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Your Guide to Latin America and Hispanic America
How do we DEFINE Latin America?
Latin America: (América Latina or Latinoamérica) is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (languages that come from Latin) – particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and sometimes French – are primarily spoken. Hispanic America: (Hispanoamérica) is the region comprising the American countries inhabited ONLY by Spanish-speaking populations. These countries have a lot in common with each other and with Spain. In all of them, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, as well. In this class, we will mostly be learning about Hispanic America, but sometimes we will touch on the culture of Latin America as a whole.
La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate!
Bogota Ecuador .Castries St.Montevideo Venezuela .Tegulcigalpa Nicaragua .Quito French Guiana – La Cayenne Guyana . Johns Bahamas .Nassau Barbados .Bridgetown Cayman Islands . Kitts & Nevis .Belmopan Costa Rica – San Jose El Salvador – San Salvador Guatemala – Guatemala City Honduras .Georgetown Paraguay . Lucia .Lima Suriname .Gustavia St.Santiago Colombia .Kingstown Trinidad & Tobago – Port of Spain Turks & Caicos Islands – Cockburn Town Virgin Islands – Road Town Central America • • • • • • • Belize .Paramaribo Uruguay .Managua Panama – Panama City South America • • • • • • • • • • • • • Argentina – Buenos Aires Bolivia – La Paz y Sucre Brazil .Caracas North America La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! .Roseau Dominican Republic – Santo Domingo Grenada – St.Kingston Martinique – Fort-au-France Puerto Rico – San Juan Saint Barthélemy .Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato What COUNTRIES make up Latin America? Caribbean • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Antigua & Barbuda – St. Vincent and the Grenadines .Asuncion Peru .Brasilia Chile .Georgetown Cuba – La Habana Dominica . Georges Guadeloupe – Basse-Terre Haiti – Port-au-Prince Jamaica .Basseterre St.
and is spoken by a majority of the population. Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early in the colonial period and was extensive. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry. and the Netherlands Antilles. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil. and many Iberian traditions. and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Quechua is an official language. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward. Mulattoes form a majority of population in the Dominican Republic and Cuba. with a 15% ratio. Aymara. • • • • • • What are the LANGUAGES spoken in Latin America? Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole. Puerto Rico. along with Spanish. also. The specific composition varies from country to country. called Mulattoes. ethnic groups. Brazil. an official language of Paraguay. especially in the Caribbean region. Colombia. Blacks. Colombia. Today. Martinique. The resulting people. Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil. Ecuador. The aboriginal population of Latin America. arrived thousands of years ago. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico. Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. creole languages are spoken. and are also numerous in Venezuela. and at least a plurality in Peru. Significant populations are also found in Cuba. and Brazil. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. Guarani is.) In several nations. the biggest and most populous country in the region. Mestizos. Venezuela. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages. Asians. In Ecuador. it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. the predominant language of Haiti. Cuba and the Dominican Republic. making the region one of the most diverse in the world. and Mexico contain the largest numbers of whites in Latin America. the Catholic faith. often due to slaves's running away and being taken in by Amerindian villagers. Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. Whites make up the majorities of Argentina. and Venezuela. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries on the Latin American mainland. which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside of Japan itself. people identified as "Black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10 million) and in Haiti (more than 7 million). In Bolivia. and Uruguay. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru. Peru. in Cuba. mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other. Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries. and Ecuador. Mulattoes. • Amerindians. In Peru. French Guiana. Costa Rica. Argentina. Brazil. are far more numerous than Blacks. Mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries. Chile.Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato • Mexico – Mexico City What are the ETHNIC GROUPS in Latin America? The population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries. Additionally. Panama. make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. and depending on source. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino. Puerto Rico. and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Panama. Brazil is home to perhaps two million people of Asian descent. people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population. alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. Aruba. In many countries. there is also a growing Chinese minority in Panama. the Amerindians (native Americans). Dominican Republic. known as Mestizos. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . Beginning in the late fifteenth century. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments Guadeloupe. Puerto Rico leads this category in relative numbers. these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. Latin Americans of mixed Black and White ancestry. (As Dutch is a Germanic language. Whites. They now compose a majority only in Bolivia and Guatemala. large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America (Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region). during the colonial period. as well as in Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English). Dutch is the official language in Suriname. which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. Zambos: Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians was especially prevalent in Colombia. and races.
customs and government were introduced. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas. or an unincorporated territory of the United States. compelling Criollo elites (the rich descendents of Spaniards) to form juntas (political committees) that advocated independence. Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. was identified at Monte Verde in Southern Chile. The earliest known settlement. except for Puerto Rico and Cuba. The Chibchas of Colombia. the Aztecs (who also lived in Mexico) and Incas (who lived in Peru. Bolivia. such as the Incas and Aztecs. and Inca. At first. lost power to the heavy European invasion. with the last two great civilizations. wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Over the course of millennia. Cuba gained independence from Spain after the Cuban Revolution in 1902. Spanish and Portuguese power was weak and Britain and France grew stronger in the colonies. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common. and. all Spanish America. Tupi. these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops. Maya.000 years ago. Toltecs. The victors abolished slavery. José de San Martin of Argentina. plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. By the first millennium AD. people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. Latin America was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . such as smallpox and measles. which along with the rest of the non-colonized world was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1493. By the end of the eighteenth century. eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period. Haitian independence helped inspire independence movements in Spanish America. and by 1825. the independence movement regained strength. from northeast Asia into Alaska well over 10. by the end of the colonial period. including the Aztecs. including France. with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region. ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). the indigenous elites. which gave Spain all areas to the west. Some groups formed permanent settlements such as the Chibchas of Colombia and the Tairona groups of the Carribean.Spanish Ab Initio What was PRE-COLOMBIAN HISTORY in Latin America? Profesora Beato The Americas were thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering strait. with epidemics of diseases reducing them sharply from their prior populations. South America’s vast rainforests. the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Perú were the three Indian groups that settled most permanently. however. Caribs. mountains. in occupying large areas of North. European culture. How did the countries in Latin America become independent? Haiti was the first to gain independence in 1804. until its downfall caused by the Spanish invasion. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders. Central and South America. In Latin America resentment grew among the majority of the population over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government. in 1917. What was the EUROPEAN COLONIZATION in Latin America? With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus's voyages. such as Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. and other Libertadores in South America. had gained independence from Spain. Diseases brought by the Europeans. By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others. Fighting soon broke out between the Latin-Americans and the Spanish colonial authorities. as well as the dominance of native Spaniards in the major social and political institutions within the colonies. people spread to all parts of the continents. Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point. Ecuador and the upper part of Chile). The golden age of the Maya (who lived in what now is known as Mexico and Belize) began about 250. The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region. This followed from a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture.
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