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Canon EOS 5D Mark II Short Course

Canon EOS 5D Mark II Short Course

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Sections

  • SHORT COURSES BOOKS AND WEB SITE
  • THE 5D MARK II CAMERA
  • JUMP START—USING FULL AUTO MODE
  • ANATOMY OF THE CAMERA
  • CHANGING SETTINGS WITH BUTTONS AND DIALS
  • THE QUICK CONTROL DIAL
  • CHANGING SETTINGS ON THE QUICK CONTROL SCREEN
  • THE QUICK CONTROL SCREEN
  • USING THE QUICK CONTROL SCREEN
  • DUAL FUNCTION BUTTON SCREENS
  • CHANGING SETTINGS WITH MENUS
  • PLAYING BACK & MANAGING YOUR IMAGES
  • USING THE PLAYBACK MENU
  • SELECTING IMAGE QUALITY AND SIZE
  • HOW AN IMAGE IS CAPTURED
  • IT’S ALL BLACK AND WHITE AFTER ALL
  • CHOOSING IMAGE SIZE AND QUALITY
  • UNDERSTANDING EXPOSURE
  • THE SHUTTER CONTROLS LIGHT AND MOTION
  • THE APERTURE CONTROLS LIGHT AND DEPTH OF FIELD
  • USING SHUTTER SPEED AND APERTURE TOGETHER
  • EXPOSURE—FAUCETS & BUCKETS ANALOGY
  • EXPOSURE—SEESAW ANALOGY
  • RETAINING HIGHLIGHT AND SHADOW DETAILS
  • USING CREATIVE AUTO (CA) MODE
  • USING PROGRAM AE (P) & PROGRAM SHIFT
  • USING SHUTTER-PRIORITY (Tv) MODE
  • USING SHUTTER-PRIORITY (TV) MODE
  • USING APERTURE-PRIORITY (AV) MODE
  • USING APERTURE-PRIORITY (Av) MODE
  • USING MANUAL (M) MODE
  • HOW YOUR EXPOSURE SYSTEM WORKS
  • METER AVERAGING AND MIDDLE GRAY
  • WHEN AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE WORKS WELL
  • WHEN TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE
  • SCENES LIGHTER THAN MIDDLE GRAY
  • SCENES DARKER THAN MIDDLE GRAY
  • SUBJECT AGAINST A VERY LIGHT BACKGROUND
  • SUBJECT AGAINST A VERY DARK BACKGROUND
  • SCENES WITH HIGH CONTRAST
  • HOW OVERRIDING AUTOEXPOSURE WORKS
  • USING EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
  • HOW TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE
  • EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
  • AUTOEXPOSURE (AE) LOCK
  • AUTOEXPOSURE BRACKETING (AEB)
  • EVALUATING HISTOGRAMS
  • DISPLAYING HISTOGRAMS
  • USING THE SELF-TIMER/REMOTE SWITCH
  • GETTING SHARPER PICTURES
  • SUPPORTING THE CAMERA
  • SHARPNESS ISN’T EVERYTHING
  • HOW TO PHOTOGRAPH MOTION SHARPLY
  • DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT
  • DISTANCE TO SUBJECT AND FOCAL LENGTH OF LENS
  • FOCUS AND DEPTH OF FIELD
  • CHECKING DEPTH OF FIELD
  • SELECTABLE FOCUSING POINTS
  • DISPLAYING AF POINTS IN PLAYBACK
  • CONTROLLING DEPTH OF FIELD
  • USING DEEP DEPTH OF FIELD
  • USING SHALLOW DEPTH OF FIELD
  • CONVEYING THE FEELING OF MOTION
  • WHERE DOES COLOR COME FROM?
  • WHITE BALANCE AND COLOR
  • USING PRESET WHITE BALANCE SETTINGS
  • CREATING AND USING A CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE SETTING
  • USING A SPECIFIC COLOR TEMPERATURE
  • SELECTING A COLOR SPACE
  • USING WHITE BALANCE CORRECTION & BRACKETING
  • USING WHITE BALANCE CORRECTION/ BRACKETING
  • COLOR AND TIME OF DAY
  • SUNSETS AND SUNRISES
  • PHOTOGRAPHING AT NIGHT
  • THE DIRECTION OF LIGHT
  • THE QUALITY OF LIGHT
  • CANON LENSES
  • ELECTRONIC LENS MOUNT
  • FOCUSING TECHNOLOGY
  • INFORMATION ON A CANON LENS
  • LENS PERIPHERAL ILLUMINATION CORRECTION
  • ZOOM LENSES
  • NORMAL LENSES
  • MACRO LENSES AND ACCESSORIES
  • PERSPECTIVE IN A PHOTOGRAPH
  • HOW FLASH WORKS
  • USING A CANON SPEEDLITE
  • CONTROLLING FLASH EXPOSURES
  • FLASH EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
  • FLASH EXPOSURE (FE) LOCK
  • USING FLASH EXPOSURE (FE) LOCK
  • EXTERNAL SPEEDLITE CONTROL
  • FLASH FUNCTION SETTINGS
  • CUSTOM FUNCTIONS
  • CUSTOM FUNC- TIONS
  • FLASH EXPOSURE BRACKETING (FEB)
  • POSITIONING THE FLASH AND SUBJECTS
  • USING FILL FLASH
  • USING SLOW SYNC FLASH
  • USING AVAILABLE LIGHT
  • USING FLASH IN CLOSE-UPS
  • STUDIO LIGHTING
  • CANDIDATES FOR STUDIO LIGHTING
  • PORTRAIT AND PRODUCT PHOTOGRAPHY—INTRODUCTION
  • THE MAIN LIGHT
  • THE RIM LIGHT
  • REMOTE CONTROL PHOTOGRAPHY
  • SHOOTING STILL IMAGES IN LIVE VIEW
  • LIVE VIEW/MOVIE FUNCTION SETTINGS
  • USING LIVE VIEW FUNCTION SETTINGS
  • LIVE VIEW FUNCTION SETTINGS
  • AF MODE
  • GENERAL TIPS IN LIVE VIEW
  • LIVE VIEW FOCUSING TIPS
  • MAGNIFIED VIEW FOR FOCUSING
  • LIVE VIEW EXPOSURE TIPS
  • SHOOTING MOVIES IN LIVE VIEW
  • USING A TV AS THE MONITOR
  • SELECTING PICTURE STYLES
  • ADJUSTING PICTURE STYLES
  • REGISTERING A PICTURE STYLE
  • REGISTERING PICTURE STYLES
  • REGISTERING YOUR OWN SETTINGS
  • C.FN III: AUTO FOCUS/DRIVE
  • C.FN IV: OPERATION OTHERS
  • SHOOTING WITHOUT A CF CARD
  • SETTING THE DATE AND TIME
  • CHANGING THE REVIEW TIME
  • TURNING THE BEEP ON AND OFF
  • SETTING THE AUTO POWER OFF TIME
  • ADJUSTING THE AUTO POWER OFF TIME
  • TRAVELING OPTIONS—LANGUAGE AND VIDEO SETTINGS
  • ADJUSTING MONITOR BRIGHTNESS
  • TURNING AUTO ROTATE ON AND OFF
  • CREATING AND SELECTING FOLDERS
  • CLEANING THE IMAGE SENSOR
  • CLEANING THE CAMERA AND LENS
  • PROTECTING YOUR CAMERA FROM THE ELEMENTS
  • PROTECTING WHEN TRAVELING

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COM
A S H O R T C O U R S E I N
CANON EOS 5D
MARK II
PHOTOGRAPHY
D E N N I S P . C U R T I N
SHORTCOURSES. COM
HTTP: //WWW. SHORTCOURSES. COM
COVER
AA30470C
FOR MORE ON DÌGÌTAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VÌSÌT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+,-')(.%/"-0"%#12%3456*/1-'#12
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SHORT COURSES BOOKS AND WEB SITE
S
hort Courses is the leading publisher of digital photography books,
textbooks, and guides to specific cameras from Canon, Sony, Nikon,
Olympus and others. All of these books are available on-line from the
Short Courses bookstore at:
http://www.shortcourses.com/store/
All recent books are available in both black & white printed, and full-color
eBook (PDF) versions available on CDs or as instant downloads. The list of
books we’ve published is always expanding so be sure to visit the store to see
if there is a book on your camera, or on another topic that interests you.
If you find any errors in this book, would like to make suggestions for im-
provements, or just want to let me know what you think I welcome your
feedback.
ShortCourses.com
16 Preston Beach Road
Marblehead, Massachusetts 01945
E-mail: denny@shortcourses.com
Web site: http://www.shortcourses.com
To learn more about digital photography, visit our two Web sites:
• http://www.shortcourses.com is our consumer site.
• http://www.photocourse.com is our instructor/student site.
© Copyright 2009 by Dennis P. Curtin. All rights reserved. Printed in the
United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copy-
right Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distrib-
uted in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.
NOTE ON THE SHORTCOURSES.COM WEB SITE
This book is designed to work with the many free on-line books available at
the author’s Web site at www.shortcourses.com. Of special interest may be
the books on displaying & sharing your digital photos, digital photography
workflow, image sensors and digital desktop lighting.
• Bookstore is the home of printed copies, ebooks on CDs, and instant down-
loads of the digital photography books published by Short Courses. Click to
visit
• Curtin’s Guide to Digital Cameras and Other Photographic Equipment is
a guide to choosing a digital camera and understanding its features. Includes
coverage of camera bags, tripods, lighting equipment and much more. Click
to visit
• Using Your Digital Camera clearly explains everything you need to know
about using your camera’s controls to capture great photos. Click to visit
• Displaying & Sharing Your Digital Photos discusses what digital photogra-
phy is all about including printing your images as prints or books, displaying
them on-screen, and moving beyond the still image into exciting new areas.
Click to visit
Click to view a PDF
document describing
how to use this eBook.
SHORT COURSES PUBLÌSHÌNG COMPANY
!"#$%&'()**+,'(&'-
Click to view a PDF
document on how
copyright law protects
photographers and
other artists.
ÌÌ
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SHORTCOURSES BOOKS AND WEB SÌTE
ÌÌÌ
• Digital Photography Workflow covers everything from getting ready to
take photos to storing, organizing, managing and editing your images. Click
to visit
• Image Sensors, Pixels and Image Sizes describes key concepts such as
resolutions, aspect ratios and color depths that have a huge impact on your
photographs. Click to visit
• Digital Desktop Lighting is a guide to low-cost tabletop photography
equipment and the techniques used to photograph products and other small
objects for eBay, Web sites, catalogs, ads and the like. Click to visit
• Hot Topics/About Us points you to some of the newer or more interesting
parts of the site, explains how to navigate the site, recommends other sites,
and tells you a little about who we are and how to contact us. Click to visit
This is the home page
of the ShortCourses
Web site at www.
shortcourses.com
EDUCATORS
Short Courses books
have always been
popular as textbooks
in digital photogra-
phy courses. If you
are an instructor,
you should know
that special pricing is
available for class-
room use.
For details on using
this and other texts
in the classroom,
please call us at 781-
631-8520, Boston,
Massachusetts USA
time.
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PREFACE
A
great photograph begins when you recognize a great scene or
subject. But recognizing a great opportunity isn’t enough to capture
it; you also have to be prepared. A large part of being prepared in-
volves understanding your camera well enough to capture what you see. Get-
ting you prepared to see and capture great photographs is what this book is
all about. It doesn’t matter if you are taking pictures for business or pleasure,
there’s a lot here to help you get better results and more satisfaction from
your photography.
To get better, and possibly even great photographs, you need to understand
both concepts and procedures; the “whys” and “hows” of photography.
• Concepts of photography are the underlying principles that apply regardless
of the camera you are using. They include such things as how sharpness and
exposure affect your images and the way they are perceived by viewers. Un-
derstanding concepts answers the “why” kinds of questions you might have
about photography.
• Procedures are those things specific to one kind of camera, and explain
step-by-step how you set your camera’s controls to capture an image just the
way you want to. Understanding procedures gives you the answers to the
“how” kinds of questions you might have.
This book is organized around the concepts of digital photography because
that’s how photographers think. You think about scenes and subjects, high-
lights and shadows, softness and sharpness, color and tone. The procedures
you use with the Canon EOS 5D Mark II are integrated throughout the con-
cepts, appearing in those places where they apply. This integrated approach
lets you first understand the concepts of photography and then see step by
step how to use the 5D Mark II in all kinds of photographic situations.
To get more effective, interesting, and creative photographs, you only need
to understand how and when to use a few simple features on your camera
such as focus, exposure controls, and flash. If you’ve previously avoided
understanding these features and the profound impact they can have on your
images, you’ll be pleased to know that you can learn them on a weekend.
You can then spend the rest of your life marveling at how the infinite variety
of combinations make it possible to convey your own personal view of the
world. You’ll be ready to keep everything in a scene sharp for maximum de-
tail or to blur it all for an impressionistic portrayal. You’ll be able to get dra-
matic close-ups, freeze fast action, create wonderful panoramas, and capture
the beauty and wonder of rainbows, sunsets, fireworks, and nighttime scenes.
As you explore your camera, be sure to have fun. There are no “rules” or
“best” way to make a picture. Great photographs come from using what you
know to experiment and try new approaches. Digital cameras make this espe-
cially easy because there are no film costs or delays. Every experiment is free
and you see the results immediately so you can learn step by step.
This book assumes you’ve mastered the mechanics of your camera. It’s about
getting great pictures, not about connecting your camera to computers and
using your software. That information is well presented in the user guide that
came with your camera. Be sure to visit our Web site at www.shortcourses.
com for even more digital photography information.
PHOTOGRAPHY
ON-LINE
• To learn more
about digital pho-
tography, visit our
ShortCourses Web
site at www.
shortcourses.com.
The Canon EOS 5D Mark
II is a very high-quality
21.1 megapixel camera.
The 5D Mark II accepts
the full line of Canon EF
and EF-S lenses.
PREFACE
ÌV
The 5D Mark II can print
directly to a printer
without a computer.
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CONTENTS
CONTENTS
Cover...i
Short Courses Books and Web Site...ii
Preface...iv
Contents...v
CHAPTER 1
CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY...7
The 5D Mark II Camera...8
Jump Start—Using Full Auto Mode...9
Good Things to Know...10
Using the Viewfinder...12
Focus Screens...12
Diopter Adjustment...12
AF Points ...12
Information Display...12
Anatomy of the Camera...13
Top View ...13
Rear View...14
Changing Settings with Buttons and Dials...15
The Main Dial...15
The Quick Control Dial...15
The INFO Button...15
Changing Settings on the Quick Control
Screen...16
The Quick Control Screen...16
Dual Function Button Screens...16
Changing Settings with Menus...17
Playing Back & Managing Your Images...20
Image Review...20
Image Playback...20
INFO Display...20
Jumping in Playback...21
Using the Playback Menu...22
Giving Slide Shows...23
Selecting Image Quality and Size...24
Number of Pixels...24
How An Image is Captured...26
The Exposure...26
It’s All Black and White After All...26
Choosing Image Size and Quality...27
CHAPTER 2
CONTROLLING EXPOSURE...30
Understanding Exposure...31
The Shutter Controls Light and Motion...32
The Aperture Controls Light and Depth of
Field...34
Using Shutter Speed and Aperture Together...36
Exposure—Faucets & Buckets Analogy...37
Exposure—Seesaw Analogy...38
Retaining Highlight and Shadow Details ...39
Choosing Shooting Modes...40
Using Creative Auto (CA) Mode...41
Using Program AE (P) & Program Shift...42
Using Shutter-Priority (Tv) Mode...43
Using Aperture-Priority (Av) Mode...44
Using Manual (M) Mode...45
How Your Exposure System Works...46
Meter Averaging and Middle Gray...46
Types of Metering...48
When Automatic Exposure Works Well...49
When to Override Automatic Exposure...50
Scenes Lighter than Middle Gray...50
Scenes Darker than Middle Gray...51
Subject Against a Very Light Background...51
Subject Against a Very Dark Background...52
Scenes with High Contrast...52
How Overriding Autoexposure Works...54
How to Override Automatic Exposure...55
Exposure Compensation...55
Autoexposure (AE) Lock...55
Autoexposure Bracketing (AEB)...57
Using Histograms...59
Displaying Histograms...59
Evaluating Histograms ...59
Clipped Pixels...61
Sample Histograms...62
CHAPTER 3
CONTROLLING SHARPNESS...63
Getting Sharper Pictures...64
Using the Self-timer/Remote Switch...64
Supporting the Camera...64
Adjusting the ISO...65
Sharpness Isn’t Everything...67
How to Photograph Motion Sharply...68
Speed of Subject...68
Direction of Movement...68
Distance to Subject and Focal Length of
Lens...69
Focus and Depth of Field...70
Focus...70
Depth of Field...70
Checking Depth of Field...71
Focusing Techniques...72
Autofocus Modes...72
Selectable Focusing Points...73
Displaying AF Points in Playback...74
Using Focus Lock...74
Manual Focus...75
Controlling Depth of Field...76
Using Deep Depth of Field...77
Using Shallow Depth of Field...78
Conveying the Feeling of Motion...79
CHAPTER 4
CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR...80
Where Does Color Come From?...81
White Balance and Color...82
Using Preset White Balance Settings...82
Creating and Using a Custom White Balance
Setting...83
Using a Specific Color Temperature...84
Selecting a Color Space...84
Using White Balance Correction & Bracketing...85
Color and Time of Day...86
Sunsets and Sunrises...87
Weather...89
Photographing at Night...91
The Direction of Light...93
The Quality of Light...95
V
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CONTENTS

CHAPTER 5
UNDERSTANDING LENSES...96
Canon Lenses...97
Electronic Lens Mount...97
Focusing Technology...97
Ultrasonic Motors...98
Image Stabilization...98
Information on a Canon Lens...99
Lens Peripheral Illumination Correction...100
Focal Length...101
Zoom Lenses...102
Normal Lenses...103
Wide-Angle Lenses...104
Telephoto Lenses...106
Macro Lenses and Accessories...108
Tilt-Shift Lenses...110
Lens Accessories...111
Perspective in a Photograph...112
CHAPTER 6
USING FLASH AND STUDIO LIGHTING...113
How Flash Works...114
Using a Canon Speedlite...115
Controlling Flash Exposures...116
What’s E-TTL II?...116
Flash Exposure Compensation...116
Flash Exposure (FE) Lock...117
External Speedlite Control...118
Flash Function Settings...118
Custom Functions...118
Flash Exposure Bracketing (FEB)...119
High-speed Sync (FP)...119
Wireless Remote Flash...120
Stroboscopic Flash...120
Portraits with Flash...121
Positioning the Flash and Subjects...121
Red-eye...122
Using Fill Flash...123
Using Slow Sync Flash...124
Using Available Light...126
Using Flash in Close-ups...127
Studio Lighting...128
Candidates for Studio Lighting...128
Lighting...128
Backgrounds...130
Risers...130
Special Bulbs...130
Portrait and Product Photography—
Introduction...131
The Main Light...132
The Fill Light...133
The Background Light...134
The Rim Light...135
CHAPTER 7
OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS...136
Continuous Photography...137
Remote Control Photography...138
Shooting Still Images in Live View...139
Manual Focusing...140
Live View/Movie Function Settings...140
Live View Function Settings...140
Screen Settings Type...141
Grid Display...141
Silent Shooting...141
Metering Timer...142
AF Mode...142
General Tips in Live View...143
Live View Focusing Tips...143
Magnified View for Focusing...144
Live View Exposure Tips...144
Shooting Movies in Live View...145
Basic Movie Tips...145
Camera settings...146
Exposure Tips...147
Things to Avoid...147
Using a TV As the Monitor...147
Playing Movies...148
Using Picture Styles...149
Selecting Picture Styles...149
Adjusting Picture Styles...149
Registering a Picture Style...150
Registering Your Own Settings...151
Using Custom Functions...152
C.Fn I: Exposure...153
C. Fn II: Image...154
C.Fn III: Auto focus/Drive...155
C.Fn IV: Operation Others...156
Using My Menu...158
Changing Other Settings...159
Shooting Without a CF Card...159
Setting the Date and Time...159
Changing the Review Time...159
Reset File Numbers...160
Turning the Beep On and Off...160
Adjusting Monitor Brightness...161
Traveling Options—Language and Video Set-
tings...161
Setting the Auto Power Off Time...161
Formatting CF Cards...161
Turning Auto Rotate On and Off...162
Creating and Selecting Folders...162
Firmware Version...163
Battery Info...163
Resetting Camera Settings...164
Caring for Your Camera...165
Cleaning the Image Sensor...165
Cleaning the Camera and Lens...167
Protecting your Camera from the Ele-
ments...167
Protecting when Traveling...168
Storing a Camera...168
Caring for Yourself...168
7 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
Chapter 1
Camera Controls and Creativity
S
erious digital cameras give you creative control over your images. They
do so by allowing you to control the light and motion in photographs
as well as what’s sharp and what isn’t. Although most consumer digital
cameras are fully automatic, some allow you to make minor adjustments that
affect your images. The best ones such as the Canon 5D Mark II offer inter-
changeable lenses, external flash connections, and a wide range of controls—
more than you’d find on a 35mm SLR. However, regardless of what controls
your camera has, the same basic principles are at work “under the hood.”
