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Your Guide to Latin America and Hispanic America
How do we DEFINE Latin America?
Latin America: (América Latina or Latinoamérica) is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (languages that come from Latin) – particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and sometimes French – are primarily spoken. Hispanic America: (Hispanoamérica) is the region comprising the American countries inhabited ONLY by Spanish-speaking populations. These countries have a lot in common with each other and with Spain. In all of them, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, as well. In this class, we will mostly be learning about Hispanic America, but sometimes we will touch on the culture of Latin America as a whole.
La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate!
Nassau Barbados .Santiago Colombia . Johns Bahamas .Belmopan Costa Rica – San Jose El Salvador – San Salvador Guatemala – Guatemala City Honduras .Quito French Guiana – La Cayenne Guyana .Tegulcigalpa Nicaragua .Kingston Martinique – Fort-au-France Puerto Rico – San Juan Saint Barthélemy .Gustavia St. Georges Guadeloupe – Basse-Terre Haiti – Port-au-Prince Jamaica .Basseterre St.Asuncion Peru .Georgetown Cuba – La Habana Dominica . Kitts & Nevis .Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato What COUNTRIES make up Latin America? Caribbean • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Antigua & Barbuda – St. Vincent and the Grenadines .Brasilia Chile .Montevideo Venezuela .Bogota Ecuador .Bridgetown Cayman Islands .Lima Suriname .Castries St.Managua Panama – Panama City South America • • • • • • • • • • • • • Argentina – Buenos Aires Bolivia – La Paz y Sucre Brazil .Caracas North America La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! .Kingstown Trinidad & Tobago – Port of Spain Turks & Caicos Islands – Cockburn Town Virgin Islands – Road Town Central America • • • • • • • Belize .Roseau Dominican Republic – Santo Domingo Grenada – St. Lucia .Georgetown Paraguay .Paramaribo Uruguay .
Aymara. an official language of Paraguay. Dominican Republic. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry. make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. Dutch is the official language in Suriname. In Bolivia. which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside of Japan itself. Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries. and races. and Uruguay. creole languages are spoken. Costa Rica. Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Brazil. Whites. people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population. Zambos: Intermixing between Africans and Amerindians was especially prevalent in Colombia. Aruba. as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. Peru. Blacks. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico. Quechua is an official language. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. Colombia. especially in the Caribbean region. and many Iberian traditions. during the colonial period. Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil. • • • • • • What are the LANGUAGES spoken in Latin America? Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. also. They now compose a majority only in Bolivia and Guatemala. alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. Latin Americans of mixed Black and White ancestry. often due to slaves's running away and being taken in by Amerindian villagers. Puerto Rico. and Ecuador.Spanish Ab Initio Profesora Beato • Mexico – Mexico City What are the ETHNIC GROUPS in Latin America? The population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries. and the Netherlands Antilles. Panama. Mulattoes form a majority of population in the Dominican Republic and Cuba. In many countries. which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. Colombia. ethnic groups. Puerto Rico. In Peru. the biggest and most populous country in the region. and Brazil. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino. (As Dutch is a Germanic language. these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. with a 15% ratio. Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians began early in the colonial period and was extensive. people identified as "Black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10 million) and in Haiti (more than 7 million). large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America (Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region). and Mexico contain the largest numbers of whites in Latin America. are far more numerous than Blacks. and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Beginning in the late fifteenth century. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population. and are also numerous in Venezuela. arrived thousands of years ago. The resulting people. Ecuador. Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. along with Spanish. and at least a plurality in Peru. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the sixteenth century onward. Venezuela. making the region one of the most diverse in the world. • Amerindians. Puerto Rico leads this category in relative numbers. there is also a growing Chinese minority in Panama. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries on the Latin American mainland. In Ecuador. the Amerindians (native Americans). Asians. as well as in Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English). the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. Significant populations are also found in Cuba. mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other. Guarani is. known as Mestizos. Today. in Cuba. Additionally. the Catholic faith. and is spoken by a majority of the population. Chile. Panama.) In several nations. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments Guadeloupe. it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. the predominant language of Haiti. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . The aboriginal population of Latin America. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages. and Venezuela. Mestizos. Mulattoes. French Guiana. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole. and depending on source. Mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries. Whites make up the majorities of Argentina. called Mulattoes. and Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Brazil is home to perhaps two million people of Asian descent. Brazil. Argentina. Martinique. The specific composition varies from country to country.
and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). the independence movement regained strength. however. all Spanish America. Central and South America. Cuba gained independence from Spain after the Cuban Revolution in 1902. lost power to the heavy European invasion. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas. compelling Criollo elites (the rich descendents of Spaniards) to form juntas (political committees) that advocated independence. as well as the dominance of native Spaniards in the major social and political institutions within the colonies. Caribs. which along with the rest of the non-colonized world was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1493. The earliest known settlement. Puerto Rico became a commonwealth. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders. Haitian independence helped inspire independence movements in Spanish America.000 years ago. or an unincorporated territory of the United States. ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. Bolivia. Ecuador and the upper part of Chile). people spread to all parts of the continents.Spanish Ab Initio What was PRE-COLOMBIAN HISTORY in Latin America? Profesora Beato The Americas were thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering strait. The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region. with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region. Toltecs. Tupi. The golden age of the Maya (who lived in what now is known as Mexico and Belize) began about 250. such as Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. José de San Martin of Argentina. in occupying large areas of North. with the last two great civilizations. these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops. Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point. By the first millennium AD. had gained independence from Spain. Spanish and Portuguese power was weak and Britain and France grew stronger in the colonies. mountains. by the end of the colonial period. South America’s vast rainforests. Fighting soon broke out between the Latin-Americans and the Spanish colonial authorities. La vida es un reto – ¡desafíate! . the Aztecs (who also lived in Mexico) and Incas (who lived in Peru. the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Perú were the three Indian groups that settled most permanently. Latin America was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations. was identified at Monte Verde in Southern Chile. such as the Incas and Aztecs. such as smallpox and measles. which gave Spain all areas to the west. and Inca. and other Libertadores in South America. the indigenous elites. How did the countries in Latin America become independent? Haiti was the first to gain independence in 1804. European culture. with epidemics of diseases reducing them sharply from their prior populations. including France. Maya. The victors abolished slavery. At first. By the end of the eighteenth century. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common. people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. in 1917. Over the course of millennia. By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others. What was the EUROPEAN COLONIZATION in Latin America? With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus's voyages. customs and government were introduced. wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. The Chibchas of Colombia. This followed from a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. Some groups formed permanent settlements such as the Chibchas of Colombia and the Tairona groups of the Carribean. plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. until its downfall caused by the Spanish invasion. and by 1825. eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period. including the Aztecs. except for Puerto Rico and Cuba. and. Diseases brought by the Europeans. from northeast Asia into Alaska well over 10. In Latin America resentment grew among the majority of the population over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government.
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