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Problem Sheet 1 Deadline: Friday 29th October 2004

**1.1. In the following, xµ is a 4-vector, and ∂µ ≡ (a) Show by explicit diﬀerentation that
**

ν ∂µ xν = δµ ,

∂ . ∂xµ

and hence that ∂µ xν = ηµν , Evaluate ∂ · x (b) Show that, if φ(x) = Ae−ip.x , with p a constant 4-vector, then (∂ 2 + m2 )φ(x) = (−p2 + m2 )φ(x). (c) Given the function f (x) = e− 2 ax , where a is a constant scalar, and x is a 4–vector coordinate, calculate ∂µ ∂ν f (x) and show that ∂ 2 f (x) vanishes on the curve x2 = 4/a. 1.2. (a) Λµ ν , the tensor representing a Lorentz transformation on a fourvector, is deﬁned by the property Λµ ρ Λν σ ηµν = ηρσ . Show that if aµ and bν are any two contravariant four-vectors, then this property ensures that the scalar product a · b is invariant under a Lorentz transformation.

µ (b) Let (Λ−1 )µ ν be the inverse of Λµ ν , such that (Λ−1 )µ ν Λν ρ = δρ . µ Show from the transformation law x → x = Λµ ν xν that

1 2

∂ µ xν = δ µ , ν

∂ µ xν = η µν .

∂µ = (Λ−1 )ν µ ∂ν , where ∂µ ≡ (c) Show that (Λ−1 )µ ν = Λν µ . (d) Show that for a two-index tensor Mµν that M µ ν and Mν µ are not necessarily equal (i.e. that the ordering of indices is important). In µ the lectures the Kronecker delta was written δν , not distinguishing between δ µ ν and δν µ – why do we not need to worry about index ordering in this case? 1

∂ . ∂x µ

Show that the 4-vector current i i J µ = − φ∗ ∂ µ φ + φ∂ µ φ∗ .4. using the ﬁeld equation ∂ 2 φ + V (φ) = 0.1. 2 2 satisﬁes a covariant continuity equation ∂ · J = 0. (b) Calculate the Hamiltonian density H. (a) Let ψ(x. A real scalar ﬁeld has Lagrangian density 1 L = ∂ µ φ∂µ φ − V (φ). that the energymomentum tensor is conserved (satisﬁes ∂µ θµν = 0). 2 where the potential energy density V (φ) is bounded from below. (b) Let φ(x) be a complex-valued ﬁeld satisfying the Klein-Gordon equation ∂ 2 φ + m2 φ = 0. using the formula derived in the lectures. (c) Verify. Show that the probability density ρ = |ψ|2 and the probability current j = −i¯ (ψ ∗ ψ − ψ ψ ∗ )/2m satisfy a continuity equation h ρ+ ˙ ·j = 0.3. (a) Calculate the canonical energy-momentum tensor θµν from this Lagrangian density. and verify that it is equal to the energy density θ00 (x). t) be a wave function satisfying the Schr¨dinger equation o i¯ h ∂ h2 ¯ ψ=− ∂t 2m 2 ψ + V (x)ψ. Give a reason why J µ can not be a probability (4-)current. 2 . 1.

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