Your automatic exposure and focusing systems are having a profound affect
on your images. Even with your camera set to Full Auto, you can indirectly
control, or at least take advantage of the effects these systems have on your
images.
In this chapter, we’ll first explore your camera and how you use it in Full Auto
mode. We’ll also see how you use menus and buttons to operate the camera,
manage your images and control image quality. In the chapters that follow,
we’ll explore in greater depth how you take control of these settings, and oth-
ers, to get the effects you want.
CONTENTS
• The 5D Mark II
Camera • Jump
Start: Using Full
Auto Mode • Good
Things to Know •
Using the Viewfinder
• Anatomy of the
Camera • Changing
Settings with Buttons
and Dials • Chang-
ing Settings with the
Quick Control Screen
• Changing Settings
with Menus • Playing
Back & Managing
Your Images • Using
the Playback Menu •
Giving Slide Shows
• Selecting Image
Quality and Size
CHAPTER 1. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY
8
CHAPTER 1. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY
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http://www.photocourse.com/itext/SLR/
THE 5D MARK II CAMERA
Canon’s EOS 5D Mark II digital SLR camera features a full-frame (24 x
36mm) image sensor with 21.1 megapixels that can capture still images up
to 5616 x 3744 in size–large enough for 28 x 18 inch prints. Its high-speed
continuous mode captures up to 78 Large/Fine JPEGs or 13 RAW images at
3.9 frames-per-second (on a UDMA Compact Flash card) making it ideal for
photographing wildlife, sports and other action subjects.
The camera has a large three-inch 920,000-pixel LCD monitor on which you
can review your images. Using Live View, you can also use this monitor to
compose them, magnifying parts of the scene up to 10x for the precise man-
ual focus required in macro photography. Live View also has silent modes
that avoid startling people and wildlife. Using Live View, along with software
and a cable supplied with the camera, you can use a computer screen as the
viewfinder to compose and focus images, using menu commands displayed
on the screen to change camera settings. Using an optional wireless transmit-
ter you can even eliminate the cable and work wirelessly over short distances.
Live View also makes it possible for the camera to capture full 16:9 HD video
clips at 1920 x 1080 resolution and 30 frames per second. Camera settings
you make to adjust image sharpness, contrast, color saturation and white
balance, also apply to movies so you have extensive creative control. You also
have access to more than 60 Canon EF lenses from ultra-wide-angle and fish-
eye to macro and supertelephoto.
The camera has a top shutter speed of 1/8000 sec and a 1/200 maximum
flash sync shutter speed setting. ISO settings range from 100–6400 but you
can expand the ISO up to 25,600.
The camera’s 14-bit Analog-to-Digital (A/D) conversion process captures
images with finer and more accurate gradations of tones and colors. High-
light Tone Priority is perfect for wedding and nature photographers trying
to capture details in wedding dresses, clouds, snow or other white subjects.
When you don’t plan on editing your images on a computer, Picture Styles let
you adjust them for printing right from the camera as you capture them, or
later in playback mode.
The camera captures images in the JPEG format but also offers the higher-
quality RAW format. You can select either a full-sized RAW image format, or
one of two smaller and more manageable sRAW formats that are identical to
full-size RAW images except for their pixel dimensions and file sizes.
The focusing system uses nine AF points from which you or the camera can
select the one used to focus. Its 35-zone metering sensor and evaluative me-
tering are linked to all AF points. Also available are centerweighted average
metering, partial metering and spot metering—the last two covering approxi-
mately 8 percent or 3.5 percent of the viewfinder at center, respectively.
The camera has E-TTL II autoflash and 7 shooting modes, plus three custom
modes you can use to store your own settings. As an added convenience, par-
ticularly for wireless flash operations, you can adjust the flash settings of the
Canon Speedlite 580EX II and 430EX II directly from the camera.
The camera’s integrated sensor cleaning offers a number of ways to prevent
dust from affecting your images, or remove it if it does.
Finally, the camera has customization features including 25 Custom Func-
tions, picture styles you can edit or define from scratch, and the ability to
create your own menu listing only those settings you use most frequently.
The Canon 5D Mark
II is a single-lens
reflex (SLR) camera
so when you look in
the viewfinder you
are seeing the scene
through the lens.
The 5D Mark II camera
body comes with an
eyecup and body cap,
battery pack (LP-E6),
battery charger (LC-E6
or LC-E6E, strap (EW-
EOS5DMKII) interface
cable (IFC-200U),
stereo video cable
(STV-250N), EOS Digital
Solutions Disk, and
manuals.
Click this button to play
an animation that shows
how an SLR works when
you compose an image
and press the shutter
button.
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JUMP START—USING FULL AUTO MODE
The 5D Mark II’s Full Auto mode sets everything for you. All you have to do
is frame the image and push the shutter button. This is a good mode to use
in most situations because it lets you focus on the subject rather than on the
camera.
• Selecting the mode. Turn the Power Switch on the back of the camera to
ON and set the Mode Dial to Full Auto (the green rectangle icon).
• Framing the image. The viewfinder shows about 98% of the scene you
are going to capture. If the image in the viewfinder is fuzzy, turn the diopter
adjustment knob at the upper right corner of the viewfinder to adjust it (page
12).
• Autofocus. The nine small rectangles displayed in the viewfinder are AF
points used for focusing. When the focus switch on the lens is set to AF, the
camera focuses on the closest part of the scene covered by one or more of
these points (page 72). When you press the shutter button halfway down, the
AF point(s) being used to set focus momentarily flashes red, the round focus
confirmation light in the lowerright corner of the viewfinder glows green, and
the camera beeps. How close you can get to a subject depends on the mini-
mum focus distance of the lens you are using.
• Autoexposure. Evaluative metering divides the scene in the viewfinder
into 35 zones and separately meters each of them to determine the best
exposure for the scene (page 46). The shutter speed and aperture that will be
used to take the picture are displayed in the viewfinder when the display is
activated by pressing the shutter button halfway down (page 12).
• Automatic white balance. The color cast in a photograph is affected by
the color of the light illuminating the scene. The camera adjusts white bal-
ance so white objects in the scene look white in the photo (page 82).
TAKING A PICTURE IN AUTO MODE
1. With the Power Switch on the back of the camera set to ON or the
white line above it, set the Mode Dial to Full Auto (the green rect-
angle icon). Set the focus mode switch on the lens to AF (page 72).
2. Compose the image in the viewfinder, making sure the area that you
want sharpest is covered by one of the nine AF points.
3. Press the shutter button halfway down and pause so the camera can
automatically set focus and exposure. When it’s done so, it beeps, the
round green focus confirmation light in the viewfinder glows, and the
AF point(s) being used to set focus briefly flashes red.
4. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.
! The shutter sounds, buSY may be briefly displayed in the viewfind-
er, and the red access lamp on the back of the camera glows while the
image is being saved. You can take another photo at any time.
! The image is displayed on the monitor for 2 seconds so you can re-
view it, press Erase to delete it, or press INFO to change the display.
5. When finished, turn the Power Switch to OFF.
The Mode Dial with the
green Full Auto icon.
The Power Switch set
to the white line above
ON.
JUMP START—USING FULL AUTO MODE
This icon is displayed
when you turn the
camera on and off to
indicate the sensor is
being cleaned.
TIPS
• If the camera
doesn’t work as
described here, you
may need to clear
previous settings as
described on page
164.
• If you don’t use
any controls for 60
seconds, the camera
enters auto power
off mode (page 161).
To wake it up, press
the shutter button
halfway down and
release it.
• If you have at-
tached a dedicated
Speedlite flash, its
AF-assist beam may
light to assist focus
in dim light (page
118).
10
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!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+,-')(.%/"-0"%):,-,%):,-,'#12
GOOD THINGS TO KNOW
When you first start taking photos with a new camera, it sometimes seems
that there is too much to learn all at once. To simplify your getting started,
here are some of the things you may want to know right off.
• The power switch has two positions, ON and the white line above it. The
only difference is that when set to the white line the Quick Control Dial works
(page 15).
• If your camera is right out of the box, you need to mount a lens (page 97)
and set it to AF (autofocus), insert a charged battery pack, and insert a Com-
pactFlash (CF) card on which to store your images. No CF card is included
with the camera, and there may be no lens as part of the package.
• To insert a CF card, turn off the camera, slide the CF card slot cover on the
right side of the camera toward the back, and swing it open. Insert the CF
card with its front label facing the rear of the camera and the small holes
facing inward. Press the card down until the gray eject button pops out, then
close the cover. To remove a card, open the CF card slot cover and press the
gray eject button to pop up the card so you can grasp it and pull it out.
• The first time you use the camera, select a language (if necessary) and enter
the current date and time (page 159) so your images are accurately dated.
• One of the camera’s default settings lets you shoot pictures without a CF
card in the camera. Images are even displayed on the monitor so you think
you are capturing them, but they are not saved. To ensure you don’t take
unsaved pictures, turn off the Shoot w/o card setting on the Shooting 1 menu
tab (page 159).
• If you turn off the camera while an image is being saved, the message Re-
cording is displayed and the power remains on until all images are saved.
• Should you inadvertently open the compact flash card door while the cam-
era is writing to the card, a warning is displayed on the monitor and an open
door “alarm” sounds, but the image is saved without interruption as long as
you don’t remove the card.
• To take pictures, hold the camera in your right hand while supporting the
lens with your left. Brace the camera against your face as you look through
the viewfinder and brace your elbows against your body. Press the shutter
button slowly and smoothly as you hold your breath after breathing in deeply
and exhaling.
• The shutter button has two stages. When you press it halfway down and
briefly pause, the camera sets focus and exposure. When the green confirma-
tion light comes on in the viewfinder and the camera beeps, you press it the
rest of the way to take the picture. If you press the shutter button all of the
way down without pausing halfway, the camera pauses to focus before taking
the picture.
• If the camera can’t focus, it doesn’t beep when you press the shutter but-
ton halfway down, the round green focus confirmation light in the viewfinder
blinks, and you can’t take a picture. For help on focusing see page 72.
• In P, Tv, Av, M and B modes pressing the AF-ON button does the same
thing as pressing the shutter button halfway down.
The battery compart-
ment cover is on the
bottom of the camera
and accepts LP-E6
lithium battery packs.
The CF card slot cover is
on the right side of the
camera as seen from
the shooting position.
Sections in the battery
icon on the LCD panel
and in the viewfinder
are deleted as the
battery charge falls. The
last two blink to draw
your attention when the
battery is almost dead.
Click to view a PDF
document on camera
straps and cases.
Pressing the shutter
button halfway down
locks focus and
exposure and pressing it
all the way down takes
the picture.
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• When you don’t use controls for a specified period, the camera shuts down
in two stages. After 4 seconds metering turns off, as do the viewfinder dis-
play and the aperture and/or shutter speed readouts on the LCD panel. After
one minute auto power off takes effect and the LCD panel and monitor turn
off. At this point dials, and many buttons including the three above the LCD
panel, won’t work. To turn on metering, and reactivate the displays and but-
tons, press the shutter button halfway down.
• You can illuminate the LCD panel by pressing the button marked with the
light bulb icon on top of the camera.
• You can use the camera’s monitor to review images you’ve taken (page 20),
and in Live View (page 139) use it to compose, focus and capture them. You
can adjust the monitor’s brightness to match the light you’re viewing it in
(page 160).
• When you take a picture, it is displayed on the monitor for two seconds but
you can adjust this review time (page 159). While it’s displayed, you can press
the Erase button (page 20) to delete it, or INFO to change the display mode.
• While watching the monitor, press the INFO button to cycle through the
list-like Camera Settings screen, the grid-like Shooting Functions screen
(page 15), and turning off the monitor. Like the LCD panel, the Shooting
Functions screen reflects setting changes as you or the camera make them.
• You can reset all camera settings to their factory defaults (page 164). This is
useful if you make changes and can’t remember how to undo them.
• When photographing in a studio-like setting, or using the camera to give
a slide show, you can use the optional AC Adapter Kit ACK-E6 to power the
camera instead of the battery pack. Instructions on how to attach the adapter
are included with it.
• Routinely check the shots remaining displayed on the LCD panel and Shoot-
ing Functions screen. When the number in brackets gets to zero you can’t
take any more photos unless you delete some or change memory cards.
• When you charge batteries with the LC-E6 or LC-E6E charger the orange
charge lamp blinks more rapidly the more charged the battery is. It blinks
once per second up to 50%, twice per second up to 75%, three times per sec-
ond after 75% and glows green when fully charged. Fully charging a depleted
battery takes about 2.5 hours.
• A fully charged battery should capture around 800 pictures depending on
the temperature and how often you use flash, the monitor, and Live View.
• Recharge batteries immediately before using them because they gradually
loose their charge over time.
• The battery pack cover can be attached in two directions. Align it so the blue
seal shows through the battery shaped opening to indicate a battery is fully
charged. Align it in the other direction on a battery that needs charging.
• If you encounter an error message you can’t resolve, or if the camera con-
trols “freeze,” you might “reboot” it by turning it off, removing the battery
for a few seconds, reinserting the battery and turning it back on. Sometimes
ensuring that the lens is locked into place also helps.
GOOD THINGS TO KNOW
The Mode Dial with
seven shooting modes
and 3 custom modes.
TIPS
• If you press the
INFO button once
or twice to display
the Shooting Func-
tions screen on the
monitor (it’s grid-
like) and then turn
the Mode Dial, you’ll
see the settings
for each shooting
mode. Those that are
grayed out can’t be
changed in the cur-
rent shooting mode.
• See the Battery
info command on
page 163.
If the focus confirmation
light in the viewfinder
blinks when you press
the shutter button
halfway down, the
camera is having
trouble focusing (page
72).
Pressing the LCD Panel
Illumination button
lights the LCD panel
so it’s readable in the
dark. It turns off after
6 seconds of inactivity.
Turning the Mode
Dial or pressing any
shooting related button
extends it.
12
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USING THE VIEWFINDER
When taking photos with the 5D Mark II, you normally compose them in
the viewfinder. Since this is your center of interest, the camera also displays
focus and exposure information to guide you.
FOCUS SCREENS
The camera accepts three interchangeable focus screens. Should you switch
them, you have to set Custom Function IV-5 Focusing screen (page 152) to
tell the camera which one you have installed.
• The Eg-A focus screen comes with your camera. It displays a bright view of
the scene and makes it easy to manually focus.
• The Eg-D is the same as Eg-A but displays grid lines that are great for
studio and architectural photography where accurately aligning vertical and
horizontal lines is important.
• The Eg-S is a super-precision matte screen designed for lenses with a maxi-
mum aperture of f/2.8 or larger. This screen makes manual focusing easier
and more precise than the Eg-A, but when used with a lens slower than f/2.8,
the viewfinder image is darker.
DIOPTER ADJUSTMENT
You can adjust the viewfinder display so you can read it without glasses.
To do so, remove the lens cap and look through the viewfinder at an evenly
lit surface or fairly bright light source (not the sun!). If the viewfinder dis-
play isn’t sharp, try to bring the AF points into focus by turning the dioptric
adjustment knob at the upperright corner of the viewfinder. If this doesn’t
work, the camera also accepts the accessory E-series Dioptric Adjustment
Lenses in 10 types ranging from -4 to +3 diopters. These lenses slip into the
viewfinder’s eyepiece holder.
AF POINTS
The viewfinder displays nine small rectangles called AF points (AF stands
for autofocus). When the focus switch on the lens is set to AF (page 72), the
camera focuses on the closest part of the scene covered by one or more of
these AF points. The one being used to set focus can be selected manually or
automatically (page 73). When you press the shutter button halfway down,
the focusing point or points being used to set focus flash red. The circle in the
center of the viewfinder indicates the spot metering area (page 48).
INFORMATION DISPLAY
When you press the shutter button halfway down, the viewfinder displays the
current shutter speed and aperture, the ISO, the shots remaining in continu-
ous mode, and the focus confirmation indicator. In P, Tv, Av, M and B modes
it also displays an exposure level indicator that’s used for setting exposure
compensation (page 55) and Manual (M) exposure (page 45). A number of
other indicators are also displayed during various procedures.
The Eg-D optional focus
screen.
The viewfinder display
stays on for 4 seconds
after you press the
shutter button halfway
down.
When focus is achieved
the AF point or points
being used to set focus
flash red and the green
confirmation light
glows steady in the
viewfinder.
The diopter adjustment
knob.
TIP
• To turn on meter-
ing and display expo-
sure information on
the LCD panel and in
the viewfinder, press
the shutter button
halfway down.
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ANATOMY OF THE CAMERA
The 5D Mark II has a number of buttons and dials that quickly change im-
portant settings without the time-consuming need to work your way through
menus.
The shutter button (top)
and Main Dial (bottom).
TOP VIEW
1. Mode Dial selects any of the camera’s shooting modes (page 40).
2. Shutter button sets exposure and focus and turns on metering, the view-
finder, and LCD panel displays when pressed halfway down, and takes the
photo when pressed all the way.
3. Main Dial is used by itself and with buttons to change camera settings
in shooting modes (page 15). In playback mode, turning the dial jumps you
through pictures you’ve taken (page 20).
4. LCD Panel Illumination button lights the LCD panel.
5. Metering/WB button selects the metering mode (page 48) in conjunc-
tion with the Main Dial and sets white balance (page 82) in conjunction with
the Quick Control Dial.
6. AF-DRIVE button specifies autofocus modes (page 72) in conjunction
with the Main Dial and cycles the camera among the drive modes single-shot,
continuous (page 137), and self-timer (page 64) in conjunction with the Quick
Control Dial.
7. ISO/Flash Exposure Compensation button, in conjunction with the
Main Dial changes the ISO (page 65), and sets flash exposure compensation
(page 116) in conjunction with the Quick Control Dial.
TIPS
• You can quickly
reset all camera set-
tings to their original
factory defaults
(page 164).
• You can connect
the camera to a
computer and use
Live View (page 139)
so you and others
can immediately see
photos as you take
them. This is a great
way to take portraits
and close-ups.
ANATOMY OF THE CAMERA
After pressing a button
that has two functions,
turning the Main Dial
changes the first setting
and turning the Quick
Control Dial changes the
second.
TIP
• Blue icons indi-
cate the function of
buttons in Playback
mode.
14
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REAR VIEW
1. Live View/Print/Share button, when pressed in shooting mode, turns
on Live View when it’s enabled. In playback mode, it lets you print or transfer
images when connected to a printer or computer.
2. MENU button displays and hides the menu on the monitor (page 17).
3. Picture Style selection button changes picture styles (page 149).
4. INFO button cycles you through information about camera settings in
shooting mode (page 15), or images in playback mode (page 20).
5. Playback button displays the last image you captured (page 20).
6. Erase button deletes the image displayed on the monitor (page 20).
7. AF-ON button autofocuses in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes (page 72).
8. AE/FE lock/Index/Reduce button (*) locks exposure (page 55) and
flash exposure (page 117). In playback mode, it unzooms a zoomed image and
switches to index view (page 20).
9. AF point selection/Magnify button, in conjunction with the Main or
Quick Control Dial, manually selects which AF point is used to set focus (page
73). In Playback and Live View modes it zooms images up to 10x (page 20).
