at 100-foot intervals breaker on the CPG No. 1 circuit breaker panel.
(0 – 9 x 100). Just left of center is a 100-foot drum and a
1000-foot drum to supplement the scale pointer. The g. Clock. The clock combines the features of a
scale window, at the lower right section of the instrument standard clock and a stopwatch by displaying normal and
face, indicates barometric pressure setting in inches of elapsed time in hours, minutes, and seconds. Once
mercury. It is adjustable by use of the barometric pressure wound, the clocks will run for eight days. The elapsed-
set knob on the lower left corner of the indicator case. time pushbutton control is on the upper right corner of the
Maximum allowable altimeter error is 70 feet. case. The clock is wound and set with a knob at the lower
left corner of the case.
c. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI). The VSI mea-
sures the rates of change in static air pressure resulting
from climbs and descents. An adjustment screw on the 2.50.2 Pilot Flight Instruments. The flight instruments
lower left corner is used to zero the pointer, if necessary, in the pilot instrument panel (fig 2-9) are the video display
prior to flight. unit, standby magnetic compass, free air temperature
gage, accelerometer, and radar altimeter.
d. Airspeed Indicator. The airspeed indicator mea-
sures the difference between pitot pressure and static a. Video Display Unit (VDU). The VDU is a multi-
pressure. Instrument range markings and limitations are purpose instrument that provides the pilot with flight, navi-
contained in Chapter 5, Section II, System Limits. At low gation, and targeting information. A turn-and-slip indicator
airspeeds and high power settings, indicated airspeeds is located below the face of the cathode ray tube. The sig-
may be unreliable and fluctuate greater than 10 KIAS. nals for the turn rate indicator are provided by the DASE.

e. Pilot Standby Attitude Indicator. The pilot b. Standby Magnetic Compass. The standby
standby attitude indicator provides an independent dis- magnetic compass is attached to the pilot glareshield. Pri-
play of helicopter attitude. The indicator can display 360° mary heading information is taken from the horizontal situ-
of roll and 85° of pitch. A PULL TO CAGE knob at the ation indicator, which is discussed in Chapter 3, Section
lower right corner has two functions. Pulling it out with III.

2-76
TM 1-1520-238-10

c. Free Air Temperature (FAT) Indicator. The FAT ports are installed flush with the fuselage: one on the right,
indicator (fig 2-11) is a self-contained unit mounted to the and one on the left. The right wing pitot tube supplies ram
bulkhead adjacent to, and left of, the pilot PWR quadrant. air to the pilot airspeed indicator, and the left wing pitot
A probe extends through the airframe to sense outside tube supplies ram air to the CPG airspeed indicator. The
free air temperature. The dial, marked FREE AIR, indi- static port on the right side of the fuselage provides static
cates in degrees Celsius (°C). air pressure to the pilot barometric altimeter, rapid re-
sponse vertical speed indicator, air speed indicator, No. 2
d. Accelerometer. The accelerometer measures airspeed transducer, and the air data processor. The stat-
the g-forces during flight. ic port on the left side of the fuselage provides static air
pressure to the CPG barometric altimeter, rapid response
e. Radar Altimeter. For description refer to para- vertical speed indicator, airspeed indicator, and No. 1 air-
graph 3.18. speed transducer.

2.50.3 CPG Flight Instruments. The flight instru-


2.52 PILOT AND CPG MASTER CAUTION PANEL.
ments unique to the CPG instrument panel (fig 2-10) are
the radio magnetic indicator, airspeed indicator, and altim-
eter. The master caution panels (fig 2-43), located at the center
of the pilot and right center of the CPG glareshield (fig 2-9
a. Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI). The RMI, lo- and 2-10), are identical. When the PRESS TO TEST
cated at the bottom center of the CPG right instrument pushbutton is pressed, all caution/warning lights in that
cluster, displays magnetic heading and ADF bearing to a crew station illuminate. All segments have two lamps so
selected station. The ADF will be discussed in Chapter 3 that failure of a single lamp will produce only a dimming
in conjunction with direction finder set AN/ARN-89 or the effect. If a segment fails to light, it indicates either the fail-
AN/ARN-149. Magnetic heading is provided through a ure of both lamps or a defective circuit. The MASTER
synchro signal from the heading/attitude reference set CAUTION display is also pushbutton operated; it is the
(HARS) to a heading servo that positions the heading only amber light on the master caution panel. Initially,
compass card within the instrument. When the HARS is when a caution/warning panel segment illuminates, it will
aligning or failed, a heading warning signal will cause the flash. Simultaneously, the MASTER CAUTION will flash.
OFF flag (right center on the instrument face) to appear. Pressing the MASTER CAUTION light segment will extin-
Internal power to the RMI is provided by 115 vac 400 Hz guish the lamp and convert the illuminated fault segment
input power. to steady on. The MASTER CAUTION lights are individu-
ally reset in each crew station. and will remain on until the
2.51 PITOT-STATIC SYSTEM. fault or condition is corrected. Warning lights are red, and
when lighted, require immediate crewmember attention.
Electrically-heated pitot tubes are installed at the out- The master caution panel segments are described in table
board leading edge of both wings. Two associated static 2-3.

LOW ENGINE ENGINE HIGH PRESS


MASTER RPM FIRE 1 ENGINE 2 RPM BUCS TO
CAUTION ROTOR APU OUT CHOP OUT ROTOR FAIL TEST

M01-121

Figure 2-43. Pilot and CPG Master Caution Panel

2-77
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-3. Master Caution Panel Indications

Word Segment Color Illumination Parameter or Fault


MASTER CAUTION AMBER Alerts both crewmembers to scan both their master caution/warning
panels and caution/warning panels to identify fault condition.

LOW RPM ROTOR RED Nr is less than 94%.

FIRE APU RED Fire has been detected in the APU area or aft deck area.

ENGINE 1 OUT RED Np is below 94% or NG is below 63% on No. 1 engine. (NP disabled when
the PWR lever is not in FLY).

ENGINE CHOP RED Both engines have been electrically retarded to idle power.

ENGINE 2 OUT RED NP is below 94% or NG is below 63% on No. 2 engine. (NP disabled when
the PWR lever is not in FLY).

HIGH RPM ROTOR -701 RED Nr is more than 104%.


ENGINE

HIGH RPM ROTOR RED Nr is more than 108%.


-701C ENGINE

BUCS FAIL RED One of the following BUCS components has indicated a failure
a. Control position transducer failure or misadjustment.
b. Flight control actuator malfunction.
c. BUCS tracer wire failure.
d. DASEC NO-GO.
e. BUCS select trigger pressed.
f. BUCS circuit breaker out.
g. No ac power to the DASEC.
h. No primary hydraulic pressure.

PRESS TO TEST WHITE When depressed, all master caution panel and caution/warning panel
segments, plus all other advisory lights, are illuminated within that crew
station for test.

2.52.1 Pilot and CPG Caution/Warning Panels. The other crew station.
caution/warning panels, for the pilot and CPG (fig 2-44)
a. Warning and Caution Segment Dimming. Dim-
are described in tables 2-4 and 2-5. Primarily cautionary in
ming of all caution/warning light segments is controlled by
nature, the panels also include red warning segments. the INST control on both the pilot and CPG INTR LT con-
Often a specific fault indicated on the pilot panel will only trol panels (fig 2-42) for the respective crew station. When
light a general system segment on the CPG panel. Illumi- the INST control is in the OFF position, caution/warning
nation of a segment on one crewmembers panel will not lights are bright; any other position will cause the respec-
cause illumination of the MASTER CAUTION light in the tive lights to go to a preset dim condition.

2-78
TM 1-1520-238-10

FUEL EXT EMP UTIL BUCS ON


LOW PRI HYD HYD MAN
FWD FUEL XFR PSI PSI STAB ADS

FUEL BOOST OIL OIL LOW OIL PSI ASE


LOW PMP LOW UTIL ACC
AFT ON PRI HYD HYD PUMP

REFUEL CHIPS OIL BYP OIL BYP CHIPS


VALVE NOSE PRI UTIL NOSE
OPEN GRBX 1 HYD HYD GRBX 2

OIL PSI OIL PSI OIL PSI OIL PSI


CHIPS CHIPS
NOSE MAIN MAIN NOSE
ENG 1 ENG 2
GRBX 1 XMSN 1 XMSN 2 GRBX 2

OIL OIL HOT OIL HOT OIL HOT OIL HOT OIL
PSI NOSE MAIN MAIN NOSE PSI
ENG 1 GRBX 1 XMSN 1 XMSN 2 GRBX 2 ENG 2

OIL GEN 1 GEN 2 OIL


BYP BYP
ENG 1 RECT 1 RECT 2 ENG 2

FUEL CHIPS TEMP INT FUEL


HOT HOT
BYP MAIN BYP
RECT 1 RECT 2
ENG 1 XMSN TEMP TR ENG 2

FUEL PRI MUX SHAFT HOT BAT FUEL


VIB
PSI DRIVEN PSI
GRBX
ENG 1 RDR JAM COMP CHARGER ENG 2

GUN IR JAM BLADE RTR BK CANOPY


ENG
ANTI ICE
ICE
ROCKET PNVS FAIL EXT PWR

MISSILE ECS CANOPY ENG 1 ENG 2 APU ON


ANTI ICE ANTI ANTI
IFF TADS FAIL ICE ICE APU FAIL

PILOT

FUEL PRI HYD UTIL HYD BUCS ON


LOW MAN
FWD STAB ADS

FUEL ASE
FUEL MAIN MAIN
LOW
XFER XMSN 1 XMSN 2
AFT

GUN CHIPS TEMP INT


VIB
ENG 1 MAIN ENG 2
GRBX
ROCKET XMSN TEMP TR

TADS MISSILE ELEC ENG


VOICE
SYS ANTI
CIPHER
IFF PRI MUX FAIL ICE

CPG M01-024

Figure 2-44. Pilot and CPG Caution/Warning Panels

2-79
TM 1-1520-238-10

FUEL FUEL XFR UTIL BUCS ON


LOW PRI HYD HYD MAN
FWD FUEL XFR PSI PSI STAB ADS

FUEL BOOST OIL OIL LOW OIL PSI ASE


LOW PMP LOW UTIL ACC
AFT ON PRI HYD HYD PUMP

REFUEL CHIPS OIL BYP OIL BYP CHIPS X FEED


VALVE NOSE PRI UTIL NOSE
OPEN GRBX 1 HYD HYD GRBX 2 X FEED

OIL PSI OIL PSI OIL PSI OIL PSI


CHIPS CHIPS
NOSE MAIN MAIN NOSE
ENG 1 ENG 2
GRBX 1 XMSN 1 XMSN 2 GRBX 2

OIL OIL HOT OIL HOT OIL HOT OIL HOT OIL
PSI NOSE MAIN MAIN NOSE PSI
ENG 1 GRBX 1 XMSN 1 XMSN 2 GRBX 2 ENG 2

OIL GEN 1 GEN 2 OIL


BYP BYP
ENG 1 RECT 1 RECT 2 ENG 2

FUEL CHIPS TEMP INT FUEL


HOT HOT
BYP MAIN BYP
RECT 1 RECT 2
ENG 1 XMSN TEMP TR ENG 2

FUEL PRI MUX SHAFT HOT BAT FUEL


VIB
PSI DRIVEN PSI
GRBX
ENG 1 RDR JAM COMP CHARGER ENG 2

IR JAM BLADE RTR BK CANOPY


GUN ENG
ANTI ICE
ICE
PNVS FAIL EXT EMP EXT PWR
ROCKET
MISSILE ECS CANOPY ENG 1 ENG 2 APU ON
ANTI ICE ANTI ANTI
IFF TADS FAIL ICE ICE APU FAIL

PILOT

FUEL PRI HYD UTIL HYD BUCS ON


LOW MAN
FWD STAB ADS

FUEL FUEL XFR X FEED ASE


MAIN MAIN
LOW
XMSN 1 XMSN 2
AFT FUEL XFR X FEED

GUN CHIPS TEMP INT


VIB
ENG 1 MAIN ENG 2
GRBX
ROCKET XMSN TEMP TR

TADS MISSILE ELEC ENG


VOICE
SYS ANTI
CIPHER
IFF PRI MUX FAIL ICE

CPG M01-324

Figure 2-44.1 Pilot and CPG Caution/Warning Panels (Modified)

2-80 Change 2
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-4. Pilot Caution/Warning Light Segments

Word Segment Color Illumination Parameter or Fault

IFF RED Mode 4 is not able to respond to interrogation.

ENG ICE AMBER Ice detector probe indicates icing conditions are present.

BUCS ON AMBER Backup control system is activated in at least one control axis.

CHIPS ENG 1 AMBER No. 1 engine scavenge oil contains metal fragments.

OIL PSI ENG 1 AMBER No. 1 oil pressure is below 25 psi.

OIL BYP ENG 1 AMBER No. 1 engine oil filter is clogged, and bypass has begun.

FUEL BYP ENG 1 AMBER No. 1 engine fuel filter is clogged, and bypass has begun.

FUEL PSI ENG 1 RED No. 1 engine fuel pressure is less than 9 psi.

AMBER Spare.

ROCKET AMBER Failed system.

MISSILE AMBER Failed system.

RTR BK AMBER Hydraulic pressure is being sensed at the rotor brake by the in-line
pressure switch.

MAN STAB AMBER Automatic operation of the stabilator control unit has failed, or manual
control has been selected.

CHIPS NOSE GRBX 1 AMBER No. 1 engine nose gearbox oil contains metal fragments.

OIL PSI NOSE GRBX 1 AMBER No. 1 engine nose gearbox oil pressure is below 26 – 30 psi.

OIL HOT NOSE GRBX 1 AMBER No. 1 engine nose gearbox oil temperature is above 274 – 294 °F
(135 – 145 °C).

BLADE ANTI ICE FAIL AMBER Failed system.

CANOPY ANTI ICE FAIL AMBER Failed system or canopy temperature has exceeded limits.

ENG 1 ANTI ICE AMBER No. 1 engine nose gearbox heater and engine inlet temperature sensors
are not at operating temperature. After reaching operating temperature,
indicates No. 1 engine anti-ice subsystem has failed.

ENG 2 ANTI ICE AMBER No. 2 engine nose gearbox heater and engine inlet temperature sensors
are not at operating temperature. After reaching operating temperature,
indicates No. 2 engine anti-ice subsystem has failed.

GUN AMBER Failed system.

TADS AMBER Failed system.

PNVS AMBER Failed system.

Change 2 2-80.1/(2-80.2 blank)


TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-4. Pilot Caution/Warning Light Segments - continued

Word Segment Color Illumination Parameter or Fault

PRI HYD PSI AMBER Primary system hydraulic oil pressure is below 1250 psi.

OIL LOW PRI HYD AMBER Primary system hydraulic fluid is at minimum operating level.

OIL BYP PRI HYD AMBER A pressure differential of 60 to 80 psi has been detected in either the
pressure or return filter of the primary hydraulic system. The return filter
will bypass; the pressure filter will not.

OIL PSI MAIN XMSN 1 AMBER Main transmission No. 1 system pressure is below 26 – 30 psi.

OIL HOT MAIN XMSN 1 AMBER Main transmission No. 1 oil system temperature is above 274° – 294 °F
(135° – 145 °C).

GEN 1 AMBER No. 1 generator is not on line.

RECT 1 AMBER Transformer-rectifier has failed, or there is no ac input to the rectifier.

HOT RECT 1 AMBER Temperature 190 °F (87 °C) at transformer-rectifier is excessive. Rectifier
fan has probably failed.

SHAFT DRIVEN COMP AMBER Shaft driven compressor oil temperature is above 340° – 360 °F
(171° – 182 °C); or shaft driven compressor pressurized air output is less
than 5 – 9 psi. No 1 engine bleed air will automatically supply the
pressurized air system if No. 1 engine is operating.

PRI MUX AMBER The selected multiplex bus controller has malfunctioned and the other bus
controller has assumed control of the multiplex bus. Light will extinguish
when the operating bus controller is selected with the MUX switch on the
CPG fire control panel.

UTIL HYD PSI AMBER Utility system hydraulic oil pressure is below 1250 psi.

OIL LOW UTIL HYD AMBER Utility hydraulic fluid is at minimum operating level.

OIL BYP UTIL HYD AMBER A pressure differential of 60 to 80 psid has been detected in either the
pressure or return filter of the utility hydraulic system. The return filter will
bypass; the pressure filter will not.

OIL PSI MAIN XMSN 2 AMBER Main transmission No. 2 oil system pressure is below 26 – 30psi.

OIL HOT MAIN XMSN 2 AMBER Main transmission No. 2 oil system temperature is above 274° – 294 °F
(135° – 145 °C).

GEN 2 AMBER No. 2 generator is not on line.

RECT 2 AMBER Transformer-rectifier has failed, or there is no ac input to the rectifier.

HOT RECT 2 AMBER Temperature 190 °F (87 °C) at transformer-rectifier is excessive. Rectifier
fan has probably failed.

CANOPY AMBER Canopy doors are not properly closed.

2-81
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-4. Pilot Caution/Warning Light Segments - continued

Word Segment Color Illumination Parameter or Fault


EXT PWR AMBER Access door to external power receptacle is open.

HOT BAT AMBER Battery temperature is in excess of 134 °F (57 °C), or a defective cell has
been detected. Battery charging is discontinued.

CHARGER AMBER Charger has failed to charge during a programmed charging cycle.

CHIPS MAIN XMSN AMBER Main transmission chip detector has detected metal fragments.

TEMP TR AMBER Tail rotor gearbox temperature is above 274° – 294 °F (135° – 145 °C).

CHIPS NOSE GRBX 2 AMBER No. 2 engine nose gearbox oil contains metal fragments.

OIL PSI NOSE GRBX 2 AMBER No. 2 engine nose gearbox oil pressure is below 26 – 30 psi.

OIL HOT NOSE GRBX 2 AMBER No. 2 engine nose gearbox oil temperature is above 274° – 294 °F
(135° – 145 °C).

ASE AMBER One or more components of the automatic stabilization equipment is


inoperative; one or more of the SAS channels is inoperative or has been
selected OFF.

NOTE

Low fuel caution systems alert the crew that the fuel level in the tank has reached a specified level (ca-
pacity). Differences in fuel densities due to temperature and fuel type will vary the weight of the fuel re-
maining and the actual time the helicopter engine(s) may operate. Differences in fuel consumption rates,
aircraft attitude, and operational conditions of the fuel subsystem will also affect the time the helicopter
engine(s) may operate.

FUEL LOW FWD AMBER When light comes on, approximately 260 pounds of fuel remains in the
forward fuel cell.

FUEL LOW AFT AMBER When light comes on, approximately 210 pounds of fuel remains in the aft
fuel cell.

EXT EMP AMBER All external fuel tanks are empty.

REFUEL VALVE OPEN AMBER Refuel valve is open.

OIL PSI ACC PUMP AMBER Main transmission accessory gearbox oil pressure is below 26 – 30 psi.

TEMP INT AMBER Intermediate gearbox temperature is above 274° – 294 °F (135° – 145
°C).

CHIPS ENG 2 AMBER No. 2 engine scavenge oil contains metal fragments.

OIL PSI ENG 2 AMBER No. 2 engine oil pressure is below 25 psi.

OIL BYP ENG 2 AMBER No. 2 engine oil filter is clogged, and bypass has begun.

FUEL BYP ENGINE 2 AMBER No. 2 engine fuel filter is clogged, and bypass has begun.

2-82
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-4. Pilot Caution/Warning Light Segments - continued

Word Segment Color Illumination Parameter or Fault


FUEL PSI ENG 2 RED No. 2 engine fuel pressure is less than 9 psi.

ECS AMBER The overheat sensor has sensed a mixed air FAB temperature greater
than 105 °F (41 °C).

APU ON AMBER APU operation when APU NG speed is above 95%.

APU FAIL AMBER Indicates one of the following: APU thermocouple malfunction,
overtemperature, overspeed, low APU oil pressure, or overcurrent.

VIB GRBX AMBER Intermediate or tail rotor gearbox vibration level is excessive.

FUEL XFR AMBER TRANS switch is in the TO FWD or TO AFT position and fuel transfer is
not occurring.

FUEL XFR GREEN TRANS selected, transfer is occurring.


Modified C/W panel

FUEL XFR AMBER TRANS selected, transfer is not occurring.


Modified C/W panel

X FEED GREEN CROSSFEED selected, fuel valves are correctly positioned.


Modified C/W panel

X FEED AMBER CROSSFEED selected, fuel valves are incorrectly positioned.


Modified C/W panel

ADS AMBER Failed system.

BOOST PUMP ON AMBER Boost pump operation is on and providing 8 to 10 psi in fuel line to fuel
filter.

RDR JAM AMBER AN/ALQ-136 has failed, is off, or is in a warm-up cycle.

IR JAM AMBER AN/ALQ-144 has failed, or is in warm-up/cool-down cycle.

Table 2-5. CPG Caution/Warning Light Segments

Word Segment Color Illumination Parameter or Fault


IFF RED Mode 4 is not able to respond to interrogation.

ENG 1 AMBER One or a combination of the following: engine oil pressure low, engine oil
filter in bypass, engine chips, engine fuel filter in bypass, engine fuel
pressure low, nose gearbox chips, nose gearbox oil pressure low, nose
gearbox oil temperature high.

MAIN XMSN 1 AMBER One or a combination of the following: transmission oil temperature high,
oil pressure low.

GUN AMBER Failed system.

Change 2 2-83
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-5. CPG Caution/Warning Light Segments – continued

Word Segment Color Illumination Parameter or Fault


ROCKET AMBER Failed system.

ELEC SYS FAIL RED Complete dc electrical system failure. The battery is powering the dc
emergency bus.

BUCS ON AMBER Backup control system is activated in at least one control axis.

MISSILE AMBER Failed system.

TADS AMBER Failed system.

PRI HYD AMBER Primary system hydraulic oil pressure is below 1250 psi.

MAN STAB AMBER Automatic operation of the stabilator control unit has failed, or manual
control has been selected.

TEMP INT AMBER Intermediate gearbox temperature is above 274° – 294 °F (135° – 145
°C).

UTIL HYD AMBER Utility system hydraulic oil pressure is below 1250 psi.

ENG ANTI ICE AMBER An engine anti-ice subsystem has failed.

VOICE CIPHER AMBER KY-58 is operating.

CHIPS MAIN XMSN AMBER Main transmission chip detector has detected metal fragments.

FUEL LOW FWD AMBER When light comes on, about 260 to 300 pounds of fuel remain in the
forward fuel cell at cruise attitude.

FUEL LOW AFT AMBER When light comes on, about 210 to 270 pounds of fuel remain in the aft
fuel cell at cruise attitude.

ASE AMBER One or more components of the automatic stabilization equipment is


inoperative, or one or more of the SAS channels is inoperative or has
been selected OFF.

ENG 2 AMBER One or a combination of the following: engine oil pressure low, engine oil
filter in bypass, engine chips, engine fuel filter bypass, engine fuel
pressure low, nose gearbox chips, nose gearbox oil pressure low, nose
gearbox oil temperature high.

MAIN XMSN 2 AMBER One or a combination of the following: transmission oil temperature high,
oil pressure low.
PRI MUX AMBER The selected bus controller has malfunctioned and the other bus controller
has assumed control of the multiplex bus. Light will extinguish when the
operating bus controller is selected with the MUX switch on the CPG fire
control panel.
VIB GRBX AMBER Intermediate or tail rotor gearbox vibration level is excessive.
TEMP TR AMBER Tail rotor gearbox temperature is above 274° – 294 °F (135° – 145 °C).

2-84 Change 8
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-5. CPG Caution/Warning Light Segments – continued

Word Segment Color Illumination Parameter or Fault


FUEL XFER AMBER TRANS switch is in the TO FWD or TO AFT position and fuel transfer is
not occurring.

FUEL XFR GREEN TRANS selected, transfer is occurring.


Modified C/W panel

FUEL XFR AMBER TRANS selected, transfer is not occurring.


Modified C/W panel

X FEED GREEN CROSSFEED selected, fuel valves are correctly positioned.


Modified C/W panel

X FEED AMBER CROSSFEED selected, fuel valves are incorrectly positioned.


Modified C/W panel

ADS AMBER Failed system.

2.53 HEADSET AUDIO WARNING SYSTEM.

In addition to the visual cues to help crewmembers identi-


fy faults, audio signals are provided as an aid in rapid rec-
ognition of critical conditions. These audio signals are de-
scribed in table 2-6.

Table 2-6. Audio Warning Signals

Tone Signal
Rising frequency ENGINE OUT

Rising frequency ROTOR RPM LOW

Steady tone STAB FAIL

Steady, amplitude modulated IFF

Falling frequency MISSILE ALERT

Dependent on threat radar RADAR WARNING ALERT

Intermittent RADIO IN SECURE MODE

Change 2 2-85
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section XV. SERVICING, PARKING, AND MOORING

2.54 SERVICING. adapters (fig 2-45). Provisions are also made for as many
This section describes servicing information and proce- as four external fuel tanks to be carried on the stores py-
dures for various systems and components. Servicing lons. Table 2-7 lists individual tank capacities.
points for fuel, engine oil, main transmission oil, nose a. Fuel Types. Fuels are classified as primary, com-
gearbox. and APU oil are illustrated in figure 2-45. Fuel, mercial equivalent, or emergency. Primary fuels are JP-4,
lubricants, specifications, and fuel capacities are listed in JP-5, and JP-8. Commercial equivalent oils are listed in
table 2-7. table 2-8. There are no emergency fuels authorized.
2.54.1 External Hydraulic, Pressurized Air and Elec-
trical Requirements. b. Use of Fuels. There is no special limitation on
the use of primary fuel, but limitations in table 2-8 apply
a. External Hydraulic Power Requirements. Exter- when commercial fuels are used. For the purpose of re-
nal hydraulic power requirements are 3000 PSI at a flow cording, fuel mixtures shall be identified as to the major
rate of 6 GPM for both the Primary and Utility hydraulic component of the mixture.
systems.
c. Interchangeable Fuels. Fuels having the same
b. External Pressurized Air Requirements. An ex- NATO code number are interchangeable. Jet fuels (table
ternal air source that provides 40 psig and 30 lb per min- 2-8) conforming to specification ASTM D-1655 may be
ute (300cfm) air flow is required to pressurize the system used when MIL-T-5624 fuels are not available. This usual-
for engine start. The maximum pressure from a ground ly occurs during cross-country flights where aircraft using
source shall not exceed 50 psig. NATO F-40 (JP-4) are refueled with NATO F-44 (JP-5) or
commercial ASTM type A fuels. Whenever this occurs, the
engine operating characteristics may change because of
CAUTION lower operating temperatures. Slower acceleration, lower
engine speed, harder starting, and greater range may be
experienced. The reverse is true when changing from
28 Vdc from an external power source is F-44 (JP-5) fuel to F-40 (JP-4) or commercial ASTM type
not required in order to apply 115/200 B fuels.
Vac to the helicopter. If 28 Vdc is applied
from the external power source, damage d. Mixing of Fuels. When changing from one type
to the helicopter may occur. Prior to ap- of authorized fuel to another, (ie: JP-4 to JP-5), it is not
plying external electrical power, it must necessary to drain the fuel system before adding new fuel.
be confirmed that pins E and F of the ex-
ternal power cable do not have 28 Vdc e. Gravity Refueling. For gravity refueling, open
and that they are jumpered. Pins E and F fuel vent shutoff valve, remove filler cap, pull chain (open-
must be jumpered in order to apply ex- ing anti-syphoning device), and service cells with fuel to
ternal electrical power to the helicopter. the required level (table 2-7).
c. External Electrical Power Requirements. Exter-
nal electrical power requirements are 115/200 Vac, 400 f. Closed-Circuit Pressure Refueling. Using ser-
Hz, and 45 KVA. vice instructions printed on the inside panel of the refuel
panel access door (fig 2-45), perform pressure refueling
2.54.2 Fuel System Servicing. The helicopter has two precheck. When closed-circuit pressure refueling do not
crash-resistant self-sealing fuel cells located forward and exceed 15 psi fuel flow. Remove adapter cap, and using
aft of the ammunition bay in the center fuselage section. standard Army nozzle, service fuel cells with fuel to the re-
Each cell is serviced through gravity filler receptacles or quired level (table 2-7). Using the standard Army nozzle,
pressure-filled through closed-circuit or single-point fuel flow at 15 psi is 56 gallons per minute.

2-86 Change 8
TM 1-1520-238-10

g. Single-Point Pressure Refueling. Using ser- 5. PLT/GND ORIDE switch – OFF.


vice instructions printed on the inside panel of the refuel
panel access door (fig 2-45), perform pressure refueling 6. HARS switch – NORM. (Non-EGI).
precheck. Remove adapter cap, and using an Army sup-
plied SPA nozzle, fill fuel cells with correct fuel to the re- 7. NO. 2 PWR lever – IDLE for 2 minutes, then
quired level (table 2-7). When single-point pressure re- OFF.
fueling do not exceed 50 psi fuel flow. With the SPA
nozzle, fuel flow at 50 psi is at least 100 gallons per min- 8. ANTI-COL switch – OFF.
ute.
9. AFT TK refuel (CROSSFEED NORM). Monitor
until flow to aft tank has ceased.
WARNING
10. CROSSFEED switch–AFT TK.

