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Physics Lab Observation Sheet Determination of Wavelength (Diffraction Grating) 2009-2010

PREPARED BY:

Mr. CHARIS ISRAEL ANCHA M.Sc., (Ph.D.)


Asst. Prof. of PHYSICS
Mob. No: +91-9866934653

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Physics Lab Observation Sheet Determination of Wavelength (Diffraction Grating) 2009-2010
Exp. No: DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH (DIFFRACTION GRATING)
Date:

Aim: To determine the wave length of prominent lines of mercury by plane diffraction Grating with the
help of spectrometer.
Apparatus: Spectrometer, Diffraction Grating, Mercury lamp, reading lens and spirit level.

(e + d ) sin θ o
Formula: The wavelength of the light being used is given by λ = A
n
where Grating element (e+d) = 2.54/N cm, ‘N’ is the number of lines on the given grating, ‘θ’ is the
angle of diffraction and ‘n’ is the order of the spectrum.
Figure:

Collimator Collimator

45o
Grating
Telescope
Grating 90o

First Order Spectrum First Order Spectrum

Telescope Telescope

Normal Incidence Position


Procedure:
1) Adjustments to be made before performing the experiment:
(i) Spectrometer adjustments: Adjust the leveling screws provided for the base of the spectrometer to
make the base horizontal, using spirit level. Also adjust the leveling screws provided for the prism table to
make it horizontal, using spirit level.
(ii) Grating Adjustment: Grating is to be placed in the Normal incidence position. For this, first set
zero of one of the verniers to coincide with the zero of the circular scale. Turn the telescope to one side so
that it read 900. Now rotate the prism table with grating till the reflected image of the slit is observed through
the telescope. At this situation, the grating makes 450 with the incident light. Rotate the vernier exactly 450,
such that, the grating is exactly normal to the incident light.
2) Rotate the telescope to the left side of the central maximum so as to observe the first order spectrum.
3) Now coincide with the violet light and note the vernier readings V1 and V2. Similarly note the readings of
the green and yellow lights.
4) Rotate the telescope to the right side of the central maximum so as to observe the first order spectrum and
repeat the step 3.

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Physics Lab Observation Sheet Determination of Wavelength (Diffraction Grating) 2009-2010
5) The difference between the readings of the step 3 and step 4 gives twice the angle of diffraction ‘2θ’.
6) Using the formula, calculate the wavelengths of the violet, green and yellow lights and compare with the
standard wavelengths.
Observations:
Grating Element:
Number of lines per inch on grating, N = ___________lines/inch = _____________ lines/cm.
Grating element, (e+d) = 1/N = _____________ cm/line.
Least Count of the Spectrometer:
Value of one Circular scale division, x = ________ degree = ________ min.
Number of divisions on the vernier scale, y = ________.
Least Count, L.C. = x/y = _________ min.
Order of the spectrum, n = ________.

Tabular: Determination of Angle of Diffraction


V Spectrometer Readings
E Towards Left of Central Towards right of Central
R Maximum Maximum
S. Spectral
N 2θ = X-Y θ Mean θ
No Line Total ‘X’ Total ‘Y’
I M.S.R V.S.R M.S.R V.S.R
E a a
‘a’ ‘b’ + (b X L.C.) ‘a’ ‘b’ + (b X L.C.)
R
θv
V1
1. Violet
V2

θg
V1
2. Green
V2

θy
V1
3. Yellow
V2

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Physics Lab Observation Sheet Determination of Wavelength (Diffraction Grating) 2009-2010
Calculations:
For First order spectrum, n = _______.
(e+d) = _________________ cm = ____________m.

(e + d ) sin θ v o
1) Wavelength of Violet light, λv = A
n

(e + d ) sin θ v o
2) Wavelength of Violet light, λv = A
n

(e + d ) sin θ v o
3) Wavelength of Violet light, λv = A
n

Precautions:
1) Experiment should not be performed without proper adjustments of the spectrometer.
2) Grating should be set normal to the incident light and its ruling should be parallel to the slit.
3) The slit should be as narrow as possible.
4) The ruled surface of Grating should not be touched with fingers.

Result:
Standard Values:
1) Wavelength of Violet light, λv = ___________ Ao.

2) Wavelength of Green light, λg = ___________ Ao.

3) Wavelength of Yellow light, λy = ___________ Ao.


Experimental Values:

1) Wavelength of Violet light, λv = ___________ Ao with _________% error.

2) Wavelength of Green light, λg = ___________ Ao with _________% error.

3) Wavelength of Yellow light, λy = __________ Ao with _________% error.

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