10. Multi-controller, a small joy stick, moves in 8 directions plus straight
down. It selects AF points (page 73), makes white balance corrections (page
85) and scrolls around an enlarged image in playback mode (page 20).
11. SET button in the middle of the Quick Control Dial confirms settings
and starts and stops movie recording (page 145).
12. Quick Control Dial adjusts exposure by itself, and works in conjunc-
tion with buttons to change settings in shooting mode (page 15). In playback
mode it scrolls through images, and in menu mode it highlights menu com-
mands.
13. Power switch turns the camera on and off, and when set to the white
line, activates the Quick Control Dial in shooting modes.
TIPS
• Throughout this
book when we tell
you to turn the Quick
Control Dial, in many
cases you can also
turn the Main Dial.
• You can quickly
reset camera settings
to their original fac-
tory defaults (page
164).
• In P, Tv, Av, M and
B modes (page 40),
pressing the AF-ON
button performs the
same function as
pressing the shutter
button halfway down.
TIP
• You can press
the Multi-controller
straight down and in
eight sideways direc-
tions. You use it to
select the AF point,
correct the white
balance, scroll the
playback image dur-
ing magnified view,
operate the Quick
Control screen, and
highlight and select
menu options except
Erase images on the
Playback 1 menu and
Format on the Set up
1 menu where you
have to press SET
instead.
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CHANGING SETTINGS WITH BUTTONS AND DIALS
Buttons and dials are often used together. Pressing a button initiates a proce-
dure by activating metering and the exposure displays, in the viewfinder and
on the LCD panel and monitor, and then turning a dial highlights one of the
available options. Each time you press a button to initiate a procedure, you
only have about 6 seconds to turn the dial or the displays become inactive.
• Many buttons, including the three above the LCD panel, won’t work when
auto power off is in effect (page 161). To wake up the camera, press the shut-
ter button halfway down and release it.
• After pressing buttons that have two functions, such as AF-DRIVE, turn-
ing the Main Dial changes the setting listed first (AF) and turning the Quick
Control Dial changes the one listed second (DRIVE).
THE MAIN DIAL
The Main Dial is used to change settings in shooting modes, highlight menu
tabs in menu mode (page 17), and jump through pictures in playback mode
(page 21).
• When changing metering, AF mode, ISO or selecting an AF point, you first
press and release a button to select a setting before you turn the dial.
• When changing shutter speeds and apertures in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes
you turn the dial without first pressing a button (pages 41–45).
• After pressing MENU, turn the dial to select menu tabs listing commands
(page 17).
THE QUICK CONTROL DIAL
The Quick Control Dial works in shooting modes to change settings, in menu
mode to highlight menu commands, and in playback mode to scroll through
images.
• When changing the white balance, drive mode, flash exposure compensa-
tion or AF point selection, you first press and release a button to select a set-
ting before you turn the dial.
• When changing exposure compensation (page 55) or selecting an aperture
in Manual (M) mode (page 45), you turn the dial by itself. This only works
when the Power Switch is set past ON to the white line pointing to the Quick
Control Dial
• After pressing MENU turn the dial to move the highlight up and down the
menu.
THE INFO BUTTON
When the camera is ready to shoot, you can press the INFO button to cycle
through the list-like Camera Settings, the grid-like Shooting Functions
screens, and turning off the monitor. You can use the Set up 3 menu’s INFO
button setting to specify which screens are displayed.
When the Shooting Functions screen is displayed, you can use it instead of
the LCD panel as a guide when changing settings. It has the advantage of
larger type and better illumination. You can also press the Multi-controller
straight down to activate it and change it into the Quick Control screen.
The Quick Control Dial
only adjusts exposure
settings when the
Power Switch is set to
the white line above
ON. Setting it to ON
prevents inadvertent
shifts in exposure by
turning the dial.
When you press many
buttons, their function
remains active for only
6 seconds. If you are
slow, just press the
button again for another
6 seconds.
TIPS
• Many buttons won’t
work when auto
power off is in effect
so press the shutter
button halfway down
and release it to ac-
tivate metering and
the camera’s LCD
panel displays.
• If you turn the
camera off while the
Shooting Functions
screen is displayed,
the screen will be
displayed again the
next time you turn
on the camera. To
avoid this, press
the INFO button to
display a different
screen before turning
off the camera.
CHANGING SETTINGS WITH BUTTONS AND DIALS
16
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CHANGING SETTINGS ON THE QUICK CONTROL SCREEN
In addition to using menus to change or confirm settings, you can also use
the Quick Control screen and the three dual function buttons above the LCD
panel.
THE QUICK CONTROL SCREEN
You can use the Quick Control screen and Multi-controller to change set-
tings on the monitor. This is very convenient when you’re shooting from a
tripod or monopod, with the camera at eye level, where it’s hard to read the
LCD panel on top of the camera. This screen is almost identical to the Shoot-
ing Functions screen (page 15). In fact if you display the Shooting Functions
screen and then press the Multi-controller straight down, it changes into the
Quick Control screen.
The Quick Control
screen (top) and
a settings screen
(bottom).
The three buttons above
the LCD panel each
have two settings you
change with the Main
and Quick Control Dials.
TIPS
• You can’t display
the Quick Control
screen when the
camera is in auto
power off mode.
Press the shutter
button halfway down
and release it to
wake up the camera.
• When Custom
Function III-3:
AF point selection
method is set to
1: Multi-control-
ler direct, you can’t
display the Quick
Control screen.
• Settings remain
selected for 10 sec-
onds if you don’t use
any controls. Press
the Multi-control-
ler straight down to
reselect it.
USING THE QUICK CONTROL SCREEN
1. Press the joystick-like Multi-controller straight down to activate the
Quick Control screen displaying the current camera settings on the
monitor. The currently selected setting is highlighted in green and
remains highlighted for only 10 seconds if you don’t use any camera
controls.
2. Press the Multi-controller in any direction to highlight the setting
you want to change and its function is indicated at the bottom of the
screen.
3. Press SET to display a settings screen (this is optional), then turn the
Main or Quick Control Dial to scroll through choices for the selected
setting. If you displayed a setting screen, press SET after selecting
your choice to return to the Quick Control screen.
DUAL FUNCTION BUTTON SCREENS
The three buttons above the LCD panel each have two functions. When the
Shooting Functions or Quick Control screen is displayed, you can press one of
these buttons to display a two-part setting screen on the monitor.
• Turning the Main Dial changes the upper setting.
• Turning the Quick Control Dial changes the lower setting.
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CHANGING SETTINGS WITH MENUS
To change many settings, you press the MENU button to display a series of
menu tabs coded with colors, icons and dots. To charge settings from these
menus you use the Main Dial, the Quick Control Dial and the SET button.
• All of the camera’s menu commands and the pages on which they are
discussed in this book are listed in tables on pages 18–19. On those tables,
shaded menu items are not available in Full or Creative Auto modes (pages 9
and 41).
• Some menus are spread across two or three tabs. In these cases the tab
numbers (1, 2, 3) are indicated on the tabs with dots.
• You can use the Multi-controller as well as the Main and Quick Control
Dials to change menu settings. To do so, you press it sideways to highlight
menu items and press it straight down to select them. (To reduce the pos-
sibility of mistakes, you can’t use the Multi-controller to select Erase images
on the Playback 1 menu or Format on the Set up 1 menu.)
• When menus are displayed on the monitor, you can press the shutter button
halfway down at any time to instantly return to shooting mode.
• You can place up to six frequently used menu commands on your own “My
Menu” and even have that menu displayed first when you press the MENU
button (page 158).
• The last menu you viewed is displayed the next time you press MENU.
USING MENUS
• To display the menu, press the MENU button.
• To select a tab, turn the Main Dial. Colors, dots, and icons help you
identify which menu tab is displayed.
• To move the colored selection frame up and down the menu to high-
light settings, turn the Quick Control Dial.
• To display the options or settings screen for a highlighted command,
press the SET button in the center of the Quick Control Dial.
• To select a listed option (not all commands list options), turn the
Quick Control Dial to highlight it, then press SET to confirm the change.
• To backup without changing a setting, press MENU or the shutter
button before pressing SET.
• To hide the menu, press the MENU or shutter button.
Once you press MENU,
the Main Dial, the Quick
Control Dial (above) and
the SET button in its
center are all you need
to change settings.
Icons, colors and
dots indicate (from
top down) Shooting,
Playback, Set up,
Custom Functions and
My Menu tabs.
CHANGING SETTINGS WITH MENUS
The Shooting 1 menu.
18
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SHOOTING 1 (RED)
Command Settings Page
Quality Sets image size, compression and format 27
Beep Turns camera beep Off/On 160
Shoot w/o card Specifies if the camera takes pictures without
a card inserted
159
Review time Specifies how long an image is displayed im-
mediately after capture
159
Peripheral illumin.
correct.
Turns on and off for the selected lens. 100
SHOOTING 2 (RED)
Command Settings Page
Expo.comp./AEB Exposure compensation and autoexposure
bracketing
55, 57
White balance Prevents color casts 82
Custom WB Sets white balance in unique lighting situa-
tions
83
WB SHIFT/BKT Adjusts and brackets white balance 85
Color space Specifies the color space used to capture
images
84
Picture Style Lets you select predefined image settings, or
create your own
149
Dust Delete Data Locates dust on the sensor so its effects can
be removed from images using software.
166
PLAYBACK 1 (BLUE)
Command Settings Page
Protect images Protects images from being erased 22
Rotate Rotates images shot in portrait mode 22
Erase images Erases images from the memory card 22
Print order Specifies images to be printed —
Transfer order Selects images to be sent to PC —
External media
backup
Used with WFT-E4/E4A wireless transmitter
to save images

PLAYBACK 2 (BLUE)
Command Settings Page
Highlight alert Highlights overexposed areas in images 59
AF point disp. Specifies if AF points used to focus are dis-
played in review or playback modes
74
Histogram Selects type of histogram displayed 59
Slide show Plays back images automatically 23
Image jump Specifies how you jump in playback mode. 21
In the tables on this
page shaded commands
are not available in Full
Auto and Creative auto
modes.
Some settings are only
displayed when you
are using an optional
WFT-E4/E4A wireless
transmitter.
19 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
CHANGING SETTINGS WITH MENUS
SET UP 1 (YELLOW)
Command Settings Page
Auto power off Specifies when camera turns off 161
Auto rotate Rotates images shot in portrait mode 162
Format Prepares card to store images 161
File numbering Specifies image file numbers 160
Select folder Create and select folders for images 162
WFT settings Used with WFT-E4/E4A wireless
transmitter

Recording function+media
select
Used with WFT-E4/E4A wireless
transmitter

SET UP 2 (YELLOW)
Command Settings Page
LCD brightness Adjusts monitor brightness 161
Date/Time Sets camera date and time 159
Language Specifies language used for menus
and messages
161
Video system Specifies PAL or NTSC video 161
Sensor cleaning Cleans dust from the sensor 165
Live View/Movie func. set. Customizes the Live View display 139
SET UP 3 (YELLOW)
Command Settings Page
Battery info. Manage your battery packs 163
INFO. button Specifies which INFO screens are
displayed
15
External Speedlite control Sets an external flash 118
Camera user setting Stores your own settings to C1, C2
and C3 on the Mode Dial
151
Clear settings Resets many camera settings to their
factory defaults
164
Firmware ver. Updates the camera’s firmware 163
CUSTOM FUNCTIONS (ORANGE)
Command Settings Page
C.Fn I: Exposure Exposure, ISO, bracketing, flash sync 153
C.Fn II: Image Noise reduction, highlight tone and
auto lighting optimizer
154
C.Fn III: Autofocus/Drive Autofocus and mirror lockup 155
C.Fn IV: Operation/Others Shutter button, AF-ON, SET dials,
focusing screen and Live View
156
Clear all Custom Func. (C.Fn) Resets Custom Functions to their
defaults
152
MY MENU (GREEN)
Command Settings Page
My Menu settings Stores frequently used commands 158
In the tables on this
page shaded commands
are not available in Full
Auto and Creative auto
modes.
20
CHAPTER 1. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY
FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
PLAYING BACK & MANAGING YOUR IMAGES
When taking photos, there are many times when you want to review the im-
ages you’ve taken, ideally before leaving the scene.
IMAGE REVIEW
When you take a photo, it’s displayed for 2 seconds (counting from when
you release the shutter button) although you can change this with the Re-
view time command (page 159) on the Shooting 1 menu tab. With an image
displayed, press the Erase button to delete it, or the INFO button to change
the information display. Pressing either button also keeps the image on the
screen until you press the shutter button halfway down to take another photo
or auto power off takes effect.
IMAGE PLAYBACK
To review some or all of the images you have taken, press the Playback but-
ton to display the last photo you took. You can then scroll through images,
display small thumbnails so you can quickly locate a specific image, erase
the image, or zoom in to examine details. In playback mode, you can press
the shutter button halfway down at any time to instantly return to shooting
mode. You may not be able to playback photos on the card taken with an-
other camera.
INFO DISPLAY
To display or hide information about images in review or playback modes,
repeatedly press the INFO button to cycle through single image display,
single image display with recording quality, histogram display, and shoot-
ing information display. On two of the screens a small thumbnail and one or
more histograms are displayed (page 59). Once information is displayed for
one image in playback (but not review) mode, you can turn the Quick Control
Dial to scroll through other images with the same information displayed.
MANAGING IMAGES—USING BUTTONS
1. Press the Playback button and use any of the following procedures:
! To display one image after another, turn the Quick Control Dial.
! To display 4 or 9 small thumbnails in index view, press the Index
button once or twice. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll the blue
frame to select a specific image. To return to single-image view, press
the Magnify button.
! To jump by the specified method (page 21), turn the Main Dial.
! To magnify an image up to 10x, display it in single-image view and
press or hold down the Magnify button. When an image is magnified,
a small square on the screen indicates which part of the image you
are viewing as you press the Multi-controller to scroll around. To re-
duce the image and return to single-image view, press or hold down
the Index/Reduce button or press the Playback button.
CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE ...
TIPS
• After zooming an
image or displaying
information about
it, you can turn
the Main or Quick
Control Dials to scroll
through other im-
ages using the same
settings.
• To immediately
return to shooting
mode, press the
shutter button half-
way down.
The Index/Reduce
icons.
The Playback icon.
The Erase icon.
The Magnify icon.
Pressing INFO in
playback mode displays
information about the
image.
21 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
PLAYING BACK & MANAGING YOUR IMAGES
SELECTING A JUMP METHOD
1. Press MENU and display the Playback 2 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Image jump, and press SET
to display a list jump methods.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, and press SET
to select it.
4. When finished, press MENU and turn the Main Dial in playback
mode to jump by the specified method. The current jump method
and location are displayed in the lowerright corner of the monitor.
JUMPING IN PLAYBACK
In playback mode, it takes time to navigate through images when there are
many of them on a card. To speed things up you can turn the Main Dial to
jump in single-image, magnified, and index modes. The jump methods from
which you can choose include the following:
• 1 image displays all of the images and movies in the order they were cap-
tured.
• 10 images (the default) jumps you forward and back 10 images at a time.
• 100 images jumps you forward and back 100 images at a time.
• Screen, designed for use in index mode, jumps you forward and back a
screen, or page of thumbnails, at a time.
• Date jumps you forward or back to the first picture taken on the next or
previous date.
• Folder jumps folder by folder.
• Movies jumps you to the first movie and then to other movies.
• Stills jumps you to the first still image, then through other stills.
In all modes other than 1 image, as you turn the Main Dial to jump, a position
bar on the screen indicates where the currently displayed images fall within
the total collection of images on the card. Also turning the Quick Control Dial
continues to scroll through images one at a time.
MANAGING IMAGES—USING BUTTONS, CON’T.
! To erase the image displayed in single-image view or the one high-
lighted in index view, press the Erase button (marked with a trash
can icon). To confirm the erasure, turn the Quick Control Dial to
highlight Erase and press SET.
! To change the information displayed, press INFO.
2. To resume shooting, press the Playback button or press the shutter
button halfway down.
TIP
• One way to delete
all images on a card
(and all folders but
the current one), is
to format the card
(page 161).
The Playback icon.
IMAGE RECOVERY SOFTWARE
• If you delete images by mistake, don’t despair. There is software that will let
you recover them provided you don’t first save other photos on the same card.
One such program is PhotoRescue at (http://www.datarescue.com/photorescue/)
but you can find others by Googling “digital image recovery.”
22
CHAPTER 1. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY
FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
TIPS
• When looking for
pictures to erase,
protect, or rotate,
it’s often faster if
you press the In-
dex/Reduce button
to switch to index
display.
• You can rotate im-
ages automatically
with the Set up 1
menu’s Auto rotate
command (page
162).
• Print order is used
to specify which
images are to be
printed.
• Transfer Order
is used to select
which photos are
transferred to your
computer.
The protect icon.
TIP
The best way to de-
lete images depends
on how many you
are deleting.
• When deleting
100% of the images,
use the All images on
card choice.
• When deleting less
than 50%, use the
Select and erase im-
ages choice.
• When deleting
more than 50%, pro-
tect the images you
want to save, and
then use the All im-
ages on card choice
to delete the rest.
MANAGING YOUR IMAGES—USING MENUS
1. Press MENU and display the Playback 1 menu tab.
! To protect selected images so they won’t be inadvertently erased,
or to unprotect previously protected images, turn the Quick Control
Dial to highlight Protect images and press SET. Turn the Quick Con-
trol Dial to scroll through images and press SET to protect or unpro-
tect selected images. (When you select a protected image, the protect
icon is displayed at the top of the screen.)
! To rotate selected images, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight
Rotate, and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll through
your images and press SET one or more times to rotate an image.
! To erase selected images, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight
Erase images and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial to high-
light Select and erase images and press SET. Turn the Quick Control
Dial to scroll through images and press SET to check those to be
deleted. (Press Index and Magnify to toggle between 1 or 3 images.)
When finished selecting images, press the Erase button to delete
them and select OK when asked to confirm.
! To erase all images in a folder, turn the Quick Control Dial to
highlight Erase images and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial
to highlight All images in folder, and press SET to display a list of
folders. Turn the Quick Control Dial again to select a folder and press
SET, then turn it again to select OK and press SET.
! To erase all images on the card, turn the Quick Control Dial to
highlight Erase images and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial
to highlight All images on card, and press SET, then turn it again to
select OK and press SET.
2. When finished, press MENU.
USING THE PLAYBACK MENU
The Playback menu tabs list a variety of commands. Although only Protect
images, Rotate, and Erase images from the Playback 1 menu tab are dis-
cussed here, the other playback commands are discussed elsewhere in this
book (page 18).
23 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
GIVING SLIDE SHOWS
GIVING SLIDE SHOWS
1. Press MENU and select the Playback 2 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Slide show, and press SET
to display the slide show settings screen.
3. Do one of the following:
! Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight All images and press SET.
Turn it again to select All images, Folder, Date, Movies or Stills and
press SET. If you select Folder or Date, before pressing SET press
INFO to display a list of folders or dates from which to choose. Use
the Quick Control Dial and SET to select a folder or date and press
MENU to return to the slide show screen.
! Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Set up and press SET.
Turn it again to select Play time or Repeat and press SET. Use the
Quick Control Dial and SET to select a setting and press MENU to
return to the slide show screen.
4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Start and press SET to begin
the show.
! To pause and restart the show, press SET. When paused, a pause
icon is displayed in the upper left corner of the monitor.
! To manually scroll through images, turn the Main or Quick Control
Dial.
! To specify what information is displayed, press INFO.
5. To stop the show at any point, press the MENU or shutter button.
GIVING SLIDE SHOWS
You can display your images as a slide show on the camera’s monitor or on a
connected TV.
• To show your images on a non-HD TV, turn both the TV and the camera off
while you connect the supplied video cable (don’t use any other) to the A/V
OUT terminal on the camera. On the TV connect the red plug to the audio
right channel, the white to the audio left channel, and the yellow to video in.
Turn on the TV and set it for video input.