• The pilot and CPG shall perform their 11. FWD TK – Refuel monitor.
armament safety check prior to enter-
ing the forward area refueling point 12. REFUEL VALVE OPEN caution light – Verify off
(FARP). when refueling is complete.
• Radio transmissions shall be limited
13. Fuel caps/grounding cables – Installed/re-
to EMERGENCIES ONLY until refuel-
moved.
ing has been completed.
h. Rapid (Hot) Refueling (Single Engine). For 14. ANTI-COL switch – As Desired.
rapid turnaround the helicopter may be refueled with the
rotors turning and the No. 2 engine shut down. The follow- 15. Collective – Apply until 60% torque (#1 engine)
ing procedures and steps shall be observed for rapid re- is reached or aircraft is light on wheels.
fueling:
16. Maintain power setting for 30 seconds (CROSS-
1. TAIL WHEEL switch – LOCK. FEED is still in AFT postition).

17. CROSSFEED switch – NORM. Maintain power


2. PARK BRAKE – Set.
setting for 30 seconds.

3. Weapons switches – Off. 18. Collective – Reduce to minimum torque.

4. PLT/CPG ARM/SAFE switches – OFF. 19. NO. 2 engine – Start.

Change 8 2-87
TM 1-1520-238-10

b. Nose Gearbox Servicing. The nose gearboxes


WARNING are mounted on the front of each engine. When the oil falls
below the proper level (fig 2-45), service with oil (table
When opening anti-syphoning device on 2-7).
external tank flapper valve, extreme care
should be exercised when releasing air c. Main Transmission Servicing. Access to the oil
pressure to preclude venting of fuel filler cap and the right sump oil level sight gage are
overboard through filler neck. through the transmission access panel on the right side of
NOTE the fuselage (fig 2-2). The left sump oil level sight gage
can be viewed through the transmission access door on
• Use of JP–4 is prohibited during auxiliary the left side of the fuselage (fig 2-2). When the oil falls be-
tank operation above 80 °F ambient. low the proper level, either side, (fig 2-45), service with oil
(table 2-7).
• External fuel transfer is prohibited below
minimum safe single engine airspeed.
• Internal fuel transfer is prohibited during CAUTION
external fuel transfer.
i. Refueling of External Auxiliary Tanks. The ex- Before beginning an extended flight with
ternal auxiliary tanks are gravity-filled through filler recep- auxiliary fuel tanks installed, engine oil
tacles. Remove the gravity filler caps and service the aux- tanks will be filled to the ‘‘FULL” point on
iliary tanks to the ”AH–64 Fill line” marked on the flapper the sight glass.
valve inlet to the tank.
d. Engine Servicing. The engine oil tank is located
j. Fuel Sump Drains. Two fuel sump drains (detail in the engine frame. It is serviced through a gravity filler
K, fig 2-45), one for each tank, are located on the under- port. An oil level sight gage is located near the gravity filler
side of the fuselage. They are used to drain fuel and check port. When the oil falls below the proper level (fig 2-45),
for fuel contamination. To actuate, press the plunger. Hold service with oil (table 2-7).
until sufficient fuel has been drained. The auxiliary fuel
tanks also contain fuel drains. To actuate the auxiliary fuel e. APU Servicing. The APU oil filler cap and oil lev-
tank drain valve, insert a phillips head screwdriver, push el sight gage are located on the oil reservoir on the APU
inward while twisting clockwise until sufficient fuel has gearbox. The sight gage can be viewed through an ac-
been drained. Then reverse to stop fuel flow. cess panel under the No. 2 engine. When the oil falls be-
low the proper level (fig 2-45), service with oil (table 2-7).
2.54.3 Oil System Servicing.
a. Oil Types. Oils are classified as primary, com- f. Hydraulic System Servicing. The hydraulic
mercial equivalent, or emergency. Commercial equivalent system should only be serviced (fig 2-45) with approved
oils are listed in table 2-9. There are no emergency oils fluids from table 2-7. Detailed hydraulic system servicing
authorized. instructions are in TM 1-1520-238-23.

2-88 Change 8
TM 1-1520-238-10

APU OIL

ENGINE OIL

NOSE GEARBOX OIL

FUEL SERVICING
EXTERNAL TANKS

MAIN FUEL SERVICING, GRAVITY


TRANSMISSION FUEL SERVICING, METHOD-FWD TANK
PANEL SINGLE POINT
REFUELING
PANEL
GROUND
RECEPTACLES

APU OIL LEVEL


SIGHT GAGE
FUEL SERVICING,
CLOSED CIRCUIT
FUEL SERVICING
GRAVITY METHOD
AFT TANK

PRIMARY/UTILITY
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
SERVICING
SUMP
SUMP DRAIN
DRAIN
EXTERNAL ELECTRICAL PLUNGERS
POWER RECEPTACLE SUMP
DRAIN

M01-093-1

Figure 2-45. Servicing Diagram (Sheet 1 of 4)

Change 8 2-88.1/(2-88.2 blank)


TM 1-1520-238-10

OIL LEVEL FULL

SIGHT GAGE

FUNNEL
OIL LEVEL FULL
BOTH SIDES
SIGHT GAGE

OIL SERVICING-ENGINE NOSE GEARBOX OIL SERVICING-MAIN TRANSMISSION

OIL LEVEL FULL


WHEN SIGHT
GLASS FILLED
SIGHT
GAGE

FUNNEL

OIL SERVICE ENGINE M01-093-2

Figure 2-45 Servicing Diagram (Sheet 2 of 4)

2-89
TM 1-1520-238-10

FLOAT
BALL

OIL LEVEL FULL


WHEN FLOAT BALL AT
MID POINT
NORMAL
SIGHT GAGE OPERATING
OIL SERVICING-APU

OIL SERVICING-HYDRAULIC

EXTERNAL POWER RECEPTACLE

REFUELING PANEL M01-093-3

Figure 2-45 Servicing Diagram (Sheet 3 of 4)

2-90
TM 1-1520-238-10

FUEL SERVICING, GRAVITY METHOD-FWD TANK FUEL SERVICING, GRAVITY METHOD-AFT TANK

FUEL SERVICING, CLOSED CIRCUIT FUEL SERVICING, SINGLE POINT

FUEL SERVICING
FUEL SUMP, DRAINS AND PLUNGER GRAVITY METHOD-EXTERNAL TANK
M01-093-4

Figure 2-45 Servicing Diagram (Sheet 4 of 4)

2-91
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-7. Fuel and Lubricant Specifications and Capacities

Tank or Capacity Materials


System US Name Spec Grade

Forward Fuel Cell 156 gal usable Turbine Fuel MIL-T-5624 JP-4
156 gal total MIL-T-5624* JP-5
MIL-T-83133 JP-8

Aft Fuel Cell 219 gal usable Turbine Fuel MIL-T-5624 JP-4
220 gal total MIL-T-5624* JP-5
MIL-T-83133 JP-8

Auxiliary Fuel Tank 229 gal usable Turbine Fuel MIL-T-5624 JP-4
230 gal total MIL-T-5624* JP-5
(each tank) MIL-T-83133 JP-8

Engine Oil Lubricating Oil MIL-L-23699*


MIL-L-7808

Main Transmission Lubricating Oil MIL-L-23699*


MIL-L-7808

Engine Nose Lubricating Oil MIL-L-23699*


Gearbox MIL-L-7808

Auxiliary Power Unit Lubricating Oil MIL-L-23699*


(APU) MIL-L-7808

Primary Hydraulic Hydraulic Fluid MIL-H-83282*


System MIL-H-5606

Utility Hydraulic Hydraulic Fluid MIL-H-83282*


System MIL-H-5606

Main Landing Gear Hydraulic Fluid MIL-H-5606


Shock Strut

Tail Landing Gear Hydraulic Fluid MIL-H-5606


Shock Strut

Brake System Hydraulic Fluid MIL-H-5606

* Use in ambient temperatures of –25 °F (–32 °C) and above.


Do not mix lubricating oils MIL-L-23699 and MIL-L-7808.
Do not mix hydraulic fluids MIL-H-83282 and MIL-H-5606.

2-92
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-8. Approved Fuels

US Military Fuel JP-4 (MIL-T-5624) JP-5 (MIL-T-5624) or JP-8 (MIL-T-83133)


NATO Code No. F-40 (Wide Cut Type) F-44 or F-34 (High Flash Type)

COMMERCIAL FUEL JET A-1


(ASTM-D-1655) JET B JET A NATO F-34

American Oil Co. American JP-4 American Type A

Atlantic Richfield Arcojet B Arcojet A Arcojet A-1

Richfield Div Richfield A Richfield A-1

B.P. Trading B.P.A.T.G. B.P.A.T.K.

Caltex Petroleum Corp. Caltex Jet B Caltex Jet A-1

Cities Service Co. CITGO A

Continental Oil Co. Conoco JP-4 Conoco Jet-50 Conoco Jet-60

Gulf Oil Gulf Jet B Gulf Jet A Gulf Jet A-1

EXXON Co. USA EXXON Turbo Fuel B EXXON A EXXON A-1

Mobil Oil Mobil Jet B Mobil Jet A Mobil Jet A-1

Phillips Petroleum Philjet JP-4 Philjet A-50

Shell Oil Aeroshell JP-4 Aeroshell 640 Aeroshell 650

Sinclair Superjet A Superjet A-1

Standard Oil Co. Jet A. Kerosene Jet A-1 Kerosene

Chevron Chevron B Chevron A-50 Chevron A-1

Texaco Texaco Avjet B Avjet A Avjet A-1

Union Oil Union JP-4 76 Turbine Fuel

NOTE: COMMERCIAL FUEL LIMITATIONS


Anti-icing and Biocidal Additive for Commercial Turbine Engine Fuel. The additive provides anti-icing protection
and functions as a biocide to kill microbial growths in aircraft fuel systems. Icing inhibitor conforming to
MIL-I-27686 shall be added to commercial fuel, not containing an icing inhibitor, during refueling operations, re-
gardless of ambient temperatures. Refueling operations shall be accomplished in accordance with accepted
commercial procedures. This additive (Prist or eq.) is not available through the Army Supply System, but is to be
locally procured when needed.

Change 6 2-93
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-8. Approved Fuels – continued

US Military Fuel JP-4 (MIL-T-5624) JP-5 (MIL-T-5624) or JP-8 (MIL-T-83133)


NATO Code No. F-40 (Wide Cut Type) F-44 or F-34 (High Flash Type)

FOREIGN FUEL NATO F-40 NATO F-44

Belgium BA-PF-2B

Canada 3GP-22F 3-6P-24e

Denmark JP-4 MIL-T-5624

France Air 3407A

Germany (West) VTL-9130-006 UTL-9130-0007/UTL 9130-010

Greece JP-4 MIL-T-5624

Italy AA-M-C-1421 AMC-143

Netherlands JP-4 MIL-T-5624 D ENG RD 2493

Norway JP-4 MIL-T-5624

Portugal JP-4 MIL-T-5624

Turkey JP-4 MIL-T-5624

United Kingdom (Britain) D. Eng RD 2454 D.Eng RD 2498

NOTE: COMMERCIAL FUEL LIMITATIONS


Anti-icing and Biocidal Additive for Commercial Turbine Engine Fuel. The additive provides anti-icing protection
and functions as a biocide to kill microbial growths in aircraft fuel systems. Icing inhibitor conforming to
MIL-I-27686 shall be added to commercial fuel, not containing an icing inhibitor, during refueling operations, re-
gardless of ambient temperatures. Refueling operations shall be accomplished in accordance with accepted
commercial procedures. This additive (Prist or eq.) is not available through the Army Supply System, but is to be
locally procured when needed.

2-94 Change 6
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 2-9. Approved Oils

Approved Domestic Commercial Oils for MIL-L-7808

Manufacturer’s Name Manufacturer’s Designation


American Oil and Supply Co. PQ Turbine Oil 8365

Humble Oil and Refining Co. ESSO/ENCO Turbo Oil 2389

Mobile Oil Corp. RM-184A/RM-201A

Approved Domestic Commercial Oils for MIL-L-23699

Manufacturer’s Name Manufacturer’s Designation


Americal Oil and Supply Co. PQ Turbine Lubricant 5247/
6423/6700/7731/8878/9595

Bray Oil Co. Brayco 899/899-G/899-S

Castrol Oil Co. Castrol 205

Chevron International Oil Co., Inc. Jet Engine Oil 5

Crew Chemical Corp. STO-21919/STO-21919A/STD 6530

W.R. Grace and Co. (Hatco Chemical Div.) HATCOL 3211/3611

Humble Oil and Refining Co. Turbo Oil 2380 (WS-6000)/2395


(WS-6495)/2392/2393

Mobile Oil Corp. RM-139A/RM-147A/Avrex S


Turbo 260/Avrex S Turbo 265
Mobile 254

Royal Lubricants Co. Royco 899 (C-915)/899SC/


Stauffer Jet II

Shell Oil Co., Inc. Aeroshell Turbine Oil 500

Shell International Petroleum Co., Ltd. Aeroshell Turbine Oil 550

Standard Oil Co., of California Chevron Jet Engine Oil 5

Stauffer Chemical Co. Stauffer 6924/Jet II

Texaco, Inc. SATO 7377/7730 TL-8090

Approved Foreign Commercial Oils for MIL-L-7808

Data not available at this time.

Approved Foreign Commercial Oils for MIL-L-23699

Data not available at this time.

2-95
TM 1-1520-238-10

2.55 PARKING. provides 40 psig and 30 pounds-per-minute air flow is re-


quired to pressurize the system for engine start. The max-
imum pressure from a ground source shall not exceed
Helicopter parking shall be in accordance with local direc- 50 psig.
tives and the following minimum procedures: station heli-
copter on as level a surface as possible; set wheel brakes; 2.57 TOWING.
lock tail wheel; turn all switches off; disconnect external
power; chock wheels; secure rotor blades; attach static The helicopter is towed by attaching a tow bar to the tail
ground wire, and install engine inlet, exhaust, and pitot wheel fork. Towing the helicopter must be accomplished
covers. by trained personnel in accordance with instructions in
TM 1-1520-238-23.
2.55.1 Protective Covers. Protective covers (fig 2-47)
2.58 CANOPY AND WINDSHIELD CLEANING.
prevent damage from foreign objects and snow and water
buildup to vital areas. All protective covers are part of the
helicopter flyaway kit. The kit may be stored in the equip- CAUTION
ment stowage bay during flight. Covers are installed
whenever the helicopter is on the ground for an extended
period of time, or if severe environmental conditions such Do not attempt to clean either the PNVS
as ice or dust exist. or TADS turret windows or optics. These
require special treatment by trained per-
sonnel.
The canopy and windshield shall be carefully cleaned, us-
2.56 GROUND AIR SOURCE. ing aircraft cleaning practices, with clear water and a
moist chamois or flannel cloth.

An external air receptacle (fig 2-46) under the No. 1 en- 2.59 MOORING.
gine nacelle provides an attachment point for an external
air line to start either engine or accomplish maintenance The helicopter is moored in accordance with
functions on the helicopter. An external air source that TM 1-1500-250-23.

AIR HOSE

M01-130

Figure 2-46. Ground Air Source

2-96
TM 1-1520-238-10

TADS/PNVS
PROTECTIVE COVER

LEFT
FUSELAGE
STEP

TURRET
FAIRING

IN FLIGHT AREA WEAPON


MUZZLE COVER AND TURRET
PROTECTIVE
COVER
MOORING
LUG
(2 PLACES)

APERTURE AFT
COVER FUSELAGE
TIEDOWN

UPPER LOUVER
ENGINE NACELLE
PROTECTIVE COVERS
(TYPICAL 2 PLACES)

ENGINE EXHAUST
PROTECTIVE SHIELDS
(TYPICAL 6 PLACES)

APU EXHAUST
PROTECTIVE SHIELD

ENCU EXHAUST
PROTECTIVE COVER M01-127-1A

Figure 2-47. Protective Covers, Mooring, Towing (Sheet 1 of 2)

Change 6 2-97
TM 1-1520-238-10

OMNIDIRECTIONAL
AIRSPEED/PROTECTIVE
COVER
TOW BAR

CHAFF DISPENSER & COVER


(OPTIONAL EQUIP)

MAIN ROTOR APERTURE ENGINE AIR


PROTECTIVE COVER INLET PROTECTIVE
SHIELD

CANOPY
PROTECTIVE
NOSE GEARBOX
COVER
COOLING AIR
INLET PROTECTIVE
SHIELD
TADS/PNVS
COVER

PITOT HEAD
PROTECTIVE COVER

MAIN ROTOR BLADE


TIE-DOWN ASSEMBLY
SAFETY PINS
POUCH
AFT
FUSELAGE
TIEDOWN

MAIN ROTOR BLADE


TIE-DOWN
POLE ASSEMBLY RED
STREAMER

M01-127-2A

Figure 2-47. Protective Covers, Mooring, Towing (Sheet 2 of 2)

2-98 Change 6
TM 1-1520-238-10

CHAPTER 3
AVIONICS

Section I. GENERAL

3.1 DESCRIPTION. 3.2 AVIONICS EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATIONS.

This chapter covers the avionics equipment configuration Avionics equipment configurations are shown in Table
installed in the AH-64A helicopter. It includes a brief de- 3-1.
scription of the avionics equipment, its technical charac-
teristics, capabilities, and locations. For mission avionics 3.3 AVIONICS POWER SUPPLY.
equipment, refer to Chapter 4, Mission Equipment.

The communications equipment provides intercommu- Power to operate most of the avionics equipment is pro-
nication between crewmembers and VHF AM-FM and vided by the emergency dc bus. This allows for backup
UHF AM radio communication. If installed, VHF FM Single battery power that is used in the event of a complete elec-
Channel Ground and Airborne Radio Set (SINCGARS) is trical failure. External power may also be applied. Func-
also provided. The navigation equipment includes an Au- tion selector should be OFF before applying helicopter
tomatic Direction Finder (ADF), a Doppler Navigation Sys- power.
tem (DNS) and a Heading Attitude Reference Set
(HARS). Transponder equipment consists of an Identifica- 3.4 EMERGENCY OPERATION.
tion Friend or Foe (IFF) receiver transmitter. Height above
ground level is provided by a radar altimeter. Each anten- If both generators or both transformer-rectifiers (T/R’s)
na is described with its major end item. Antenna locations fail, turn off all nonessential radio equipment to prevent
on the airframe are shown (fig 3-1). excessive drain on the battery.

3-1
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-1. Communication/Navigation Equipment

Control
Equipment Nomenclature Use Range Location Remarks
Intercommunication Intercommuni– Intercommunication Within crew Pilot center
cation Control between crew stations and console and
C-10414/ARC or members and control two external CPG right
C-11746/ARC of navigation and receptacles. console
communication
radios.

Remote Indicates control of Not applicable Pilot center


Transmitter communication and console
Selector (used with navigation equipment.
C-10414) or
Remote
Transmitter
Indicator
ID-2403/ARC (used
with C-11746)

VHF FM-AM AN/ARC-186(V) Two-way FM voice Line of sight Pilot right


Communication VHF FM-AM No.1 communications. FM console
frequency range 30 to
87.975 MHz plus AM
116 to 151.975 MHz.
“Receive Only’’ AM
frequency range 108
to 115.975 MHz.

VHF FM-AM AN/ARC-186(V) Same as VHF FM-AM Line of sight CPG right
Communication VHF FM-AM No. 2 No.1 radio. console

VHF FM Communication AN/ARC-201 Two-way voice Line of sight Pilot right


(SINCGARS) communication in the console
frequency range of 30
to 87.975 MHz.

UHF AM AN/ARC-164 Two-way Line of sight Pilot right


Communication communication in the console
frequency range of
225 to 399.975 MHz.

Remote Control Unit Z-AHP KY-58 Secure Not applicable Pilot right Complete
(RCU) Voice Security communication for console provisions
System pilot AN/ARC-186 or
AN/ARC-201 radio.

3-2
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-1. Communication/Navigation Equipment – continued

Control
Equipment Nomenclature Use Range Location Remarks
(ADF) AN/ARN-89 Radio range and 50 NM Pilot right
broadcast reception. console
Automatic direction
finding and homing in
the frequency range
of 100 to 3000 kHz.

C-7392/ARN-89 Provides controls for Not applicable Pilot right


operation of console
AN/ARN-89 ADF.

(ADF) AN/ARN-149 (V) Provides relative Line of sight Pilot right


bearing to the for console
transmitting station high-power
being received. NDB, 15 to 20
Includes standard NM for
commercial broadcast low-power
AM stations and NDB
nondirectional beacon
(NDB) frequencies.
Operates in the
frequency range of
100 to 2199.500 kHz.

C-12192/ARN-149 Provides controls for Not applicable Pilot right


operation of console
AN/ARN-149 ADF.

(DNS) AN/ASN-128 Provides present Not applicable CPG right


position or destination console
navigation information
in latitude and
longitude (degrees
and minutes) or
Universal Transverse
Mercator (UTM)
coordinates.

Computer Display Unit CP-1252 CDU Provides controls and Not applicable CPG right
(CDU) indicators for console
operation of the
AN/ASN-128 DNS.

3-3
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-1. Communication/Navigation Equipment – continued

Control
Equipment Nomenclature Use Range Location Remarks
(DNS) AN/ASN-137 Provides present Not applicable CPG right
position or destination console
navigation information
in latitude and
longitude (degrees
and minutes) or
(UTM) coordinates.

(CDU) IP-1552/G CDU Provides controls and Not applicable CPG right
displays for operation console
of the AN/ASN-137
DNS.

(IFF) AN/APX 100(V) Transmits a specially Line of sight Pilot right


coded reply to a console
ground based IFF
radar interrogator
system.

Absolute Altimeter AN/APN-209 Measures absolute 0 to 1500 feet Pilot right


altitude. above ground instrument
level panel

(HARS) Senses helicopter Not applicable Pilot right


attitude and motion to instrument
define roll, pitch, panel
heading, and flight
path.

Data Transfer DR-902B Autoloading of Not applicable CPG right


Receptacle (DTR) mission data console

Embedded Global CN-1689(V)1/ASN Provides present Not applicable CPG right


Positioning System position or destination console
Inertial Navigation Unit navigation information (CDU)
(EGI) in latitude and
longitude (degrees
and minutes) or
(UTM) coordinates.

3-4 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

GPS ANTENNA
(SOME HELICOPTERS)

RADAR
WARNING
ANTENNAS

FM-AM ANTENNA
(SOME HELICOPTERS)

UPPER IFF TRANSPONDER


ANTENNA
UPPER IFF ANTENNA
(SOME HELICOPTERS)

RADAR JAMMER
TRANSMIT ANTENNA
RADAR JAMMER
RECEIVING ANTENNA
M01-026-1A

Figure 3-1. Antenna Arrangement (Sheet 1 of 2)

Change 3 3-5
TM 1-1520-238-10

UHF-AM LOWER
IFF TRANSPONDER
ANTENNA RADAR
WARNING
ANTENNA

VHF-FM-AM
NO. 1 (PILOT)
ANTENNA
DOPPLER
RADAR ANTENNA

ADF SENSE ANTENNA


AN/ARN-89 ONLY

RADAR WARNING
ANTENNA

RADAR WARNING
ANTENNA

LOWER IFF ANTENNA


(SOME HELICOPTERS)

VHF-FM-AM
NO. 2 (CPG)
ANTENNA

(RCVR) (XMTR)
RADAR ALTIMETER
ANTENNAS
ADF LOOP ANTENNA
AN/ARN-89 ONLY
ADF ANTENNA
AN/ARN-149 ONLY

M01-026-2

Figure 3-1. Antenna Arrangement (Sheet 2 of 2)

3-6
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section II. COMMUNICATIONS

3.5 INTERCOMMUNICATION SYSTEM (ICS)


C-10414(V)3/ARC OR C-11746(V)4/ARC.

Two ICS control panels, placarded CSC (fig 3-2 and 3-3),
one each for pilot and CPG, provide intercommunication
capability between crewmembers. These also provide a
means by which the pilot and CPG may select and control
associated radio equipment for voice transmission and re-
ception. Additionally, an external jack fitting on each ser-
vice panel, located outboard on each wing, permits main-
tenance personnel to communicate with the
crewmembers. A radio transmit/interphone rocker switch
is installed on both cyclic stick grips (fig 2-26). A foot-oper-
ated radio transmit switch is installed on the right side of
the aft cockpit deck. The forward crew station has two
foot-operated switches: a radio transmit switch on the left
side of the deck, and an interphone transmit switch on the EFFECTIVE ON AIRCRAFT SERIAL NUMBER
right side. Hands free intercommunication is provided by a 83-23787 THRU 85-25415 M01-028-1
hot mike feature. The remote transmitter switch pushbut-
ton on the pilot cyclic stick grip, directly below the RADIO/
ICS switch, allows the pilot to remotely select the radio Figure 3-2. Control Panel C-10414(V)3/ARC and
transmitter that he wishes to use. With the transmitter se- Remote Transmitter Selector
lector switch in position 5 (C-10414 configuration) or posi-
tion RMT (C-11746 configuration), pressing the remote
transmit select switch begins the transmitter select cycle.
Identification of the selected transmitter is displayed by
way of lamps above the pilot CSC panel. A placard is pro-
vided for each crewmember as ready reference to which
receiver and transmitter selector switch position will en-
able a desired radio. Power for the (ICS) is provided from
the emergency dc bus through the ICS circuit breaker in
each crew station.

3.5.1 Controls and Functions. The function of the


controls on the face of each CSC panel (fig 3-2 or 3-3) are VOX
as shown in table 3-2.

NOTE

• The RADIO MON switches are con- EFFECTIVE ON AIRCRAFT SERIAL NUMBER M01-028-2B
nected (ON) when pushed in fully and 85-25416 AND SUBSEQUENT
disconnected (OFF) when pulled out.
• The C-10414(V)3/ARC control panel is Figure 3-3. Control Panel C-11746(V)4/ARC and
not illuminated. Remote Transmitter Indicator Panel ID-2403/ARC

Change 4 3-7
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-2. CSC Panel Control and Indicator Functions

Control/Indicator Function
Receiver Selector
Switches ON

1 Connects pilot ARC-186 receiver to the headphone.

2 Connects pilot ARC-164 to the headphone.

3 Connects CPG ARC-186 receiver to the headphone.

4 Spare.

5 Spare.

NAV A Connects the ARN-89 or the ARN-149 ADF receiver and the APX-100 IFF portion of the
transponder to the headphone.

NAV B Connects the audio output of the video recorder subsystem (VRS) to headphone (playback
mode of the VRS ONLY).

Transmitter Selector
Switch

PVT Not Used.

ICS Enables ICS system when keyed.

1 Enables pilot ARC-186 transmission when keyed.

2 Enables pilot ARC-164 transmission when keyed.

3 Enables CPG ARC-186 transmission when keyed.

4 Spare.

5(C-11746) Spare.

5(C-10414) Enables remote transmit select switch (pilot only).


RMT (C-11746)

ICS Switch Interphone transmit on at all times.


HOT MIC

VOX ON Enables VOX.

NORM Interphone transmit functions only when interphone transmit switch pressed.

ICS OFF Disables interphone transmit.

VOL Control Adjusts headset volume level.

3-8
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-2. CSC Panel Control and Indicator Functions – continued

Control/Indicator Function
MIC Switch

1 Used when all maintenance headsets have dynamic microphones. (Pilot and CPG IHADSS
helmets have linear microphones).

2 Used to communicate between pilot and CPG with IHADSS helmets; and between pilot/CPG
with IHADSS helmets and maintenance personnel at wing stations. In the latter case,
maintenance headsets must have a linear microphone or a compensating adapter.

NOTE

If the pilot communication control panel MIC switch is in the 2 position, headsets connected to the right
wing station ICS connector must also have a linear microphone or compensating adapter. If the CPG
communication control panel MIC switch in the 2 position, headsets connected to the left wing station
ICS connector must also be configured correctly.