• To show your images on a High Definition HD TV connect the camera and
TV using the camera’s built-in HDMI OUT terminal and an optional HDMI
Cable HTC-100. Output resolution is automatically set to match the model
of HDTV you are using and photos are displayed in their original 3:2 aspect
ratio.
Once the camera and TV are connected, turn on the camera and set it to Slide
show as described below. Shows can include all of the still images and movies
on the memory card, just movies or still images, or specific photos selected by
their date or folder. For added convenience you can control the playback rate
(from one to five seconds per image) and set the show to end or loop when
finished. Auto power off does not operate in slide show mode so you have
to remember to turn it off. If you are traveling and need to switch between
NTSC and PAL video systems see page 161.
When paused, a pause
icon is displayed in the
upper left corner of the
monitor.
The optional HDMI
Cable HTC-100 used to
display images on HD
TVs.
The camera’s HDMI
terminal.
TIPS
• Canon’s optional
AC adapter kit (ACK-
E6) lets you give
slide shows without
draining your battery
pack.
• When giving a slide
show, due to differ-
ences in the aspect
ratio of the screen
and image, im-
ages may not fill the
screen, or if they do,
parts may be cut off.
• You can’t use the
camera’s A/V OUT
and HDMI OUT ter-
minals at the same
time.
24
CHAPTER 1. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY
FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/resolution/
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/dots/
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/pixelzoom/
SELECTING IMAGE QUALITY AND SIZE
Digital photographs are made up of millions of tiny squares called picture el-
ements—or just pixels. Like the impressionists who painted wonderful scenes
with small dabs of paint, your computer and printer can use these tiny pixels
to display or print photographs. To do so, the computer divides the screen or
printed page into a grid of pixels. It then uses the values stored in the digital
photograph to specify the brightness and color of each pixel in this grid—a
form of painting by number.
Any image that looks
sharp and has smooth
transitions in tones
(top) is actually made
up of millions of
individual square pixels
(bottom). Each pixel is
a solid, uniform color.
NUMBER OF PIXELS
The quality of a digital image depends in part on the number of pixels used to
create the image (sometimes referred to as resolution). At a given size, more
pixels add detail and sharpen edges. However, there are always size limits.
When you enlarge any digital image enough, the pixels begin to show—an
effect called pixelization. This is not unlike traditional silver-based prints
where grain begins to show when prints are enlarged past a certain point.
TIP
• The term “resolu-
tion” has two mean-
ings in photography.
Originally it referred
to the ability of a
camera system to
resolve pairs of fine
lines such as those
found on a test
chart. In this usage
it’s an indicator of
sharpness, not im-
age size. With the
introduction of digital
cameras it began be-
ing used to indicate
the number of pixels
a camera could cap-
ture.
Click to see the effects
of pixelization as an
image is enlarged.
Click to explore the
original meaning of
“resolution”.
Click to see how dots
are used in printing.
25 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
SELECTING IMAGE QUALITY AND SIZE
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/imagesize/
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/excel/math-imagesize.xls
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/pixelresolution/
When a digital image
is displayed or printed
at the correct size for
the number of pixels it
contains, it looks like
a normal photograph.
When enlarged too
much (as is the eye
here), its square pixels
begin to show. Each
pixel is a small square
made up of a single
color.
Image sizes are
expressed as
dimensions in pixels
(5616 ! 3744) or by
the total number of
pixels (21 megapixels).
5D MARK II
IMAGE SIZES
• The 5D Mark II
gives you a choice
of three image
sizes: 5616 ! 3744
(large), 4080 x 2720
(medium), and 2353
! 1856 (small) plus
small RAW images.
The size of a photograph is specified in one of two ways—by its dimensions in
pixels or by the total number of pixels it contains. For example, the same im-
age can be said to have 5616 " 3744 pixels (where “"” is pronounced “by” as
in “5616 by 3744”), or to contain a little over 21 million pixels or megapixels
(5616 multiplied by 3744).
Click to explore how
more pixels give
sharper images.
Click for Excel work
sheet on image sizes.
Click to see how
the output device
determines image sizes.
26
CHAPTER 1. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY
FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
HOW AN IMAGE IS CAPTURED
Digital cameras are very much like the rapidly disappearing 35mm film
cameras. Both types contain a lens, an aperture, and a shutter. The lens
brings light from the scene into focus inside the camera so it can expose an
image. The aperture is a hole that can be made smaller or larger to control
the amount of light entering the camera. The shutter is a device that can be
opened or closed to control the length of time the light is allowed to enter.
The big difference between traditional film cameras and digital cameras
is how they capture the image. Instead of film, digital cameras use a solid-
state device called an image sensor. In the 5D Mark II, the image sensor is a
CMOS chip. On the surface of this full-frame silicon chip is a grid containing
over 21 million photosensitive diodes called photosites, photoelements, or
pixels. Each photosite captures a single pixel in the photograph to be.
THE EXPOSURE
When you press the shutter button of a digital camera, an exposure system
measures the light coming through the lens and sets the aperture and shutter
speed for the correct exposure. When the shutter opens briefly, each pixel on
the image sensor records the brightness of the light that falls on it by accu-
mulating an electrical charge. The more light that hits a pixel, the higher the
charge it records. Pixels capturing light from highlights in the scene will have
high charges. Those capturing light from shadows will have low charges.
When the shutter closes to end the exposure, the charge from each pixel is
measured and converted into a digital number. This series of numbers is then
used to reconstruct the image by setting the color and brightness of matching
pixels on the screen or printed page.
IT’S ALL BLACK AND WHITE AFTER ALL
It may be surprising, but pixels on an image sensor can only capture bright-
ness, not color. They record only the gray scale—a series of 256 increasingly
darker tones ranging from pure white to pure black. How the camera creates
a color image from the brightness recorded by each pixel is an interesting
story.
The gray scale contains
a range of tones from
pure white to pure
black.
An image sensor
against a background
enlargement of its
square pixels, each
capable of capturing
one pixel in the final
image.
When photography was first invented, it could only record black and white
images. The search for color was a long and arduous process, and a lot of
hand coloring went on in the interim (causing one photographer to comment
“so you have to know how to paint after all!”). One major breakthrough was
James Clerk Maxwell’s 1860 discovery that color photographs could be cre-
ated using black and white film and red, blue, and green filters. He had the
photographer Thomas Sutton photograph a tartan ribbon three times, each
time with a different color filter over the lens. The three black and white im-
ages were then projected onto a screen with three different projectors, each
equipped with the same color filter used to take the image being projected.
When brought into alignment, the three images formed a full-color photo-
graph. Over a century later, image sensors work much the same way.
TIPS
• You can change
contrast, sharpness,
saturation, and color
tone settings using
Picture Styles (page
149).
• When you change
image quality, the
LCD panel always
indicates the number
of new shots that will
fit on the current CF
card.
27 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/RAW/
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/compression/
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/CMYK/
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/RGB/
A high capacity UDMA
CF card lets you store
the largest possible
images without
worrying as much about
running out of storage
space. Fast cards are
needed for the large
image sizes and movies
the camera generates.
Courtesy of SanDisk.
SELECTÌNG ÌMAGE QUALÌTY AND SÌZE
RGB uses additive
colors. When all three
are mixed in equal
amounts they form
white. When red and
green overlap they form
yellow, and so on.
Colors in a photographic image are usually based on the three primary colors
red, green, and blue (RGB). This is called the additive color system because
when the three colors are combined or added in equal quantities, they form
white. This RGB system is used whenever light is projected to form colors as
it is on the display monitor (or in your eye).
Since daylight is made up of red, green, and blue light; placing red, green,
and blue filters over individual pixels on the image sensor can create color
images just as they did for Maxwell in 1860. Using a process called interpola-
tion, the camera computes the full color of each pixel by combining the color
it captured directly with the other two colors captured by the pixels around it.
How well it does this is affected in part by the image size, quality and format
you select.
The 5D Mark II allows you to have up to four image size/quality/format set-
tings in use at the same time.
• Full auto, Creative auto (CA), P, Tv, Av, M, and B (page 40) are treated as a
group. A change in any of these modes changes all of them.
• Camera user settings C1 through C3 (page 151) can each be set indepen-
dently to it’s own image quality.
CHOOSING IMAGE SIZE AND QUALITY
The size of an image file and the quality of the picture it contains depends
in part on the image’s size (the number of pixels), quality (the amount of
compression), and format (JPEG or RAW). The 5D Mark II lets you select
any of the combinations listed in the table below that describes each setting’s
approximate file size, pixel dimensions, and the number that will fit on a 2
Gigabyte memory card. (Your file sizes will vary somewhat depending on the
subject matter and camera settings you use.)
MENU FILE SIZE
(IN MB)
IMAGE SIZE
(IN PIXELS)
# ON 2GB
CARD
Large/Fine 6.1 5616 x 3744 310
Large/Normal 3.0 5616 x 3744 610
Medium/Fine 3.6 4080 x 2720 510
Medium/Normal 1.9 4080 x 2720 990
Small/Fine 2.1 2784 x 1856 910
Small/Normal 1.0 2784 x 1856 1680
RAW 25.8 5616 x 3744 72
RAW+Large/Fine 25.8+6.1 5616 x 3744 57
sRAW1 14.8 3861 x 2574 120
sRAW1+Large/Fine 14.8+6.1 3861 x 2574 89
sRAW2 10.8 2784 x 1856 170
sRAW2+Large/Fine 10.8+6.1 2784 x 1856 110
Since good prints can be made using 200 pixels per inch you can calculate
that a 5616 x 3744 pixel image will make a good 28 x 19 inch (71 x 48 cm)
print. Although you may not want to make many prints this large, large image
sizes also let you crop more while preserving image quality.
• JPEG images are stored in a format named after its developer, the Joint
Photographic Experts Group and pronounced “jay-peg.” This file format
not only compresses images, it also allows you to specify how much they are
compressed—Fine mode uses less compression than Normal mode. This is a
Click here to explore
the differences between
JPEG and RAW formats.
Click to explore how
three colors are used to
create full-color images
on the screen.
Click here to see the
effects of compression.
Click to explore how
three colors are used to
create full-color prints.
28
CHAPTER 1. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY
FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
Image sizes are
indicated by letters
L, M, and S (large,
medium, and small).
Compression modes are
indicated with pie-slice-
like icons. Fine mode
has a smooth edge and
Normal mode has a
rough stair-step edge.
useful feature because there is a trade-off between compression and image
quality. Less compression gives you better images so you can make larger
prints. The only downside is that you can’t store as many images because file
sizes are larger.
• RAW images are often better than JPEGs because they are not processed in
the camera, but on your more powerful desktop computer. In fact, the only
camera settings that affect a RAW image are the shutter speed, aperture,
focus, ISO and Custom Function II-2: High ISO speed noise reduction. Their
big advantage is that RAW files contain every bit of the captured image data,
unlike JPEGs which are processed in the camera with some of their data
being permanently discarded. Full-sized RAW images are 5616 x 3744 pixels
in size and can be viewed, edited, and converted to other formats using most
photo-editing software such as Photoshop or Lightroom or Canon’s own Digi-
tal Photo Professional program included on a CD that comes with the camera.
When you want to capture high-quality RAW images but don’t need as many
pixels or want large file sizes the 5D Mark II offers two smaller RAW formats.
sRAW1 captures 10 megapixel images (3861 x 2574) with a file size that is
about 40% of a standard 21 megapixel RAW image. sRAW2 captures 5.2
megapixel images (2784 x 1856) with a file size of only 20% of a standard
RAW image.
RAW images can be captured by themselves or with a companion JPEG im-
age of any size. This gives you a high quality RAW file and an identical but
more easily distributable file. The two images have the same name but differ-
ent extensions—.CR2 and .JPG.
When choosing between JPEG and RAW formats, you’ll find there are a num-
ber of advantages to using the RAW format:
• RAW images used to require an extra processing step but since the latest
programs such as Aperture and Lightroom were designed from the ground up
after RAW formats were introduced they handle them as easily as they handle
JPEGs.
• RAW lets you decide on most camera settings after you’ve taken the picture,
not before. For example, when you shoot a JPEG image under fluorescent
lights, the camera permanently adjusts the image to remove the yellow-green
tint. Any changes you make later are on top of this initial change. If you shoot
the image in RAW format, the camera just captures it as is and you decide
later what white balance setting to use. You can even create different versions
of an image, each with its own white balance.
• RAW images can be processed again at a later date when new and improved
applications become available. Your original image isn’t permanently altered
by today’s generation of photo-editing applications.
• You can generate alternate versions of the same RAW image. For example,
you can adjust highlight and shadow areas and save these versions sepa-
rately. Using a photo-editing program, you can then combine the two images
as layers and by selectively erasing parts of the top image layer let areas of the
lower image layer show through so all areas have a perfect exposure.
Admittedly, there are drawbacks to using RAW images.
• You can’t print RAW images directly from the camera or add them to a digi-
tal print order form.
TIP
• When you capture
a RAW image plus a
JPEG, settings such
as Picture Styles,
Highlight tone prior-
ity, white balance
and so on affect the
JPEG images and
the thumbnail and
preview for the RAW
image. They do not
affect the actual RAW
image.
29 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
• RAW files are quite large. If you use this format a great deal you will need
more storage space in the camera and on the computer, and computer pro-
cessing times may be slightly longer.
• You can’t shoot as many images in a continuous burst. The buffer gets filled
more quickly and the camera is tied up longer processing the images you
take, and moving them from the buffer to the memory card.
• Since RAW images aren’t converted to a viewable format in the camera, you
have to process them on the computer and export them in a usable format
when you want to e-mail them, post them on a Web site, print them, or im-
port them into another program to create a slide show or publication. When
you are done shooting for the day, there is still work to do.
• RAW images can only be viewed and edited on a computer using a program
such as Adobe’s Photoshop or Lightroom that supports the format. Since
each camera company has defined its own proprietary RAW format, many
operating systems and even photo-editing programs are unable to recognize
some or all of these files. For this reason camera manufacturers always sup-
ply a program to process RAW images along with their cameras—in the case
of the 5D Mark II it’s the Digital Photo Professional program.
SELECTING IMAGE SIZE & QUALITY
1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode, press MENU and display the
Shooting 1 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Quality and press SET to
display a list of quality choices.
! Turn the Main Dial to select a RAW format or select – if you don’t
want to capture RAW images.
! Turn the Quick Control Dial to select a JPEG size and quality or
select – if you don’t want to capture JPEG images.
3. Press SET to confirm your setting and return to the Shooting 1 menu.
4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
TIP
• As you highlight
an image quality,
the image’s size in
megapixels, dimen-
sions in pixels, and in
brackets, the number
of shots that will fit
on the card—999
means “999 or
more.”
SELECTÌNG ÌMAGE QUALÌTY AND SÌZE
TIP
• Because you can’t add pixels later without reducing image quality, or remove
the effects of compression after the fact, it’s usually best to use the RAW format
or at least the largest available JPEG size (L) with the highest quality (Fine).
This ensures your photos will have the highest quality the camera can produce.
If you have to reduce the size of an image later, perhaps to e-mail it or post it
on the Web, you can do so with a photo-editing program. Unfortunately it’s a
one-way street and you can’t go the other way—enlarging a small file—without a
loss of quality. If you shoot images with lower quality setting, you can never re-
ally improve them much or get larger, sharper prints if you want them. The only
problem with this approach is that higher quality images have larger file sizes so
you’re not able to store as many images on your memory card. Sometimes when
there is no storage space left, you can switch to a smaller size and lower quality
to squeeze a few more images onto the card.
The image quality
setting screen. As you
select a format, its file
size, pixel dimensions,
and the number that
will fit on the current
card are displayed.
30
CHAPTER 2. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE
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A
utomatic exposure control is one of the most useful features of your
camera. It’s great to have the camera automatically deal with the
exposure while you concentrate on the image. This is especially helpful
when photographing action scenes where there isn’t time to evaluate the situ-
ation and set the controls manually.
You shouldn’t, however, always leave the exposure to the automatic system.
At times the lighting can fool any automatic exposure system into producing
an underexposed (too dark) or overexposed (too light) image. Although you
can make adjustments to a poorly exposed image in a photo-editing program,
you’ve lost image information in the shadows or highlights that can’t be
recovered. You will find it better in some situations to override the automatic
exposure system at the time you take the picture. Using the camera’s his-
togram feature discussed in this chapter is the surest route to perfect expo-
sures.
Typical situations in which you might want to override automatic exposure
include scenes with interesting and unusual lighting. For example, you need
to take control when photographing a variety of scenes including a light
subject against a dark background, a dark subject against a light background,
into the sun, a colorful sunset, a snow-covered landscape, or a dark forest.
Chapter 2
Controlling Exposure
CONTENTS
• Understanding
Exposure • Choos-
ing Shooting Modes
• Using Creative
Auto (CA) mode •
Using Program AE
and Program Shift •
Using Shutter-Prior-
ity (Tv) Mode • Using
Aperture Priority
(Av) Mode • Using
Manual (M) Mode
• How Your Expo-
sure System Works
• When Automatic
Exposure Works Well
• When to Override
Automatic Exposure
• How Overriding
Auto-exposure Works
• How to Override
Automatic Exposure
• Using Histograms
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UNDERSTANDING EXPOSURE
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UNDERSTANDING EXPOSURE
The most creative controls you have with any camera are the shutter speed
and aperture settings. Both affect the exposure, the total amount of light
reaching the image sensor, and thus control how light or dark a picture is.
• The shutter opens to begin an exposure and closes to end it. The shutter
speed setting specifies how long the shutter is open and the image sensor is
exposed to light.
• The aperture is the hole through which light enters the camera. The size of
the hole can be changed to control the brightness of the light that enters.
When you press the shutter button, a metering cell measures the light com-
ing through the lens and sets the aperture and shutter speed for the correct
exposure.
In the early days of photography, plates called waterhouse stops, were inserted into
a slot in the lens to control the amount of light entering the camera. These stops
had holes of various sizes drilled in them and they acted just like the adjustable iris
apertures used today. A lens cap was removed from the lens to begin the exposure
and replaced to end it—a primitive version of a shutter. This old wooden camera
is surrounded by a number of waterhouse stops (apertures) and a lens cap (the
shutter) leans against it. Photo by Ake Borgstrom at www.photographica.nu.
Click here to explore
how changes in the
exposure make pictures
lighter or darker.
The 5D Mark II’s focal
plane shutter uses two
curtains—one opens to
begin the exposure and
the second closes to end
it. At shutter speeds
faster than 1/200 the
two curtains form a slit
traveling across the
image sensor.
Click here to watch
a focal plane shutter
expose an image.
32
CHAPTER 2. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE
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THE SHUTTER CONTROLS LIGHT AND MOTION
The shutter keeps light out of the camera except during an exposure, when it
opens to let light strike the image sensor. In respect to just exposure, faster
shutter speeds let less strike the image sensor so the image is darker. Slower
speeds let in more so it’s lighter.
In addition to controlling exposure, the shutter speed is the most important
control you have over how motion is captured in a photograph. The longer
the shutter is open, the more a moving subject will be blurred in the picture
Also, the longer it’s open the more likely you are to cause blur by moving the
camera slightly. Although you normally want to avoid blur in your images
there are times when you may want to use it creatively.
As the shutter speed
gets slower, the image
gets lighter. The reason
you don’t usually see
this effect in your
images is because when
you or the camera
change the shutter
speed, the camera
changes the aperture
to keep the exposure
constant.
Click to explore the
various types of
shutters used in digital
cameras.
Click to explore the
effect of shutter speed
on exposure.
Katie turned a little just
as the shutter opened
causing unwanted blur
in the image.
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THE SHUTTER CONTROLS LIGHT AND MOTION
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A fast shutter speed
(left) opens and closes
the shutter so quickly a
moving subject doesn’t
move very far during
the exposure. A slow
speed (right) can allow
moving objects to move
sufficiently to blur their
image on the image
sensor.
Although digital cameras can select any fraction of a second for an exposure,
there are a series of settings that have traditionally been used when you set it
yourself (which you can’t do in many shooting modes). These shutter speed
settings, shown in bold to the left, are arranged in a sequence so that each
setting lets in half as much light as the next slowest setting and twice as much
as the next fastest. The 5D Mark II’s shutter speeds are listed in the table to
the left. The camera adds two stops between each of the traditional ones—
shown in the table without boldfacing. This allows you to adjust exposure in
one-third stop increments for finer exposure control.