3.5.2 Modes of Operation. There are several methods 2. RADIO/ICS rocker switches – Press the cyclic
of intercommunication operation. In all cases, no operator stick grip RADIO rocker switch or the radio
action is required to receive intercom signals other than transmit floor switch. Speak into microphone
adjusting the VOL control for a comfortable level at the while pressing switch. Release to listen.
headset.
3.5.5 Receiver Selection. Place RADIO MON
3.5.3 Intercommunication for Crewmembers. Trans- switch(s) to ON as desired and adjust volume to a com-
mitting and receiving is accomplished by both crewmem- fortable listening level.
bers in the following manner:

3.6 RADIO SET AN/ARC-186(V).


1. Transmitter selector switch is set to ICS when
the pilot is using the ICS floor switch. The trans-
mitter selector switch may be set at any position Radio Set AN/ARC-186(V) is a VHF FM-AM transceiver
when using either cyclic stick RADIO/ICS switch that provides clear and secure voice communication ca-
in the ICS position. pability at frequencies in the VHF AM and FM bands. The
radio set has a guard frequency of 40.500 MHz for FM and
2. The RADIO/ICS switch on either cyclic stick grip a 121.500 MHz for AM. Over a frequency range of 108.00
should be pressed to ICS or the CPG foot-oper- MHz to 115.975 MHz, it functions as a receiver for the re-
ated ICS switch should be pressed (ground crew ception of (AM) transmissions. At frequencies in the range
must press a push-to-talk button on their ICS of 116.000 MHz to 151.975 MHz, the set operates both as
cord) to talk on the ICS. Speak into the micro- an AM receiver and AM transmitter. From 108.000 MHz
phone while pressing any of these switches. Re- to151.975 MHz, a total of 1760 AM voice communication
lease switch to listen. channels spaced at 25 kHz is provided by the set. In a
range of frequencies extended from 30.000 MHz to
87.975 MHz, it functions both as an FM receiver and FM
3.5.4 External Radio Communication. Both crew- transmitter. Operating in this frequency range, it provides
members are able to communicate with external receiving 2320 FM voice communication channels with a spacing of
station in the following manner: 25 kHz. The radio set also provides 20 channel presets
which can be any combination of AM or FM frequencies.
1. Transmitter selector switch is set to the desired Automatic tuning to both AM and FM emergency frequen-
position, 1 thru 3, for either crew station. Pilot cies (121.5 MHz and 40.5 MHz, respectively) is provided
sets to 5 (C-10414) or RMT (C-11746) if he by setting only one control. Power output of the transmitter
wishes to use the remote transmit select switch. is 10 watts.

3-9
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.6.1 Antennas. The FM-AM No. 1 (pilot) communica- ward of the doppler antenna fairing.
tion antenna (fig 3-1) is mounted on the vertical stabilizer
as an integral part of the trailing edge assembly. Some he- 3.6.2 Controls and Functions. Controls for the AN/
ARC-186(V) transceiver are on the front panel (fig 3-4) of
licopters have an FM-AM whip antenna mounted on top of
the unit. The function of each control is as shown in table
the vertical stabilizer replacing the trailing edge antenna. 3-3.
The FM-AM No. 2 (CPG) communication blade antenna is
mounted on the bottom center fuselage area directly for-

1.0 MHz 0.1 MHz


INDICATOR SELECTOR
1.0 MHz 0.1 MHz 0.025 MHz
SELECTOR INDICATOR INDICATOR
10.0 MHz 0.025 MHz
INDICATOR SELECTOR

10.0 MHz PRESET CHANNEL


SELECTOR INDICATOR
VOLUME PRESET CHANNEL
CONTROL SELECTOR

FREQUENCY
BANDWIDTH/
CONTROL/
MEM LOAD SWITCH SNAP ON
EMERGENCY
SELECT SWITCH COVER

BAND LOCKOUT
SWITCH

MODE SELECT
SWITCH

SQUELCH DISABLE/ AM SQUELCH FM SQUELCH


TONE SELECT CONTROL CONTROL M01-109

Figure 3-4. Control Panel AN/ARC-186

3-10
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-3. AN/ARC-186(V) Controls and Functions

Control/Indicator Function

0.025 MHz selector Rotary switch. Selects r/t frequency in 0.025 MHz increments. Clockwise rotation increases
frequency.

0.025 MHz Indicator Indicates manually selected r/t frequency in 0.025 MHz increments.

0.1 MHz selector Rotary switch. Selects r/t frequency in 0.1 MHz increments. Clockwise rotation increases
frequency.

0.1 MHz indicator Indicates manually selected r/t frequency in 0.1 MHz increments.

1.0 MHz selector Rotary switch. Selects r/t frequency in 1.0 MHz increments. Clockwise rotation increases
frequency.

1.0 MHz indicator Indicates manually selected r/t frequency in 1.0 MHz increments.

10 MHz selector Rotary switch. Selects r/t frequency in 10 MHz increments from 30 to 150 MHz. Clockwise
rotation increases frequency.

10 MHz indicator Indicates manually selected r/t frequency in 10 MHz increments from 30 to 150 MHz.

Present channel Rotary switch. Selects preset channel from 1 to 20. Clockwise rotation increases channel
selector number selected.

Preset channel Indicates selected preset channel.


indicator

Volume control Potentiometer. Clockwise rotation increases volume.

Squelch disable/ Three-position switch. Center position enables squelch. SQ DIS position disables squelch.
tone select Momentary TONE position transmits tone of approximately 1000 Hz.

Frequency control/ Four-position rotary switch. EMER AM/FM selects a prestored guard channel. MAN position
emergency select enables manual frequency selection. PRE position enables preset channel selection.
switch

Mode select switch Three position rotary switch. OFF position turns transceiver off. TR position enables transmit
receive modes. D/F position is not used.

Bandwidth/memory Three-positions switch. NB position enables narrow band selectivity. WB enables wideband
load switch selectivity in the FM band. Momentary MEM LOAD allows manually selected frequency to go
into selected preset channel memory.

AM squelch control Screwdriver adjustable potentiometer. Squelch overridden at maximum counterclockwise


position. Clockwise rotation increases input signal required to open the squelch.

FM squelch control. Screw driver adjustable potentiometer. Squelch overridden at maximum counterclockwise
position. Clockwise rotation increases input signal required to open the squelch.

Band lockout switch Will lock out the AM or FM frequency of the band selected. Presently set to the center
(LOCKOUT) position to receive both AM and FM bands.

3-11
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.6.3 Modes of Operation. Depending on the setting d. FM Emergency (EMER FM) mode. The FM
of the operating controls, the radio set can be used for the emergency mode enables voice reception/transmission
following controlled modes of operation: on a prestored guard frequency of 40.500 MHz.

a. Transmit/Receive (TR) Mode. Two-way in the 1. Set mode select switch to TR.
clear and secure voice communication. Refer to para-
graphs 3.8 through 3.8.2 for voice security system.
2. Set EMER AM/FM,-MAN,-PRE frequency con-
trol/emergency select switch to EMER FM.
1. Set OFF,TR,-D/F mode select switch to TR.

2. Set EMER AM/FM,-MAN,-PRE frequency se- NOTE


lector switch to MAN for manual frequency
selection or to PRE for preset channel selection. Selecting the EMER FM mode will automati-
cally disable the secure speech function and
3. To manually select a frequency, rotate the four enable voice communication.
MHz selector switches until desired frequency is
displayed at indicator windows. 3.6.4 Operating Procedures, Radio Set AN/ARC-186.

NOTE a. Squelch Disable. To disable squelch, set


squelch disable tone select SQ DIS/TONE switch to SQ
Rotating the MHz selector switches clock- DIS. Squelch will remain disabled (open) until switch is re-
wise increases frequency. Frequencies can turned to center position.
be manually selected in 0.025 MHz incre-
ments. b. Tone Transmission. To transmit (FM or AM)
4. To select a preset channel, rotate preset chan- tone frequency of approximately 1000 Hz, set squelch dis-
nel selector switch until the number of the de- able tone select SQ DIS/TONE switch to the momentary
sired channel is displayed in the CHAN indicator TONE position. Releasing the switch removes the tone
window. frequency.

NOTE c. Loading Preset Channels.

Clockwise rotation of preset channel selec- 1. Set mode select switch to TR.
tor switch will increase the desired channel
number (1 to 20). The radio set will automat-
2. Set EMER AM/FM-MAN-PRE frequency con-
ically tune to the preset channel in TR mode.
trol/emergency select switch to MAN.
b. DF Mode. Not Used.
3. Rotate the four MHz selector switches until de-
c. AM Emergency (EMER AM) mode. Emergency sired frequency is displayed in indicator win-
two-way voice communication on selected guard channel. dows.

1. Set mode select switch to TR.


4. Rotate CHAN preset channel selector switch
until the desired channel is displayed in the indi-
2. Set frequency control/emergency select switch
cator window.
to EMER AM.

NOTE 5. Remove snap-on cover.

Selecting the EMER AM mode will automat- 6. Momentarily hold WB-NB-MEM LOAD switch to
ically disable the secure speech function MEM LOAD. Preset frequency is now loaded
and enable clear voice communication. into memory.

3-12
TM 1-1520-238-10

d. Wideband/Narrowband Selection 2. Ensure LOCKOUT-FM-AM switch is in LOCK-


OUT position (indicated by a white dot on the
1. Remove snap-on cover. switch).

2. For wideband operation, set WB-NB-MEM 3.7 RADIO SET RT-1167C/ARC-164(V) AND HAVE
LOAD switch to WB. QUICK RADIOS

3. For narrowband operation, set WB-NB-MEM


LOAD switch to NB. Receiver-Transmitter RT-1167/ARC-164 (fig 3-5) is an air-
borne, (UHF), (AM), radio transmitter-receiver (transceiv-
er) set. It is a multi-channel, electronically-tunable trans-
NOTE
ceiver with a fixed-tuned guard receiver. The transceiver
operates on any one of 7,000 channels spaced in 0.025
The switch shall be placed in the WB posi- MHz units in the 225.000 to 399.975 MHz frequency
tion at any time the MEM LOAD function is range. The guard receiver is on a permanent guard/emer-
not being accomplished. The NB position is gency frequency of 243.000 MHz. The radio set primarily
not used in this installation. is used for voice communication. An additional radio set
e. Band Lockout Selection. capability, although not functional, is ADF. The radio set
receives 28 vdc from the emergency dc bus through the
1. Remove snap on cover. UHF AM circuit breaker on the pilot overhead circuit
breaker panel.
NOTE
Receiver-Transmitter RT-1167C/ARC-164 has the same
With the LOCKOUT-AM-FM switch set to functions and capabilities as the RT-1167/ARC-164 plus a
AM or FM, the frequency of the band se- HAVE-QUICK (HQ) mode of operation which provides an
lected will be locked out. This will cause an electronic counter counter measures (ECCM) frequency
audible warning to occur whenever a fre- hopping capability. Radios with the HQ capability have fre-
quency in a locked out band is selected. For quency selector 1 on the extreme left of the front panel la-
this installation, operational AM and FM beled A-3-2-T (fig 3-5). The single frequency mode of op-
bands are required and the LOCKOUT-AM- eration is referred to as the normal mode and the
FM switch must be set to the LOCKOUT frequency hopping mode of operation is referred to as the
position. anti-jam (AJ) or ECCM active mode.

PRESET
FREQUENCY CHANNEL
SELECTOR 2 SELECTOR
FREQUENCY
SELECTOR 1
(NOTE) FREQUENCY
SELECTOR 5

SWITCHING UNIT
(BEHIND HINGED COVER)
FUNCTION NOTE:
SELECTOR RT-1167 RADIO RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER
MODE
SWITCH DOES NOT HAVE A-3-2-T SWITCH FOR
SELECTOR
SWITCH FREQUENCY SELECTOR 1
FREQUENCY FREQUENCY
SELECTOR 3 SELECTOR 4 M01-030

Figure 3-5. Receiver-Transmitter Radio, RT-1167C/ARC-164(V)

3-13
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.7.1 Antenna. The UHF-AM antenna (fig 3-1) is lo- 3.7.2 Controls and Functions. Controls for the
cated on the bottom center fuselage area and is mounted ARC-164(V) are on the front panel of the unit (fig 3-5). The
directly aft of the doppler fairing. function of each control is described in table 3-4.

Table 3-4. RT-1167C/ARC-164(V) Controls and Functions

Control Function

Frequency For the RT-1167, manually selects 100’s digit of frequency (either 2 or 3) in MHz.
selector 1

A-3-2-T selector
switch (RT-1167C
radios only)

A Selects AJ mode.

3 and 2 Manually selects 100’s digit of frequency (either 2 or 3) in MHz in normal mode or the first
digit of the WOD in the AJ mode.

T Momentary switch position allows the radio to receive a new TOD. Also used with TONE
button for emergency clock start.

Frequency Manually selects 10’s digit of frequency (0 through 9) in MHz in normal mode, second digit of
selector 2 the WOD or first digit of net number in AJ mode.

Frequency Manually selects unit digit of frequency (0 through 9) in MHz in normal mode, third digit of the
selector 3 WOD or second digit of net number in AJ mode.

Frequency Manually selects tenths digit of frequency (0 through 9) in MHz in normal mode, fourth digit of
selector 4 the WOD or third digit of net number in AJ mode.

Frequency Manually selects hundredths and thousandths digits of frequency (00, 25, 50 or 75) in MHz
selector 5 and the fifth and sixth digits of the WOD.

Preset channel Selects and stores one of 20 preset channels in normal mode or the WOD in AJ mode.
selector

CHAN indicator Indicates selected preset channel. Indicator is blanked when radio is in MANUAL or GUARD
mode.

Function selector Selects method of frequency selection.


switch

MANUAL Any of 7,000 frequencies can be manually selected using the five frequency selectors.

PRESET A frequency is selected using the preset channel selector switch for selecting any one of 20
preset channels as indicated on the CHAN indicator.

GUARD The main receiver and transmitter are automatically tuned to the guard frequency and the
guard receiver is turned off. Any manually set or preset frequency is blocked out.

SQUELCH ON-OFF Turns squelch of main receiver on or off.


switch

3-14
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-4. RT-1167C/ARC-164(V) Controls and Functions – continued

Control Function

VOL control Adjust volume.

TONE button Momentary switch. When pressed, causes 1,020 Hz tone to be transmitted on radio
operating frequency. Transmits TOD followed by a 1,020 Hz tone and used with A-3-2-T
switch for emergency clock start in AJ mode.

Mode selector Selects operating mode.


switch

OFF Turns power off.

MAIN Enables main transceiver.

BOTH Enables main transceiver and guard receiver.

ADF Not used.

PRESET switch Used to load the 20 preset channels in normal mode or WOD in AJ mode. Stores selected
data in specified preset channels.

NB-WB switch Selects wideband or narrowband selectivity of main receiver.

MN-SQ (main Sets the squelch level of the main transceiver


squelch) adjust

GD-SQ (guard Sets the squelch level of the guard receiver.


squelch) adjust

3.7.3 Modes of Operation. The radio set has the fol- successful communication. Radios must use the word-of-
lowing modes of operation: day (WOD), be time-synchronized with each other with a
time-of-day (TOD), and share a common net.
a. MAIN mode: Two-way voice communication.
(1) WOD. Common frequencies, hopping pat-
b. BOTH mode: Allows using the main transceiver tern, and rate are determined by the operator entered
with constant monitoring of the guard receiver. WOD. The WOD is a secret, tactical, multi-digit code that
changes daily, and is available worldwide to all HQ us-
c. GUARD mode: Allows transmission and recep- ers.
tion on guard frequency.
The WOD programs the radio with the frequency hopping
d. Normal Mode: Single frequency used. pattern and rate. The hundredths/thousandths digits in the
channel 20 WOD element program the frequency hop rate
e. HQ mode: The HQ mode of operation provides a with .00 being the slowest and .75 being the fastest. WOD
jam resistant capability by means of a frequency hopping elements vary in number and are entered by using one or
technique that changes frequency many times per sec- more of the six preset channels 20 through 15. Channels
ond. Automatic frequency changing in an apparently ran- containing WOD elements cannot be used in the normal
dom manner provides the jam resistance of the radio. The preset function. Transmissions can be made in WOD
HQ radios permit communication in radio-jamming envi- channels, but they will not be on the frequency stored in
ronments. Three elements are required for uninterrupted, the preset channel memory.

3-15
TM 1-1520-238-10

The WOD is initially entered into the preset memory and If no TOD is available from another HQ radio, an emer-
then transferred to volatile memory. After transfer, if power gency start of the TOD clock can be performed using the
is lost or if channel 20 is selected when the function switch T position of the A-3-2-T switch and the TONE button.
is set to PRESET, it will be necessary to perform another Emergency startup of the TOD clock generates an arbi-
transfer from the preset memory to volatile memory. Start trary TOD that must be transferred to other radios using
with channel 20 and set to progressively lower channels the same net. Operators using the emergency startup
until a double beep is heard. method will not be able to communicate in the AJ mode
with anyone that has not received this arbitrary TOD. The
The radio will not function in the AJ mode if a WOD is not net should update to UTC time as soon as possible so ev-
in volatile memory. If the AJ mode is selected without en- eryone entering or leaving the net will not have to retime
tering a WOD into the volatile memory, a steady warning their radios.
tone will be heard in the headset.

(2) TOD. Time synchronization is provided by a The TOD can be transferred in both normal and AJ mode
clock inside the radio. The internal clock is turned off when by momentarily pressing the TONE button with the
the radio is turned off. A-3-2-T switch set to T. A TOD transmission allows a time
update if one radio has drifted out of synchronization.
A TOD signal must be received to reset the radio’s internal
clock when the radio is turned on. This signal may be pro-
vided by another HQ radio or by an external time distribu-
tion system. Improper synchronization will prohibit proper (3) Common Net Numbers. In the AJ mode, a
communication. Reception of garbled communications in communications channel is defined by a net number
the AJ mode indicates the receiving radio and transmitting instead of a signal frequency as in the normal mode.
radio are not in synchronization. In a multiple radio net,
the radio receiving all transmissions garbled is the radio
that is out of synchronization.
After WOD and TOD are entered, any valid AJ net number
can be selected by using the frequency selector switches.
TOD reception can be performed in both normal and AJ The net number programs the entry point in the WOD fre-
modes. The radio automatically accepts the first TOD quency hopping pattern, allowing for multiple radio net op-
message after the radio is turned on and the WOD is eration using a common WOD and TOD.
transferred to volatile memory. Subsequent messages are
ignored unless the T position is selected by the A-3-2-T
switch. The radio may be resynchronized by setting the
radio to the TOD transmission frequency, setting the f. Anti-Jamming Mode Operation. The A position
A-3-2-T switch to T, and requesting another person in the of the A-3-2-T switch overrides the hundreds digit in both
common net to transmit the TOD. The radio then accepts manual and preset modes. The A cannot be inserted into
the next TOD update, provided the TOD update arrives the preset channel memory. It will be displayed as a 3 on
within one minute of selecting the T position on the the frequency indicator, and accepted as a 3 if inserted in
A-3-2-T switch. a preset channel. If the next three digits of a frequency in
a preset channel are the same as the desired net number,
TOD is normally received by the main or guard receiver the preset channel can be used in the AJ mode.
via a prearranged frequency from another HQ radio which
has the desired time. When the radio receives the TOD
from an external timing source, it updates/synchronizes
the radio’s internal clock with the timing source. This al- The radio will function in the AJ mode when a WOD and
lows all radios in synchronization with the source and one TOD are programmed into the radio, A is set on the
another to frequency hop simultaneously for uninterrupted A-3-2-T switch, and MANUAL is selected on the function
communication. Any arbitrary time may be used, but oper- switch with an appropriate net number in the three fre-
ators are encouraged to obtain and use Universal Time quency digits following the A. If the function switch is set
Coordinated (UTC) time. The use of UTC time will allow to BOTH and the AJ mode is selected, any transmission
operators to switch from one HQ radio net to another with- on the guard channel takes precedence over the AJ
out retiming their radios to arbitrary times (TODs). mode.

3-16
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.7.4 Warning Tones. 3.7.7 Secure Communication. The HQ radio has a se-
cure (cipher) communication capability. In either the nor-
mal or AJ mode, the radio can perform cipher mode op-
a. A steady warning tone will be heard in the headset
eration. The effectiveness of communications in the AJ
when the AJ mode is selected and TOD, or a valid WOD,
cipher mode depends on the frequency hop rate. It is rec-
has not been entered.
ommended that the slowest hop rate (channel 20 WOD
set at 00) be used during AJ cipher mode operation.
b. A pulsating warning tone will be heard in the head-
3.7.8 Normal Mode Operating Procedures.
set when an invalid operating net is selected.
a. Loading Preset Channels.
3.7.5 Conference Capability. 1. Mode selector switch – MAIN or BOTH.
2. Frequency selectors – Select frequency to be
NOTE set in memory.
3. Function selector switch – PRESET.
Conference communication is not possible NOTE
when operating in the secure voice mode.
For HQ radios, do not select channel 20.
In the AJ mode, the radio can receive and process two si- 4. Preset channel selector – Set to channel to be
multaneous transmissions on the same net. This confer- loaded.
ence capability is available by selecting 00, 50, or 75 with
frequency selector 5 and then operating in the AJ mode. 5. Open the switching unit cover.
Conferencing is not possible when the net number ends in
25. 6. PRESET button – Press. The frequency is now
loaded into memory.
In a conference net, the second transmitting radio will au- 7. Repeat steps 2, 3, 4 and 6 to complete preset-
tomatically shift its transmission frequency by 25 kHz ting channels.
when it monitors a transmission on the primary net fre-
quency. The wide band receiver will read both transmis- 8. Close and latch switching unit cover.
sions without the interference normally associated with b. Transmit/Receive (MAIN) Operating Proce-
two radios transmitting on the same frequency simulta- dures.
neously. Three simultaneous transmission will result in
garbled reception. 1. Mode selector switch – MAIN.

3.7.6 Guard Operation. 2. Function selector switch – MANUAL.

NOTE 3. To manually select a frequency, set the five MHz


selector switches until desired frequency is dis-
played in indicator windows.
If the guard frequency is being jammed with
the mode selector switch in the BOTH posi- 4. To select a preset channel, rotate preset chan-
tion and the radio in the AJ or normal mode, nel selector until desired channel is displayed in
set the mode selector switch to MAIN. CHAN indicator window.

The guard receiver is not affected by AJ mode operation. c. Transmit/Receive/Guard Monitor Operating
The guard frequency may be monitored regardless of Procedures.
mode as long as the mode selector switch is set to BOTH.
1. Mode selector switch – BOTH.
The BOTH position turns on the main transceiver and
guard receiver. The guard receiver will remain tuned to NOTE
243.000 MHz regardless of manual or preset frequencies
selected. When the function selector switch is set to If reception on the selected frequency inter-
GUARD, the AJ mode is removed, the guard receiver is feres with guard frequency reception, de-
turned off and the main transceiver is set at 243.00 MHz, tune the radio set by selecting an open fre-
making it possible to transmit and receive on the guard quency or set function selector switch to
frequency. GUARD.

Change 2 3-17
TM 1-1520-238-10

2. Select the desired manual frequency or preset NOTE


channel.
The WOD elements are entered into
memory through channels 20 through 15.
d. 1,020 Hz Tone Signal Transmission (MAIN) Pro-
The WOD varies in length and will require
cedures.
from one to six of these channels.
NOTE
7. Preset channel selector – Next lower channel.
The tone-modulated signal may be used to
check out the radio receiver. 8. Repeat steps 4, 6, and 7 until all elements of the
WOD are loaded into preset memory.
1. Mode selector switch – MAIN.
9. Close and latch the switching unit cover.
2. Select a desired frequency for tone signal trans-
mission, either manually or with the preset chan- NOTE
nel selector.
A single beep indicates that the WOD in
channel 20 was entered into preset memory
3. TONE button – Press to transmit the 1,020 Hz
and that an additional WOD element is in
signal.
the next lowest preset channel.
3.7.9 HQ Mode (RT-1167C Only) Operating Proce- 10. Preset channel selector – Set to channel 20. A
dures. single beep is heard.
NOTE
a. Activation of HQ Mode.
The double beep heard at the last channel
The HQ mode can be activated in one of two ways: signifies that the WOD elements have been
transferred to volatile memory.
1. Function selector switch – MANUAL.
A-3-2-T switch – A. 11. Preset channel selector – Set to progressively
lower channels. A single beep is heard at each
2. Function selector switch – PRESET. Preset channel until the last channel; a double beep is
channel selector – Channel 20. heard at the last channel.

b. Entering the WOD. 3.7.10 HQ Emergency Startup of TOD clock.


NOTE NOTE
The WOD is normally entered before flight This method of providing TOD is used when
but can be entered in flight. there is no TOD available from another HQ
radio or external source. When using this
1. Mode selector switch – MAIN.
method of synchronization, the flight com-
mander or lead helicopter should emergen-
2. Function selector switch – PRESET.
cy start his TOD clock. The lead helicopter
NOTE then will transfer this TOD to other helicop-
ters in flight. A valid TOD signal must be
Channels containing WOD elements cannot
used by all helicopters before effective AJ
be used in the normal preset function.
communications can be achieved.
Transmission can be made on WOD chan-
nels, but they will not be on the frequency 1. Function selector switch – MANUAL or PRE-
stored in the channel memory. SET, as desired.
3. Preset channel selector – Channel 20.
NOTE
4. Frequency selector 1 – Set first WOD element.
To preclude an inadvertent transmission of a
new time, release the TONE button prior to
5. Open switching unit cover.
releasing the A-3-2-T switch.
6. PRESET button – Press. 2. A-3-2-T switch – T and hold.

3-18
TM 1-1520-238-10

3. TONE button – Press momentarily. 4. Listen for net control helicopter state STANDBY
FOR TIME.
4. A-3-2-T switch – Release.
5. A-3-2-T switch – Momentarily to T, then back to
5. Return to designated frequency or channel. A. Listen for momentary two-tone signal fol-
lowed by a single tone.
a. Transmitting TOD from Net Control Helicopter.
c. Entering Net Number.
NOTE
TOD transmission and reception is normally NOTE
performed before flight, but it can be per-
formed in flight. Setting the A-3-2-T switch to A overrides
the hundredths digit in both manual and pre-
1. Mode selector switch – MAIN or BOTH, as de- set functions, puts the radio in AJ mode and
sired. programs the radio to use the net number in
the three digits following the A.
2. Function selector switch – MANUAL or PRE-
1. Function selector switch – MANUAL or PRE-
SET as desired.
SET, as desired.
3. Frequency selectors – Select predesignated fre-
quency. 2. Frequency selectors – Set second, third and
fourth switches to the desired net number.
or
Preset channel selector – Set to predesignated or
channel.
Preset channel selector – Set to a preset chan-
4. Call other helicopter(s) to send time. nel containing the desired net number in its sec-
ond, third and fourth digits.
5. TONE button – Press momentarily to send TOD.
Listen for 1,020 Hz tone. 3. A-3-2-T switch – A.

3.7A RADIO SET RT-1518/ARC-164 HAVEQUICK II


b. Receiving TOD.
(HQ II) RADIO
NOTE The HQ II system consists of a modification to AN/
ARC–164 airborne, (UHF), (AM), radio transmitter-receiv-
• After power-up and WOD transfer, the ra- er (transceiver) set providing a frequency hopping or anti–
dio automatically accepts the first TOD jamming capability. Frequency hopping is a technique
message received. where the designated preset frequency being used for
• To receive TOD in normal mode, after communication on a given link is automatically frequen-
setting A-3-2-T switch to T, set the radio cy–hopped many times per second. The purpose of this is
to the frequency being used. to make it difficult for an adversary to jam the link since
they cannot determine which channel is being used. By
1. Mode selector switch – MAIN. the time determination is made as to which frequency is
being used, the communication link has changed to
2. Function selector switch – MANUAL or PRE- another frequency.
SET, as desired.
The frequency–hopping scheme is implemented in the
3. Frequency selectors – Select predesignated fre- equipment by storing or initializing every radio with a Word
quency for reception of TOD. of Day (WOD), Time of Day (TOD), and a net number. The
WOD programs the frequency–hopping rate and frequen-
or cy–hopping pattern. The radio cannot function in the anti–
jamming mode without a valid WOD. Up to six WODs may
Preset channel selector – Set to predesignated be entered at one time. The procedure for storing multiple
channel. WODs is called Multiple

Change 3 3-18.1
TM 1-1520-238-10

Word of Day (MWOD) loading. The TOD provides syn- 3.7A.2 Controls and Functions. Controls for the
chronization necessary for communicating in the anti– RT–1518/ARC-164 are on the front panel of the unit (fig
jamming mode by allowing frequency hopping at the 3-6). The function of each control is described in table 3-4.
same instant in time.
CAUTION
The RT–1518 HQ II radio (fig. 3-6) provides an analog dis-
play (Red Lt) for channel and frequency indicators, and
functions/operates similar to the RT–1167C/ARC–164 ra- The AN/ARC–164 radio must be placed in
dio described in paragraph 3.7 with seven additional fea- the VERIFY/OPERATE mode before oper-
tures. Refer to table 3-4 for radio controls and functions. ating in the Have Quick mode. This will
The additional features are: prevent the radio from locking up and
damaging the equipment.
(1) Verify/Operate mode 3.7A.3 Modes of Operation.
(2) Manual Single WOD Loading a. Verify/Operate.
(3) Multiple WOD Manual Loading
1. Mode Selector switch – MAIN or BOTH
(4) Manual WOD Erase
2. CHAN switch – Set to channel 20.
(5) Operational Date Loading
3. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000 on the fre-
(6) Training/Maintenance Nets quency/status indicator.
(7) Loading/Changing FMT NETS 4. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
The HQ II Expanded Memory Board (EMB) capability is 5. Lift access cover and press PRESET button.
identified on the RT–1518 radio by an EMB sticker which The radio is now in the VERIFY/OPERATE
appears next to the channel indicator display. If no sticker mode.
is displayed, the Multiple Word of Day (MWOD) must be
entered to verify the HQ II radio capability. 6. Function Selector switch – MANUAL or PRE-
SET.
3.7A.1 Antenna. The UHF-AM antenna (fig 3-1) is lo- 7. Select desired frequency or channel.
cated on the bottom center fuselage area and is mounted
directly aft of the doppler fairing. 8. Mode Selector switch – OFF.