• Speeds of 1/4 of a second and faster are fractions of a second. On the moni-
tor they are displayed as fractions. However, the LCD panel and viewfinder
display only the denominator, sometimes with a quotation mark (”) indicat-
ing a decimal point. For example 1/3 second is displayed as 0”3. At shut-
ter speeds of 1/4 second and faster, no quote marks are used. For example,
1/4000 is shown as 4000.
• Speeds of 1 second or slower are whole seconds and are shown on the moni-
tor and in the viewfinder as numbers with quotation marks (“). For example,
2 seconds is displayed as 2”.
Click to explore how the
shutter speed affects
the capture of moving
subjects.
THE WAY IT WAS: EARLY SHUTTER DESIGNS
• The shutter, used to control the amount of time that light exposes the image
sensor, has changed considerably over the years. The earliest cameras, us-
ing imaging materials that might take minutes to be properly exposed, came
with a lens cap that the photographer removed to begin the exposure and then
replaced to end it. As film became more sensitive to light and exposure times
became shorter, faster shutters were needed. One kind used a swinging plate
while another design used a guillotine-like blade. As the blade moved past the
lens opening, a hole in the blade allowed light to briefly reach the film.
1/8000
1/6400
1/5000
1/4000
1/3200
1/2500
1/2000
1/1600
1/1250
1/1000
1/800
1/640
1/500
1/400
1/320
1/250
1/200
1/160
1/125
1/100
1/80
1/60
1/50
1/40
1/30
1/25
1/20
1/15
1/13
1/10
1/8
1/6
1/5
1/4
0”3
0”4
0”5
0”6
0”8
1”
1”3
1”6
2”
2”5
3”2
4”
5”
6”
8”
10”
13”
15”
20”
25”
30”
SHUTTER
TIP
• To get faster shut-
ter speeds, increase
the ISO (page 65).
To get slower shut-
ter speeds, use a
neutral density filter
(page 111).
34
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THE APERTURE CONTROLS LIGHT AND DEPTH OF FIELD
The aperture adjusts the size of the opening through which light passes to the
image sensor. The aperture can be opened up to let in more light or closed
(stopped down) to let in less. In respect to just exposure, smaller apertures let
less light strike the image sensor so the image is darker. Larger apertures let
in more so it’s lighter.
As with the shutter speed, the aperture also affects the sharpness of your
picture, but in a different way. Changing the aperture changes the depth of
field, the depth in a scene from foreground to background that will be sharp
in a photograph. Smaller apertures increase depth of field while larger ones
decrease it. For some pictures—for example, a landscape—you may want a
smaller aperture for maximum depth of field so that everything from near
foreground to distant background is sharp. But perhaps in a portrait you will
want a larger aperture to decrease the depth of field so your subject is sharp
but the background is soft and out of focus.
As the aperture
number gets smaller
(for example, from f/8
to f/5.6) the aperture
opening gets larger and
the image gets lighter.
The reason you don’t
usually see this effect in
your images is because
when you or the camera
change the aperture,
the camera changes the
shutter speed to keep
the exposure constant.
The aperture is a series
of overlapping leaves
located between the
glass elements in the
lens.
Click here to explore
the standard series
of apertures and the
aperture’s effects on
exposure.
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THE APERTURE CONTROLS LIGHT AND DEPTH OF FIELD
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Aperture settings are called f/stops and indicate the size of the aperture
opening. From the largest possible opening to increasingly smaller ones, the
f/stops have traditionally been those shown in boldface to the left but the
range of stops varies from lens to lens. Each of these bold f/stops lets in half
as much light as the next larger opening and twice as much light as the next
smaller opening. Notice that as the f/stop number gets larger (f/4 to f/5.6, for
example), the aperture size gets smaller. This may be easier to remember if
you think of the f/number as a fraction: 1/8 is less than 1/4, just as the size of
the f/8 lens opening is smaller that the size of the f/4 opening. Many high-
end digital cameras like the 5D Mark II add two stops between each of the
traditional ones. This allows you to adjust exposure in one-third stop incre-
ments for finer exposure control.
How wide you can open the aperture depends on the len’s maximum aper-
ture—its widest opening. The term “fast lens” applies to lenses that can be
opened to a wide maximum aperture. For example, a lens with a maximum
aperture of f/2.8 opens wider, and is faster, than a lens with a maximum
aperture of f/5.6. Faster lenses are better when photographing in dim light
or photographing fast moving subjects. With most, but not all, zoom lenses
the maximum aperture changes as you zoom the lens. It will be larger when
zoomed out to a wide angle, and smaller when zoomed in to enlarge a subject.
A small aperture
increases depth of
field so foreground
and background are
sharp (top) and a large
aperture decreases
depth of field so the
background is soft
(bottom).
Click here to explore
how the aperture affects
depth of field.
f/1.4
f/1.6
f/1.8
f/2.0
f/2.2
f/2.6
f/2.8
f/3.2
f/3.6
f/4.0
f/4.5
f/5.0
f/5.6
f/6.3
f/7.1
f/8
f/9
f/10
F/STOPS
The EF 85mm f/1.2 L
II USM lens is currently
one of Canon’s fastest
lenses.
f/11
f/13
f/14
f/16
f/18
f/20
f/22
TIP
• As you change the
aperture you don’t
see the image get
lighter and darker
because in all
modes, other than
manual, the camera
offsets the change
by selecting a new
shutter speed to
keep the exposure
constant.
• To get smaller
apertures, increase
the ISO (page 65).
To get larger aper-
tures, use a neutral
density filter (page
111).
36
CHAPTER 2. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE
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USING SHUTTER SPEED AND APERTURE TOGETHER
When taking photos, one of the first decisions you make is which shooting
mode to use. Your choice determines if you control the aperture or shutter
speed. If your shooting mode lets you select them, you can pair a fast shutter
speed (to let in light for a short time) with a large aperture (to let in bright
light) or a slow shutter speed (long time) with a small aperture (dim light).
Speaking of exposure only, it doesn’t make any difference which combination
you use. But in other ways, it does, and it is just this difference that gives you
creative opportunities. Whether you know it or not, you’re always balancing
camera or subject movement against depth of field because a change in one
causes a change in the other. Let’s see why.
As you’ve seen, shutter speeds and apertures each have a standard series of
settings called “stops.” The stops are arranged so that a change of 1 stop lets
in half or twice the light of the next setting.
• With shutter speeds, each stop is a second or more, or a fraction of a second
indicating how long the shutter is open. A shutter speed of 1/60 second lets in
half the light that 1/30 second does, and twice the light of 1/125 second.
• With apertures they are f/stops indicating the size of the opening through
which light enters. An aperture of f/5.6 lets in half the light that f/4 does, and
twice the light of f/8.
If you make the shutter speed 1 stop slower (letting in 1 stop more light),
and an aperture 1 full stop smaller (letting in 1 stop less light), the exposure
doesn’t change. However, although the exposure is the same, the slower shut-
ter speed increases the possibility of blur from camera or subject movement
and the smaller aperture increases depth of field slightly. A one-stop change
like this has only a small effect, but a 3 or 4 stop change can be dramatic. For
example with a three stop change the shutter speed might drop from 1/125 to
1/15 and the aperture might stop-down from f/2.8 to f/11. The effects of those
changes on blur and depth of field would be very noticeable.
• For fast-moving subjects you need a fast shutter speed such as 1/500 to
freeze the action, or a slow one such as 1/15 to seriously blur it (although the
focal length of the lens you are using, the closeness of the subject, and the
direction in which it’s moving also affect how motion is portrayed). When
photographing moving subjects shutter-priority (Tv) mode (page 43) is fa-
vored because it gives you direct control over the shutter speed.
• For maximum depth of field, with the entire scene sharp from near to far,
you need a small aperture, and for shallow depth of field you need a large one
(although the focal length of the lens and the distance to the subject also af-
fects depth of field—page 70). When photographing landscapes and portraits
aperture-priority (Av) mode (page 44) is favored because it gives you direct
control over the aperture and depth of field.
To be sure you are using the fastest possible shutter speed in changing light,
use aperture-priority mode and select the largest aperture, or the one that
gives you the depth of field you need. The camera will then always select the
fastest matching shutter speed. The same principle works when you want the
smallest possible aperture. Use shutter-priority mode and select the slowest
shutter speed you need for sharpness. The camera will then always select the
smallest possible aperture.
In this book and the
animations apertures
are represented by
these realistic icons with
a small aperture (left)
and a large one (right).
In this book and the
animations, shutter
speeds are represented
by these symbolic icons
with a fast shutter
speed (left) and a slow
one (right). The cut out
“pie slice” indicates how
far an imaginary second
hand would sweep.
When you press
the shutter button
halfway down, check
the readouts in the
viewfinder. If the
aperture or shutter
speed are blinking,
you have exceeded the
camera’s ability to get a
good exposure. In low
light you may have to
pick a larger aperture,
slower shutter speed,
higher ISO or use flash.
In bright light, you may
have to use a smaller
aperture, faster shutter
speed or lower ISO.
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USING SHUTTER SPEED AND APERTURE TOGETHER
EXPOSURE—FAUCETS & BUCKETS ANALOGY
One way to think of how apertures and shutter speeds relate is to use the
analogy of a faucet for the aperture and a timer for the shutter speed.
• When you open a faucet all the way, water gushes out so you fill a bucket in
a very short time. This is the same as pairing a large aperture and fast shutter
speed to let in bright light for a short time.
• When you open a faucet just a little, water trickles out and so it takes a
much longer time to fill a bucket. This is the same as pairing a small aperture
and slow shutter speed to let in dim light for a longer time.
No matter which combination you choose, the bucket is filled the same
amount. Likewise, an image in a camera can be exposed the same amount by
various aperture and shutter speed combinations while also controlling mo-
tion and depth of field.
1. We start with the
aperture set to f/16 and
the shutter speed to
1/30.
2. When you open the
aperture one stop to f/11
the shutter speed has to
decrease to 1/60 to keep
the exposure the same.
This change decreases
depth of field slightly and
freezes action better.
3. When you open the
aperture another stop to
f/8 the shutter speed has
to decrease another stop
to 1/125. This change
decreases depth of field
even more and freezes
action even better.
THE WAY IT WAS: EARLY APERTURES
• A variety of designs in the past century and a half have enabled photographers
to change the size of the lens opening. A form of the iris diaphragm, used in
today’s cameras, was used as early as the 1820s by Joseph Nicephore Niepce,
one of the inventors of photography. Waterhouse stops, used in the 1850s were
a series of blackened metal plates with holes of different sizes cut in them. To
change apertures the photographer chose the appropriate plate and slid it into a
slot in the lens barrel. With wheel stops, different size apertures were cut into a
revolving plate. The photographer changed the size of the aperture by rotating
the plate to align the desired opening with the lens.
For larger apertures or
slower shutter speeds,
you can use a screw
on neutral density
filter that cuts the light
entering the lens (page
111).
For smaller apertures or
faster shutter speeds,
you can increase the
ISO (page 65).
TIPS
• To be sure you
are always using
the fastest pos-
sible shutter speed,
set the camera to
aperture-priority (Av)
mode and select the
aperture you need
for depth of field.
The camera then
always selects the
fastest possible shut-
ter speed.
• To be sure you are
always using the
largest possible aper-
ture, set the camera
to shutter-priority
(Tv) mode and pick
the shutter speed
you need to freeze
or blur motion. The
camera then always
selects the largest
possible aperture.
ISO SPEEDS
6400 3200 1600
1250 1000 800
640 500 400
320 250 200
150 125 100
38
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!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+,-')(.%/"-0"%,--,:&% EXPOSURE—SEESAW ANALOGY
Another way to think of exposure is as a seesaw. As one child rises a given
distance, the other falls by the same amount but their average distance from
the ground is always the same. In photography, when you or the camera
changes the aperture or shutter speed to let in more or less light, you or the
camera must also change the other setting in the opposite direction to keep
the exposure constant.
The illustrations below show how a change in the aperture setting must be
matched by a change in the shutter speed and vice versa. As these offsetting
changes are made, the exposure stays constant but depth of field changes
slightly and subjects are more or less likely to be frozen.
1. Here the aperture is
f/4 and the shutter
speed is 1/125.
2. If you reduce the
aperture one stop to
f/5.6 the shutter speed
has to decrease one
stop to 1/60 to keep
the exposure the same.
3. If you reduce the
aperture one more stop
to f/8 the shutter speed
has to decrease one
more stop to 1/30 to
keep the exposure the
same.
Click to explore the
relationship between
the aperture and
shutter speed.
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RETAINING HIGHLIGHT AND SHADOW DETAILS
Knowing how to control exposure is one of the most important aspects of
photography. When a scene has both very light and very dark areas, getting
the perfect exposure is a lot like parking a large car in a small garage—there
isn’t a great deal of room for error. The goal is to hold details in both the
darkest and lightest areas so pure white is used only for spectral highlights
such as reflections and pure black is used only for small areas of the scene
that are black with no details.
In this scene there
are details in all of the
whites that give them
texture and form. The
small white square has
been added to give you
a reference to what
pure white would look
like.
In this scene there are
details in the darkest
shadows. The small
black square has been
added to give you a
reference to what pure
black would look like.
One of the things that
makes an Ansel Adams
print so stunning was
his ability to hold details
in both the brightest
and darkest parts of
a scene. To do this
with film he developed
the Zone System
that guided him in
adjusting exposure and
development times for
the best results. Today
the adjustments are
made with Photoshop.
Click here to explore
how changes in the
exposure make pictures
lighter or darker.
RETAINING HIGHLIGHT AND SHADOW DETAILS
40
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CHOOSING SHOOTING MODES
The Mode Dial lists seven shooting modes, each of which has unique ad-
vantages in specific situations. These modes, and three custom modes are
selected by turning the Mode Dial.
• Full Auto, which we’ve already discussed (page 9), lets you change only a
few settings so you are less likely to make mistakes.
• Creative Auto (page 41) is like Full Auto but let’s you change settings using
the Creative Auto setting screen (page 42).
• P (Program AE) is like Full Auto, but you can easily select different pairs of
aperture/shutter speed settings that give you the same exposure but let you
control how depth of field or motion is captured (page 42).
• Tv (shutter-priority AE), called time value by Canon, lets you choose the
shutter speed, while the camera automatically sets the aperture to give you
a good exposure. You select this mode when the portrayal of motion is most
important. It lets you set your shutter speed fast enough to freeze the action
or slow enough to blur it (page 43).
• Av (aperture-priority AE), called aperture value by Canon, lets you select
the aperture (lens opening) while the camera automatically sets the shutter
speed to give you a good exposure. You select this mode whenever depth of
field is most important. To be sure everything is sharp, as in a landscape, se-
lect a small aperture. To throw the background out of focus so a main subject
such as a portrait stands out more, select a large aperture (page 44).
• M (manual) lets you choose both the shutter speed and aperture so you can
get just the setting you want. Most photographers select this mode only when
other modes won’t give them the results they want (page 45).
• B (Bulb) keeps the shutter open as long as you continue to hold down the
shutter button. You use this mode to capture light trails at night or multiple
flashes from fireworks (page 92).
• Camera user settings C1, C2 and C3 are used to store your own personal
combinations of settings (page 151).
Knowing how to use these various modes gives you amazing creative control
over your images. Because these are the most important controls in your cre-
ative arsenal, we’ll look at them in depth in the pages that follow.
CHANGING SHOOTING MODES
• Set the Power Switch to ON, or the white line above it, and turn
the Mode Dial to any shooting mode so it aligns with the small silver
marker.
The Mode Dial lists icons
for seven shooting and
three custom modes.
Click to see why you
change exposure
modes.
TIPS
• In some situations,
your pictures can
be too light or too
dark in any shoot-
ing mode. To darken
or lighten them, use
exposure compensa-
tion (page 55).
• Check the shutter
speed and aperture
in the viewfinder
when you press
the shutter button
halfway down. If
either is blinking, the
camera doesn’t have
the right exposure
setting. To see how
to adjust it, read the
sections that follow.
• In automatic
modes, the Auto
Lighting Optimizer
automatically adjusts
an image’s bright-
ness and contrast.
You can also turn
it on and off (the
default) in P, Tv, Av,
M or B modes using
Custom Function
II-4 Auto Lighting
Optimizer (page
152). Even when on,
it doesn’t work in
Manual (M) mode or
with the RAW image
format.
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USING CREATIVE AUTO (CA) MODE
Creative Auto (CA) mode offers automatic exposure and focus just as Full
Auto does, in fact the default settings are the same. However, CA mode let’s
you change some settings for creative control—somewhat of a cross between
the Full Auto and Program modes. When you set the Mode Dial to this mode,
the Creative Auto settings screen is displayed on the monitor so you can make
adjustments based on simple descriptions without having to fully understand
technical terms such as aperture and shutter speed. For example you can se-
lect and adjust sliders that display descriptions such as “blur the background”
or “lighten or darken the image.” The settings you can change on this screen
include the following:
• Background: Blurred<->Sharp activates a slider you use to adjust depth of
field (page 70). Move the index mark toward the left and the background will
look more blurred. Move it to the right, and the background will be sharper.
This setting can’t be adjusted when an external flash is attached.
• Exposure:Darker<->Lighter activates a slider you use to adjust exposure or
image brightness (page 55). Move the index mark toward the left to make the
picture darker. Move it toward the right to make the picture lighter.
• Picture Style lets you select one of four Picture Styles. (More styles are
available in other modes—page 149.)
• Image quality lets you specify image size, quality and format (page 27).
When you highlight this setting you can optionally press SET to display a set-
tings screen where turning the Main and Quick Control Dials change differ-
ent aspects of the setting (page 15). Press SET again when finished.
• Single, continuous (page 137), and self-timer (page 64) settings let you
change the drive mode.
Other settings you can adjust in Creative Auto mode are listed on the menus.
If you press a button that doesn’t work in this mode the message “This func-
tion is not selectable in the current shooting mode” is displayed on the moni-
tor
TIPS
• In CA mode you
can use program
shift (page 42).
• In some situations,
your pictures can
be too light or too
dark in any shoot-
ing mode. To darken
or lighten them, use
exposure compensa-
tion (page 55).
• Check the shutter
speed and aperture
in the viewfinder
when you press
the shutter button
halfway down. If
either is blinking, the
camera doesn’t have
the right exposure
setting. To see how
to adjust it, read the
sections that follow.
USING CREATIVE AUTO (CA) MODE
1. With the Mode Dial set to Creative Auto (CA) press the Multi-con-
troller straight down to activate the settings screen with the selected
setting highlighted in green. (If the setting screen isn’t displayed,
press the INFO button one or more times.)
2. Press the Multi-controller in any direction to highlight any setting
in green and display a description of the setting at the bottom of the
monitor.
3. Turn the Main or Quick Control Dials to change the selected set-
ting. (If selecting image quality, press SET first to display a settings
screen.)
4. When finished, take photos with the changed settings. When you
change the shooting mode or turn off the camera, the Creative Auto
settings revert to their defaults although image quality, self-timer/
remote control settings are retained.
Auto modes include Full
Auto (left) and Creative
Auto (right).
USING CREATIVE AUTO (CA) MODE
The Creative Auto
settings screen.
42
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USING PROGRAM AE (P) & PROGRAM SHIFT
In Full and Creative Auto modes (page 41), your camera is automatically set
to produce the best possible exposure. Program AE (P) mode is also fully
automatic, but only the aperture and shutter speed are set automatically. You
can change other settings including all of those you can change in Tv, Av, M
and B modes.
USING PROGRAM AE (P) MODE
! With the Power Switch to ON or the white line above it, set the Mode
Dial to P (for Program AE).
Program AE mode is so
flexible it gives you the
control you need for
creative images.
USING PROGRAM SHIFT
1. Set the Power Switch to the white line above ON and turn off the
flash if one is attached.
2. With the Mode Dial set to P or CA, press the shutter button halfway
down, and then release it to activate metering and the exposure read-
outs in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel.
3. Turn the Main Dial to scroll through pairs of aperture/shutter speed
settings and select the pair you want to use.
4. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the photo. The
shifted program setting is cancelled automatically if you pause a few
seconds after the picture is taken before taking another one. If you
take another picture before metering turns off, the shifted settings
are used. You can also hold the shutter button halfway down to keep
the shifted setting from changing. When ready, press it all the way
down to take the picture.
TIPS
• If the 30” shutter
speed is blinking in
the viewfinder, the
image will be too
dark. Use flash or
a higher ISO (page
65).
• If 8000 is blinking
in the viewfinder,
the image will be too
light. Decrease the
ISO or use a neutral
density filter (page
111).
One feature of Program AE mode (and Creative Auto), called program shift,
let’s you cycle through pairs of aperture/shutter speed settings that offer
identical exposures. By choosing the right combination you can choose to
emphasize depth of field (page 70) or motion capture (page 68). When using
flash, you cannot shift the program.
One reason to use program shift mode is that it prevents you from choosing
settings that exceed your camera’s exposure limits. In shutter-priority (Tv)
and aperture-priority (Av) mode it’s possible to select a setting that can’t be
matched. For example, you may pick an aperture that’s so large the camera
doesn’t have a shutter speed that’s fast enough to prevent overexposure.
Although aperture-priority and shutter-priority modes warn you when this
happens (page 43–44), you may not notice the warning. Following are some
of the situations you avoid when using programmed mode:
When you select a... There may be... Result
Large aperture No shutter speed that’s
fast enough
Overexposure
Small aperture No shutter speed that’s
slow enough
Underexposure
Slow shutter speed No aperture that’s small
enough
Overexposure
Fast shutter speed No aperture that’s large
enough
Underexposure
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USING SHUTTER-PRIORITY (TV) MODE
USING SHUTTER-PRIORITY (Tv) MODE
1. With the Mode Dial set to Tv (time value) press the shutter button
halfway down and then release it to activate metering and the expo-
sure readouts in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel.
2. Turn the Main Dial to select a shutter speed and if the aperture value
isn’t blinking, the exposure is OK. However;
! If the lens’ largest aperture (smallest f/number) blinks, the image
may be underexposed and too dark, so turn the Main Dial to select a
slower shutter speed.
! If the lens’ smallest aperture value (largest f/number) blinks, the
image may be overexposed and too light so turn the Main Dial to
select a faster shutter speed.
3. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.
USING SHUTTER-PRIORITY (TV) MODE
When controlling motion is the most important goal, you use shutter-prior-
ity, what Canon calls time-value (Tv) mode, so you can set the shutter speed
directly. Although digital cameras can select any fraction of a second for an
exposure, there are a series of settings that have traditionally been used when
you set it yourself (shown boldfaced in the table on page 33). The 5D Mark
II has two additional shutter speeds between each pair of traditional ones so
you can change the shutter speed in one-third stops. When choosing a shutter
speed, here are some things to be aware of:
• Pressing the shutter button halfway down activates metering which then
remains activated as long as you are changing the shutter speed, and for four
seconds after you stop.
• When metering is on, both the shutter speed and aperture are displayed
in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel and monitor. When you change the
shutter speed, the matching aperture also changes on the displays.
• The range of selectable shutter speeds is from a slow 30 seconds to a fast
1/8000 in one-third stop increments.
• In Bulb (B) mode the shutter remains open as long as you hold down the
shutter button (page 92).
• If you can’t get a fast enough shutter speed, increase the camera’s ISO (page
65). If you can’t get a slow enough one, use a neutral density filter (page 111).
• Custom Function I-1 Exposure level increments (page 152) changes expo-
sure increments from 1/3rd to 1/2 stops.
• When using an external flash, the fastest shutter speed you can select is
1/200 (page 115).
• If the light changes suddenly, the camera automatically overrides your set-
tings in Tv and Av modes for a good exposure if you enable Custom Function
I-6 Safety shift (page 152).
Shooting down from
an upper level at the
Guggenheim Museum,
a very slow shutter
speed froze the people
standing, and blurred
those who were
walking.
A fast shutter speed
(top) opens and closes
the shutter so quickly a
moving subject doesn’t
move very far during
the exposure. A slow
speed (bottom) can
allow moving objects to
move sufficiently to blur
in the image.
TIP
• When using flash
in Av mode, you can
set Custom Func-
tion I-7 Flash sync
speed in Av mode
(page 152) to fix
the shutter speed at
1/200 and prevent a
slow shutter speed
when photographing
in dim light. This will
help you avoid blur
caused by camera or
subject movement.
44
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USING APERTURE-PRIORITY (AV) MODE
When controlling depth of field is the most important goal, you use aperture-
priority (Av), which Canon calls aperture value, mode so you can set the
aperture directly. Aperture settings, called f/stops, indicate the size of the
aperture opening inside the lens. In the traditional series of f/stops (shown
boldfaced in the table on page 35), each full stop lets in half as much light
as the next larger opening and twice as much light as the next smaller open-
ing. The camera has two additional apertures between the traditional f/stops
so you can adjust exposure in one-third stops. The range of apertures you
have to choose from, including the maximum aperture (the widest opening),
depends on the lens you are using. Lenses with large maximum apertures are
better when the light is dim, or you are photographing fast moving subjects
because they let you use faster shutter speeds. Their only disadvantages
are that they are generally heavier and cost more than slower lenses. When
choosing an aperture, here are some things to be aware of:
• Pressing the shutter button halfway down activates metering which then
remains activated as long as you are changing the aperture, and for four sec-
onds after you stop.
• When metering is on, both the aperture and shutter speed are displayed
in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel and monitor. When you change the
aperture the matching shutter speed also changes on the displays.
• To check depth-of-field in the viewfinder when using P, Tv, Av, M or B
mode, press the depth-of-field preview button (page 71).
• If you can’t get a small enough aperture, increase the ISO (page 65). If you
can’t get a large enough one, use a neutral density filter (page 111).
• Custom Function I-1 Exposure level increments (page 152) changes expo-
sure increments from 1/3rd to 1/2 stops.
• If the light changes suddenly, the camera automatically overrides your set-
tings in Av and Tv modes for a good exposure if you enable Custom Function
I-6 Safety shift (page 152).
A shallow depth of
field can make part
of an image stand
out sharply against
a softer background.
This emphasizes the
sharpest part of the
image.
As the aperture number
gets smaller, the lens
opening gets larger.
f/2 f/3.5
Great depth of field
keeps everything sharp
from the foreground to
the background.
USING APERTURE-PRIORITY (Av) MODE
1. With the Mode Dial set to Av (aperture value), press the shutter but-
ton halfway down and then release it to activate metering and the
exposure readouts in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel.
2. Turn the Main Dial to select an aperture and if the shutter speed isn’t
blinking, the exposure is OK. However;
! If the 30” shutter speed blinks, the image may be underexposed
and too dark so turn the Main Dial to select a larger aperture.
! If the 8000 shutter speed blinks, the image may be overexposed
and too light so turn the Main Dial to select a smaller aperture.
3. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.
The EF 85mm f/1.2
L II USM lens has a
maximum aperture of
f/1.2.
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USING MANUAL (M) MODE
USING MANUAL (M) MODE
When you want total and absolute control over exposures, you can switch
to manual (M) shooting mode. In this mode, you manually select both the
shutter speed and aperture setting. Since automatic exposure combined with
exposure compensation (page 55) is so easy to use, most photographer’s
only resort to manual mode in those rare situations where other modes can’t
give them the results they want. For example, you may use this mode when
photographing a series of images for a panorama or animated GIF where you
don’t want the exposure to change at all from one shot to the next.
When you press the shutter button halfway down, an exposure level indicator
shows you how much you are under (-) or over (+) exposed. If the bar under
the indicator flashes at the -2 or +2 end of the scale it means you are off by
more than two stops.
The exposure level
indicator.
USING MANUAL (M) MODE
1. With the Mode Dial set to M (Manual), press the shutter button half-
way down and then release it to activate the exposure level indica-
tor that shows how much you are over or under the recommended
exposure.
2. With the Power Switch set to the white line above ON, turn the Main
Dial to select a shutter speed and the Quick Control Dial to select an
aperture as you watch the viewfinder, LCD panel or monitor.
! If the bar below the exposure level indicator is centered (0), you’re
set to the exposure recommended by the camera.
! If the bar below the exposure level indicator is on the minus (-) side
of the scale, you may be underexposing and darkening the image. To
lighten it, select a slower shutter speed or larger aperture.
! If the bar below the exposure level indicator is on the plus side (+)
you may be overexposing and lightening the image. To darken it,
select a faster shutter speed or smaller aperture.
3. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.
Manual mode is often
used when doing studio-
like shots where you
know the right exposure
for the main subject but
want to try variations
on the background
lighting.
TIPS
• The exposure level
indicator doesn’t
indicate how far
under or over the
recommended expo-
sure you are unless
metering is on. To
turn it on, press and
release the shutter
button.
• In M (Manual
mode, the Auto
Lighting Optimizer
(page 152) doesn’t
work.
• You can’t use ex-
posure compensation
in M mode, and don’t
need to. Just change
the shutter speed or
aperture to increase
or decrease the
exposure from that
recommended by the
camera.
TIP
• You can also use
the Quick Control
screen to select and
change the shutter
speed and aperture
in Manual (M) mode.
46
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HOW YOUR EXPOSURE SYSTEM WORKS
All exposure systems, including the one built into your 5D Mark II, oper-
ate on the same general principles. A light-sensitive photocell regulates the
amount of electricity flowing in the exposure system. As the intensity of the
light reflected from the subject changes, the amount of electricity flowing
through the photocell’s circuits changes. These changes are then used by the
autoexposure system to calculate and set the shutter speed and aperture.
Your camera’s meter measures light reflecting from the part of the scene
shown in the viewfinder. The coverage of the meter (the amount of the scene
that it includes in its reading) changes, just as your viewfinder image chang-
es, when you change your distance relative to the scene or when you change
the focal length of the lens. Suppose you move close or zoom in and see in
your viewfinder only a detail in the scene, one that is darker or lighter than
other objects nearby. The suggested aperture and shutter speed settings will
be different for the detail than they are for the overall scene.
METER AVERAGING AND MIDDLE GRAY
Your exposure meter doesn’t “see” a scene the same way you see it. Its view is
much like yours would be if you were looking through a piece of frosted glass.
Your meter sees scenes
as if it were looking at
them through a piece
of frosted glass. It
doesn’t see details, just
averages.
Every scene you photograph contains a range of tones like the scene (top left).
Portions of it are pure black, pure white, and every possible tone in between.
The exposure system in your camera can’t think about the scene or make
decisions about it. Regardless of the scene’s subject matter, color, brightness,
or composition, the system just measures the overall brightness—how light
or dark it is. It then sets the aperture and the shutter speed needed to render
this average level of brightness as “middle gray” in the photograph. Most of
the time this works very well because most scenes have an overall reflectance
that averages out to middle gray. But some scenes and situations don’t and
that’s when autoexposure will lead you astray. So what is middle gray?
Where you see a
checkerboard-like
pattern (top), your
camera sees only an
average gray (bottom).
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HOW YOUR EXPOSURE SYSTEM WORKS
!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+,-')(.%/"-0"%2+(,"-16;:,,%
Most scenes contain a continuous spectrum of tones, ranging from pure black
at one end to pure white at the other. In a photograph an approximation of
this continuous scale is made up of a series of discrete tones—the gray scale.
When shooting JPEGs there are 256 tones in the scale (2
8
) and when shoot-
ing RAW images there are 16,384 (2
14
). The tone in the middle of these ranges
is middle gray and reflects exactly 18% of the light falling on it.
When you photograph a subject, your camera’s autoexposure system sets
an exposure so that the subject appears in the final image as middle gray
regardless of its actual brightness. When you photograph subjects that have
an overall tone lighter or darker than middle gray, they will be middle gray
in the final image and therefore look too light or dark. For example, if you
photograph a white card, a gray card, and a black card, and each completely
fills the viewfinder when the exposure is calculated, each of the cards will be
middle gray in the captured image.
White, gray, and black
cards (top) will all
photograph as gray
cards (bottom).
The gray scale captured
in an image is a range
of tones from pure black
to pure white.
Click to see how your
exposure system sees a
scene.
When you fill the screen
with a gray card and
press the shutter button
halfway down, your
camera will indicate
the best exposure
regardless of how light
or dark the scene is.
48
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CHANGING THE METERING MODE
! With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B, press the Metering button
on top of the camera and then turn the Main Dial to cycle from evalu-
ative (the default) through center-weighted, spot, partial, and back to
evaluative metering.
To make scenes that don’t average out to middle gray appear in an image the
way they appear in real life, you have to use exposure compensation (page 55)
or some other form of exposure control to lighten or darken the picture.
TYPES OF METERING
All parts of a scene are usually not equally important when determining
the best exposure to use. In a landscape, for instance, the exposure of the
foreground is usually more important than the exposure of the sky. For this
reason, P, Tv, Av, M and B modes offer various metering methods.
• Evaluative metering divides the scene as seen through the viewfinder
into 35 zones, each of which is linked to the AF points. Each of the 35 zones
is the same size and they are laid out in a 7 x 5 matrix. When using autofo-
cus, the metering system gives special emphasis to the subject you’re focused
on at the active AF point (page 73). This mode is the default in all shooting
modes because it’s ideal for general shooting conditions and backlit scenes.
This is the only mode available in auto modes. When used with manual focus
(page 75), metering is based on the center AF point.
This mode differs from the three that follow in one other respect. When using
evaluative metering with One-Shot AF (the default), pressing the shutter but-
ton halfway down locks both exposure and focus. When using AI Servo AF,
neither is locked and both are set when you take the picture. Any other com-
bination of metering (page 48) and focus modes (page 72) locks just focus.
• Partial metering meters the part of the scene falling within the circle of
AF points in the center of the viewfinder. This zone covers only 8% of view-
finder area so you can meter just a specific part of the scene instead of relying
on an overall reading. This mode is ideal when photographing a subject
against a very dark or very light background. You can also meter any part of
the scene and use AE Lock (page 55) to use that reading for the overall photo.
• Spot metering meters 3.5% of the viewfinder area—the area within the
viewfinder’s spot metering circle. This mode is similar to partial metering but
is better when you want to base your exposure on an even smaller part of the
scene.
• Center-weighted average metering meters the entire scene but assigns
the most importance to the center of the frame where the most important
subjects are usually located.
Metering can cause problems if the camera isn’t metering the main subject
or when the main subject is very dark or light. For instance, a dark object lo-
cated off center against a very light background may not be exposed properly
if it is not located in the area the meter is emphasizing. These occasions are
uncommon, but when they occur you can ensure accurate exposures us-
ing exposure compensation (page 55), AE Lock (page 55) and autoexposure
bracketing (page 57).
Metering mode icons
displayed on the LCD
panel include (left to
right, top to bottom)
evaluative, center
weighted, partial and
spot.
The areas metered
(from top to bottom)
include evaluative,
partial, spot, and
center-weighted.
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WHEN AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE WORKS WELL
WHEN AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE WORKS WELL
Most scenes that you photograph have an overall brightness of middle gray.
Some areas of the scene may reflect 90% of the light and other parts may
reflect 5%, but overall the average amount of light reflecting from the scene
is 18%, the amount reflected by a middle gray subject. Whenever you photo-
graph a normal scene with this average brightness, your automatic exposure
system exposes it correctly. Typical middle gray scenes include the following:
• Scenes in bright sunlight where the subject is front-lit by a sun that is be-
hind you when you face the scene.
• Scenes on overcast days or under diffused light, such as in the shade or in
evenly-lit scenes indoors.
This image has detail in
the lightest (highlight)
and darkest (shadow)
areas. If just a little
darker or a little lighter,
details would be lost
in the shadows or
highlights.
Portraits in indirect
light generally have the
tones needed to get
a good image without
additional exposure
adjustment.
50
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WHEN TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE
Let’s take a look at some of the most common situations where your automat-
ic exposure system will have problems. It’s in these situations where you’ll
need to override the suggested exposure settings.
SCENES LIGHTER THAN MIDDLE GRAY
Scenes lighter than middle gray, such as beach scenes, or bright sand or
snow covered landscapes, reflect more than 18% of the light falling on them.
The autoexposure system doesn’t know the scene should look bright so it
calculates an exposure that produces an image that is too dark. To lighten
the image so it matches the original scene, you must override the camera’s
automatic exposure system to add exposure.
The snow scene here
is typical of scenes
that are lighter than
middle gray. Most of the
important tones in the
scene are at the lighter
end of the gray scale.
The overall “average”
tone would be about
one stop brighter than
middle gray. For a good
picture you have to
increase the exposure
by one stop (+1) to
lighten it. If you didn’t
do this, the snow in the
scene would appear too
gray (bottom).
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WHEN TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE
SCENES DARKER THAN MIDDLE GRAY
Scenes that are darker than middle gray, such as deep shadows, dark foliage,
and black cloth, reflect less than 18% of the light falling on them. If you pho-
tograph such scenes using automatic exposure, they will appear too light. The
meter cannot tell if the scene is dark or just an ordinary scene with less light
falling on it. In either case it increases the exposure to make a photograph of
the scene lighter. To photograph a scene that has an overall tone darker than
middle gray, you need to override the autoexposure system to decrease the
exposure to make the picture darker.
The black cat is be-
tween one and two
stops darker than
middle gray. To darken
the scene so the cat’s
not middle gray, expo-
sure must be decreased
by one (-1) or two (-2)
stops.
Here the scenes were
underexposed to
silhouette the people
in the foreground.
To show detail in the
people, exposure would
have had to have been
increased two stops
(+2).
SUBJECT AGAINST A VERY LIGHT BACKGROUND
Subjects against a very light background such as a portrait against a bright
sky or light sand or snow, can confuse an automatic exposure system, par-
ticularly if the subject occupies a relatively small part of the scene. The
brightness of the background is so predominant that the automatic exposure
system reduces the exposure to render the overall brightness as a middle
gray. The result is an underexposed and too-dark main subject.
52
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SUBJECT AGAINST A VERY DARK BACKGROUND
When a small bright subject appears against a large dark background, your
autoexposure system increases the exposure to produce a middle gray tone.
The result is an overexposed and too light main subject.
SCENES WITH HIGH CONTRAST
Many scenes, especially those with brightly lit highlights and deep shadows,
have a brightness range that cannot be completely captured by an image
sensor. When confronted with such scenes, you have to decide whether the
highlight or shadow area is most important, then set the exposure so that
area is shown accurately in the final picture. In high contrast situations
such as these, use AE Lock (page 55) or exposure compensation (page 55)
to adjust the exposure. Another way to deal with high contrast is to lighten
the shadows. A portrait, for example, lit from the back or side is often more
effective and interesting than one lit from the front. But when the light falls
directly on one side of a subject, the other side may be in dark shadow. In
this case use fill flash (page 123) or a white reflector card to fill and lighten
the shadows.
The rising sun
illuminated only one
boat in this harbor
scene. If the exposure
hadn’t been reduced
by two stops (-2), the
background would be
too light and the white
boat would have been
burned out and too
white. A scene like this
is a great place to use
partial or spot metering
(page 48).
The archway was in
the shadows and dark
while the cathedral
was brightly lit by the
sun. Both couldn’t be
exposed properly, so
the archway was left as
a solid black.
TIP
• When photograph-
ing high contrast
scenes, you can
decrease contrast at
the time you take the
picture (page 149).
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WHEN TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE
HARD TO METER SCENES
Occasionally it’s not convenient or even possible to meter a scene. Neon
street signs, spotlit circus acts, fireworks, moonlit scenes, and many similar
situations are all difficult and sometimes impossible to meter. In these cases,
it’s easiest simply to experiment using spot metering (page 48), exposure
compensation (page 55), or autoexposure bracketing (page 57) so you have
more than one exposure to select from.
A relatively small
subject against a
wide expanse of sky
will almost always be
underexposed unless
you use exposure
compensation.
This scene has a bright
sky and one brightly
illuminated fisherman
against a dark
background. A scene
such as this is hard to
meter because of the
variety of lighting.
TIP
• When photograph-
ing a TV or computer
monitor, use a shut-
ter speed of 1/30
second or slower.