PRESET
CHANNEL
SELECTOR
FREQUENCY
SELECTOR 2
FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY SELECTOR 5
SELECTOR 1

SWITCHING UNIT
(BEHIND HINGED COVER)
FUNCTION
SELECTOR
MODE
SWITCH
SELECTOR
SWITCH FREQUENCY FREQUENCY
SELECTOR 3 SELECTOR 4 M01-0361

Figure 3-6. Receiver-Transmitter Radio, RT-1518/ARC-164

3-18.2 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.7A.4 Manual Single Word Of Day (SWOD) Loading. 5. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 16. A single beep
1. Function Selector switch – PRESET. should be heard.

2. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. 6. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 15. A double
beep should be heard.
3. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000 MHz.
3.7A.6A Multiple Word Of Day (MWOD) Loading.
4. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label
cover and push PRESET button. 1. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.
5. Frequency switches – Set to the first WOD seg- 2. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
ment frequency (300.050) of the Training/Main-
3. Frequency switches – Set to 220.025 (MWOD
tenance WOD listed in table 3-5.
LOAD).
Table 3-5. Training/Maintenance WOD and 4. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label
Common Net cover and push PRESET button. Listen for
single beep.
Preset Channel WOD Segment Common Net
20 300.050 300.000 NOTE

19 376.000 300.000 • The radio is in the MWOD load mode.


18 359.100 300.000 • The radio will transmit and receive in the
17 314.300 300.000 VERIFY/OPERATE mode only. The radio
is disabled and will not transmit or receive
16 297.600 300.000 in the M–LOAD, ERASE, or FMT.CHG
15 287.400 300.000 modes.
5. Function Selector switch – MANUAL.
6. Function Selector switch – PRESET. 6. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.
7. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. 7. Frequency switches – Set to the first WOD ele-
8. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label ment.
cover and push PRESET button. 8. TONE button – Press TONE and release. Listen
Repeat steps 5 through 8, setting channels 19 through 15 for a wavering tone. The first WOD element is
in order, substituting Training/Maintenance WOD for exist- now entered.
ing preset channels. After preset channel 15 frequency
Repeat steps 6 thru 8 for presets 19 thru 15, in that order,
has been entered, the WOD must be initialized.
substituting WOD elements for existing preset channels.
3.7A.5 Initializing the Word Of Day (WOD).
9. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 14.
NOTE
NOTE
If power is lost, or if preset channel 20 is se-
lected when the MANUAL–PRESET– • If two or more WODs have the same date
GUARD switch is in the PRESET position, code, the radio recognizes only the latest
the initialize procedure will be required date entered.
again. To use this WOD, a TOD and NET • MWODs must be linked with an associat-
must be entered. ed day–of–month code. This date code
1. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. A single beep element has been added to every opera-
should be heard. tional and training segment in HAVE
QUICK and need only be loaded when
2. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 19. A single beep MWOD is used.
should be heard.
10. Frequency switches – Set to the applicable day
3. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 18. A single beep of the month code. Code format is XAB.XXX,
should be heard. where A and B are the day of the month the
WOD is used. X can represent any value. For
4. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 17. A single beep example, if today were 26 June, then select
should be heard. 226.025 or 326.475.

Change 4 3-18.3
TM 1-1520-238-10

11. TONE button – Press TONE and release. Listen 4. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. Switch mo-
for a double beep. One complete WOD is now mentarily to channel 19 and return to channel
loaded. To load more WODs, repeat steps 5 thru 20. A single beep verifies the MWOD with a
11. matching day of the month code stored in
memory. If a single beep is not heard, the code
3.7A.6B Multiple Word Of Day (MWOD) HaveQuick is not stored in memory. Repeat steps 3 and 4 to
Operations. check other days of the month.
NOTE
The operational date is the current Day of 3.7A.8 MWOD Erase.
Month and must be entered into Channel 1
so the radio can select the proper WOD. 1. CHAN switch – Set to channel 20.
1. Mode Selector switch – MAIN. 2. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
2. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. 3. Frequency switches – Set to 220.050.
3. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
4. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label
4. Frequency switches – Set to 220.025 MHz cover and push PRESET button.
(MWOD LOAD).
5. Function Selector switch – MANUAL.
5. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label
cover and push PRESET button. Listen for 6. TONE button– Press TONE and release.
single beep. MWODs should now be erased.
6. Function Selector switch – MANUAL. 7. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
7. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 01. 8. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000.
8. Frequency switches – Set to the applicable Day 9. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label
of Month code. Code format is XAB.XXX, where cover and push PRESET button. Close cover.
A and B are the day of the month the WOD is The radio is now in the Verify/Operate mode/
used.
9. TONE button – Press TONE and release. Listen 3.7A.9 TOD Send.
for a wavering tone.
1. Function Selector switch – PRESET or MANU-
10. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
AL. Rotate frequency switches or CHAN switch
11. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. to a predesignated frequency for TOD transmis-
12. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000 MHz sion.
(Verify/Operate). 2. TONE BUTTON – Press TONE button for two
13. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label seconds and release.
cover and push PRESET button. Listen for
3. Loading Operational Date.
single beep. Radio is now ready to receive TOD
either via GPS or conventional means. 4. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.
14. HQ SINC button – Press and hold for 3 seconds. 5. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
15. Function Selector switch – MANUAL. 6. Frequency switches – Set to 220.025.
16. Active Net – Select. 7. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label
3.7A.7 Verifying MWOD is Loaded. cover and push PRESET button.
8. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 01.
1. STATUS – Ensure radio is in the Verify/Operate
mode. 9. Frequency switches – Set to the operational
date in the format of XAB.XXX, where A and B
2. Function Selector switch – MANUAL. are the day of the month of the Date Tag. X can
be any value.
3. Frequency switches – Set to the day of the 10. TONE button – Press TONE and release. Listen
month to be verified. Code format is XAB.XXX, for a wavering tone.
where A and B are the day of the month of the
Date Tag associated with the WOD to check. 11. Function Selector switch – PRESET.

3-18.4 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

12. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. are available. As shown below, a net number ending in 00
selects a training net.
13. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000.
(1). A00.000
14. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label (2). A00.100
cover and push PRESET button. Listen for a
single beep. (3). A00.200
(4). A00.300
3.7A.10 Net Numbers.The net number is used in the
anti–jamming mode in the same fashion as a radio fre- (5). A00.400
quency in the normal mode of operation. The net number
enables multiple users to operate simultaneously on a c. Frequency Managed Training Nets (FMT–NET).
non–interfering basis with other users while sharing a To expand the number of training nets available to HAVE
common WOD and TOD. There are three nets available to QUICK II users, 16 frequencies (Nets) have been loaded
the operator: into the radio and are permanently stored in the radio
memory. To use the FMT nets, a training WOD must be
entered first. The FMT Nets are numbered A00.025
(1) Frequency Managed A–Nets (FMA–NET). through A01.525. All six characters must be selected and
the last two digits must be 25. Selection of an FMT NET
(2) Training Nets (T–NET). greater than A01.525 or ending in 50 or 75 will result in a
pulsating tone.
(3) Frequency Managed Training Nets (FMT
NETS). d. Loading or Changing FMT NETS.

a. Frequency Managed A–Nets (FMA–NET). The 1. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.
FMA NET provides four frequency tables or hopsets.
2. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
There are 1000 possible nets for each hopset. The fre-
quency table to be used is determined by the geographi-
3. Frequency switches – Set to 220.075.
cal area of operation. One large hopset has been coordi-
nated for use in NATO–Europe and another large hopset
4. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label
for employment in non–NATO countries. The net number
cover and push PRESET button. Listen for a
begins with an ”A” and is followed by three digits between
single beep.
000 to 999. The last two digits designate the frequency
table to be used. Nets are selected IAW ABB.BCC where:
5. Function Selector switch – MANUAL.

(1). A = A (Active) 6. CHAN switch – Set to appropriate memory loca-


tion (Channels 20 to 5).
(2). BB.B = Desired Net 7. Frequency switches – Set to select first frequen-
cy.
(3). CC = 00 for basic HAVE QUICK A & B NETS.
= 25 for NATO–Europe 8. TONE button – Press TONE and release.
= 50 for non–NATO Europe
= 75 for future use. Repeat steps 6 through 8 until all frequencies are loaded.

9. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000 MHz when


b. Training Nets (T–NETS). Each Major Command is all frequencies have been loaded.
assigned a training WOD for daily training and radio main-
tenance. Training WODs may be loaded using a single 10. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.
WOD or MWOD methods. All training WODs are initial-
ized with 300.0XX in channel 20. XX sets the frequency 11. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
hop rate for the WOD in a SWOD only. In this training
mode, the radio hops between the five frequencies loaded 12. PRESET button – Lift preset frequency label
in with the WOD (locations 19 to 15) and five training nets cover and push PRESET button.

Change 3 3-18.5
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.7B RADIO SET RT-1518C/ARC-164 HAVEQUICK II heard. If the frequency/status indicator displays a fre-
(HQ II) RADIO quency after power up, the radio is in the VERIFY/OPER-
ATE mode. Proceed to step 5. If M–LOAD, FMT.CHG or
The RT–1518C/ARC–164 HQ II radio provides a Liquid ERASE is displayed, proceed as follows:
Crystal Display (LCD) (Green Lt) for channel, frequency
indicators, and operator prompts; a zeroize switch fea- 1. CHAN switch – Set to channel 20.
ture; and an electronic Fill Port data loading capability.
2. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000 on the
frequency/status indicator.
3.7B.1 Antenna. The UHF-AM antenna (fig 3-1) is lo-
cated on the bottom center fuselage area and is mounted 3. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
directly aft of the doppler fairing.
4. Lift access cover and press LOAD button. The
3.7B.2 Controls and Functions. Controls for the radio is now in the VERIFY/OPERATE mode.
RT–1518C/ARC-164 are on the front panel of the unit (fig
3-7). The function of each control is described in table 3-6. 5. Function Selector switch – MNL or PRESET.

6. Select desired frequency or channel.


CAUTION 7. Mode Selector switch – OFF.

b. Normal Operation. The radio set has the follow-


The AN/ARC–164 radio must be placed in ing modes of operation:
the VERIFY/OPERATE mode before oper-
(1) MAIN mode: Two-way voice communication.
ating in the Have Quick mode. This will
prevent the radio from locking up and (2) BOTH mode: Allows using the main transceiv-
damaging the equipment. er with constant monitoring of the guard receiv-
er.
3.7B.3 Modes of Operation.
(3) GUARD (GRD) mode: Allows transmission
and reception on guard frequency.
a. Power Up. All segments of both displays light up
momentarily on power up and a series of beeps may be (4) Manual (MNL) Mode: Single frequency used.

CHAN

PRESET CHANNEL ZERO SWITCH


FREQUENCY/ SELECTOR SWITCH
STATUS
INDICATOR
STATUS BUTTON

TEST DISPLAY FILL PORT


SWITCH ACCESS
FREQUENCY LOAD
SWITCHES GUARD SQUELCH
MODE MANUAL
SELECTOR FUNCTION SQUELCH
SWITCH SELECTOR
SWITCH

T-TONE VOLUME CONTROL SQUELCH ON/OFF


SWITCH KNOB M01-0362

Figure 3-7. Receiver-Transmitter Radio, RT-1518C/ARC-164

3-18.6 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-6. RT-1518C/ARC-164 Controls and Functions

Control Function

Frequency/Status Displays individual frequency switch settings or any of the following operator prompts:
Indicator
VER/OP – indicates radio is in normal operating mode.
M–LOAD –indicates radio is in MWOD load mode.
ERASE – indicates radio is in MWOD erase mode.
FMT.CHG – radio is in Frequency Management Training Change mode.
FILL – indicates a keyfill device is connected to the FILL port.
WOD OK – indicates valid WOD was received from keyfill device.
BAD – indicates bad WOD or parity was received from keyfill device.
CHAN Indicator Channel display indicator
Preset Channel Selects one of 20 preset channels.
Selector Switch
STATUS Switch When depressed, an alternate display is shown on the frequency/status indicator for five
seconds.
Frequency Switches Rotary switches that select the corresponding hundreds, tens, units, tenths, and thousandths
digits for the desired frequency in the normal mode, and the desired WOD elements or net
number in the anti–jamming mode. The A position puts the radio in to the anti–jamming
frequency–hopping mode of operation when selected.
Function Selector Three position switch (MNL, PRESET, GRD) which selects the main transmitter and receiver
Switch frequency. In Manual (MNL) frequency is manually selected using five rotary switches. The
PRESET position allows selection of one of twenty preset frequencies using the rotary
channel selector switch. The GRD position tunes the receiver and transmitter to emergency
frequency 243.000MHz.
SQUELCH ON/OFF Enables and disables squelch of the main receiver.
VOL Control Knob Rotary knob used to set receiver volume. Does not control transmitter output.
T – TONE Switch Three position toggle switch with two position being spring loaded; the middle position being
off. When TONE is selected, a tone is transmitted on the selected frequency. When placed in
the T position, reception of the TOD is enabled for one minute.
Mode Selector In MAIN the main receiver and transmitter are operational. In BOTH, the main receiver and
Switch transmitter and guard receiver are operational. ADF is not used. OFF turns the radio off.
TEST DISPLAY Lights all segments of the frequency status and channel indicators when depressed. Also
Switch used with the T–TONE switch for emergency clock start.
Manual Squelch Adjusts the threshold level of squelch for the main receiver.
(MN SQ)
ZERO Switch Erases all MWOD elements when rotated to ZERO position.
FILL Port Access FILL port access for loading MWOD segments.
Guard Squelch (GD Adjusts the threshold level of squelch for the guard receiver.
SQ)
LOAD Button Stores selected frequency in preset channels 1 through 20 in normal mode. In ECCM mode,
channel 20 is reserved for entry of WODs.

Change 3 3-18.7
TM 1-1520-238-10

c. HaveQuick (HQ) Operation. The HQ mode of op- d. HaveQuick II Command Codes. There are four
eration provides a jam resistant capability by means of a separate Command Code functions associated with load-
frequency hopping technique that changes frequency ing the HaveQuick II radio. The operator enters a six digit
many times per second. Automatic frequency changing in command code into preset 20 to begin the unique initiali-
an apparently random manner provides the jam resist- zation procedure. The Command Codes, their function
ance of the radio. The HQ radios permit communication in and Frequency/Status indication are shown in table 3-7.
radio-jamming environments. Three elements are re-
quired for uninterrupted, successful communication. Ra- Table 3-7. HAVEQUICK II Command Codes
dios must use the word-of-day (WOD), be time-synchro-
nized with each other with a time-of-day (TOD), and share Command Code Function Frequency/
a common net. Status Indication
220.000 Verify/Operate VER/OP
(1) Word Of Day (WOD). The WOD programs the 220.025 MWOD Load M–LOAD
frequency hopping rate and frequency hopping 220.050 MWOD Erase ERASE
pattern. The radio cannot function in the anti–
220.075 FMT.CHG Fre- FMT.CHG
jamming mode without a valid WOD. The WOD quency
does not take up preset memory, but the WOD
memory is accessed through preset locations 3.7B.4 Manual Single Word Of Day (SWOD) Loading.
20 through 15. The seventh location, accessed
through channel 14, stores the Day of the Month NOTE
information. This date code works in conjunction
with the TOD and specifies the day a specific The below procedures step through enter-
WOD is to be utilized when Multiple Word of Day ing the Training/Maintenance WOD for per-
(MWOD) are entered. At midnight (GMT) transi- forming checks and maintenance. An actual
tions, the radio automatically generates a new WOD may be entered as a substitute in the
below steps.
frequency hopping pattern based on the new
days WOD. Up to six WODs may be entered at 1. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
one time, allowing for multiple day use of the ra- 2. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.
dio set without installing another WOD.
3. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000 MHz.
(2) Time Of Day (TOD). Time synchronization is 4. LOAD button – Lift preset frequency label cover
necessary for communicating in the anti–jam- and push LOAD button. To check that radio is in
ming mode to allow frequency hopping at the the VER/OP mode, press the STATUS button
same instant in time. TOD information is ob- and the frequency/status LCD should display
tained from the UHF radios that have been mod- VER/OP for five seconds.
ified to receive the Universal Time Coordinated
5. Frequency switches – Set to the first WOD seg-
(UTC) signal. UTC is a worldwide standard and
ment frequency (300.050) of the Training/Main-
is available from a variety of sources, such as
tenance WOD listed in table 3-8.
the Command Post, Global Positioning System
(GPS), and AWACS. A valid TOD signal will be
heard as a two–beat frequency tone. Once all Table 3-8. Training/Maintenance WOD and
radios are operating on UTC, uninterrupted Common Net
voice communications are insured. The radio
automatically accepts the first TOD signal after Preset Channel WOD Segment Common Net
power up. The first reception must occur in the 20 300.050 300.000
normal mode. Updates of the TOD may be per-
19 376.000 300.000
formed in the anti–jamming or normal mode.
Subsequent TOD transmissions are ignored un- 18 359.100 300.000
less the operator enables the radio to receive a 17 314.300 300.000
new TOD. If communications during anti–jam-
16 297.600 300.000
ming operations become slightly garbled it is an
indication of drift in TOD synchronization... 15 287.400 300.000

3-18.8 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

6. Function Selector switch – PRESET. 4. LOAD button – Lift preset frequency label cover
and push LOAD button. Listen for single beep.
7. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.
NOTE
8. LOAD button – Lift preset frequency label cover
and push LOAD button. • If radio is now in the MWOD load mode.
M–LOAD will be displayed on the fre-
Repeat steps 5 through 8, setting channels 19 through 15 quency/status indicator for five seconds
in order, substituting Training/Maintenance WOD for exist- by pressing the STATUS switch.
ing preset channels. After preset channel 15 frequency
has been entered, the WOD must be initialized. • The radio will transmit and receive in the
VERIFY/OPERATE mode only. The radio
is disabled and will not transmit or receive
3.7B.5 Initializing the Word Of Day (WOD).
in the M–LOAD, ERASE, or FMT.CHG
modes.
NOTE
5. Function Selector switch – MNL.
If power is lost, or if preset channel 20 is se- 6. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.
lected when the MANUAL–PRESET– 7. Frequency switches – Set to the first WOD ele-
GUARD switch is in the PRESET position, ment.
the initialize procedure will be required
8. T–TONE switch – Toggle to TONE and release.
again. To use this WOD, a TOD and NET
Listen for a wavering tone. The first WOD ele-
must be entered.
ment is now entered.
1. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. A single beep
should be heard. Repeat steps 5 thru 8 for presets 19 thru 15, in that order,
substituting WOD elements for existing preset channels.
2. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 19. A single beep
should be heard. 9. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 14.

3. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 18. A single beep NOTE


should be heard.
• If two or more WODs have the same date
4. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 17. A single beep code, the radio recognizes only the latest
should be heard. date entered.

NOTE • MWODs must be linked with an associat-


ed day–of–month code. This date code
element has been added to every opera-
If TOD is being automatically beaconed
tional and training segment in HAVE
from another station, the first TOD message
QUICK and need only be loaded when
received within one minute of selected T
MWOD is used.
position will be accepted.
10. Frequency switches – Set to the applicable day
5. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 16. A single beep of the month code. Code format is XAB.XXX,
should be heard. where A and B are the day of the month the
6. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 15. A double WOD is used. X can represent any value. For
beep should be heard. example, if today were 26 June, then select
226.025 or 326.475.
7. Function Selector switch – MNL. This will pre-
11. T–TONE switch – Toggle to TONE and release.
vent accidental erasure of the initialized WOD.
Listen for a double beep. One complete WOD is
3.7B.6 Multiple Word Of Day (MWOD) Loading. now loaded. To load more WODs, repeat steps 5
thru 11.
1. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. NOTE
2. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
The operational date is the current Day of
3. Frequency switches – Set to 220.025 (MWOD Month and must be entered into Channel 1
LOAD). so the radio can select the proper WOD.

Change 4 3-18.9
TM 1-1520-238-10

12. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 01. 9. LOAD button –Press for two seconds. Listen for
a series of beeps and confirm frequency/status
13. Frequency switches – Set to the current Day of indicator displays WOD OK. If frequency/status
Month code. Code format is XAB.XXX, where A indicator displays BAD, the KYK–13 must be re-
and B are the day of the month the WOD is loaded prior to repeating steps 4 through 9 .
used.
NOTE
14. T–TONE switch – Toggle to TONE and release.
Listen for a wavering tone.
The CHAN indicator steps down from
15. Function Selector switch – PRESET. memory location 20 to 14, then displays 01
while the KYK–13 is connected and turned
16. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. on. This allows entry of the operational date
information if required.
17. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000 MHz
(Verify/Operate). 10. KYK–13 – Set to next applicable channel and re-
peat step 9. Observe that WOD OK is displayed
18. LOAD button – Lift preset frequency label cover on the frequency/status indicator after each
and push LOAD button. Listen for single beep. WOD is loaded.
Radio is now ready to receive TOD and then op-
erate in the active mode. NOTE

3.7B.7 MWOD Loading using KYK–13 Keyfill Device If operational date is desired, proceed to
step 11; if not desired, proceed to step 12.
The KYK–13 has six channels and can hold up to six
11. STATUS button – Depress, if operational date
WODs. MWOD keying is supplied through cryptologic
entry is desired. Set date on frequency switches
sources. Load the radio as follows:
in XAB.XXX format. Toggle T–TONE switch to
1. STATUS button – Press; ensure the frequency/ TONE position and release.
status LCD displays VER/OP.
12. KYK–13 – Set mode switch to OFF/CHECK and
remove KYK–13.
2. Function Selector switch –MNL.
13. Preset Frequency Label Cover – Close.
3. Preset Frequency Label Cover – Lift to reveal
FILL Port Access connector. The radio will return to its’ previous mode prior to loading
and both displays will return to the previous settings.

NOTE 3.7B.8 Verifying MWOD is Loaded.

The fill cable for the KYK–13 may be used 1. STATUS button – Press; ensure the frequency/
while loading MWOD information into the ra- status LCD displays VER/OP.
dio, but is not required.
2. Function Selector switch – Set to MNL.
4. KYK–13 – Set mode switch to OFF/CHECK.
3. Frequency switches – Set to the day of the
month to be verified. Code format is XAB.XXX,
5. KYK–13 –Install on FILL Port Access connector.
where A and B are the day of the month of the
Date Tag associated with the WOD to check.
6. KYK–13 – Set mode switch to ON.
4. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20. Switch mo-
mentarily to channel 19 and return to channel
7. STATUS button – Press; ensure the frequency/
20. A single beep verifies the MWOD with a
status LCD displays FILL.
matching day of the month code stored in
memory. If a single beep is not heard, the code
8. KYK–13 – Set address switch to applicable is not stored in memory. Repeat steps 3 and 4 to
channel ( 1 through 6). check other days of the month.

3-18.10 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.7B.9 MWOD Erase. NOTE

1. CHAN switch – Set to channel 20. If TOD is being automatically beaconed


from another station, the first TOD message
2. Function Selector switch – PRESET. received within one minute of selected T
position will be accepted.
3. Frequency switches – Set to 220.050. a. TOD Send.

4. LOAD button – Lift preset frequency label cover 1. Function Selector switch – PRESET or MNL.
and push LOAD button. Rotate frequency switches or CHAN switch to a
predesignated frequency for TOD transmission.
5. Function Selector switch – MNL.
2. T–TONE switch – Toggle to TONE position for
6. T–TONE switch – Toggle to TONE and release. two seconds and release.
MWODs should now be erased.
3. Loading Operational Date.
7. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
4. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.
8. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000.
5. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
9. LOAD button – Lift preset frequency label cover
6. Frequency switches – Set to 220.025.
and push LOAD button. Close cover. The radio
is now in the Verify/Operate mode/
7. LOAD button – Lift preset frequency label cover
and push LOAD button.
3.7B.10 Alternate MWOD Erase.
8. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 01.
1. Preset Frequency Label Cover – Open to reveal
ZERO switch. 9. Frequency switches – Set to the operational
date in the format of XAB.XXX, where A and B
2. ZERO switch – Rotate counterclockwise, then are the day of the month of the Date Tag. X can
return to normal position. ERASE should be dis- be any value.
played on the frequency/status indicator. All
MWODs are now erased. 10. T–TONE switch – Toggle to TONE and release.
Listen for a wavering tone.
3.7B.11 Receiving Time of Day (TOD) and TOD Up-
date / . 11. Function Selector switch – PRESET.

NOTE 12. CHAN switch – Set to Channel 20.

A steady warning tone will be heard when 13. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000.
the anti–jamming mode is selected and the
TOD or a valid WOD has not been entered. 14. LOAD button – Lift preset frequency label cover
A pulsating tone will be heard if an invalid and push LOAD button. Listen for a single beep.
net is selected.
b. Clock Start.
1. Function Selector switch – PRESET or MNL.
Press TEST DISPLAY switch while simultaneously press-
2. T–TONE switch – Toggle to T and release. ing the T–TONE switch to the T position. To check if TOD
is loaded, press the T–TONE switch to the TONE position
3. TOD – Request from another station. for two seconds; two tones should be heard.

Change 4 3-18.11
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.7B.12 Loading GPS Time with Single Word of Day 4. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
(WOD) .
5. Frequency switches – Set to 220.025 (MWOD
NOTE LOAD).

The EGI must be operational to use GPS 6. PRESET button – lift preset frequency label cov-
time via the EGI. The time on CDU line 1 of er and push PRESET button. Listen for single
the ADMIN page cannot have an arrow by it. beep.
The absence of the arrow indicates that it is
GPS time. 7. Function Selector switch – Manual.
The following procedure is used for loading GPS time 8. CHAN switch – Set to 01.
from the EGI to the Havequick radio with a single Word of
Day (WOD). 9. Frequency switches – Set to applicable day of
month code. Code format is XAB.XXX, where A
1. Insert Word of Day. and B are the day of the month the WOD is
used. X can represent any value. For example, if
2. Function Selector switch – PRESET. today is 26 June, enter X26.XXX.

3. Preset Channel Selector – 20. A single beep 10. TONE button – Press TONE and release. Listen
should be heard. for a wavering tone.

4. Preset Channel Selector – 19 - 15. A single 11. Function Selector switch – PRESET.
beep should be heard 19 -16 and double beep at
15. 12. CHAN switch – Set to 20.

5. HQ SYNC VAB (on Data page) – Depress and 13. Frequency switches – Set to 220.000 (Verify/
release. Operate).

6. Function Selector switch – Manual. 14. PRESET button – lift preset frequency label cov-
er and push PRESET button. Listen for single
7. Frequency Selector(s) – A000.0, A000.1, beep. Radio is now ready to receive TOD either
A000.2, A000.3, OR A000.4. via GPS or conventional means.

3.7B.13 Loading GPS Time with Multiple Word of Day 15. HQ SYNC VAB (on Data page) – Depress and
(MWOD) . release.

The following procedure is used for loading GPS time 16. Function Selector switch – Manual.
from the EGI to the Havequick radio with a multiple word
of Day (MWOD). 17. Active Net – Select.

1. Insert Word of Day. The TONE button can be pressed to verify radio has ac-
cepted GPS time, but time will be transmitted on tuned fre-
2. Mode Selector switch – MAIN. quency. If the radio does not accept GPS time, verify the
EGI is operational and the time on the ADMIN page is
3. CHAN switch – Set to 20. GPS time (i.e. no arrow by the time).

3-18.12 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.7B.14 Net Numbers. The net number is used in the (3). A00.200
anti–jamming mode in the same fashion as a radio fre-
quency in the normal mode of operation. The net number (4). A00.300
enables multiple users to operate simultaneously on a
(5). A00.400
non–interfering basis with other users while sharing a
common WOD and TOD. There are three nets available to c. Frequency Managed Training Nets (FMT–NET).
the operator: To expand the number of training nets available to Have
Quick users, 16 nets are available. To use the FMT nets,
(1). Frequency Managed A–Nets (FMA–NET).
16 frequencies have been loaded into the radio and are
(2). Training Nets (T–NET). permanently stored in the radio memory. To use the FMT
nets, a training WOD must be entered first. The FMT Nets
(3). Frequency Managed Training Nets (FMT are numbered A00.025 through A01.525. All six charac-
NETS). ters must be selected and the last two digits must be 25.
Selection of an FMT NET greater than A01.525 or ending
a. Frequency Managed A–Nets (FMA–NET). The in50 0r 75 will result in a pulsating tone.
FMA NET provides four frequency tables or hopsets.
There are 1000 possible nets for each hopset. The fre-
3.7B.15 Loading or Changing FMT NETS.
quency table to be used is determined by the geographi-
cal area of operation. One large hopset has been coordi-
nated for use in NATO–Europe and another large hopset 1. CHAN Switch – Set to Channel 20.
for employment in non–NATO countries. The net number
begins with an ”A” and is followed by three digits between 2. Function Selector Switch – PRESET.
000 to 999. The last two digits designate the frequency
table to be used. Nets are selected IAW ABB.BCC where: 3. Frequency Switches – Set to 220.075.

(1). A= A (Active) 4. LOAD Button – Lift preset frequency label cover


and push LOAD button. Listen for a single beep.
(2). BB.B= Desired Net
(3). CC = 00 basic HAVE QUICK A & B NETS. 5. Function Selector Switch – MNL.