54
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HOW OVERRIDING AUTOEXPOSURE WORKS
When a scene is lighter or darker than middle gray you need to change the
exposure to capture it the way it looks or it will be too light or dark. To light-
en or darken an image many cameras let you increase or decrease exposure
by two stops or more. Here are some typical settings where you’d make these
changes.
• +2 is used when the light is extremely contrasty and important shadow
areas are much darker than brightly lit areas.
• +1 is best for sidelit or backlit scenes, beach or snow scenes, sunsets and
other scenes that include a bright light source, or very light objects, such as a
white china on a white tablecloth.
• 0 (the default) is best for scenes that are evenly lit and when important
shadow areas are not too much darker than brightly lit areas.
• -1 is for scenes where the background is much darker than the subject, such
as a portrait in front of a very dark wall. Also good for very dark objects, such
as black china on a black tablecloth.
• -2 is for scenes of unusual contrast, as when an extremely dark background
occupies a very large part of the image and you want to retain detail in the
brighter parts of the scene.
1. Here are three cards
that you photograph
with each filling the
screen at the time you
take the picture.
2. The camera’s
exposure system
makes all three cards
appear gray in the
photographs. Only the
middle gray card in
the center is exposed
correctly.
3. Increasing the
exposure for the white
card and decreasing
it for the black card
captures them as they
really appear. Only the
middle gray card in the
center doesn’t need
the exposure adjusted
manually.
+2 0 -2
This lighthouse in the
fog on Cape Cod would
have looked too dark if
exposure compensation
hadn’t been used to
lighten it.
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HOW OVERRIDING AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE WORKS
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USING EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
1. With the Power Switch set to the white line above ON, and the Mode
Dial set to CA, P, Tv or Av, press the shutter button halfway down to
activate the readout, and then turn the Quick Control Dial to move
the marker on the exposure level indicator displayed in the viewfind-
er and on the LCD panel.
! To darken the image, move the marker toward the minus (-) end of
the scale.
! To lighten the image, move the marker toward the plus (+) end of
the scale.
2. When done, reset exposure compensation to 0 otherwise it will be
remembered even when you turn off the camera.
An exposure level
indicator shows you how
much you are under (-)
or over (+) exposed. If
the indicator flashes at
the -2 or +2 ends of the
scale it means you are
off by more than two
stops.
HOW TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE
Most digital cameras, including the 5D Mark II, provide one or more ways to
override the automatic exposure system to get the exposure you want.
EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
Exposure compensation in P, Tv and Av modes lets you lighten or darken the
photograph that the camera would produce if autoexposure were used. To
lighten a picture, you increase the exposure; to darken one, you decrease the
exposure. The amount you increase or decrease the exposure is specified in
“stops.” For example, to increase the exposure 1 stop, you specify +1 to open
the aperture or slow down the shutter speed. It’s easy to use exposure com-
pensation because you can immediately see the effects when you review or
playback an image.
TIPS
• You can also set
exposure compensa-
tion using CA mode’s
Exposure:Darker<-
>Brighter setting
(page 41), the Quick
Control screen (page
16), or the com-
mands on the Shoot-
ing 2 menu.
• You can specify
exposure compen-
sation in one-half
stop increments with
Custom Function I-1
Exposure level incre-
ments (page 152).
When you adjust exposure compensation you can do so in full stops and even finer
one-third stop increments. When you use the command, an exposure compensation
scale is displayed. The “0” indicates the exposure suggested by the camera. As you
adjust the exposure toward the plus (+) side of the scale the image gets lighter. As
you adjust it toward the minus (-) side it gets darker. Here you see the results as
it’s adjusted from +2 (left) to -2 (right). The effect of the changes on the image are
dramatic.
AUTOEXPOSURE (AE) LOCK
When you want to base your exposure on a specific part of a scene, you can
do so in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes.
• When the autofocus mode is set to One-Shot AF (the default), it’s as easy as
pressing the shutter button halfway down to lock exposure and focus.
Click to explore
exposure compensation.
TIP
• When Custom
Function II-4 Auto
Lighting Optimizer is
enabled (the de-
fault—page 152), ex-
posure compensation
and auto exposure
bracketing may not
work as expected.
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Click to explore
exposure lock.
• In any autofocus mode, focus the camera and press the AE/FE Lock button
(marked with an asterisk) to lock exposure but not focus. This allows you to
lock exposure and then move closer to or farther from the subject.
After locking focus recompose the image and take the picture.
• AE Lock works best when you use spot or partial metering and lock it on the
part of the scene that’s most important for the exposure.
• When used with evaluative metering (page 48), exposure is based on the
automatically or manually selected AF point (page 73). However, if the lens
focus switch is set to M or MF the center point is used.
• When used with center-weighted, partial or spot metering, or when manu-
ally focusing, exposure is based on the central AF point.
• When using evaluative metering with One-Shot AF, pressing the shutter
button halfway down to lock exposure also locks focus. When using AI Servo
AF neither is locked. Any other combination of metering (page 48) and focus
(page 72) modes locks just focus.
• When using an external Speedlight, the AE/FE Lock button acts as a FE
Lock button (page 117).
Pressing the shutter
button halfway down
locks exposure and
pressing it all the way
down takes the picture.
Point the camera so you
are metering the area
on which you want to
base the exposure (top
left). Press the shutter
button halfway down to
lock exposure and press
the AE/FE Lock button.
Release the shutter
button, compose the
image the way you want
it (bottom right) and
press the shutter button
to lock focus and take
the photo.
If you took the picture
without first locking
exposure, it would be
too dark because the
background influenced
the exposure.
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HOW TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE
AUTOEXPOSURE BRACKETING (AEB)
Instead of using exposure compensation, or in conjunction with it, you can
use autoexposure bracketing (AEB) to run off a series of three images, each at
a slightly different exposure—correctly exposed, underexposed, and overex-
posed. The difference from one shot to the next can be set at up to 2 stops in
1/3rd stop increments.
• AEB stays in effect until you reset it to 0, turn the camera off, change lenses,
or turn on the flash. If you don’t do one of these things, the camera remains
set to this mode so subsequent pictures are captured at different exposure
levels.
• You can’t use flash or B (Bulb) mode (page 92) with AEB. If a flash is at-
tached and ready to fire, AEB is cancelled.
• You can use exposure compensation with AEB to shift all three exposures
up or down the exposure level indicator.
• AEB may not work as expected when Custom Function II-4 Auto Lighting
Optimizer is enabled (page 152).
TIPS
• If you use the con-
tinuous mode (page
137) for autoexpo-
sure bracketing, the
series of three shots
is taken when you
hold down the shut-
ter button.
• If you use the self-
timer in AEB mode,
all three photos are
taken automatically.
TIP
• After locking expo-
sure in P, Tv, and Av
modes, you can turn
the Main Dial to use
program shift (page
42).
When you press the AE/
FE Lock button with this
icon, exposure is locked
and the same AE/FE
Lock icon flashes in the
viewfinder.
USING AUTOEXPOSURE (AE) LOCK
1. With the flash closed, the Mode Dial set to P, Tv or Av and metering
set to partial or spot (page 48), select the AF point you want to use
(page 73) and focus on the part of the scene on which you want to
lock exposure.
2. Press the shutter button halfway down to lock exposure and focus,
then press the AE/FE Lock button. An asterisk to the left of the shut-
ter speed in the viewfinder indicates that exposure is locked as long
as metering is on, or until you release the shutter or AE/FE Lock but-
ton.
3. Release the shutter button and recompose the scene. Press the shut-
ter button halfway down to refocus and take your photo. AE lock
turns off automatically.
! To cancel AE lock without taking a picture, release the shutter but-
ton and wait a few seconds for the * icon to disappear.
! To keep it locked for other photos keep the shutter button pressed
halfway down, or continue holding down the AE/FE Lock button.
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USING AUTOEXPOSURE BRACKETING (AEB)
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av or M, press the Multi-controller
straight down to display the Quick Control screen.
2. Press the Multi-controller to select the exposure level indicator then
turn the Main Dial to expand or contract the exposure increment
between shots (you can optionally press SET at this point). Three
small markers under the indicator indicate what the exposure will be
for each of the three shots. The middle bar is at the exposure recom-
mended by the camera (or shifted with exposure compensation—
page 55) and the left and right markers indicate by how many stops
the other images will be underexposed (-) and overexposed (+).
3. Take each of the three photos just as you normally would.
! While AEB is in effect, the AEB icon is displayed on the LCD panel
and the three markers are displayed on the exposure level indicator
in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel.
! After you take the first shot, the markers under the indicator and
the AE/FE lock icon in the viewfinder flash as do the markers and
AEB icon on the LCD panel. When you press the shutter button
halfway down, the marker on the exposure level indicator indicates
which of the three images is being captured. When the series is com-
plete, the flashing stops.
4. When finished, repeat Steps 1–2 to reset AEB to 0.
Autoexposure
bracketing captures a
series of three shots
at different exposures.
Here the sequence is +1
(left), 0 (center), and -1
(right).
The exposure level
indicator used to specify
the exposure increment
between shots. Here the
dots indicate it’s one
stop.
The AEB icon.
Click to explore
autoexposure
bracketing.
TIPS
• While turning the
Main Dial to set AEB,
you can also turn the
Quick Control Dial to
set exposure com-
pensation—shifting
the three photos up
and down the expo-
sure level indicator.
• You can also set
AEB using the Expo.
comp/AEB setting
on the Shooting 2
menu.
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EVALUATING HISTOGRAMS
The horizontal axis of a histogram represents the range of brightness from 0
(shadows) on the left to 255 (highlights) on the right. Think of it as a line with
256 spaces on which to stack pixels of the same brightness. Since these are
the only values that can be captured by the camera, the horizontal line also
represents the camera’s maximum potential tonal range or contrast.
The vertical axis represents the number of pixels that have each of the 256
brightness values. The higher the line coming up from the horizontal axis, the
more pixels there are at that level of brightness.
To read the histogram, you look at the distribution of pixels. Here are some
things to look for.
USING HISTOGRAMS
Most serious photo-editing programs such as Photoshop, Lightroom and
Photoshop Elements let you use a histogram as a guide when editing your
images. However, since most image corrections can be diagnosed by looking
at a histogram, it helps to look at it while still in a position to reshoot the im-
age. It’s for this reason that an image’s histogram can be displayed on the 5D
Mark II’s monitor. As you’ve seen, each pixel in an image can be set to any of
256 levels of brightness from pure black (0) to pure white (255) and a histo-
gram graphs the number of pixels at each level of brightness.
DISPLAYING HISTOGRAMS
You can check histograms in playback mode or while reviewing an image you
have just taken. Just press the INFO button until the histogram and a small
thumbnail of the selected image are displayed. Once displayed in playback
mode, you can scroll through other images to see their histograms.
Pressing INFO repeatedly displays two histograms, one after the other—
Brightness graphs the overall brightness of the composite image and RGB
displays the levels of brightness of each color—red, green and blue. You
can use the Playback 2 menu’s Histogram command to change the order in
which they are displayed. Also, when the histogram is displayed, so is a small
thumbnail of the current image. If you set the Playback 2 menu’s Highlight
alert setting to Enable (the default is Disable), any overexposed areas in the
image without details blink.
DISPLAYING HISTOGRAMS
! In playback mode with an image displayed in single image view, or when
reviewing an image you just shot, press the INFO button until the desired
histogram for the current image is displayed.
SELECTING THE HISTOGRAM AND HIGHLIGHTS
1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode, press MENU and select the
Playback 2 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Histogram or Highlight
alert and press SET to display the choices Brightness and RGB or
Enable and Disable. Select one and press SET.
3. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
TIPS
• If you enable
Highlight alert on the
Playback 2 menu,
when a histogram
is displayed areas
in the small image
next to it that are
overexposed blink.
To darken these
areas in subsequent
images, you can use
minus (-) exposure
compensation.
• In Live View (page
139) you can display
a live histogram on
the monitor to guide
you when setting ex-
posure before taking
a photo.
Click to explore how
overexposed highlights
blink.
Click to explore
histograms.
Histograms are
displayed when you
press INFO.
USING HISTOGRAMS
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• Many photos look best when there are some pixels at every position because
these images are using the entire tonal range.
• In most images, pixels are grouped together and occupy only a part of the
available tonal range. These images lack contrast because the difference
between the brightest and darkest areas isn’t as great as it could be. However,
this can be fixed in a photo-editing program using commands that spread the
pixels over the entire available tonal range. These controls allow you to adjust
the shadow, midtone, and highlight areas independently without affecting
the other areas of the image. This lets you lighten or darken selected areas of
your images without loosing detail. The only pixels that can’t be fixed in this
way are those that have been “clipped” to pure white or black (page 61).
• In a color RGB histogram, too many pixels to the left indicate that colors
may be weak. If there are too many to the right, the colors may be too satu-
rated and lack details.
The original image (top)
is flat and its histogram
indicates only part of
the tonal range is being
used. Photoshop’s
Levels command was
then used to expand the
tonal range (bottom).
You can see the change
in both the image and in
the histogram.
EVALUATING
HISTOGRAMS
! If the histogram
shows most pixels
toward the left
(darker) side of the
graph, use expo-
sure compensation
to add exposure
(page 55).
! If the histogram
shows most pixels
toward the right
(lighter) side of the
graph, use expo-
sure compensation
to reduce exposure
(page 55).
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USING HISTOGRAMS
This series of photos was taken one stop apart using exposure compensation. As the
exposure increased pixels on the histogram shifted right. You can tell from the way
the fan blades blur that the shutter speed was changed to change the exposure. In
the image where it was faster, the image is darker and the blades are frozen. As
slower speeds were used to increase the exposure, the images get lighter and the
blades more blurred.
In the top image
you can tell from the
histogram that some
of the highlight pixels
are pure white and
hence clipped. There is
nothing you can do later
to display details in the
area of these pixels.
However, if you reshoot
the scene at a different
exposure you can shift
the pixels to the left
and avoid the clipping
(bottom).
CLIPPED PIXELS
When a histogram shows pixels at the extreme ends of the range, in the 0
and 255 positions, it means details in those tones are being lost or “clipped”
in your image. These extremes should be reserved for specular highlights
(reflections) and small dark shadows. When large areas lack detail an image
suffers.
To avoid clipping and better place the tonal values in subsequent shots, you
use exposure compensation (page 55). Increasing exposure shifts pixels to
the highlight, or right end of the histogram. Decreasing exposure shifts them
the other way. Unless you are deliberately trying to get pure whites or pure
blacks, you should shift the pixels if any are being clipped. This then gives
you a chance to correct the image in a photo-editing program.
TIP
• If highlights are
being clipped in
wedding dresses,
clouds, snow and
other bright sub-
jects, you can enable
Custom Function
II-3 Highlight tone
priority gives priority
to highlights (page
152). This preserves
details in these
bright areas of the
image and prevents
them from being
clipped.
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This low-key scene
has the majority of its
values in the shadow
area with another large
grouping around middle
gray. There are wide
levels of brightness that
have only a few pixels.
This brown moth on
a gray card has most
of its values in the
midrange. That’s why
there are a number
of high vertical lines
grouped in the middle of
the horizontal axis.
This high-key fog scene
has most of its values
toward the highlight end
of the scale. There are
no really dark values in
the image. The image
uses only a little more
than half the camera’s
dynamic range.
In this well exposed
portrait there is a
fairly even distribution
of values in both the
shadow and highlight
areas of the image.
There are no pure
blacks in the image as
shown by the gap at the
far left end of the scale.
The distinct vertical line to the left of
middle gray shows how many pixels
there are in the uniformly gray frame
border added in Photoshop.
SAMPLE HISTOGRAMS
The way a histogram looks depends on the scene you’re shooting and how
you expose it. There’s no such thing as a good or bad histogram. Whether a
particular histogram is good or bad depends on what you are trying to accom-
plish. If fact, you may prefer to trust your visual reaction to the image more
than the very numeric image data provided by a histogram. However, even if
you never use a histogram, you can learn about digital images by understand-
ing what a histogram can show about an image. Following are some histo-
grams from good images along with a brief summary of what the histogram
reveals.
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O
ne of the first things you notice about a photograph is whether or
not it is sharp. Extremely sharp photographs reveal a richness of
detail, even more than you would normally notice in the original
scene. If the entire image isn’t sharp, your eye is immediately drawn to the
part that is. When learning to control sharpness, the first goal is to get pic-
tures sharp when you want them sharp. If your photos aren’t as sharp as you
want them to be, you can analyze them to see what went wrong.
• Focus. If nothing in your image is sharp or if your central subject is not
sharp but other parts of the photograph are, your camera was improperly
focused.
• Depth of Field. If your central subject is sharp but the background or fore-
ground is less so, you may not have used a small enough aperture to get the
depth of field you wanted.
• Camera Movement. If the image is blurred all over, with no part sharp, the
camera moved during the exposure. Some dots appear as lines and edges are
blurred because the image was “painted” onto the moving image sensor.
• Subject Movement. When some of the picture is sharp but a moving subject
appears blurred, your shutter speed was too slow.
Chapter 3
Controlling Sharpness
CONTENTS
• Getting Sharper
Pictures • Sharpness
Isn’t Everything • How
to Photograph Mo-
tion Sharply • Focus
and Depth of Field •
Focusing Techniques
• Controlling Depth
of Field • Using Deep
Depth Of Field • Us-
ing Shallow Depth of
Field • Conveying the
Feeling of Motion
CHAPTER 3. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS
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USING THE SELF-TIMER/REMOTE SWITCH
The 5D Mark II has a self-timer that gives you a delay of 2 seconds (in P,
Tv, Av, M and B modes) or 10 seconds (in all modes) between the time you
press the shutter button and the picture is taken. Although often used to
give you time to get into a picture, the self-timer is also a great way to reduce
blur caused by camera movement. Just place the camera on a stable surface,
compose the image, and use the timer to take the picture without any camera
shake. The 2-second timer is especially useful when using a tripod in macro
photography since it takes pictures without camera shake caused by press-
ing the shutter button. Don’t stand in front of the camera when you press the
shutter button to start the timer. If you do so, you’ll prevent the camera from
focusing correctly. When using the timer to photograph yourself, focus it on
something at the same distance at which you will be positioned.
GETTING SHARPER PICTURES
Unwanted camera movement when the shutter is open is one of the major
causes of unsharp photographs. You can reduce this problem in bright light
and when using flash simply by holding the camera steady and depressing the
shutter button smoothly. At slow shutter speeds, such as those you get in dim
light, particularly with a long focal length lens, you need a camera support.
SUPPORTING THE CAMERA
As the focal length of your lens changes, so does the minimum shutter speed
at which you can hand-hold the camera without getting blur from camera
shake. The rule of thumb is never to hand-hold the camera at a shutter speed
lower than the reciprocal of your lens’ focal length. For example, a 100mm
lens can be handheld at a shutter speed of 1/100 or faster. (The camera dis-
plays the current shutter speed on the LCD panel, and in the viewfinder when
you press the shutter button halfway down.)
To hand hold the camera as steady as possible, brace the camera against
your face and brace your elbows against your sides. Just before taking a shot,
inhale deeply, then exhale and hold your breath while smoothly depressing
the shutter button. When holding the camera for both horizontal and vertical
photographs use your right finger to press the shutter button and your left
hand to support the camera.
When the shutter speed is too slow to handhold the camera, you need to sup-
port it. One way to do this is to lean against a wall or tree and brace yourself
with your elbows tight to your body. You can also find a branch or railing to
rest the camera on. For real stability, anywhere, anytime, you need a tripod
or an even easier to carry monopod.
The camera was steady
for the left picture and
moved for the right one.
TIP
• When using a
tripod or other sup-
port, you can use
a remote control
device (page 138) to
trigger the shutter
so you don’t move
the camera when
you press the shutter
button.
• Custom Function
III-6 Mirror lockup
(page 152) lets you
lock up the mirror so
it doesn’t introduce
vibrations when you
take a picture.
• Canon makes
image stabilization
(IS) lenses that get
you sharper pictures
when you handhold
the camera (page
98).
• In critical situations
you can use continu-
ous mode to run off
a series of photos
and select the sharp-
est later.