= 25 for NATO–Europe 6. CHAN Switch – Set to appropriate memory loca-


tion (Channels 20 to 5).
= 50 for non–NATO Europe
7. Frequency Switches – Set to select first frequen-
= 75 for future use. cy.

b. Training Nets (T–NETS). Each Major Command is


8. T–TONE Switch – Toggle to TONE and release.
assigned a training WOD for daily training and radio main-
tenance. Training WODs may be loaded using a single
Repeat steps 6 through 8 until all frequencies are loaded.
WOD or MWOD methods. All training WODs are initial-
ized with 300.0XX in channel 20. XX sets the frequency
hop rate for the WOD in a SWOD only. In this training 9. Frequency Switches – Set to 220.000 MHz
mode, the radio hops between the five frequencies loaded when all frequencies have been loaded.
in with the WOD (locations 19 to 15) and five training nets
are available. As shown below, a net number ending in 00 10. CHAN Switch – Set to Channel 20.
selects a training net.
11. Function Selector Switch – PRESET.
(1). A00.000
12. LOAD Button – Lift preset frequency label cover
(2). A00.100 and push LOAD button.

Change 4 3-19
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.8 VOICE SECURITY SYSTEM TSEC/KY-58. NOTE

The RCU POWER switch must be set to ON


The TSEC/KY-58 (RCU), located in the right console, in- and the KY-28 circuit breaker must be IN be-
terfaces with the AN/ARC-186 and AN/ARC-201 radios to fore AN/ARC-186 or AN/ARC-201 radio
provide secure voice (ciphony) for these radios. The communication (plain or ciphered) is pos-
TSEC/KY-58 receives 28 vdc from the 28 vdc emergency sible.
bus through the KY-28 circuit breaker on the pilot over- 3.8.1 Controls and Functions. Voice security system
head circuit breaker panel. controls that require adjustment by the pilot include those
on the Z-AHQ Power Interface Adapter, TSEC/KY-58 (lo-
cated in the aft avionics bay), and the Z-AHP KY-58 RCU
Two operating modes are available: PLAIN mode for in- (located in the pilot right-hand console). Each of these de-
the-clear voice transmission or reception, and C/RAD 1 vices are shown in figure 3-6. The function of each control
(cipher) mode for secure radio transmission or reception. and indicator is described in tables 3-5 through 3-7.

Table 3-5. Z-AHQ Power Interface Adapter Control and Indicator Functions

Control or Indicator Function

BBV, DPV, BBN, Set according to type of radio being secured. Set to BBV for pilots VHF FM radio.
DPN 4-position
switch

PTT button Clears crypto alarm that occurs upon power up. Alarm can also be cleared by pressing any
(push-to-talk) push-to-talk switch in the pilot compartment.

FILTER IN/OUT Prevents adjacent channel interference when using radios with channel spacing of 25 kHz.
Selector Must be set to IN for pilots AN/ARC-186(V) VHF-FM radio.

REM/LOC Switch Sets the Z-AHQ to the local mode. Switch returns to REM (remote) position upon release,
but equipment remains in local mode until any PTT is keyed.

3-20
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-6. Z-AHP Remote Control Unit Control and Indicator Functions

Control or Indicator Function

ZEROIZE switch Use in an emergency to delete all crypto-net variables (CNVs) from KY-58 registers. Renders
(two-position toggle KY-58 unusable until new variables are loaded.
switch housed under
a spring-loaded
cover)

DELAY switch Not used.

C/RAD 1/PLAIN Set switch to C/RAD 1 (cipher radio 1) to use secure voice. Set switch to PLAIN when
Switch operating radio in the clear.

Switch guard Rotate to the left to prevent C/RAD1/PLAIN switch from accidentally being set to PLAIN.

MODE Switch Set to OP (operate) to use pilots VHF radio in either the Ciphered or Plain mode. Set to LD
(load) when installing (CNV) in the TSEC/KY-58 (TM 11-5810-262-12&P). Set to RV (receive
variable) during manual remote keying (TM 11-5810-262-12&P).

POWER switch Turns KY-58 on and off. Must be on (up) for operation in either plain or cipher mode.

FILL switch Selects desired (CNV).

Table 3-7. TSEC/KY-58 Control and Indicator Functions

Control or Indicator Function

VOLUME control Sets audio level of pilots VHF-FM radio.

MODE switch Set to P (Plain) to operate pilots VHF-FM radio in the clear. Set to C (Cipher) to operate
pilot’s VHF-FM radio in the ciphered (secure speech) mode. Set to LD (load) when installing
(CNVs) in the TSEC/KY-58 (TM 11-5810-262-12&P). Set to RV (receive variable) during
manual remote keying (TM 11-5810-262-12&P).

FILL connector Used to load (CNVs) into the TSEC/KY-58 registers (TM 11-5810-262-12&P).

FILL switch Pull knob and set to Z1-5 to zeroize (delete) (CNVs) in TSEC/ KY-58 registers 1- 5. Set to 1,
2, 3, 4 or 5 to select desired CNV. Pull knob and set to Z-ALL to zeroize (delete) (CNVs) in all
TSEC/ KY-58 registers. Zeroizing all registers renders TSEC/KY-58 unusable.

Power switch Set to OFF to turn off both the TSEC/KY-58 and the pilots VHF-FM radio. Set to ON to
operate the TSEC/KY-58 and pilots VHF-FM radio. The TD (time delay) position is not used.

3-21
TM 1-1520-238-10

SWITCH GUARD

CIPHER RADIO 1/
PLAIN SWITCH
MODE
SWITCH

POWER ON/
ZEROIZE OFF SWITCH
SWITCH

TIME DELAY
SWITCH FILL SWITCH
REMOTE CONTROL UNIT (RCU) Z-AHP, FRONT PANEL
(PILOT RIGHT HAND CONSOLE)

FILL CONNECTOR

MODE FILL
SWITCH SWITCH

VOLUME POWER ON/


CONTROL OFF SWITCH

TSEC/KY-58, FRONT PANEL


(AFT AVIONICS BAY)

BBV, DPV,
BBN, DPN SWITCH PUSH-TO-
TALK
BUTTON

REMOTE/
FILTER IN/ LOCAL SWITCH
OUT SWITCH

Z-AHQ POWER INTERFACE ADAPTER


(AFT AVIONICS BAY) M01-220

Figure 3-6. Voice Security System Equipment

3-22
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.8.2 Operating Procedures. b. Cipher Mode.

1. After steps 1 through 12 are complete, the radio


a. Preliminary Operation.
is ready to transmit and receive secure speech
in ciphered mode.
NOTE
2. To transmit, press any push-to-talk switch. You
Before the pilot VHF-FM radio may be oper- may begin speaking following the beep.
ated in ciphered (secure voice) mode, it
must be loaded with one or more (CNVs). c. Plain Mode.
Refer to TM 11-5810-262-12&P for com-
plete details on loading these variables. 1. C/RAD 1/PLAIN – PLAIN.

1. KY-58 POWER switch – ON. 2. To transmit, press any push-to-talk switch. You
may begin speaking immediately.
2. KY-58 MODE switch – C (cipher). d. Automatic Remote Keying (AK).

3. KY-58 VOLUME control – As desired. NOTE

AK causes an old CNV in one of the regis-


4. KY-58 Fill switch – Any numbered storage regis-
ters to be replaced by a new one, or an
ter position (1-6).
empty register to be filled. Your net control-
ler simply transmits the new CNV to your
5. Power Interface Adapter 4 – Position switch to TSEC/KY-58.
BBV.
1. Your net controller will contact you by using a se-
cure voice channel, and tell you to wait for an AK
6. Power Interface Adapter FILTER selector – IN. transmission. You must not transmit during this
period.
7. RCU DELAY switch – Down (off) position.
2. You will hear one or two beeps in your headset
when the AK occurs.
8. RCU C/RAD 1-PLAIN switch – C/RAD 1.
e. Manual Remote Keying (MK).
9. RCU MODE switch – OP.
NOTE
10. RCU Fill switch – Set to the proper (CNV).
MK requires you to use the RCU to change
CNVs.
11. RCU POWER switch – On.
1. The net controller will contact you by using a se-
cure voice channel. He will tell you to stand by
NOTE for a new or replacement CNV and that you will
use an MK action.
At this time you should hear an intermittent
tone and background noise. The back- 2. Fill switch – 6. Notify the net controller by radio
ground noise is normal. The tone is a crypto when you have done this and stand by.
alarm that must be cleared before the radio
can be used. If step 12 does not clear the in- 3. The net controller will tell you to set the MODE
termittent tone, double check steps 1 switch to RV. Notify the net controller when you
through 11. If necessary, refer to have done this and stand by.
TM 11-5810-262-12&P.
4. When notified by the net controller, set the fill
12. RADIO/ICS switch – RADIO press and release switch to the storage position selected to receive
(or the pilot push-to-talk floor switch). This the CNV. Notify the net controller when you have
should clear the crypto alarm. done this and stand by.

3-23
TM 1-1520-238-10

5. The net controller will ask you to listen for a used to retain stored FH parameters, time and preset fre-
beep. Wait two seconds. quencies when primary power is removed from the trans-
ceiver. The radio set receives 28 vdc from the emergency
6. MODE switch – OP. dc bus through the VHF FM circuit breaker on the pilot
overhead circuit breaker panel.

If the MK operation was successful, the net con- 3.10.1 Antennas. The antennas used are the same as
troller will contact you via the new CNV. If the the AN/ARC-186 antennas.
MK operation was not successful, the net con-
troller will contact you by a clear voice (plain) 3.10.2 Controls and Functions. Controls for the AN/
transmission, tell you to set your fill switch to ARC-201 are on the front panel of the unit (fig 3-7). A dis-
position 6, and stand by while the MK operation play provides operator interface, depending on switch
is repeated. positions and keyboard entries, for displaying manual and
preset frequencies, offset frequencies, time, CUE, and
3.9 VOICE SECURITY SYSTEM TSEC/KY-28. transceiver status during self test. The function of each
switch is described in table 3-8.
Not installed.

3.10 RADIO SET AN/ARC-201.

Radio set AN/ARC-201, consists of a panel mounted


RT-1476/ARC-201 (transceiver) (fig 3-7). The receiver-
transmitter is an airborne, (VHF) (FM) transceiver used as
part of a series of (SINCGARS). The radio set does not
have a guard channel. It has an (ECCM) frequency hop-
ping mode (FH) of operation. The radio set provides com-
munications of secure or plain voice over the frequency
range of 30 to 87.975 Mz at 25 kHz intervals. A frequency
offset tuning capability of –10 kHz, –5 kHz, +5 kHz and
+10 kHz is provided for transmitting and receiving in the
non-ECCM mode only. When used with the TSEC/KY-58
voice security system, the radio set is capable of transmit-
M01-292
ting and receiving clear voice or cipher mode communica-
tions. In the installed configuration there is no retransmis-
sion or homing capability. A memory holding battery is Figure 3-7. Control Panel AN/ARC-201

3-24
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-8. AN/ARC-201 Control Functions

Control Function

FUNCTION switch Selects basic operational condition of the transceiver.

OFF Primary power is off. Memory holding battery power is on. Used during limited periods of
inactivity when reloading FH parameters and preset frequencies is not desirable, e.g.,
between missions or overnight.

TEST Self test of the transceiver and ECCM function.

SQ ON (Squelch Power is applied to the transceiver and the squelch is enabled.


On)

SQ OFF (Squelch Power is applied to the transceiver and the squelch is inoperative.
Off)

RXMT Not used.


(Retransmit)

LD (Load) To load preset frequencies by normal keyboard entry, to fill ECCM net parameters and
lockout channels, and to reset time.

LD-V (Load – To load the TRANSEC variable into the transceiver for use with ECCM.
variable)

Z-A (Zero All) Pull and turn switch. Not an operational position. Zeros ECCM variables. Clears the
TRANSEC variable to avoid a security compromise.

STOW Pull and turn switch. Removes all power from the transceiver, including memory holding
battery power. Used for extended storage.

MODE switch Selects operational mode.

HOM (Homing) Not used.

SC (Single Selects single channel mode of operation. Operating frequency is selected by PRESET
Channel) switch or keyboard entry.

FH Selects (FH) mode of operation. PRESET switch positions 1 to 6 select frequency hopping
net parameters.

FH-M (Frequency Pull and turn switch. Designates control station as the time standard for all communicating
Hopping – radios within a common net.
Master)

3-25
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-8. AN/ARC-201 Control Functions – continued

Control Function

PRESET switch Selects specific predetermined operating conditions within the transceiver.

MAN (Manual) In single channel mode, selects any operating frequency within the prescribed band, in 25
kHz increments, using the keyboard. Inoperative in FH modes.

Positions 1 In SC mode, preset frequencies are selected or loaded. In FH or FH-M mode, net
through 6 parameters are selected.

CUE Used by a non-ECCM radio to signal an ECCM radio. In SC mode, this is a seventh preset
frequency.

IFM RF POWER Not used. Leave switch in OFF position.


switch

Keyboard To enter or display data, depending on the key switch actuated and the positions of the
MODE and FUNCTION switches.

Numbers 1 To key in frequency, and load time information and frequency offsets.
through 9

FREQ To display the current operating frequency during single channel manual or preset operation.
To load manual and preset frequencies.

SEnd OFST To modify a single channel operating frequency which has been manually selected or preset
(Offset) for offsets of 5 kHz or 10 kHz or to initiate a transmission if a hopset or lockout set is in
the holding memory and the MODE switch is set to FH-M.

TIME To display or change the time setting maintained within each transceiver.

Sto ENT (Store Initiates entry into transceiver of all valid complete entries by keyboard entry. Stores a
Enter) received hopset or lockout set held in holding memory.

HoLD (Hopping Initiates transfer of ECCM parameters to transceiver. Enter 0 in the same manner as other
Load) / 0 keyboard numbers.

CLR (Clear) Clears partial or erroneous entries.

VOL Control Adjusts receiver volume.

FILL Connector To enter ECCM variables from an external fill device.

3-26
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.10.3 Modes of Operation. (4) Two way frequency hopping secure voice with
TSEC/KY-58 installed (FH or FH-M).
a. ECCM Mode. The ECCM mode provides a jam
resistant capability by means of a (FH) technique that 3.10.4 Operating Procedures.
changes frequency many times a second. Automatic fre-
quency changing in an apparently random manner pro- a. Manually Entering Frequency. When using the
vides the jam resistance of the radio. This capability per- nine digits on the keyboard, entry of information is normal-
mits communications in radio jamming environments. For ly displayed digit-by-digit left to right on the display. Op-
uninterrupted successful communications, radios must be eration of the transceiver is altered only after complete,
time synchronized with each other and share a common valid data is registered on the display and the Sto ENT
net. button pressed within the 7 second time-out period. Illegal
entries will not register on the display. Incomplete entries
(1) Time Synchronization. Time synchroniza- will not be accepted when the Sto ENT button is pressed.
tion is provided by a clock inside the radio set. The opera-
tion of the (FH) net is time dependent and the accuracy of Acceptance of valid data is signaled by a momentary blink
time, as it is registered in each radio set on a common net, of the display when the Sto ENT button is pressed. At this
is of significant importance. A relative standard or master time, the transceiver acts upon the entry.
must be established to prevent gradual time creepage
during normal communications. One radio set will be des- Partial or erroneous data can be erased at any time by
ignated as master. The time difference will be accommo- pressing the CLR button, at which time the last readout
dated in the other radios, not the master radio. The net will be cleared.
control station, or master, is designated as the time stan-
dard for all radio sets in the net. 1. FUNCTION switch – SQ ON or SQ OFF, as de-
sired.
(2) Loading ECCM Parameters. To use the
ECCM function, TRANSEC variables and hopsets or lock- 2. MODE switch – SC.
outs are loaded into the transceiver by an external fill de-
vice connected to the FILL connector.
3. PRESET switch – MAN.

(3) Signalling an ECCM Radio. In a typical 4. FREQ button – Press. Frequency is displayed.
ECCM signalling operation, an operator with a non-ECCM
radio set attempting a contact within an ECCM net places
the PRESET switch to CUE. The ECCM radio display indi- 5. CLR button – Press. Display shows all bottom
cates CUE for 7 seconds and the ECCM radio operator dashes.
hears a tone in his headset for 2 seconds each time the
non-ECCM radio is keyed. The non-ECCM radio must be 6. Keyboard – Enter 5 digits for frequency.
keyed for at least 4 seconds to insure reception by the
ECCM radio. The ECCM radio is then switched to the 7. Sto ENT button – Press. Display blinks momen-
single channel CUE frequency or some other predeter- tarily.
mined frequency to establish contact.
b. Loading Preset Channels. Seven preset chan-
b. Other Operational Modes. Depending on the nels are available (PRESET positions 1 through 6 and
settings of the operational controls, the radio set can be CUE). These channels select discrete frequencies in non-
used for the following modes of operation: ECCM modes and provide an analogous function in the
(FH) ECCM mode. The function of the PRESET switch is
(1) Two way clear voice (SC). two-fold. In a normal single-channel mode (MODE switch
set to SC), either manual or preset frequencies are se-
lected. In an ECCM frequency hopping mode (MODE
(2) Two way secure voice with TSEC/KY-58 switch set to FH or FH-M), nets are selected according to
installed (SC). predetermined preloaded data. When a (FH) net is se-
lected, the display will indicate FH followed by the corre-
(3) Two way frequency hopping voice (FH or FH- sponding valid (FH) data number. The CUE frequency can
M). serve as a seventh preset

3-27
TM 1-1520-238-10

channel in single-channel operation or as a special signal- 3. CLR button – Press. Display shows all bottom
ing frequency in the FH modes. dashes.

1. FUNCTION switch – LD. NOTE

2. PRESET switch – Number 1 through 6, as de- Repeated pressing of SEnd OFST button
sired. will alternate between plus and minus off-
sets.

3. MODE switch – SC. 4. SEnd OFST button – Press if a negative offset is


desired. A negative sign (–) will appear in the
center digit position.
4. FREQ button – Press. Frequency is displayed.

5. Keyboard – Enter 5 or 1 and 0. The display indi-


5. CLR button – Press. Display shows all bottom cates 05 or 10.
dashes.
6. When a valid offset is shown on the display,
6. Keyboard – Enter 5 digits for frequency. along with a minus or plus (no indication) sign,
press Sto ENT button within 7 seconds of key-
7. Sto ENT button – Press. Display blinks momen- board entry. Display momentarily blinks.
tarily.
7. FREQ button – Press. The original operating fre-
8. Repeat steps 1 through 7 for each desired pre- quency with the offset added or subtracted will
set channel. be displayed.

8. To cancel an offset:
c. Setting a Frequency Offset (Non-ECCM Mode
Only).
a. SEnd OFST button – Press. Existing offset
will be displayed.
NOTE
b. CLR button – Press. Display shows all bot-
Frequency offset tuning is provided for tom dashes.
transmitting and receiving in the non-ECCM
mode only. c. HoLD button – Press. 00 is displayed.
A single channel operating frequency, either manually se-
lected or preset, can be offset by +10 kHz, + 5 kHz, –5 d. Sto ENT button – Press. Operating frequen-
kHz, or –10 kHz. The offsets are shown in the two right cy is returned to its non-offset condition.
hand digits of the display.
d. Setting Frequency Hopping.
1. MODE switch – SC.
1. MODE switch – FH or FH-M, depending on radio
set which is to be the master station.
NOTE
2. PRESET switch – Select frequency hopping net
Negative offsets are indicated on the display parameters 1 through 6, as desired.
by a negative sign (–) appearing in the cen-
ter digit position. Positive offsets are indi- 3. FUNCTION switch – SQ ON or SQ OFF, as de-
cated by no prefix. No offset is indicated by sired.
00 in the two right side digits of the display.

2. SEnd OFST button – Press. Any current valid e. Setting Time for Frequency Hopping.
offset applied to the selected single channel fre-
quency will be displayed. 1. FUNCTION switch – LD.

3-28
TM 1-1520-238-10

NOTE NOTE

• If an error occurs during any entry se- The tests will be continually repeated until
quence, pressing the CLR button will terminated by changing the FUNCTION
erase the display and start the sequence switch position.
over.
1. FUNCTION switch – TEST. Display shows E. Af-
• Pressing the TIME button repeatedly will ter 3 seconds display changes to all 8s.
cause the display field to change as de-
scribed. 2. After 3 seconds, display indicates GOOD or
2. TIME button – Press. Days are displayed. FAIL followed by a number to indicate the failed
component as follows:
3. CLR button – Press. Display shows all bottom
dashes. a. 1 indicates failure of the transceiver.

4. Keyboard – Enter new days digits. b. 3 indicates failure of the ECCM module.

5. Sto ENT button – Press. Display blinks momen- c. 7 indicates failure of interface to the trans-
tarily. ceiver.

6. TIME button – Press. Hours and minutes are d. 8 indicates internal failure of control panel.
displayed.
h. Other Continous Tests.
7. CLR button – Press. Display shows all bottom
dashes.
NOTE
NOTE
The following tests are performed in any op-
When hours and minutes are entered, and erational mode on a continuous basis with
the Sto ENT button is pressed, minutes and the results of the test either audible or vis-
seconds are displayed with seconds zeroed ible.
and new time started. This is to accommo- (1) Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
date presetting and display of time prior to a Test. This test is performed each time the transmitter is
time mark. keyed and during the transmission. If VSWR exceeds 5 to
8. Keyboard – Enter new hours and minutes. 1, the audio sidetone will be inhibited.

9. Sto ENT button – Press. Display blinks momen- (2) Secure Mode Test. This test is performed
tarily. each time the transmitter is keyed if a TSEC/KY-58 is
installed. A short beep indicates the TSEC/KY-58 is oper-
f. Loading ECCM Net Parameters and Lockout ating properly. A continuous tone indicates a faulty TSEC/
Channels. KY-58.

1. MODE switch – LD or LD-V. (3) ECCM Test. When the PRESET switch is
changed while operating in a (FH) mode, the fill data is ex-
2. Connect fill device to the FILL connector. amined and either FXXX, if a valid hopset has been
loaded, or FILLn, if no hopset or an invalid hopset has
3. HoLD button – Press. been loaded, will be displayed. A built-in-test (BIT) is also
run on the non-volatile random-access memory with the
g. Continous Self Test. FUNCTION switch in the Z–A position.

3-29
TM 1-1520-238-10

Section III. NAVIGATION


3.11 INTRODUCTION. is shown by the No. 2 bearing pointer of the Horizontal Sit-
uation Indicator (fig 2-9) On the CPG panel, it is shown on
The navigation systems of the AH–64 are divided into 3 the bearing pointer of the Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)
major groupings: Stand Alone Radio Navigational Aids; a (fig 2-10). The ADF has three modes of operation that per-
non–integrated navigation system; and a integrated navi- mit it to function as a Continuous Wave (CW) Automatic
gation system. The stand alone radio navigation aids con- Direction Finder, a (CW) Manual Direction Finder, or as an
sist of the AN/ARN–89 or the AN/ARN 149(V)3 Automatic Amplitude-Modulated (AM) broadcast receiver. Power to
Direction Finder (ADF) Sets. The non integrated naviga- operate the set is provided through the ADF circuit break-
tion system consists of the AN/ASN–128 or AN/ASN–137 er on the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel.
Doppler Navigation Sets (DNS), the IP–1552G Computer 3.12.1 Antennas. The ADF antennas (fig 3-1) are lo-
Display Unit (CDU) and the Heading Attitude Reference cated on the bottom center fuselage area, aft of the Dop-
System (HARS). In aircraft equipped with the non–inte- pler/Radar Altimeter antenna fairing. The ADF loop anten-
grated navigation system, the installed Doppler Naviga- na is mounted under the aft fairing. The ADF sense wire
tion Set performs the navigation calculations. The inte- antenna is supported between the aft fairing and a 7-inch
grated navigation system consists of the Embedded standoff 12 feet aft of the fairing.
Global Positioning System (GPS) Inertial (EGI) unit, the 3.12.2 Controls and Function. Controls for the AN/
Air Data Sensor Subsystem (ADSS), the HARS, the AN/ ARN-89 are on the front panel of the C-7392 (fig 3-8)
ASN–137 DNS, the IP–1552G Computer Display Unit installed on the pilot right console. The function of each
(CDU) and the navigation software module in the Fire control is described in table 3-9.
Control Computer (FCC). In aircraft with the integrated
navigation system, all navigation calculations are per- 100 KILOHERTZ COARSE 10 KILOHERTZ FINE
formed by the navigation software module in the FCC. A TUNE CONTROL TUNE CONTROL
Data Transfer Unit (DTU) is used in the integrated naviga-
tion system to provide bulk loading of navigational data.
NOTE

During an electrical system malfunction and


operating on EMERG BATT power, the HSI/
RMI will not provide adequate indications to
the station.
3.12 AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER SET
AN/ARN–89

Direction finder set AN/ARN-89 is an airborne, Low Fre-


quency (LF), Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) radio that
provides an automatic or manual compass bearing on any
MODE SELECTOR M01-032
radio signal within the frequency range of 100 to 3,000
kHz. The ADF displays helicopter bearing relative to a se-
lected radio transmission. On the pilot instrument panel, it Figure 3-8. Control Panel AN/ARN-89

Table 3-9. AN/ARN-89 Control Functions

Control Function

Mode selector
switch

OFF Turns power to the set OFF.

COMP Provides for operation as an ADF.

3-30 Change 6
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-9. AN/ARN-89 Control Functions – continued

Control Function

ANT AM Provides for operation as an receiver using the sense antenna.

LOOP Provides for receiver operation as a manual direction finder using only the loop antenna.

LOOP L-R control Manually provides for left and right control of the loop when the mode selector switch is in the
knob LOOP position. This control knob is spring-loaded to return to center.

AUDIO Adjusts audio volume for station identification.

KILOHERTZ tune
controls

100 KHz coarse Tunes receiver in 100 KHz steps as indicated by first two digits of the KILOCYCLES
tune control knob indicator.

10 KHz fine tune Tunes receiver in 10 KHz steps as indicated by last two digits of KILOCYCLES indicator.
control knob

CW, VOICE, TEST


switch

CW (in the COMP Enables the tone oscillator to provide an audible tone for tuning to a (CW) station when the
mode) mode selector switch is at COMP.

CW (ANT or Enables the beat frequency oscillator to permit tuning to a CW station when the mode
LOOP mode) selector switch is at ANT or LOOP.

VOICE Permits (LF) receiver to operate as a receiver when the mode selector switch is at any
position.

TEST (in the Provides for slewing of the loop through 180 degrees to check operation of the receiver in the
COMP mode) COMP mode. This switch position is inoperative in LOOP and ANT modes.

TUNE meter Indicates relative signal strength while tuning the set to a specific radio signal.

KILOCYCLES Indicates operating frequency to which receiver is tuned.


indicator

3.12.3 Operating Procedures. 6. AUDIO control – Adjust as desired.


a. Starting Procedure.
b. COMP Mode Operation.
1. Mode selector switch – COMP, ANT or LOOP.
1. Mode selector switch – COMP.
2. Frequency – Select.
3. CW-VOICE-TEST switch – CW or VOICE as de- The horizontal situation indicator No. 2 bearing
sired. pointer and the radio magnetic indicator bearing
pointer will display the magnetic bearing to the
4. CSC panel NAV A receiver select switch – ON.
ground station from the helicopter as read
5. Fine tune control – Adjust for maximum upward against the integral compass card on each in-
indication on the TUNE meter. strument.

Change 3 3-31
TM 1-1520-238-10

2. Test the ADF as follows: 3.13 AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER SET


AN/ARN-149(V)3.
a. CW-VOICE-TEST switch – Set to TEST
position. Check that both bearing pointers ADF set AN/ARN-149 is an airborne, LF, ADF radio that
associated with the ADF rotate approxi- provides an automatic compass bearing on any radio sig-
mately 180°. nal within the frequency range of 100 to 2199.5 kHz. The
ADF displays helicopter bearing relative to a selected ra-
b. CW-VOICE-TEST switch – Release. dio transmission. On the pilot instrument panel, it is shown
c. ANT Mode Operation. by the horizontal situation indicator (HSI) No. 2 bearing
pointer (fig 2-9). On the CPG panel, it is shown on the RMI
1. Mode selector switch – ANT bearing pointer (fig 2-10). The ADF operates in the ANT
2. Monitor receiver in headset. (audio only) and ADF modes. It also has a self test mode.
In addition, a submode provides the capability of identify-
d. LOOP Mode Operation (manual direction find- ing keyed CW signals. The ADF receives 28 VDC from the
ing).
emergency DC bus through the ADF circuit breaker on the
1. Mode Selector switch – LOOP.
pilot overhead circuit breaker panel. The HARS AC circuit
2. Turn the LOOP L-R control to L (left) or R (right) breaker on the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel pro-
to obtain an audio null and a TUNE indicator vides power for the 26 VAC reference voltage used by the
null. Check either ADF bearing pointer for a dis- ADF receiver.
play of magnetic bearing to or from the station.
The two null positions may be as much as 180°
3.13.1 Antenna. The ADF antenna (fig 3-1) is located on
apart in this mode.
the bottom center of the fuselage under the Doppler/Ra-
dar Altimeter (DRA) fairing.
NOTE

During an electrical system malfunction and 3.13.2 Controls and Functions. Controls for the AN/
operating on EMERG BATT power, the HSI/ ARN-149 are on the front panel of the ADF control panel
RMI will not provide adequate indications to (fig 3-9) located on the pilot right console. The function of
the station. each control is described in table 3-10.

FREQUENCY
SWITCHES AND
INDICATORS

A
D
F TAKE
MAN TEST VOL CMD ADF

2182 ANT

500 TONE OFF

MAN-2182-500 TEST-TONE VOL CONTROL TAKE CMD MODE SELECTOR


SWITCH SWITCH SWITCH SWITCH M01-291

Figure 3-9. AN/ARN-149(V)3 ADF Control Panel

3-32 Change 6
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-10. AN/ARN-149(V)3 ADF Control Panel Control Functions

Control Function

Mode selector
switch

OFF Removes power from the ADF.

ANT Provides for operation as an AM receiver.

ADF Provides both ADF and AM receiver operations.

TAKE CMD switch Not used.

VOL control Controls the audio volume in 12 discrete steps.

TEST-TONE switch Selects the submode of operation. If TEST is selected, the HSI No. 2 bearing pointer and
RMI pointer momentarily move 90 degrees as a self-test. If TONE is selected, the normal
audio is replaced by a 1 kHz tone for tuning to a (cw) station.

Frequency switches Control and indicate the selected operating frequency when the MAN-2182-500 switch is in
and indicators the MAN position. 2182 kHz and 500 kHz are international distress frequencies.

NOTE

2182 kHz and 500 kHz are international distress frequencies.

MAN-2182-500
switch

MAN Enables the frequency switches for manual frequency selection.

2182 2182 kHz is the operating frequency.

500 500 kHz is the operating frequency.

3.13.3 Modes of Operation. The AN/ARN-149 ADF b. ANT Mode. In this mode, the system functions
system has two functional modes and a submode as fol- as an audio receiver, providing only an audio
lows: output of the received signal.
c. Tone Submode. This submode may be cho-
a. ADF Mode. In this mode, the system functions
sen in either ADF or ANT mode of operation. In
as an ADF that provides a relative bearing-to-
the tone submode, the system provides a 1 kHz
station to the HSI No. 2 bearing pointer and the
audio output tone when a signal is being re-
RMI pointer.
ceived to identify keyed cw signals. This sub-
mode can be used when normal audio reception
is insufficient to identify the station; the cw
coded signal can be used to identify the station.

Change 4 3-33
TM 1-1520-238-10

3.13.4 Operating Procedures. 3.14 NON–INTEGRATED NAVIGATION SYSTEM

a. ANT (audio only) Operation. WARNING

1. Mode selector switch – ANT.


The non integrated navigation system
does not meet FAA requirements for use
2. MAN-2182-500 switch – As desired. If MAN is as a primary navigation system for IFR
selected, set the desired frequency with the five operations in IMC.
frequency switches.
The non–integrated navigation system consists of a
Heading Attitude Reference System (HARS) and either
3. VOL control – As desired. the AN/ASN-128 or AN/ASN-137 Doppler Navigation Set
(DNS). The non–integrated navigation system is not con-
nected to, and operates independently of, the Mission
4. If cw operation is desired, TEST-TONE switch – System 1553 multiplex (MUX) bus. The MUX bus is re-
TONE. sponsible for passing the DNS velocity data from the
ARINC bus to the HARS through special hardware inter-
b. ADF Operations. faces in the CPG and DASE MRTUs. The MUX bus is also
responsible for tracking/filtering MAGVAR changes that
are calculated in the DNS and passing these changes to
1. Mode selector switch – ADF. the HARS via the same special interfaces. In this configu-
ration the HARS is dependent upon receiving DNS veloc-
ity for internal velocity damping and maintaining proper
2. MAN-2182-500 switch – As desired. If MAN is
heading and/or attitude, and the DNS is dependent upon
selected, set the desired frequency with the five
receiving HARS heading/attitude in order to perform the
frequency switches.
navigation calculations. Additionally, the HARS is depen-
dent upon proper MAGVAR updates for driving the HSI,
3. VOL control – As desired. The HSI No. 2 bear- RMI, and DNS magnetic heading inputs. The MUX bus
ing pointer and the RMI pointer will indicate rela- controller (FCC or BBC) uses the HARS inertial data out-
tive bearing to the selected ground station. puts to drive all the inertial symbology presented on the
video displays. This includes the heading tape, velocity
vector, acceleration cue, horizon line, hover position box
4. If cw operation is desired, TEST-TONE switch –
and trim ball. The Hover Position Box will drift during a sta-
TONE.
tionary hover, and conversely, the aircraft will drift if the
aircraft is flown to hold the Hover Position Box centered
c. Self-Test Operation. on the display. The amount of drift may reach as much as
21 feet per minute, and the drift may be random in nature.
This drift is caused by HARS velocity errors, which are
NOTE strongly influenced by the DNS velocity characteristics at
these hover velocities. The following paragraphs provide
The ADF system must be in ADF mode and a description of the HARS and DNS internal operations
receiving a valid ground station signal to and the controls and displays used by the crew to operate
perform the self-test. the non–integrated navigation system.

1. Set to ADF mode (para. d.2). Note position of 3.14.1 Heading Attitude Reference System (HARS).
HSI No. 2 bearing pointer and RMI pointer.
a. System Description
The HARS is a doppler aided strapdown inertial reference
2. TEST-TONE switch – Momentarily TEST.
system. The HARS provides all attitude, velocity, and ac-
celeration data for the helicopter. The HARS aligns itself
3. HSI No. 2 bearing pointer and the RMI pointer by adjusting its own vertical axis to coincide with the
rotate 90° from their original positions and then earth’s gravity vector and by measuring the rotational
return to their original positions. speed of the earth about its inertial axis.

3-34 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

By aligning the vertical axis with the earth’s gravity, the The HARS uses doppler velocities to damp the drift in the
HARS is able to determine the UP direction. In measuring inertial data. Both the doppler and inertial velocities are
the earth’s rotational speed the HARS is able to determine combined by the Kalman filter program in the HARS to
which direction is East; North is then 90 degrees counter– take advantage of the best of each. If doppler velocities
clockwise from East. Any change of heading or movement are not valid (memory or malfunction), the HARS will re-
of the helicopter during alignment while on the ground will ject the doppler data and function in a free inertial mode.
disrupt accurate measurements and calculations resulting In free inertial, the heading and velocities will drift in a si-
in an alignment error. The only corrective action is for the nusoidal oscillation called a Schuler period; approximately
helicopter to be returned to a stationary condition and the 84 minutes. The HARS free inertial condition is signaled to
HARS realigned. Rotor vibrations at 100% Nr have little the flight crew by velocity vector flashing. The most likely
effect on the accuracy of the HARS alignment. Inflight, the cause for the HARS to reject doppler data is that the dop-
HARS maintains alignment by continuously gyrocom- pler is in memory. The doppler normally returns valid data
passing and estimating system errors. Inflight alignments over flat terrain. Over areas of tall grass or water, doppler
or restarts require valid doppler data. The HARS may be data inconsistencies can develop resulting in a memory
aligned using one of four methods. The accuracy of the condition and invalid doppler data.
HARS alignment is dependent on the method chosen.
The methods and accuracies are discussed in Table 3-11.

Change 4 3-34.1/(3-34.2 blank)


TM 1-1520-238-10

Over mountainous terrain, doppler data is better than over indicator functions of the HARS mode selector switch are
grass or water, but not as good as over flat terrain. The described in table 3-11.
HARS will reject doppler velocities as long as the memory
or malfunction condition exists. In addition, if the free iner- The HARS control panel (fig 3-10) is located on the pilot
tial condition exists too long, the HARS inertial velocities lower right instrument panel. The control panel has a
will drift enough so that when the doppler data again be- mode selector switch with four positions: OFF, OPR and
comes valid, the HARS will continue to reject the doppler two ALIGN positions: FAST and NORM. Signals are sent
velocities because they are no longer within the capture to the MUX and doppler for use by the fire control comput-
window of the Kalman filter. If this occurs, the available er and other systems such as DASE, navigation, stabila-
corrective actions are limited. The pilot can slow the heli- tor, and symbology. The VDU (fig 4-2) and the HDU (fig
copter to less than 40 KTAS in an attempt to let the HARS 4-9) display this information to the pilot.
Kalman filter recapture the doppler velocities. If this fails,
the only remaining corrective options are either to land the
helicopter and when stationary place the HARS control
switch in NORM to cage the HARS inertial velocities to
zero, or to attempt an inflight alignment (restart) of the
HARS. There is always the option to continue flight in the
free inertial condition, realizing that everything that uses
the HARS data (HAS, flight symbology, navigation, and
fire control) will be degraded to the extent that the HARS
has drifted and will continue to drift.
The HARS computes error estimates and accelerometer
biases during flight. This data is stored by the HARS as
mission data memory on shutdown. The mission data M01-120
memory allows the HARS to maintain a running calibra-
tion of its internal instruments. If, however, the HARS has
experienced more than 12 minutes total of free inertial Figure 3-10. HARS Control Panel
since it was turned on it will not update the mission data
memory on shutdown. The mission data memory can be NOTE
most easily corrupted by moving the helicopter during
alignment and not realigning before flight. Extended free
inertial and corrupt mission data memory are the two pri- • Loss of the heading tape during HARS
mary causes for inaccurate navigation in the non inte- alignment indicates a fault occurred with
grated system. the HARS during alignment. Check the
FD/LS.
HARS accomplishes internal bit and temperature stabi-
lization (for approximately 90 seconds) prior to initiating • If any helicopter movement occurs
alignment. The status of the HARS is continuously moni- (heading or position) with the HARS
tored by the FD/LS; the on–command FD/LS test (test 05 switch in either of the ALIGN positions,
HARS) will fault isolate. the HARS shall be turned off and re-
aligned without moving the helicopter.
The HARS receives 28 vdc from the No. 3 essential dc
bus through the HARS DC circuit breaker and 115 vac • Whenever the helicopter is on the
from the No. 1 essential ac bus through the HARS AC cir- ground and will not be moved for longer
cuit breaker; both circuit breakers are on the pilot over- than one minute, set the HARS switch to
head circuit breaker panel. NORM. This will prevent the HARS iner-
tial velocities from drifting. The HARS
b. Controls and Functions. Control of the HARS is switch shall be set to OPR prior to mov-
provided by the HARS mode selector switch. Control and ing the helicopter.

Change 3 3-35
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-11. HARS Control Functions and Alignment Methods

Method/Control How to Initiate Requirements/Function Effects On Accuracy

Off Turns HARS off

Normal Switch to NORM PPOS, MV and spheroid Best accuracy attained by permitting
data entered through SP1 completion of HARS alignment prior to
on data entry keyboard starting the engines.
(DEK) prior to initiating
alignment. Some degradation to alignment accuracy
will occur if the engines are started prior to
the HARS completing its alignment. This
degradation will not occur if one engine is
started and the rotor speed established at
100% within one minute and forty-five
seconds after placing the HARS switch to
NORM.

Stored Heading Switch to FAST Helicopter shall not have Uses data from previous HARS alignment
been moved since HARS and flight. Accuracy is dependent on that
was shut down. data. Alignment time is the shortest of all
methods (approximately 90 to 120
seconds). Accuracy is not affected by
engine starts.

FAST Switch to FAST Same as normal Least accurate method. Fastest method
alignment. when stored heading alignment is not
possible.

Inflight Restart Switch to OFF, then to AN/ASN-128 doppler MAL If the HARS loses alignment in flight, the
OPR light must be OFF. DASE will disengage. Switch the HARS
Recycle doppler if OFF, then to OPR. After approximately 90
necessary. seconds, the HSI HDG flag will disappear
and the DASE may be reengaged. The
heading will appear to oscillate as the HARS
attempts to align. The heading accuracy
should be within 3 degrees after five
minutes. Navigation performance will be
degraded significantly.

OPR Switch to OPR Operating mode. Switch


shall be in OPR prior to
moving the helicopter.

3.14.2 Required Navigation Data. The non integrated checked and entered, if necessary, during the AFTER
navigation system uses two components of data for prop- STARTING APU–CPG checklist. The second place that
er operation: magnetic variation (MAGVAR) and spheroid MAGVAR is input is in the DNS whenever coordinate data
(SPH). The HARS aligns with inertial North. MAGVAR is is entered. The spheroid is used to define the geographic
used to correct the inertial heading to one referenced to reference frame that is used for the coordinate data.
magnetic North. The symbolic heading tape, HSI, and Spheroid is entered in 2 places. Using the DEK, the spher-
RMI will all indicate magnetic heading. MAGVAR is en- oid on page 2 of SP1 shall be checked and entered, if nec-
tered in two places. Using the DEK, the present position essary during the AFTER STARTING APU–CPG check-
MAGVAR on page 2 of Spare Position 1 (SP1) shall be list. The second

3-36 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

place that spheroid is input is the DNS. Only 1 spheroid 3.14.4 DNS Antenna. The AN/ASN–128 and AN/
can be utilized by the DNS. The DNS PPOS and destina- ASN–137 DNS use a common antenna (RT–1193A). The
tion spheroids must be the same. The DEK SP1 and DNS DNS antenna is located in a combined antenna/radome
PPOS spheroid must be the same. and (RT) housing protected by the fairing on the bottom
center fuselage area as shown in figure 3-1.
3.14.3 Doppler Navigation Sets.
3.14.5 AN/ASN–128 DNS Controls and Displays. The
NOTE controls and displays are on the front of the CDU CP1252
(fig 3-11) located on the CPG right console. The function
of each control is described in table 3-12 .
The non integrated navigation system uses
one of two Doppler Navigation Sets (DNS): 3.14.6 Modes of Operation. The three basic modes of
AN/ASN-128 or AN/ASN-137 for navigation. operation are as follows:
The DNS which is installed may be deter-
mined by which Computer Display Unit a. Test Mode. The TEST mode contains two func-
(CDU) is installed in the CPG right-hand tions: LAMP TEST mode, in which all display segments
console. The CDU (fig 3-11) identifies those are lit, and TEST mode, in which system operation is veri-
helicopters equipped with the AN/ASN-128 fied. In the LAMP TEST mode. system operation is identi-
DNS. The CDU (fig 3-12) are those helicop- cal to that of navigate mode except that all lamp segments
ters equipped with the AN/ASN-137 DNS. and the MEM and MAL indicator lamps are lighted to
The CDU used with the AN/ASN–137 DNS verify their operation. In TEST mode, the system antenna
is not part of the DNS, but is used to com- no longer transmits or receives electromagnetic energy;
municate with the DNS. instead, self-generated test signals are inserted into the
electronics to verify operation. System operation automat-
The DNS provides doppler velocity, and navigational posi- ically reverts into the backup mode during test mode. Self-
tion and steering information for the helicopter. The DNS test of the DNS is done using Built-In-Test Equipment
is the navigator in the non integrated system. The HARS (BITE) and all units connected and energized for normal
provides attitude reference (heading, pitch, and roll) to the operation. Self-test isolates failures to one of the three
DNS. Navigational accuracy may degrade at altitudes units of the DNS. The CDU (except for the keyboard and
above 10,000 feet AGL, and at pitch and roll angles great- display) is on a continuous basis, and any failure is dis-
er than 30 degrees. The DNS is capable of providing posi- played by turn-on of the MAL indicator lamp on the CDU.
tion readouts in either the Military Grid Reference System The signal data converter and (RTA) are tested by turning
(MGRS) form of Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) or the MODE selector switch to TEST. Failure of these com-
in latitude and longitude (LAT/LONG) coordinates. Navi- ponents is displayed on the CDU by turn-on of the MAL
gation calculations are accomplished by the DNS in LAT/ indicator lamp. Identification of the failed unit is indicated
LONG and then converted to UTM (if necessary) for dis- by a code on the display panel of the CDU. Continuous
play purposes. Coordinate data may be entered in either monitoring of the signal data converter and RTA is pro-
coordinate format. The AN/ASN–128 DNS has 10 internal vided by the MEM indicator lamp. The MEM indicator
storage locations for coordinate data. The AN/ASN–137 lamp will light in normal operation when flying over smooth
DNS has 20 storage locations. Primary power to operate water. However, if the lamp remains lighted beyond 10
the DNS is provided through the DPLR circuit breaker on minutes over land or rough water, there is a malfunction in
the pilot overhead circuit breaker panel. In addition, the the doppler set. Then, to determine the nature of the mal-
AN/ASN–137 DNS also uses power provided through the function, the operator should turn the MODE selector
MUX FAB R circuit breaker on the CPG No. 1 circuit switch to TEST. As the keyboard is used, operation is veri-
breaker panel. fied by observing the alphanumeric readout.

Change 3 3-37
TM 1-1520-238-10

LEFT CENTER RIGHT


DISPLAY DISPLAY DISPLAY

MAL
INDICATOR
LAMP KEYBOARD
MEM PUSHBUTTON
INDICATOR
LAMP
TARGET
STORAGE
DIM PUSHBUTTON
CONTROL

DISPLAY TARGET
SWITCH STORAGE
INDICATOR

KEYBOARD
DESTINATION DISPLAY
THUMBWHEEL SWITCH

MODE
SWITCH

FLY TO DESTINATION CLEAR KEY ENTER KEY


THUMBWHEEL SWITCH M01-033

Figure 3-11. CDU CP1252, Used With AN/ASN-128 DNS

Table 3-12. AN/ASN-128 Control and Indicator Functions

Control/Indicator Function
MODE Selector

OFF Turns off electrical power to the set.

LAMP TEST Checks the operation of all lamps.

TEST Initiates a (BIT) exercise for the DNS.

UTM Selects (UTM) as the navigational mode of operation.

LATT/LONG Selects LAT/LONG as the navigational mode of operation.

BACKUP Places navigation set in true airspeed plus remembered wind mode of operation. If true
airspeed is not available, places navigation set in remembered velocity mode of operation.

DISPLAY selector Selects navigation data for display.

WIND SP/DIR Windspeed in kilometers per hour (km/h).


(Left Display)

3-38
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-12. AN/ASN-128 Control and Indicator Functions – continued

Control/Indicator Function

(Right Display) Wind direction relative to true north (degrees). All references to headings or track angle
degrees are referred to magnetic north.

XTK-TKE (Left Distance crosstrack (XTK) of initial course to destination in km and tenths of a km.
Display)

(Right Display) Track angle error (TKE) in degrees displayed as right or left of bearing to destination.

GS-TK (Left Ground speed (GS) in km/hr.


Display)

(Right Display) Track angle (TK) in degrees.

PP (MODE switch
set to UTM)

(Center Display) Present position UTM zone.

(Left Display) Present position UTM area square designator and easting in km to nearest ten meters.

(Right Display) Present position UTM area northing in km to nearest ten meters.

PP (MODE switch
set to
LATT/LONG)

(Left Display) Present position longitude in degrees, minutes, and tenths of minutes.

(Right Display) Present position latitude in degrees, minutes, and tenths of minutes.

DIST/BRG-TIME

(Center Display) Time to destination selected by FLY TO DEST (in minutes and tenths of minutes).

(Left Display) Distance to destination selected by FLY TO DEST (in km and tenths of a km).

(Right Display) Bearing to a destination selected by FLY TO DEST (in degrees).

DEST-TGT (Mode
switch set to UTM)

(Center Display) UTM zone of destination selected by DEST DISP thumbwheel.

(Left Display) UTM area and easting of destination set on DEST DISP thumbwheel.

(Right Display) Northing of destination set on DEST DISP thumbwheel.

DEST-TGT (Mode
switch set to
LATT/LONG)

(Left display) Latitude (N 84° or S 80° max.) of destination set on DEST DISP thumbwheel.

Change 3 3-39
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-12. AN/ASN-128 Control and Indicator Functions – continued

Control/Indicator Function
(Right Display) Longitude of destination set on DEST DISP thumbwheel.

SPH-VAR

(left Display) Spheroid code of destination set on DEST DISP thumbwheel.

(Right Display) Magnetic variation (in degrees and tenths of degrees) of destination set on DEST DISP
thumbwheel.

MEM Indicator Lamp Lights when radar portion of navigation set is in nontrack condition.

MAL Indicator Lamp Lights when navigation set malfunction is detected by built in self-test.

DIM Control Control light intensity of display characters.

Left, Right, and Lights to provide data in alphanumeric and numeric characters, as determined by setting of
Center Display DISPLAY switch, MODE switch, and operation of keyboard.
Lamps

Target Storage Displays destination number (memory location) in which present position will be stored when
Indicator TGT STR pushbutton is pressed.

TGT STR Stores present position data when pressed.


Pushbutton

KYBD Pushbutton Used in conjunction with the keyboard to allow data to be entered into the computer. Also
lights up keyboard when pushed the first time.

DEST DISP Destination display thumbwheel switch is used along with DEST-TGT and SPH-VAR position
Thumbwheel switch of switch to select destination whose coordinates or magnetic variation are to be displayed or
DISPLAY entered. Destinations are 0 though 9, P (Present Position) and H (Home).

Keyboard Used to set up data for entry into memory. When the DISPLAY switch is tuned to the position
in which new data is required and the KYBD pushbutton is pressed, data may be displayed
on the appropriate left, right, and center display. To display a number, press the
corresponding key or keys (1 through 0). To display a letter, first depress the key
corresponding to the desired letter. Then depress a key in the left, middle, or right column,
corresponding to the position of the letter on the key. Example: to enter an L, first depress L,
then 3, 6, or 9 in the right column.

FLY-TO DEST Selects the destination for which XTK/TKE and DIST/BRG/TIME are displayed when the
Thumbwheel switch DISPLAY switch is turned to either of these positions from which steering information is
desired. Destinations are 0 through 9, and H (Home).

ENT key Enters data set up on keyboard into memory when pressed.

CLR key Clears last entered character when pressed once. When pressed twice, clears entire display
panel under keyboard control.

3-40 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

b. Navigate Mode. In the navigate mode (UTM or b. Data Entry. To enter a number, press the corre-
LATT/LONG position of the MODE selector switch), pow- sponding key. To enter a letter, first press the key corre-
er is applied to all system components, and all required sponding to the desired letter. Then press a key in the left,
outputs and functions are provided. Changes in present middle, or right column corresponding to the position of
position are computed and added to initial position to de- the letter on the pushbutton.For Example: To enter an L,
first press L, then either 3, 6, or 9 in the right column. The
termine the instantaneous latitude/longitude of the heli-
computer program is designed to reject unacceptable
copter. Destination and present position coordinates can
data (for example, a UTM area of WI does not exist and
be entered and displayed in UTM and latitude/longitude. will be rejected). If the operator attempts to insert unac-
At the same time, distance, bearing and time-to-go to any ceptable data, the display will be blank after ENT is
one of ten preset destinations are computed and dis- pressed.
played as selected by the FLY TO DEST thumbwheel.
c. Starting Procedure.

(1). Lamp Test


c. Backup Mode. In this mode, remembered veloc- 1. MODE selector switch – LAMP TEST. All
ity data are used for navigation. The operator can insert display segments and indicator lamp should
ground speed and track angle with the keyboard and the be on.
display in GS-TK position. This remembered velocity data
2. DIM control – Turn fully clockwise, then fully
can be manually updated through use of the keyboard counterclockwise, and return to full clock-
and CDU DISPLAY selector switch in GS-TK position. wise. All segments of the display should al-
When GS-TK values are inserted under these conditions, ternately glow bright, go off, and then glow
navigation continues using only these values. bright.

(2). Test.

1. MODE selector switch – TEST.


3.14.7 Methods of Operation. Methods of operation
are as follows: NOTE

• Ignore the random display of alpha and


numeric characters which occurs during
a. Window Display and Keyboard Operation. In the first 15 seconds. Also ignore test ve-
locity and angle data displayed after the
all data displays except UTM coordinates, the two fields
display has frozen. A successful test can-
are the left and right display windows. In UTM coordinates
not be accomplished until HARS has
displays, the first field of control is the center window and completed BIT.
the second field is the combination of the left and right dis-
plays. When pressing the KYBD pushbutton, one or other
• If the MAL lamp lights during any mode of
operation except LAMP TEST, the CDU
of the fields described above is under control. If it is not MODE switch should be turned first to
desired to change the display in the panel section under OFF and then to TEST to verify the fail-
control, the pilot can advance to the next field of the dis- ure. If the MAL lamp remains on after re-
play panel by pressing the KYBD pushbutton again. The cycling to TEST, enter the failure of the
last character entered may be cleared by pressing the DNS on DA Form 2408-13–1 in the air-
CLR key. That character may be a symbol or an alphanu- craft log book.
meric character. However, if the CLR key is pressed twice • After approximately 15 seconds, one of
in succession, all characters in the field under control will the following displays in table 3-13 will be
be cleared, and that field will still remain under control. observed in the left and right displays:

Change 3 3-41
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-13. AN/ASN-128 Window Displays

DISPLAY REMARKS
LEFT RIGHT

GO No display. If right display is blank, system is operating satisfactorily.


Display
blank is
(normal).

GO P If right display is P, then pitch or roll data is missing, or pitch exceeds 90 deg. In this
case, pitch and roll in the computer are both set to zero and navigation continues in a
degraded operation. Problem may be in the HARS or helicopter cabling.
NOTE

If the TEST mode display is BU, MN or NG, the MODE switch should be recycled
through OFF to verify that the failure is not a momentary one. If the TEST mode display
is BU or MN, the data entry may be made in the UTM or LATT/LONG mode: but any
navigation must be carried on with the system in the BACKUP mode
BU C,R,S, or H A failure has occurred and the system has automatically switched to a BACK-UP mode
followed by of operation as follows:
a numeric
code 1. If no true airspeed is available, last remembered velocity is being used for navigation.

2. The operator has the option of turning the MODE switch to BACKUP and entering the
best estimate of ground speed and track angle.

3. If true airspeed is available, true airspeed plus remembered wind is used for
navigation.

NOTE

The operator has the option of turning the MODE switch to BACKUP and entering his
best estimate of wind speed, direction, ground speed, and track angle. The operator
should update present position immediately because it is possible that significant
navigation errors may have accumulated.

MN C,R,S, or H A failure has occurred and the BACKUP mode, used for manual navigation (MN), is the
followed by only means of valid navigation. The operator may use the computer as a dead reckoning
a numeric device by entering ground speed and track data. The operator should update present
code position immediately because it is possible significant navigation errors may have
accumulated.

NG C,R,S, or H A failure has occurred in the system and the operator should not use the system.
followed by
a numeric
code

EN The 9 V battery has failed. All stored data must be reentered. This display may be
cleared by pressing the KYBD pushbutton.

3-42 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

d. Entering UTM DATA. Enter the following initial 4. KYBD pushbutton – Press. Observe display
data (para 3.14.3.b) before navigating with the doppler: freezes and TGT STR indicator blanks. Press
KYBD pushbutton again and observe left dis-
play blanks. If no spheroid data is to be entered,
(1). Spheroid of operation, when using UTM coordi- depress KYBD pushbutton again and proceed
nates. to step 6.

5. Enter Spheroid data. (Example: INO) Press


(2). UTM coordinates of present position zone, area, keys 3 (left window blanks), 3, 5, 5, and 0. Left
easting (four significant digits), and northing display should indicate INO.
(four significant digits). Latitude/longitude coor-
dinates may be used. 6. KYBD pushbutton – Press. Observe right dis-
play blanks. If no variation data is to be entered,
press ENT key.
(3). Variation of present position to the nearest one-
tenth degree. 7. Enter Variation data. (Example: E 01.2.) Press
keyboard 2 (right window blanks), 2, 0, 0, 1, and
(4). Coordinates of desired destination – 0 through 5 2 display indicates NO E 01.2. Press ENT key.
and H (6 through 9 are normally used for target The entire display will blank and TGT STR num-
store locations but may also be used for destina- ber will reappear. Display should indicate INO E
tions). It is not necessary to enter all destina- 01.2.
tions in the same coordinate system.
f. Entering Present Position or Destination In
UTM.
NOTE
1. MODE selector switch – UTM.

It is not necessary to enter destinations un- 2. DISPLAY selector switch – DEST-TGT


less steering information is required; unless,
it is desired to update present position by 3. DEST DISP thumbwheel – P, numerical, or H, as
overflying a destination; or, unless a present desired.
position variation computation is desired
4. Enter present position and destination. (Exam-
(paragraph 3.14.7.g.). If a present position
ple: entry of zone 31T, area CF, easting 0958,
variation running update is desired, destina-
and northing 3849.)
tion variation must be entered. The operator
may enter one or more destination varia-
a. KYBD pushbutton – Press. Observe that
tions to effect the variation update. It is not
display freezes and TGT STR indicator
necessary for all destinations to have asso-
blanks
ciated variations entered.
b. To enter zone 31T KYBD button – Press.
(5). Variations of destinations to be nearest one-
Observe that center display blanks.
tenth degree.
c. Keys 3, 1, 7, and 8 – Press.
e. Entering Spheroid and/or Variation.
d. To enter area CF, easting 0958, and north-
ing 3849, KYBD button – Press. Observe
1. MODE selector switch – UTM (LATT/LONG, or left and right displays blank.
BACKUP may also be used).
e. Keys 1, 3, 2, 3, 0, 9, 5, 8, 3, 8, 4, and 9 –
Press.
2. DISPLAY selector switch – SPH-VAR.
f. ENT pushbutton – Press. Left, right, and
center displays will momentarily blank and
3. DEST DISP thumbwheel – P, numeral, or H, as TGT STR number will appear. Displays
desired. should indicate 31T CF 09583849.

Change 3 3-43
TM 1-1520-238-10

g. Entering Present Position or Destination Varia- 4. ENT pushbutton – Press. The entire display will
tion In LAT/LONG. The variation of a destination must blank, and TGT STR number will reappear. Dis-
be entered after the associated destination coordinates play should indicate 131 024 degrees.
are entered (since each time a destination is entered, its
associated variation is deleted). The order of entry for i. Initial Data Entry. Initial data entry variation
present position is irrelevant coordinates are normally done prior to takeoff. To make
the initial data entry, do the following:
NOTE
1. Present position variation – Enter (para
If operation is to occur in a region with rela- 3.14.7.f).
tively constant variation, the operator enters
variation only for present position, and the 2. DISPLAY selector switch – DEST-TGT.
computer will use this value throughout the
flight. 3. DEST DISP thumbwheel – P. Do not press ENT
key now.
1. MODE selector switch – LATT/LON
4. ENT pushbutton – Press as helicopter is sitting
2. DISPLAY selector switch – DEST-TGT.
over or overflies initial fix position.
3. DEST DISP thumbwheel – P, numerical, or H, as
5. FLY-TO DEST thumbwheel – Desired destina-
desired.
tion location.
4. Present position or destination – Enter. (Exam-
3.14.8 Operating Procedures.
ple: Entry of N41 degrees 10.1 minutes and EO
35 degrees 50.2 minutes.) Press KYBD push-
a. Update of Present Position From Stored Des-
button. Observe that display freezes and TGT
tination. The helicopter is flying to a destination set by
STR indicator blanks. Press KYBD pushbutton
the FLY TO DEST thumbwheel. When the helicopter is
again and observe left display blanks. To enter
over the destination,the computer updates the present
latitude press keys 5, 5, 4, 1, 1, 0 and 1. To enter
position when the KYBD pushbutton is pressed. This is
longitude press KYBD pushbutton (right display
accomplished by using stored destination coordinates for
should clear) and keys 2, 2, 0, 3, 5, 5, 0, and 2
the destination number shown in FLY TO DEST window
and adding to them the distance traveled between the
5. ENT pushbutton – Press. Entire display will
time the KYBD pushbutton was pressed and the ENT key
blank and TGT STR number will reappear. Dis-
was pressed.
play should indicate N41 degrees 10.1 EO 35
degrees 50.2.
1. DISPLAY selector switch – DIST/BRG-TIME.
h. Entering Ground Speed and Track.
2. KYBD pushbutton – Press when helicopter is
over the destination. Display freezes.
1. MODE selector switch – BACK UP.
NOTE
2. DISPLAY selector switch – GS-TK.
If a present position update is not desired as
3. Ground speed and track – Enter. (Example: En-
indicated by an appropriately small value of
ter 131 km/h and 024 degrees). Press KYBD
distance to go on overflying the destination,
pushbutton. Observe that left display freezes
set the DISPLAY selector to some other
and TGT STR indicator blanks. To enter ground
position. This aborts the update mode.
speed press keys 1, 3 and 1. Left display blanks:
To enter track angle press keys 0, 2, and 4. 3. ENT key – Press.

3-44 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

b. Update of Present Position From Land- 3. To center the pointer, fly the helicopter in the di-
mark. There are two methods for updating present posi- rection of the course deviation bar on the HSI.
tion from a landmark. Method 1 is useful if the landmark
comes up unexpectedly and the operator needs time to d. Target Store (TGT STR) Operation. Two meth-
determine the coordinates. Method 2 is used when a land- ods may be used for target store operation. Method 1 is
mark update is anticipated. normally used when time is not available for preplanning a
target store operation. Method 2 is used when time is
1. Method 1. available and it is desired to store a target in a specific
DEST DISP position.
a. DISPLAY selector switch – PP.
1. Method 1.
b. KYBD pushbutton – Press as landmark is
a. TGT STR pushbutton – Press when flying
overflown. Present position display will
over target. Present position is automatical-
freeze. Compare landmark coordinates with
ly stored and the destination location is that
those on display.
which was displayed in the target store indi-
cator (position 6, 7, 8, or 9) immediately be-
(1) Landmark coordinates – Enter. If differ- fore pressing the TGT STR pushbutton.
ence warrant an update.
2. Method 2.
(2) ENT key – Press if update is required.
a. MODE selector switch – UTM or LATT/
(3) DISPLAY selector switch – Set to some LONG, depending on coordinate format de-
other position to abort update. sired.

2. Method 2 b. DISPLAY selector switch – DEST-TGT.

a. DISPLAY selector switch – DEST/TGT. c. DEST DISP thumbwheel – P.

b. DEST DISP thumbwheel – P. Present posi- d. KYBD pushbutton – Press when overflying
tion coordinates should be displayed. potential target. Display should freeze.

NOTE
c. KYBD pushbutton – Press. Observe that
display freezes.
Do not press ENT key while DEST DISP
thumbwheel is at P.
d. Landmark coordinates – Manually enter via
keyboard. e. If it is desired to store the target, turn DEST
DISP thumbwheel to destination location
e. ENT key – Press when overflying landmark. desired and press ENT key.

f. If it is not desired to store the target, mo-


f. DISPLAY selector switch – Set to some oth-
mentarily place DISPLAY selector switch to
er position to abort update.
another position.

c. Left-Right Steering Signals. Flying shortest e. Transferring Stored Target Coordinates From
distance to destination from present position: One Location to Another. The following procedure al-
lows the operator to transfer stored target coordinates
1. DISPLAY selector switch – XTK-TKE. from one thumbwheel location to another. For example: it
is assumed that the pilot wants to put the coordinates of
2. MODE selector switch – UTM. stored target 7 into location of destination 2.

Change 3 3-45
TM 1-1520-238-10

NOTE power interruption, the display will indicate an EN when


power returns. This indicates to the pilot that previously
Throughout this procedure, range, time-to- stored data has been lost and present position (spheroid/
go, bearing, and left/right steering data are variation) and destinations must be entered. The comput-
computed and displayed for the destination er, upon return of power, resets present position variation
selected via the FLY TO DEST thumbwheel. to EO 00.0-degree destination, and associated variations
to a non-entered state, and remembers wind to zero and
1. DISPLAY selector switch – DEST-TGT.
spheroid to CL6. The following data must be entered fol-
lowing battery failure:
2. DEST DISP thumbwheel – 7.

3. KYBD pushbutton – Press. 1. Enter spheroid.

4. DEST DISP thumbwheel – 2.


2. Enter present position variation.
5. ENT key – Press.
3. Enter present position.
f. Transferring Variation From One Location to
Another. The procedure to transfer variation data to the
4. Enter each destination and its associated varia-
same location where the associated stored target coordi-
tion.
nates have been transferred is the same as in para
3.14.8.e, except that the DISPLAY selector switch is
placed at SPH-VAR. i. Stopping Procedure.

g. Dead Reckoning Navigation. As an alternate 1. MODE selector switch – OFF.


BACKUP mode, dead reckoning navigation can be done
using ground speed and track angle estimates provided
by the operator. 3.15 AN/ASN-137 DNS CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS.

1. MODE selector switch – BACKUP. The AN/ASN–137 DNS uses the IP–1552G CDU to com-
municate for data entry and display. The CDU (fig 3-12)
2. DISPLAY selector switch – GS-TK. has a full alphanumeric keyboard for data entry, 13 special
purpose fixed action buttons (FAB), and 8 variable action
3. Best estimate of ground speed and track angle – buttons (VAB). In the non integrated navigation system
enter via keyboard. only 6 of the FABs are active: NAV, FDLS, STR, SPC,
CLR and FLPN. The CDU display architecture is orga-
4. MODE selector switch – Set to any other posi- nized in page formats. Each page can display information
tion to abort procedure. on 8 separate lines. The bottom line is always the data
entry scratchpad, which is 22 characters wide. The 8
h. Operation During and After Power Interrup- VABs are arranged 4 on each side of the CDU display.
tion. During a dc power interruption, the random access The function performed by the VAB depends on the partic-
memory (RAM) (stored destination and present position) ular page displayed. VABs may be used to transfer data to
data is retained by power from a 9-volt dc dry nicad bat- or from the scratchpad to a specific location on the display
tery. This makes it unnecessary to reenter any navigation- or select another page to perform other functions. The
al data when power returns or before each flight. If the bat- CDU IP–1552G is located in the CPG right–hand console.
tery does not retain the stored destination data during The function of each is described in table 3-14.

3-46 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

DISPLAY

VARIABLE ACTION VARIABLE ACTION


BUTTONS (VABs) BUTTONS (VABs)

BRT CONTROL

NAV FIXED ACTION BUTTON

FDLS FIXED ACTION BUTTON


KEYBOARD KEYS

STR FIXED ACTION BUTTON

LEFT, RIGHT,
UP AND DOWN
ARROW KEYS

SPC FIXED CLR FIXED FPLN FIXED


ACTION BUTTON ACTION BUTTON ACTION BUTTON M01-216

Figure 3-12. CDU IP–1552G, Used with AN/ASN-137 DNS

Table 3-14. AN/ASN–137 Control and Display Functions

Control/Display Function

Display Screen Display formats are organized as pages with 8 display lines; the bottom line is always used
as the scratchpad for entering or editing data.

Keyboard Alphanumeric keyboard is used for entering data.

Left/Right Arrows Move the cursor one space left or right, as appropriate, per keystroke. When pressed
constantly, will move the cursor at about 4 character positions per second.

Up/Down Arrows Scroll through the waypoint dictionary pages, one page per keystroke. When constantly
pressed, will scroll through all dictionary pages at about one page per second.

BRT Control Adjust display brightness.

CLR If pressed in response to an ERROR prompt in the scratchpad, will clear the error prompt
and position the cursor at the first detected data entry error. If pressed a second time, will
clear the entire scratchpad. If no ERROR prompt is present when CLR is pressed, it will clear
the entire scratchpad.

SPC Enters a blank space character.

STR Stores DNS present position in storage locations 16 through 19 in circular rotation.

Change 3 3-47
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-14. AN/ASN–137 Control and Display Functions – continued

Control/Display Function

FPLN Displays the first (H-1-2) of 7 waypoint dictionary pages. Dictionary pages may then be
scrolled using the UP/DOWN ARROW keys.

NAV Displays NAV top level page. Pressing the NAV FAB will override all other display pages and
return the CDU display to the NAV top level page.

FDLS Used to access the FDLS Test page. DNS and CDU FDLS tests are initiated from this page.

COM Not active.

IFF Not active.

ATHS Not active.

TGT Not active.

CODE Not active.

DATA Not active.

3.15.1 Modes of Operation. There are four modes of in backup mode. The CPG can change the
operation: navigation, backup, hover bias calibration ground speed used by entering his computed or
(HBCM), and test (On Command and Continuous). When best estimation of ground speed on the NAV top
electrical power is first applied to the helicopter, the CDU level page. Ground speed can only be entered
is powered and the NAV top level page is displayed as by the CPG when the DNS is in backup mode.
shown in paragraph a. The DNS is not powered at this
time.

NOTE
c. HBCM. The HBCM calibrates the DNS system
All data and messages shown in displays for small velocity errors that may be present in
are typical representations. the doppler receiver/transmitter subsystem. The
a. Navigation Mode. This is the initial power-up velocity bias corrections computed by the DNS
mode of the DNS. In navigation mode, power is computer and are applied to all subsequent dop-
applied to all DNS components. Computed pres- pler radar velocities. The velocity bias (error),
ent position data is derived by the DNS comput- when present, will be most noticeable when the
er from doppler radar data. This is the most ac- helicopter is at a hover or slow speeds. The rea-
curate navigation mode. son is that at a hover the velocity error, although
small is about the same amount as the actual
b. Backup Mode. The backup mode is manually helicopter velocity. When HBCM is selected, the
selected by the CPG. Backup mode is usually
CPG can manually start and stop the calibration.
selected for only one of two reasons: DNS FDLS
If a calibration NO-GO status is displayed at the
has detected a failure of the doppler RTA or a
heading input failure. In this mode the DNS com- conclusion, a recalibration may be restarted by
puter uses the last valid doppler radar ground the CPG. If a GO calibration is computed, the
speed for navigation calculations. Dynamic dop- bias velocities will automatically be stored and
pler radar velocities will not be available. The applied continuously to all subsequent naviga-
(HARS) will go into free inertial when the DNS is tion computations.

3-48 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

d. Test Mode. The DNS and CDU have both Con- OFF, BACKUP, MODE UTM or MODE L/L, and DISPL
tinuous and On Command FDLS tests. The KPH or DISPLKTS.
DNS continuous test checks the doppler anten-
na (RTA), and doppler signal data converter If the HBCM VAB on the ADMIN page or FDLS FAB is
computer (SDCC). The CDU monitors its own pressed the CDU will NOT revert automatically back to the
internal functions and the dedicated 1553B mux NAV top level page. The NAV top level page can be
bus between the CDU and DNS SDCC. If a fail- manually selected at any time from any page by pressing
ure is detected by the Continuous test, the CDU the NAV FAB.
will display the prompt √ FDLS on line 6 of the
NAV top level page. The CPG can then display a. NAV Top Level Page. The NAV top level page
system status by pressing the FDLS fixed action (fig 3-13) will be displayed approximately 30 seconds after
button (FAB). The CPG can initiate the ON Com- aircraft electrical power is applied. No data will be dis-
mand test from the FDLS page. The On Com- played until the DNS power is turned on. The DNS is pow-
mand test initiates a full DNS subsystem compo- ered by pressing the ADMIN VAB and then pressing the
nent test. If no failures are detected, the CDU PWR OFF VAB on the ADMIN page. The DNS indicates a
will display the pitch, roll, and inertial heading, in failure if it is powered and the HARS is OFF or in the first
degrees, currently being used by the DNS. The 90 seconds of alignment. When the DNS is powered, the
pitch and roll angles will reflect the actual orien- NAV top level page (fig 3-14) will display the following:
tation of the helicopter on level ground, pitch will
be approximately 4.5 to 5.5°, and roll should be
about 0.0. If the helicopter has a lean due to cy-
clic or pedal inputs, this will be reflected in the
PPOS
roll angle displayed. The heading value dis-
var sph
played is the inertial heading of the helicopter;
BRG DEG ADMIN
HSI/RMI heading plus or minus the magnetic
variation. DIST TTG
TKA DEG GS KPH

FLY TO TGT
3.15.2 CDU Displays. The CDU display architecture
is organized into page formats. Each page consists of 8
display lines. The first seven are 22 characters wide for
displaying data. The bottom (eighth) line is 21 characters M01-218-1
wide and is a scratchpad for entering or editing data. Indi-
vidual pages may display navigation data, display failure
messages, or indicate selectable functions. The CDU dis- Figure 3-13. Power Up Display, NAV Top Level –
plays are categorized into 5 basic page formats: NAV top DNS PWR OFF
level, ADMIN, FDLS, HBCM, and FPLN. The CDU dis-
play will automatically revert back to the NAV top level
page based on two basic rules:
PPOS12SVN32620377
varE12.3 sphCL6
Rule 1. – The CDU will revert to the NAV top level page
BRG 324 DEG ADMIN
automatically from the ADMIN or any of the FPLN (way-
point dictionary pages after 30 seconds if there are no DIST - - -.- KM TTG - - -
characters in the scratchpad. The 30 second timer is reset TKA 000 DEG GS OKPH
each time a FPLN page is scrolled with the Up/Down ar- MEMORY
row when the scratchpad contains no data. Remember: If FLY TO 1 TGT 18
the scratchpad contains any data the display will NOT au-
tomatically revert back to the NAV top level page.
M01-218-4
Rule 2. – The CDU will revert to the NAV top level page
automatically from the ADMIN page 3 seconds after
pressing any of the following (VAB)s: PWR ON or PWR Figure 3-14. NAV Top Level Page – PWR ON

Change 3 3-49
TM 1-1520-238-10

NOTE

PWR OFF HBCM


Refer to Data Entry and Operating Proce- ADMIN
dures (para 3.14.7.f and 3.14.8 ) as neces- TKAE XTKE
sary.
ZERO MODE
Line 1. – PPOS represents the current DNS computed
present position in either UTM or LAT/LONG. The PPOS BACKUP DSPL
data may be changed or edited.

Line 2. – var and sph are the magnetic variation and


spheroid associated with the PPOS. var and sph may be M01-218-2
changed or edited.

Figure 3-15. ADMIN Page – PWR OFF


Line 3. – BRG is the direct bearing to the destination spe-
cified in the FLY TO position on line 7. ADMIN is a VAB
label that selects the page for the various administrative
functions associated with the DNS.
PWR ON HBCM
Line 4. – DIST and TTG are the distance and time-to-go ADMIN
(at current ground speed) to the destination specified in TKAE LOO8 XTKE L 0.0
the FLY TO position. DIST will display in either kilometers
or nautical miles, independent of the PPOS data, as se- ZERO MODE UTM
lected on the ADMIN page.
BACKUP OFF DSPL KM

Line 5. – TKA and GS are the computed track angle and


ground speed. Ground speed may be displayed in either
kilometers per hour (KPH) or knots as selected on the M01-218-3
ADMIN page. The units for both DIST and GS are same
for a given selection: KM and KPH, or NM and KTS. Figure 3-16. ADMIN Page – PWR ON
Line 1. – PWR OFF or PWR ON is an alternate action VAB
Line 6. – This is the CDU and DNS status line. The line powering the DNS. HBCM selects the Hover Bias Calibra-
may be blank or display MEMORY, BACKUP, or √FDLS. tion Mode page.
A display on this line indicates that the DNS has either lost Line 2. – Identifies the ADMIN page.
radar lock: MEMORY; the CPG has manually selected
BACKUP; or the Continuous FDLS test has detected a Line 3. TKAE is a data display only showing the Track
fault in the CDU/DNS system. Angle Error. The L or R character specifies which direction
to steer to reduce the TKAE to zero. XTKE is a data dis-
play only showing the Cross Track Error in kilometers or
Line 7. – FLY TO shows the selected destination to which
nautical miles.
the DNS is navigating. The displayed value can be any of
the 20 locations in; the FPLN dictionary; 0 (or H) through Line 4. – Blank.
19. The FLY TO number can be changed. TGT displays
Line 5. – ZERO is a function which permits zeroizing the
the storage location that will be used next when the STR
CDU or DNS memory. The specific system to zero is ac-
FAB is pressed; locations 16 to 19 are used repetitively.
complished by entering either CDU or DNS in the scratch-
pad and pressing the ZERO VAB. Zeroizing the CDU will
Line 8. – This is the scratchpad line for data entry. FPLN dictionary storage locations to default values. Zero-
ing the DNS will cause loss of HBCM data. MODE L/L or
MODE UTM is an alternate action VAB selecting the coor-
b. ADMIN Page. The ADMIN page (fig 3-15 and
dinate system for display and data entry of coordinate
3-16), is used to select other modes of DNS operation and
data.
administrative DNS management and display functions.
The ADMIN page has the following: Line 6 – Blank.

3-50 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

Line 7. – BACKUP ON or BACKUP OFF is an alternate Line 8. – Scratchpad. Not used in HBCM.
action VAB selecting DNS BACKUP mode. DSPL KM or
DSPL NM is an alternate action VAB that permits switch of d. FDLS Page. The FDLS page, (fig 3-18), is used
DIST and GS only from KM/KPH to NM/KTS and back. to initiate the On Command FDLS test function. The FDLS
page is selected by pressing the FDLS FAB. The FDLS
Line 8. – Scratchpad. page has the following display.
c. HBCM Page. The HBCM page, (fig 3-17), is
used to START and STOP the bias calibration of the DNS.
The 30-second automatic reversion to NAV top level page
is disabled when HBCM is selected. Refer to paragraph
3.15.c for HBCM operating procedures. The display has
the following:

TEST
START HBCM STOP
HBCM READY

M01-218-16
TIME: 00:00
Figure 3-18. FDLS Page

Line 1 through Line 6. – Blank.


Line 7. – TEST initiates the On Command FDLS test for
M01-218-10 the CDU and DNS.
Line 8.– Scratchpad. Not used in FDLS.
Figure 3-17. HBCM Page
e. FPLN Page. The FPLN FAB selects the waypoint
Line 1. – START is used to activate the HBCM calibration. coordinate dictionary pages. The first FPLN page (fig
HBCM identifies the page. STOP is used to terminate the 3-19), displayed when the FPLN FAB is pressed is deter-
calibration. mined by the FLY TO selection on the NAV top level page.
Line 2. – HBCM READY indicates the DNS is ready to
start the calibration sequence. HBCM ACTIVE, HBCM
GO, and HBCM NO-GO will also be displayed on the line
as appropriate. H 12S VN 2222 2830
E012.9 CL6
Line 3. – Error messages pertinent loan HBCM condition 1* 12S VN 3262 0377
are displayed on this line. E012.9 CL6
2 12S VN 5086 2840
Line 4. – Blank.
E012.9 CL6
Line 5. – TIME XX:XX indicates elapsed time in minutes/
seconds for DNS computations of the bias calibration.
The timer will stop while the DNS is in memory during the
bias calibration.
M01-218-15
Line 6. – Blank.

Line 7. – Blank. Figure 3-19. FPLN Dictionary Page

Change 3 3-51
TM 1-1520-238-10

The waypoints are organized on pages as shown in table a. General Data Entry and Data Correction. General
3-15. data entry and data correction procedures follow the ex-
ample of PPOS, var, sph, and MODE UTM on the NAV
top level page.
Table 3-15. Waypoints
DATA ENTRY EXAMPLE
Page Waypoints 1. Use the keyboard keys, (fig 3–11), enter the fol-
1 Home 1, 2 lowing into the scratchpad:
2 3, 4, 5 12SVN32620377E12C5
3 6, 7, 8
NOTE
4 9, 10, 11
5 12, 13, 14 • The last character (5) is deliberately erro-
neous.
6 15, 16, 17
7 18 and 19
• Observe that each character appears on
the scratchpad, left justified, as it is en-
tered.
The Up/Down arrow keys can be used to scroll through 2. PPOS – Press. Observe that the scratchpad dis-
the FPLN dictionary pages. An * is shown immediately af- play alternates between the data entered and
ter the storage location currently being used for FLY TO the prompt ERROR.
computations and it cannot be changed until some other
location is chosen to FLY TO. The page has the following 3. CLR FAB – Press. Error prompt is cleared and
data organization: the data in the scratchpad has the cursor posi-
tioned under the error as shown below:
Line 1. – Displays the coordinate location data.
12SVN32620377E12C5_
Line 2. – Displays the magnetic variation and spheroid as-
NOTE
sociated with the coordinate data above it.
The cursor is positioned under the first error
Line 3. – Displays the next coordinate location data. detected. If more than one error is detected,
the cursor moves left to right to the next er-
Line 4. – Displays the magnetic variation and spheroid as- ror. Continue editing until all data is cor-
sociated with the coordinate data above it. rected.
4. Enter 6. Observe that 5 changes to 6.
Line 5. – Displays the next coordinate location data.
5. PPOS – Press. Observe that the scratchpad is
Line 6. – Displays the magnetic variation and spheroid as- now blank and lines 1 and 2 of the CDU display
sociated with the coordinate data above it. appear as follows:

PPOS 12S VN 3262 0377


Line 7 – Blank.
var E012.0 sph CL6
Line 8. – Scratchpad for data input. 3.15.4 Power Up Procedures. The steps in this pro-
cedure list actions required (and expected CDU display
3.15.3 Data Entry Procedures. The CDU display pres- results) to ready the DNS for flight. Refer to Data Entry
ent position can be manually updated, waypoint locations (para 3.15.3 ) for detailed techniques and parameters of
stored, FLY TO destination selected and other data en- such actions as:
tries made via the CDU keyboard. Keyboard entries ap- • UTM or L/L Coordinate Entries
pear on the scratchpad. The CDU checks the validity of all
data entered before it transfers the data to the appropriate • Hover Bias Calibration
location on the display. • General Data Entry and Error Correction

3-52 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

a. Display Check.

1. BRT – Rotate control fully clockwise. Observe NAV SYS TEST IN PROG
brightness change.

2. BRT – Adjust control for best visibility of display.

b. DNS Power On. TEST

1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN Page


is displayed
M01-218-6

2. PWR OFF – Press. Observe PWR OFF


changes to PWR ON for three seconds then
Figure 3-20. FDLS Test in Progress (Normal Mode)
CDU display changes to NAV top level present
position page.

NOTE
CDU/DNS GO
END OF LIST
• If PWR OFF changes to PWR ––– or the
NAV top level present position page is
not displayed after approximately three H P R
seconds, the DNS has failed. 120.0 005.0 000.5
TEST
• If the RAM battery has failed, all naviga-
tion data in the SDCC memory is lost and
the following prompts are automatically
displayed on the FDLS page (fig 3-22).
M01-218-7
DNS RAM ERASED
DNS IN REMEMBERED VEL
END OF LIST Figure 3-21. FDLS Status Page – On Command
Test Results GO
c. FDLS Test.
d. Selecting MODE UTM or L/L and DSPL KM or
KTS. If the operator desires to switch between MODE
1. FDLS – Press. Observe that the Continuous
UTM and MODE L/L or DSPL KM and DSPL KTS, per-
Test Results – FDLS Page is displayed, as
form the following:
shown in figure 3-20.
1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN page
2. TEST – Press. Observe that NAV SYS TEST IN is displayed.
PROG is displayed until the test is complete and
data is available for DNS test status.
2. MODE UTM – Press to change to MODE L/L or
vice versa.
3. If a GO message is displayed (fig 3-21), press
the NAV FAB. 3. DSPL KM – Press to change to DSPL KTS or
vice versa.
NOTE
e. Coordinate Entries for FPLN dictionary.
The heading, pitch and roll values are calcu-
lated and displayed approximately five sec- 1. FPLN FAB – Press. Observe that FPLN dictio-
onds after the GO message. nary page is displayed.

Change 3 3-53
TM 1-1520-238-10

2. Use up and down arrow keys to scroll to FPLN NOTE


dictionary page 1 (locations H, 1 and 2).
The procedure can be aborted by pressing
3. Use the keyboard to enter H coordinate data into top right VAB.
scratchpad.
d. FLY TO – Press. Observe that the present
position coordinate data is now updated to
UTM EXAMPLE
that of the stores waypoint.
11SGQ52184911E14.8C6
3.15.5 Operating Procedures. When first powered up
the DNS is in navigation mode. Most functions and modes
LAT/LONG EXAMPLE
of operation are accessed via the NAV top level present
position page. Exceptions are the On Command Test and
N7425.9W12057.6E10.5
FPLN dictionary Pages.
4. Press left hand VAB of desired storage location
1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN page
(H). Observe that the scratchpad is now blank
is displayed.
and the entered data now appears on lines 1and
2 (H location) of CDU display.
2. PWR OFF – Press. Observe PWR OFF
changes to PWR ON and CDU display changes
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4, entering data and press- to NAV top level present position page after 3
ing appropriate VAB for each waypoint to be en- seconds.
tered. Use Down and Up arrow keys to scroll
through FPLN dictionary pages as desired. NOTE
6. NAV FAB – Press to display the NAV top level If PWR OFF changes to PWR ––– or the
page or allow time out to automatically revert to NAV top level present position page is not
NAV top level page. displayed after approximately three sec-
onds, the DNS has failed.
f. Coordinate Entries for PPOS. Coordinate en-
tries for PPOS data (including magnetic variation and If FDLS Status Page (fig 3-22) is displayed, the RAM bat-
spheroid) may be entered by two different methods. tery has failed. The DNS RAM battery test is only per-
formed at PWR ON. The On Command FDLS test can be
(1). Method 1 – Manual Keyboard Entry. initiated from this page by pressing TEST. Refer to On
Command Test (FDLS) part of this paragraph for detailed
1. Use the keyboard to enter coordinate data into procedures.
the scratchpad.

2. VAB 1 – Press. Observe that the coordinate data DNS RAM ERASED
now appears on lines 1and 2 of NAV top level
DNS IN REMEMBERED VEL
page display.
END OF LIST
(2). Method 2 – Updating to a Stored Waypoint.

1. Enter the number of the stored waypoint into the TEST


scratchpad.

2. FLY TO – Press. Observe that waypoint number


now appears after FLY TO
M01-218-5

b. Press top right VAB. Observe that FLY TO


changes to UPDATE TO. Figure 3-22. FDLS Page – Continuous Test Results

3-54 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

a. CDU or DNS Memory Zeroize. The DNS c. HBCM. In HBCM the DNS determines the hover
memory zeroize function is used for maintenance pur- bias velocities in both the longitudinal and lateral axis of
poses only after the CDU or signal data converter has the DNS. The computed bias velocity corrections are ap-
been replaced. The CDU memory zeroize resets all flight plied to all future DNS hover velocity computations.
plan dictionary page waypoints to bogus default values. HBCM is accessed via the NAV top level present position
This is done from the NAV top level present position page and ADMIN pages.
as follows:
NOTE
1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN page Hover bias calibration only needs to be per-
is displayed. formed when the signal data converter or
RTA has been replaced.
2. Enter CDU on the scratchpad. 1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN page
is displayed.
3. ZERO – Press.
2. HBCM – Press. Observe that the HBCM page
4. FPLN – Press. Observe that all locations on the
(fig 3-17) is displayed.
FPLN dictionary page displayed contain the
similar default values: NOTE

31T BV 6355 8711 • If line 2 of the HBCM page does not dis-
E 000.0 sph CL6 play HBCM READY, the DNS has failed.
• The time indicated on line 5 of the HBCM
5. Using the up and down arrow keys, scroll page increments only when DNS is per-
through all FPLN dictionary pages, observing forming hover bias computations. if the
that all location contain the default value. DNS goes into memory mode, the time
display halts until the signal from the RTA
6. NAV – Press. Observe that the NAV top level is sufficient for DNS computations.
present position page is displayed with default
data next to the captions. 3. START – Press. Observe that on line 2 HBCM
READY changes to HBCM ACTIVE and on line
b. BACKUP Mode. In the BACKUP mode, the last 5 the time displayed begins incrementing.
remembered radar velocities become the source for navi-
gating. NOTE
The calibration continues until the CPG
This mode provides the capability to the operator of presses STOP to stop it. When the calibra-
manually entering GS and TKA via the NAV top level tion is stopped, the mode status will be dis-
present position page. played. Allow the calibration to run for at
least two minutes but not more than 8 min-
The BACKUP mode must be manually accessed. To op- utes.
erate the BACKUP mode do the following: 4. STOP – Press. Observe that the time display
freezes and a mode status message is dis-
1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN page played on line 2. If applicable, DNS error mes-
is displayed. sages will be displayed on lines 3 and 4. The
DNS indicates the HBCM update was accepted
when an HBCM GO is displayed or not accepted
2. BACKUP OFF – Press. Observe that BACKUP when an HBCM NO-GO message is displayed
OFF changes to BACKUP ON. along with a description of the exceeded limit(s)
on other lines. Possible DNS error messages
3. Enter GS data into the scratchpad and press are:
VAB 7. Observe the data is now displayed on
line 5 next to GS. TIME BELOW 2 MIN
4. Enter TKA data into the scratchpad and press TIME EXCEEDED 8.2 MIN
VAB 3. Observe that the data is now displayed BIAS EXCEEDS 0.3 KTS
on line 5 next to TKA. EXCESSIVE MEM CONDITION

Change 4 3-55
TM 1-1520-238-10

NOTE f. PPOS Updates to a Stored Waypoint Coordi-


nate. PPOS updates to a stored waypoint coordinate
are implemented from the NAV top level present position
page. When overflying a waypoint, do the following:
If a NO-GO condition is detected, a recal-
ibration can be initiated by pressing START
NOTE
again. This will zero the timer and allow for
additional bias velocities calculations. If ei-
A flashing UPDATE SPHEROID message
ther TIME message is displayed, re–initiate
will appear on the scratchpad if the FLY TO
the calibration. If the BIAS message is dis-
waypoint selected has a different spheroid
played, re–initiate calibration one time. If the
than the current present position data.
BIAS message is displayed again, write up
the system. If the excessive memory mes- 1. VAB 5 – Press. Observe PPOS data freezes and
sage is displayed, attempt to re–locate the FLY TO changes to UPDATE TO. The DNS con-
aircraft over a surface area that is a non–re- tinues to compute aircraft present position.
flective surface (short grass/coarse surface
area) and re–initiate the calibration. 2. FLY TO – Press to complete an update to the
position of the waypoint plus any offset distance
5. NAV FAB – Press to exit the HBCM. Observe traveled following the initiation of a PPOS up-
the CDU displays the NAV top level page. date.

3. To reject an update (abort), press either top right


VAB again or the NAV FAB.
d. MODE UTM or L/L. This is an alternate action
function which toggles PPOS and waypoint dictionary NOTE
coordinate displays between UTM and LAT/LONG. This is
done from the NAV top level present position page as fol- Following either an acceptance or rejection
lows: of a PPOS update, the CDU displays FLY
TO and resumes displaying DNS computed
PPOS and status data dynamically.
1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN page g. PPOS Updates to an Unstored Way-
is displayed. point. PPOS updates to an unstored waypoint are im-
plemented from the NAV top level present position page
as follows:
2. MODE UTM – Press to change to MODE L/L or
vice versa. 1. PPOS – Press. Observe PPOS changes to UP-
DATE and display freezes. This allows for com-
parison of DNS computed present position loca-
tion with a known present position location.
e. DISPLAY KM or KTS. This is an alternate action
function which toggles the DIST and GS displays between
NOTE
KM and KPH or NM and KTS respectively. This is done
from the NAV top level present position page as follows:
This type of PPOS update does not require
that the aircraft remain in a hover to update
the present position. This type of update
1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN page also provides for position compensation for
is displayed. any distance traveled following a PPOS up-
date.
2. To complete the PPOS update to a known value,
2. DSPL KM – Press to change to DSPL KTS or the operator enters the desired present position
vice versa. into the scratchpad and presses UPDT or:

3-56 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

3. Rejects (aborts) the PPOS update by pressing 11SGQ52184911E14.8C6


the NAV FAB.
Where 11S = Grid zone identifier
NOTE
GQ = UTM 100 KM-square identifier
Following either an acceptance or rejection 5218 = 52.18 KM Easting within GQ
of a PPOS update, the CDU resumes dis- 4911 = 49.11 KM Northing within GQ
playing DNS computed PPOS and status
E14.8 = Magnetic variation
data dynamically.
C6 = Spheroid identifier of CL6
h. FLY TO Destination Selection. The number
next to the FLY TO caption on line 7 specifies which pres-
tored waypoint the DNS is to navigate to. Valid FLY TO en-
A complete entry of UTM coordinates, magnetic variation
tries include values 1-19 and 0 or H. H and 0 are synony-
and spheroid data is not required under all circumstances.
mous. Enter a FLY TO destination as follows:
Refer to table 3-16 for partial data entry. When an incom-
plete set of data is entered into the CDU scratchpad:
1. Enter desired prestored waypoint value on
scratchpad.
Rule 1 – Order of Entry. The order of entry for UTM coordi-
2. FLY TO – Press. Observe that the entered value nates, magnetic variation and spheroid remains the same
now appears next to FLY TO and the scratchpad regardless of which parameters are or are not entered.
is now blank. They are: grid zone identifier, 100 KM-square identifier,
Easting/Northing; magnetic variation; and spheroid. Data
i. UTM Coordinate Entries for Waypoint Dictio- entered into the scratchpad is always justified on the left
nary. UTM coordinate entries, including magnetic varia- side.
tion and spheroid, may be entered into the waypoint coor-
dinate. The following is a typical format to be used when
entering UTM coordinates, magnetic variation and spher- Rule 2– Spheroid Change. Table 3-17 shows character
oid data in the CDU scratchpad: string entries that are required for sph data.

Table 3-16. Waypoint Dictionary – Partial Entry Rules

Partial Data
Entries Required Changes to Other Data
Grid Zone 100KM ID Easting/ Northing Magnetic Spheroid
Variation
Grid Zone Not Affected Change Note 1 Note 1
100KM ID Note 1 Change Note 1 Note 1
Easting/ Note 1 Note 1 Change Northing Note 1 Note 1
Northing Note 1 Note 1 Change Easting Note 1 Note 1
Magnetic Not Affected Not Affected Not Affected Note 2 Not Affected
Variation
Spheroid Not Affected Not Affected Not Affected Not Affected

Note 1: If data for this parameter is not entered, its value defaults to the values associated with PPOS.
Note 2: The character E or W must precede numeric values for magnetic variation. Leading and trailing zeros are
not required for magnetic variation. Entering a hyphen (-) sets the magnetic variation to no computed
data.

Change 3 3-57
TM 1-1520-238-10

Table 3-17. Spheroid String Entries

Spheroid Character String Entry Automatic Display


AUSTRALIAN AU AU0

BESSEL BE BE0

EVEREST EV EV0

INTERNATIONAL IN IN0

CLARKE 1880 C0 CL0

CLARKE 1866 C6 CL6

MALAYAN* MA MA0

* Currently not utilized

j. UTM Coordinate Entries for Present Posi- to table 3-18 for exceptions to waypoint dictionary en-
tion. When an incomplete set of UTM coordinate, mag- tries.
netic variation and spheroid are entered into PPOS, refer
Table 3-18. PPOS - Partial Entry Rules

Partial Data
Entries Required Changes to Other Data
Grid Zone 100KM ID Easting/ Northing Magnetic Spheroid
Variation

Grid Zone Change Change Not Affected Not Affected

100KM ID Not Affected Change Not Affected Not Affected

Easting/ Not Affected Not Affected Change Northing Not Affected Not Affected

Northing Not Affected Not Affected Change Easting Not Affected Not Affected

Magnetic Not Affected Not Affected Not Affected Note 1 Not Affected
Variation

Spheroid Not Affected Not Affected Not Affected Not Affected

Note 1: The character E or W must precede numeric values for magnetic variation. Leading and trailing zeros are
not required for magnetic variation. Entering a hyphen (-) sets the magnetic variation to no computed
data.

3-58 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

k. CDU Validity Checks For UTM Coordinate are flagged as erroneous. Valid parameters are as shown
Data. The CDU checks the parameters of all data en- in table 3-19.
tered through the scratchpad. Any non-valid characters

Table 3-19. UTM Coordinate Data – Valid Entries

Parameter Valid Entries

Grid Zone 1 – 60 for the first two characters. C – H, J – N and P – X for the third character.

UTM Identifier A – H, J – N and P – V for the most significant character.

Magnetic E or W and 0 – 180.0 degrees.


Variation

Spheroid AU, BE, EV, IN, C0, C6 and MA. MA is not currently utilized.

Fly-To 1 – 19 and H and 0. H and 0.are synonymous.

l. LATT/LONG Coordinate Entries for Waypoint NOTE


Dictionary. LATT/LONG coordinates, including mag-
netic variation, may be entered into the waypoint coordi- Leading zeros are required when entering
degrees or minutes of latitude and longi-
nates as a single character string. The following is a typi-
tude, i.e., N0905.5W01010.3 represents an
cal format used when entering LATT/LONG coordinates entry of 9 degrees 5.5 minutes North lati-
and magnetic variation. tude and 10 degrees 10.3 minutes West lon-
gitude.
Rule 1 – Latitude Range of Degrees. South latitude range
for entering degrees is 00 – 80 North latitude range for en-
N7425.9W12057.6E10.5 tering degrees is 00 – 84.
Rule 2 – Longitude Range of Degrees. The range for en-
Where N7425.9 = 74 degrees 25.9 minutes tering degrees is 000 – 180.
North Latitude
Rule 3 – Latitude Change. A change in latitude must be
W12057.6 = 120 degrees 57.6 minutes
accompanied by a change in longitude. Entry of magnetic
West Longitude
variation is optional. If magnetic variation is not entered,
E10.5 = 10.5 degrees East Magnetic its value defaults to the value associated with present
Variation position.
Rule 4 – Magnetic Variation Change. A change can be
made to magnetic variation without changing LATT/LONG
When LATT/LONG and magnetic variation are all en- coordinate data or affecting their values.
tered, the required sequence is latitude, longitude, then
magnetic variation. m. LATT/LONG Coordinate Entries for
PPOS. When an incomplete set of LATT/LONG coordi-
nates and magnetic variation is entered into PPOS, the
A complete entry of LATT/LONG coordinates and mag- following exception applies:
netic variation data is not required under all circum-
NOTE
stances. Data entered in the scratchpad is always left jus-
tified. The following rules apply when an incomplete set of A change in latitude must be accompanied
LATT/LONG coordinates and magnetic variation data is by a change in longitude. Magnetic variation
to be entered into the CDU scratchpad. remains unchanged.

Change 3 3-59
TM 1-1520-238-10

n. CDU Validity Checks for LATT/LONG Coordi- flagged as erroneous. Valid parameters are shown in
nate Data. The CDU checks the parameters of all data table 3-20.
entered into the scratchpad. Any nonvalid characters are
Table 3-20. LAT/LONG Coordinate Data

Parameter Valid Entries

PPOS Latitude N or S only.


1st Character

PPOS Latitude 00 – 84 for North latitude degrees.


Degrees 00 – 80 for South latitude degrees.

PPOS Minutes 00.0 – 59.9.

PPOS E or W only.
Longitude 1st
Character

PPOS 000 – 180.


Longitudinal
Degrees

PPOS 00.0 – 59.9.


Longitude
Minutes

Magnetic E or W and 0 – 180.0 degrees.


Variation

FLY TO 1 – 19 and H or 0. H and 0 are synonymous.

o. Waypoint Dictionary Pages and Transfer Func- 3. FPLN FAB – Press. Observe that FPLN way-
tions. Up to 20 waypoints can be entered into the way- point dictionary page 1 is displayed (Waypoints
point dictionary at one time. The waypoint dictionary home, 1 and 2).
pages are accessed via the FPLN FAB. If the CPG de-
sires to change display modes (UTM or LATT/LONG) be-
fore making entries into the waypoint dictionary, perform NOTE
steps 1 and 2. If the mode does not need to be changed,
go to step 3.
Refer to UTM or LATT/LONG coordinate
1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN page entries for waypoint dictionary paragraphs
is displayed. for entry details. Refer to CDU validity
checks for UTM or LATT/LONG coordinate
2. MODE UTM – Press. Observe that MODE UTM data for data entry parameters.
changes to MODE L/L or vice versa and after
three seconds the NAV top level present posi- 4. Enter the desired coordinates into the scratch-
tion page is displayed. pad.

3-60 Change 3
TM 1-1520-238-10

5. VAB – Press adjacent to the desired location For example: TGT 17 specified that at the time the STR
(waypoint number). Observe that the scratch- FAB was pressed, the instantaneous DNS PPOS data
pad is now blank and the data appears at the de- was stored into waypoint number 17.
sired waypoint location.
q. On Command Test (FDLS). The On Command
Test is the manually initiated portion of the CDU and DNS
The CDU allows for the transfer of coordinate
FDLS (para 3.15.c). If the continuous test causes an
data from one waypoint to another. To transfer
FDLS message to be displayed on line 7 of the NAV top
waypoints, set the CDU to MODE UTM and fol-
level present position page do the following:
low the example.
1. FDLS FAB – Press. Observe that the CDU/DNS
EXAMPLE system status is displayed as shown in figure
3-23.
6. FPLN FAB – Press. Observe that waypoint dic-
tionary page 1 (home, 1 and 2) is displayed.
CDU/DNS INTERFACE NOGO
7. Enter 12SWN00000000E12C6 into the scratch-
pad.
END OF LIST
8. VAB 1 – Press. Observe that the home waypoint
location now displays:
TEST
12S WN 0000 0000
E012.0 CL6
M01-218-8
and the scratchpad is now blank.

Figure 3-23. FDLS Status Page On-Command Test


9. VAB 5 – Press. Observe that the data in the Results NO-GO
home location is unchanged and the scratchpad
now displays the data entered in step 2. NOTE

10. Press down arrow key. Observe that waypoint An END OF LIST message is displayed fol-
dictionary page 2 (locations 3, 4, and 5) are now lowing the last message (GO or NO-GO). If
displayed. there are more than three malfunctions de-
tected, use the Down and Up arrow keys to
scroll through the display pages.
11. VAB 1 – Press. Observe that location 3 now con-
tains the same data as the home location. 2. One or more of the following continuous test
messages may be displayed:
p. Target Storage. The DNS target store function • DNS RAM ERASED
operates similarly to the AN/ASN-128 target function. To
perform this function, press the STR FAB. This will store • PROG PLUG NOT CONNECTED
DNS PPOS coordinate data, magnetic variation and or PROPERLY PROGRAMMED
spheroid data values into the waypoint number desig- • RTA NOT CONNECTED
nated on line 7 of the NAV top level present position page. • DNS IN REMEMBERED VEL
The TGT STR number automatically increments to the
next higher number after each storage function until it • GS/TKA ENTRY ENABLED
reached 19, then the counter will reset to 16. • CDU/DNS INTERFACE NO-GO

Change 3 3-61
TM 1-1520-238-10

3. The on command test GO/NO-GO self test can


be initiated any time the FDLS page is dis-
played. It is not necessary to wait for an √FDLS CDU/DNS GO
error message to be displayed before pressing END OF TEST
the FDLS FAB to display the FDLS page. The
GO/NO-GO self test is comprised of the follow- H P R
ing internal tests:
120.0 005.0 000.5
a. PROM Check sum verification. TEST

b. RAM read/write test.

M01-218-18
c. Limited non-volatile memory retention
check. Figure 3-24. FDLS Status Page – On-Command
Test Results
d. Display hardware BIT. NOTE
The heading, pitch and roll values are calcu-
e. 1553B terminal BIT. lated and displayed no more than five sec-
onds after the GO message.
4. Initiate the On Command test as follows: b. NAV FAB – Press. Observe that the NAV top
level present position page is displayed.
a. TEST – Press. Observe that DNS SYSTEM 3.15.6 Stopping Procedures.
TEST IN PROG is displayed until the test is
complete and data is available for DNS test 1. ADMIN – Press. Observe that the ADMIN page
status. The GO or NO-GO status is then dis- is displayed.
played. The following is a list of possible
NO-GO messages: 2. PWR ON – Press. Observe that PWR ON
changes to PWR OFF.
(1) PITCH/ROLL FAIL
3.16 INTEGRATED NAVIGATION SYSTEM
(2) HDG or A.C. REF FAIL
NOTE
(3) SDCC PWR SUPPLY FAIL
• The integrated navigation system
(EGI) does not meet US ARMY require-
(4) SDCC CPU/MEMORY FAIL
ments to fly FAA approved GPS ap-
proaches.
(5) SDCC WRAPAROUND FAIL
 All data contained paragraph 3.16
(6) SDCC A/D FAIL through paragraph 3.16.15 is applica-
ble to FCC software only.
(7) SDCC 1553 I/O FAIL
The Integrated Navigation System is a software module in
(8) SDC FAIL the FCC that uses data from all of the navigation sensors.
The data for the Navigation System comes from the Em-
bedded GPS Inertial (EGI) sensor, a five–channel GPS re-
(9) RTA FAIL
ceiver, the AN/ASN–137 Doppler Navigation System, the
Heading Attitude Reference System and the Fire Control
(10) SDCC CMD FAIL Computer. The Navigation System software resides in the
FCC only. In the event of an FCC failure, the helicopter will
automatically configure to the Non–Integrated Navigation
If no failures are detected, the CDU displays the System as described in paragraph 3.14, with the BBC as
FDLS page as shown in figure 3-24. the bus controller.

3-62 Change 4
TM 1-1520-238-10

NOTE velocity data directly from the HARS, it is possible for a ve-
locity error in the HARS to affect HAS and not affect the
Navigation System. In the event that the HARS has been
• Waypoints stored via the Data Transfer in a free inertial condition for longer than 20 seconds the
Unit (DTU) will not be accessible if the HARSVEL? message is displayed in the CDU, NAV sta-
BBC is the bus controller. The CPG can tus page. If the HARS has been in a free inertial condition
store up to 20 waypoint coordinates in the for longer than 20 seconds and the groundspeed of the
CDU with the MUX switch in SEC (Emer- helicopter is less than 10 knots,the pilot HMD trim ball will
gency return routes to be used as a back- flash. The purpose of the flashing trim ball is to alert the
up in the event of a FCC failure). pilot that if the HAS is engaged there may be an initial drift
of the helicopter.
• If HARS is free inertial for 20 or more sec-
onds, the HARSVEL? prompt is dis- NOTE
played on the CDU. If HARS is free iner-
tial for 20 or more seconds and
Repeated HARS moving alignments (sea
groundspeed is less than 10 knots, the
start or airborne start) will eventually fail
electronic trim ball will flash. Care should
HARS internal calibration test and have to
be taken when engaging HAS as uncom-
be zeroed out or replaced.
manded aircraft drift may occur. Aircraft
position should be carefully monitored
using visual cues and symbology. The FCC has been modified to automatically mode the
HARS to an operate condition, via the HARS squat switch
control interface. This occurs whenever the navigation
• If the GPS system is not keyed or is track- mode is water, total engine torque (sum of both engines/
ing less than 4 satellites, HAS perfor- symbolic torque) value exceeds 40% or the aircraft squat
mance may degrade over time. Hover switch indicates an airborne condition. Once the HARS is
Position Box and Velocity Vector accura- moded to operate, either via the HARS mode switch or the
cy will be degraded. squat switch control as described above, the HARS is
never allowed to return to an align mode, even if the
In normal operation, the Navigation System redundantly HARS mode switch is returned to fast and norm. The FCC
integrates data from the sensors. The EGI is the primary uses the INS, DNS or Zero Source velocity to aid in the
sensor for inertial data with the HARS as the backup. The HARS. If the aircraft is on the ground, the NAV mode is
GPS is the primary sensor for helicopter position. The land and the total engine torque has been less than 40%
Doppler provides helicopter velocity data. The GPS, if for 90 seconds or more, the FCC supplies the HARS a
keyed and verified, will also provide velocity data. The fire Zero Source velocity. This allows for extended ground op-
control system and flight symbology use the redundant erations without the HARS velocity incurring any drift. If
data. There are three instruments and two subsystems the HARS is not allowed to perform regular norm align-
that receive dedicated inputs from the sensor array. The ments, it will eventually fail internal calibration test and
HSI, RMI, and RAI receive data directly from the HARS for have to be zeroed out or replaced. Once the HARS is in
heading and attitude. The DNS provides data directly to an operate condition, the FCC provides automatic magvar
the distance–to–go and No.1 needle displays on the HSI. corrections to keep the HARS heading effectively caged
The DASE and DNS receive data directly from the HARS. to the INS heading. There is no requirement to place the
For those instruments, including the DASE and DNS, that HARS mode switch to norm after landing if ground opera-
receive data directly from a sensor, there is no redundan- tions will exceed one minute.
cy. If the sensor providing the data has failed, then the af-
fected instrument or subsystem will not function. The dis- With the integrated navigation system, the Hover Position
tance–to–go and steering information is always displayed Box drift varies according to whether the EGI or HARS is
on the CDU and HMD symbology. The velocity vector, ac- in use as the inertial sensor, and if using the EGI, whether
celeration cue, vertical speed indicator, and heading tape or not the GPS is operating in PPS (keyed) or SPS (not
are driven by the navigation system and not by any single keyed) mode or operating at all. Using the EGI with the
sensor. This allows redundancy in the displays in the GPS keyed produces optimal HAS/Hover Position Box
event of invalid data or failure of any sensor. No one ve- drift performance. The amount of drift may be up to 6 feet
locity sensor can cause the error. However, because the the first minute, and as much as 23 feet after 5 minutes.
Hover Augmentation System (HAS) of the DASE receives All other modes of operation

Change 8 3-63
TM 1-1520-238-10

(EGI or HARS) may produce Hover Position Box drift that on the aft portion of the right–hand FAB. The EGI will re-
is random and unpredictable. In these modes of opera- tain the key through power ON/OFF/ON cycles. Because
tion, the HAS/Hover Position Box drift performance may of safeguards built into the EGI, it is not considered classi-
be similar to that of the non–integrated navigation system fied when keyed. The antenna for the GPS receiver is lo-
(up to 21 feet per minute). cated on the top of the vertical stabilizer.

b. Operation. The operation of the GPS receiver is


3.16.1 Embedded GPS Inertial (EGI).
entirely automatic. The GPS receiver is powered when
the EGI is powered. If the GPS is keyed it may take as
a. System Description. The EGI is a velocity aided, long as 12 minutes to verify the key with the satellites. The
strapdown, ring laser gyro based inertial unit. The EGI unit GPS receiver will provide position and time. The Naviga-
also houses the 5–channel GPS receiver. The ring laser tion System automatically configures to handle the GPS
inertial unit and GPS receiver are treated as separate sen- and DNS velocities for velocity aiding of both the EGI and
sors by the Navigation System and have separate FD/LS HARS. When the GPS has tracked the first satellite, it will
indications. The ring laser gyro operates on an optical provide the date and time to the Navigation System. The
principle called the Sagnac Effect which deals with the date and time (ZULU) is displayed at the top of the ADMIN
properties of light beams traveling in opposite directions page of the CDU. There are no specific operator actions
around a closed loop. In operation, two laser beams are that may be taken with the GPS.
directed around the ring in opposite directions; clockwise
and counter–clockwise. If the ring rotates in the clockwise 3.16.3 Data Transfer Unit (DTU).
direction while the light beams are in transit then the
clockwise beam will seem to travel a shorter distance than The Data Transfer Unit (DTU) is located in the aft portion
the counter–clockwise beam. This is used as a measure of the CPG right–hand console. The cartridge is pro-
of rotation by observing the interference pattern created at grammed using the Aviation Mission Planning System
the end of the ring when the two laser beams mix togeth- (AMPS). The AMPS writes the coordinate files for way-
er; the faster the rotation, the greater the interference pat- points, targets, present position and laser codes to the
tern. cartridge. In the helicopter, the FCC handles all reading
and writing to the cartridge. Whenever the CPG makes
b. Operation. The EGI begins alignment whenever changes to any of the data, the FCC will automatically up-
28 vdc power is available and aligns in the same manner date the cartridge with the changes. This will preserve any
as the HARS. The vertical axis is found by aligning the changes made by the CPG in the event of a power tran-
vertical ring laser gyro with earth’s gravity vector. Inertial sient. On power–up, either initial or following a transient,
north is found by measuring the eastward rotation of the the FCC will check for copies of the files it has written out
earth about its axis. The time to align for the EGI is to the data cartridge. If it finds the saved files present, it
approximately 4 minutes. The time is not significantly af- will automatically load all of the saved files. It the saved
fected by temperature. The heading tape symbology will files are not found, the FCC will load the AMPS files into
be displayed when the first platform, EGI or HARS aligns. the system. This has the effect of automatically loading
There is no effect on Navigation System accuracy if the the AMPS files when a “new” cartridge is used. The CPG
engines are started or the main rotor is turning during has the capability of manually loading and saving files by
alignment. There is no reason, other than normal checklist using the pages on the CDU. FCC memory data may only
items, to delay engine start. be ”dumped” by powering down the FCC.

3.16.4 Required Navigation Data.


3.16.2 Global Positioning System (GPS).
The Integrated Navigation System uses two components
a. System Description. The GPS receiver installed of data for proper operation: map datum and altitude.
in the EGI is a 5–channel receiver. The receiver is capable Magnetic variation is automatically calculated by the Navi-
of operating in either C/A code or encrypted P/Y code. gation System and requires no action by the flightcrew.
The Group User Variable (GUV) is the normal encryption Spheroid is not used in any portion of the Integrated Navi-
key used. The GUV key is loaded into the EGI using a gation System.
KYK–13 or equivalent device. When keyed the GPS re-
ceiver will automatically use anti–spoof/jam capabilities a. Altitude. Altitude is used with all coordinate data to
when they are in use. The EGI keying connector is located permit the accurate prepointing or cueing to

3-64 Change 8
TM 1-1520-238-10

any of the coordinate data in the Navigation System. If alti- Table 3-21. Datum Names and Codes (cont)
tude is not entered and the coordinate data is used to pre-
Datum Datum Code Used
point, the current helicopter altitude is used. The range of
Name/Description By Navigation
altitude entry is –900 to +20000 ft. MSL.
System
Indian: Mean Value For Thailand 16
b. Map datums. Map datums are mathematical mod- And Viet–Nam
els of the Earth used to calculate the coordinates on maps
Ireland 1965 17
and charts. Currently, many datums are used throughout
the world to produce maps. The standard for US Forces is Kertau: West Malaysia 18
World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84). However, many Liberia 19
US Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) and foreign
Other International 20
maps are still based on other datums. Not correcting for
different datums can cause significant errors. The coordi- Luzon 21
nates for a point on the Earth’s surface in one datum will Merchich 22
not match the coordinates from another datum for the
Montjong Lowe: Indonesia 23
same point. The Integrated Navigation System requires
that the datum be entered with the coordinate data. If it is Minna 24
not entered, it will default to the present position datum. North American Datum of 1927 25
The datum included with each set of coordinate data al-
NAD 27 Alaska: Canada 26
lows the Navigation System to calculate the compensa-
tions for different datums. Multiple datums can be used Old Hawaii: Maui 27
and the Navigation System will accurately generate the Old Hawaii: Oahu 28
compensated navigation or prepointing data. The datum
Old Hawaii: Kauai 29
used is identified by a 2 digit number. Table 3-21 lists all of
the datums that may be used with the Integrated Naviga- Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 30
tion System. 1936
Qornoq 31
Table 3-21. Datum Names and Codes Sierra Leone 1960 32
Datum Datum Code Used Campo Inchauspe: Argentina 33
Name/Description By Navigation Chua Astro: Paraguay 34
System
Corrego Alegre: Brazil 35
Adindan 01
Provisional South American 1956 36
ARC 1950 02
Yacare: Uruguay 37
Australian 66 03
Tananarive: South American 38
Bukit Rimpah: Indonesia 04 1925
Camp Area Astro 05 Timbali: East