Placing the eyepiece
cover over the
viewfinder blocks light
from entering and
affecting the exposure
when using the self-
timer or remote.
Click to view a PDF
document on tripods.
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USING THE SELF-TIMER
1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode for the 10-second timer, or to
P, Tv, Av, M or B mode for the 2 second timer, press and release the
AF-DRIVE button and turn the Quick Control Dial until one of the
self-timer icons is displayed on the LCD panel.
2. With the camera on a stable surface or tripod, and pointed at the
subject you want to focus on, press the shutter button halfway down
to set focus, then all the way down to take the picture. The self-timer
lamp on the front of the camera flashes, the camera beeps, and the
LCD panel displays a countdown timer. Two seconds before the pic-
ture is taken, the lamp glows steady and the beep rate increases. (To
cancel the timer, press the AF-DRIVE button.)
3. When finished, repeat Step 1 to return to single-frame mode.
The 5D Mark II has an N3 type remote control socket into which you can plug
a remote switch that works much like a shutter button (page 138).
The 10 second (left) and
2 second (right) self-
timer icons.
When changing ISO,
L represents 50 and
the H1 and H2 icons
represent ISOs of
12800 and 25600.
When the ISO is set
to Auto this icon is
displayed on the LCD
panel. The actual ISO
speed to be used is
displayed when you
press the shutter button
halfway down.
Click here to explore
the effect of noise in an
image.
Click to see the effects
of increasing ISO.
ADJUSTING THE ISO
Increasing the camera’s ISO means less light is need to expose a picture. This
lets you use a faster shutter speed to reduce blur caused by camera or subject
movement, use a smaller aperture for more depth of field, or add range to
your flash. Increasing sensitivity is also a good way to get pictures without us-
ing flash in places such as concerts and museums where flash is prohibited.
• In auto modes, the ISO is set to Auto and varies between 100–3200.
• In P, Tv, Av, M and B modes, you can set the ISO to Auto (the default), or
manually set it between 100–6400 in one-third stop increments. When ISO
is set to Auto in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes it varies between 100–3200 with
the exception of Manual (M) and Bulb (B) modes where it’s fixed at 400. (The
ISO to be used is displayed when you press the shutter button halfway down.)
Settings of 50 (L), 12800 (H1) and 25600 (H2) are available if you turn on
Custom Function I-3 ISO expansion (page 152).
• When Auto ISO is used with flash in any shooting mode, it is normally set to
400. However, if this will cause overexposure it will be set as low as 100.
The only down side to increasing the ISO is that it adds noise to images. At
high ISO settings, and with long exposures times, images may have irregular
colors and horizontal stripes may appear as noise. Noise occurs because in-
creasing sensitivity amplifies the captured signal, but also amplifies the back-
ground noise captured along with it. The noise then appears in the image as
randomly distributed colored pixels. Generally, the higher the ISO the more
noise you’ll get, although the 5D Mark II is exceptionally good at keeping it
to a minimum. To reduce noise you can turn on Custom Function II-2 High
ISO speed noise reduction (page 152). When on, noise reduction is performed
at all ISO settings, but has the greatest effect on those shot at high ISOs. At
low ISOs, noise in shadow areas is reduced. When on, the frame rate drops
dramatically in continuous shooting (page 137) and white balance bracketing
(page 85) is disabled.
GETTING SHARPER PICTURES
L H1 H2
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CHANGING THE ISO
! With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press and release
the ISO button on top of the camera and then turn the Main Dial to
scroll through the available ISO settings displayed on the LCD panel
and monitor and in the viewfinder.
The situations in which various ISO settings are best include those in the fol-
lowing table.
ISO Setting Good For
L, 100–200 Bright daylight outdoors
400–800 Dark overcast, dawn and dusk
1600–6400, H1, H2 Night or dark indoors, fast action
TIPS
• When using the
self-timer to photo-
graph yourself, use
focus lock (page 74)
to focus on some-
thing at the same
distance as where
you’ll be.
• You can turn off
the self-timer beep if
it’s distracting (page
160).
• Using Custom
Function III-6 Mirror
lockup (page 152)
to lock up the mirror
while using a two
second self-timer
delay is the perfect
combination to elimi-
nate blur caused by
camera movement.
• If you enable
Custom Function
II-3 Highlight tone
priority (page 152),
the ISO range is
200–6400.
• Using a high ISO
speed or shooting
in high-temperature
conditions can cause
noisy images. Long
exposures can also
cause irregular colors
in the image.
Noise appears in images
as random color pixels
especially when you use
long shutter speeds or
high ISO settings.
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Motion in a scene can
be frozen or blurred
depending on the
shutter speed and other
factors. Blur can be
used creatively to evoke
a feeling of motion as in
this shot of a waterfall
in Yosemite National
Park.
Shallow depth of field
can focus attention on
a foreground subject by
making the background
less sharp.
SHARPNESS ISN’T EVERYTHING
SHARPNESS ISN’T EVERYTHING
Your photos don’t have to be sharp to be effective. In many cases, it’s better
to have part of the scene sharper than the rest. Your pictures can be sharp or
unsharp in different ways. The first way concerns motion. Several factors af-
fect the way motion is captured in images. These include your shutter speed,
lens focal length, and subject speed, direction, and distance. Another kind of
sharpness concerns depth of field, how much of the scene will be sharp in the
image from foreground to background. Even if you are photographing a static
scene, your picture may not be sharp if you do not have enough depth of field.
However, a shallow depth of field can be used to make a busy background less
distracting by having it out of focus in the picture. Several factors affect depth
of field, including lens aperture, lens focal length, and subject distance.
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The shutter speed froze
the central dancer but
was slow enough to blur
the others. This makes
the central dancer the
most important person
in the photograph.
TIP
• To capture action,
point the camera
toward where you
expect the action
to occur and press
the shutter button
halfway down to set
and lock focus and
exposure. Hold the
button down until the
action happens and
you’ll be able to get
a shot off a lot faster.
HOW TO PHOTOGRAPH MOTION SHARPLY
The sharpness of different parts of an image helps direct the viewer who
tends to look first at the most sharply focused part of the picture. In addition,
sharpness itself can be part of the message of the photograph. The immobility
of a frozen figure can be made more apparent by blurring people moving in
other parts of the scene.
Blur in an image is caused when all or part of a subject focused onto the im-
age sensor moves when the shutter is open. To show a moving subject sharp-
ly, the shutter needs to open and close before the image on the sensor moves
a significant amount. In other words, you need to use a fast shutter speed.
But just how fast is fast enough? The answer depends on several factors. Be-
cause several variables are involved, you can’t always predict how motion will
be portrayed in the final photograph. So use different settings and take more
than one shot if possible. Try shooting from a different angle or perhaps wait
for a pause in the action. You are much more likely to get a good shot if you
have several to choose from. Just be aware that sharpness and blur are hard
to evaluate on the camera’s monitor.
SPEED OF SUBJECT
The faster a subject is moving, the faster the shutter speed you need for a
sharp image. However, it’s not the speed of the subject in the real world that
determines blur. It’s how far the subject moves on the image sensor while the
exposure is being made. This depends not just on the subject’s actual speed,
but also on the direction of its movement, its distance from the camera, and
the focal length of the lens.
DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT
When the shutter is open, a subject moving parallel to the image sensor
crosses more of the pixels on the sensor and is more blurred than a subject
moving directly toward or away from the camera. This is why you can use a
slower shutter speed to sharply photograph a subject moving toward, or away
from you, and not the same subject moving from one side of the scene to the
other.
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On this speeding train,
the part closest to
the camera looks the
most blurred while
the farthest part looks
sharper. Since all parts
of the train are moving
at the same speed, this
shows how distance
affects blur.
INCREASING THE SHARPNESS OF MOVING OB-
JECTS
! Photograph fast-moving subjects heading toward or away from you
and not from side to side.
! Move farther away from the subject or use a shorter focal length lens.
! Switch to Tv (shutter-priority) mode (page 43) or use program shift
(page 42) and select a fast shutter speed such as 1/500.
! Increase the ISO so you can use a faster shutter speed although this
adds some noise to the image (page 65).
The shutter speed
needed to control the
sharpness of a moving
object is determined
by the subject’s speed,
direction of movement,
and distance.
Click to explore how
camera-subject distance
affects shutter speeds.
Click to explore how
shutter speed affects
sharpness.
SHUTTER
SPEED
NEEDED
FASTER
SLOWER
SPEED OF
SUBJECT
DIRECTION OF
MOVEMENT
AMOUNT OF
ZOOM AND
DISTANCE TO
SUBJECT
TIP
• To visualize the
effects of distance
on blur, look out the
side window of a
speeding car (but not
when you’re driv-
ing). The objects in
the foreground seem
to fly by while those
on the horizon don’t
seem to move at all.
HOW TO PHOTOGRAPH MOTION SHARPLY
DISTANCE TO SUBJECT AND FOCAL LENGTH OF LENS
If a subject is close to the camera, even slight movement is enough to cause
blur. A subject—or part of one—far from the camera can move a considerable
distance before its image on the image sensor moves very much. The focal
length of the lens can also affect the apparent distance to the subject. Increas-
ing the focal length of your lens—for example, zooming in on a subject—has
the same effect as moving closer to your subject. The longer the focal length
of the lens, the less a subject has to move for its image to move on the image
sensor and become blurred.
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Imagine the part of the scene on which you focus as a flat plane (much like a pane
of glass) superimposed from one side to the other of a scene, so that the plane is
parallel to the back of the camera or the image sensor. Objects falling exactly on
this imaginary plane will be in critical focus, the sharpest part of your picture. This
plane of critical focus is a very shallow band and includes only those parts of the
scene located at identical distances from the camera. As you point an autofocus
camera at objects nearer or farther away in the scene, the plane of critical focus
moves closer to or farther away from the camera. As the plane moves, objects at
different distances from the camera come into or go out of critical focus.
TIP
• To control depth
of field, switch to Av
(aperture-priority)
mode and select a
small aperture for
great depth of field,
or a large aperture
for shallow depth of
field (page 78).
Click to explore how
focusing shifts the plane
of critical focus.
A
The shutter button
has two stages. When
pressed halfway down,
the camera locks focus
and establishes the
plane of critical focus.
FOCUS AND DEPTH OF FIELD
If you look around you—the book in your hand, the chair across the room,
the far wall—everything seems to be sharp. That is because your eyes refocus
every time you look at an object at a different distance. But the sharpness you
see when you glance at a scene is not always what you get in a photograph of
that scene. To understand why not, you have to understand focus and depth
of field.
FOCUS
A lens can only bring one part of a scene into the sharpest possible focus. This
part of the scene falls on what is called the plane of critical focus. Subjects
falling on this plane will be the sharpest part of the picture. You move this
plane toward and way from the camera as you focus. The plane of critical
focus in your image will be the area that falls on the active AF point in the
viewfinder—the one that flashes red.
DEPTH OF FIELD
If you look at photographs, you can see a considerable area of the scene from
near to far that appears sharp. Even though theoretically only one narrow
plane is critically sharp, other parts of the scene in front of and behind the
most sharply focused plane appear acceptably sharp. This area in which
everything looks acceptably sharp is called depth of field. Objects within the
depth of field become less and less sharp the farther they are from the plane
of critical focus. Eventually they become so out of focus that they no longer
appear sharp.
Often it doesn’t matter so much exactly what you are focused on. What does
matter is whether or not all of the objects you want to be sharp are within the
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This photo of a book
page shows how shallow
depth of field can be
when you get close to a
subject.
In both of these images
the plane of critical
focus has been placed
on the middle face. In
the left image a large
aperture was used to
give shallow depth of
field. In the right image
a small aperture was
use to give great depth
of field.
The near and far limits of depth of field are shown here as two planes (B and C),
parallel to the plane of critical focus (A). Actually, they are usually not visible as
exactly defined boundaries. Nor can you usually find the plane of critical focus by
looking at a picture. Instead, sharp areas imperceptibly merge into unsharp ones.
In most situations depth of field is not evenly divided. At normal shooting distances,
about one-third of the depth of field is in front of the plane of critical focus (toward
the camera), and two-thirds is behind it (away from the camera). When the camera
is focused very close to an object, the depth of field becomes more evenly divided.
A B C
To check depth-of-
field in the viewfinder
press the depth-of-field
preview button.
FOCUS AND DEPTH OF FIELD
depth of field so they appear sharp. If you want a large part of the scene to be
sharp, you can increase the depth of field. You can decrease it if you want less
of the scene sharp. In some scenes, you can significantly increase or decrease
the depth of field simply by shifting the point on which you are focused or by
changing the aperture setting.
CHECKING DEPTH OF FIELD
To check depth-of-field in the viewfinder in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes, or
on the monitor while using Live View (page 139), press the depth-of-field
preview button on the lower left side of the lens mount. Pressing this button
locks exposure and closes the lens aperture down to the f/stop you’ve selected
so the viewfinder gives you an idea of what’s sharp and what isn’t. However,
when using small apertures, the viewfinder image is very dark, except in Live
View (page 139), where it remains bright. When the maximum aperture is
selected, as it often is in dim light, you’ll see no change at all. One trick is to
hold down the depth-of-field preview button as you turn the Main Dial to
scroll through a range of aperture.
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FOCUSING TECHNIQUES
The 5D Mark II’s autofocus system uses contrast to set the focus. In dim light,
an attached flash may strobe an AF-assist beam when you press the shutter
button halfway down. If the assist beam is drawing attention, you can turn it
off using Custom Function III-5 AF-assist beam firing (page 152).
As good as the autofocus system is, there are times when it has trouble focus-
ing. In these situations the focus confirmation light in the viewfinder flashes
instead of glowing a steady green. This happens with:
• Subjects such as a blank wall or clear blue sky or other subjects with very
low contrast and evenly lit expanses of a single color.
• Subjects that are backlit or have reflective surfaces.
• Subjects in low light or very dark settings.
• Overlapping subjects at different distances or with repetitive patterns.
In these situations you might want to try selecting the AF point manually
(the center point is the most accurate), use focus lock, or manually focus the
lens. Let’s see how these techniques work, but first, let’s look at the autofocus
modes you have to choose from.
AUTOFOCUS MODES
The 5D Mark II has two autofocus modes—One-Shot AF and AI Servo AF,
and a third—AI Focus AF—that automatically switches between the first two.
(AI stands for artificial intelligence.) In auto modes, the camera specifies
one of these modes for you and you can’t change it, but in P, Tv, Av, M and
B modes you can choose any of the three modes depending on whether a
subject is moving or not.
• One-Shot AF mode works best for still subjects including portraits and
landscapes. In this mode when you press the shutter button halfway down,
focus locks on the part of the scene closest to the camera covered by one of
the AF points.
The AF point or points used to set focus briefly flash red when you press the
shutter button halfway down and focus is achieved. (You can turn this off
with Custom Function III-4 Superimposed display—page 152.)
The plane of critical focus in your image will be the area that falls on the
active AF point in the viewfinder—the one that flashes red. As you point the
camera at various subjects and press the shutter button halfway down, you’ll
see them pop into focus.
Focus remains locked as long as you continue to hold down the button. In
this mode, the camera won’t take a picture until focus is locked and the focus
confirmation glows a steady green. When using evaluative metering (the
default) when focus locks in this mode, so does exposure. To change focus
once it’s locked, you must release the shutter button and then press it halfway
down again. One-Shot AF is selectable in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes.
• AI Servo AF mode continually adjusts the focus (and exposure) as long as
you hold the shutter button halfway down. This mode is one of your choices
in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes. It’s designed to help you keep a moving subject
in focus and is great for sports and nature photography, or any other situ-
ations where you are photographing moving subjects. If the subject moves
TIPS
• When using an
USM (Ultrasonic
Motor) lens with a
distance scale in
One-Shot AF mode,
you can turn the
focusing ring on the
lens to fine tune
focus after focus is
achieved (called full-
time manual focus-
ing).
• When using an
extender on a lens
with a maximum
aperture of f/5.6 or
smaller, you can’t
use autofocus.
• Zoom before focus-
ing since zooming
can through off
focus.
• In auto modes the
AF mode, AF point
selection, and drive
mode are set auto-
matically.
• One of the main
reasons the cam-
era won’t focus is
because you are too
close.
When autofocus is
locked, the focus
confirmation lights
green and the active AF
point flashes red in the
viewfinder.
Lens focus switch set to
autofocus (AF).
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The selected AF point
briefly flashes red in the
viewfinder.
The selected AF point
is displayed on the LCD
panel. When all nine AF
points are displayed,
the camera selects the
one to use.
after you have focused on it, it remains in focus as long as it’s covered by one
of the nine AF points although the one being used doesn’t flash red. When
focus is achieved in this mode neither it or exposure is locked and the focus
confirmation light doesn’t glow a steady green. However, if you have selected
a specific AF point (see below), that point flashes red when focus is achieved.
While focusing on a moving subject the camera beeps softly.
• When the AF point is being selected automatically the camera initially
uses the center AF point to focus. If the subject then moves away from this
point, focus tracking continues as long as it is covered by one of the other
AF points.
• If you have selected the AF point manually, the camera uses that point to
track focus until the subject moves so it’s covered by another AF point.
• AI Focus AF mode initially focuses on the subject using One-Shot AF
mode, but if the subject’s distance from the camera changes, the camera au-
tomatically switches to AI Servo AF mode so it can keep it in focus. AI Focus
AF mode is automatically selected for you in Full and Creative Auto modes
and is one of the three you can select in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes. If focus is
achieved in this mode using AI Servo AF, the focus confirmation light doesn’t
light, and the beeper beeps softly.
The AF-Drive button.
Click to explore the way
focus zones work.
TIPS
• Custom Function
III-3 AF point selec-
tion method lets you
change the way you
manually select AF
points (page 152).
• When using the
Multi-controller to
select a AF point,
repeatedly pressing
it in the same direc-
tion toggles between
selecting one AF
point and selecting
them all.
Click to explore the
effects of servo focus.
SELECTABLE FOCUSING POINTS
The 5D Mark II has nine AF points and the one being used to set focus can be
selected automatically or manually. To see which AF point is being used to set
focus, press the shutter button halfway down, or press the AF point selector
button, to see which flashes red.
• Auto AF point selection is the only setting available in Full and Creative
Auto modes, but is selectable in other modes. When used with One-shot
AF the camera focuses on that part of the scene closest to the camera and
covered by one of the AF points. When used with AI Servo AF the camera first
uses the center AF point and then uses other points if the subject moves.
• In P, Tv, Av, M and B modes you can easily switch from automatic to man-
ual selection. When manually selecting an AF point the one currently being
used, called the active AF point, is indicated on the LCD panel and is shown
in red in the viewfinder immediately after selecting it, or anytime you press
the shutter button halfway down. Manually selecting an AF point lets you
choose which part of the scene is used to focus the camera and also lets you
get shots off more quickly since the camera doesn’t have to take time calculat-
ing where to focus.
SELECTING AN AUTOFOCUS MODE
1. With the camera in P, Tv, Av, M or B mode and the focus switch on
the lens set to AF, press and release the AF-DRIVE button.
2. Turn the Main Dial to cycle through ONE SHOT, AI FOCUS, or AI
SERVO on the LCD panel.
FOCUSING TECHNIQUES
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SELECTING AN AF POINT
1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press
the AF point selector button (five dot icon) on the back of the camera
to display the active AF point(s) in red in the viewfinder and the AF
point indicator on the LCD panel.
2. Turn the Main or Quick Control Dial to select an AF point or press
the Multi-controller to select a point directly. (When all nine points
are selected, the camera is in auto mode and will pick the AF point
for you.) When using the Multi-controller to select AF points, there
are shortcuts.
• Pressing it straight down once selects the center AF point and
pressing it again selects all of them.
• Repeatedly pressing it in the same direction toggles between select-
ing one AF point and selecting them all.
3. When finished taking photos, repeat Steps 1 and 2 to reset AF point
selection to auto (all nine AF points). If you don’t do so, the setting
remains in affect even when you turn the camera off.
The AF point selector
button icon.
DISPLAYING AF POINTS
1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode, press MENU and select the
Playback 2 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight AF point disp. and press
SET to display the choices Enable and Disable (the default).
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice and press SET.
TIPS
• You can use AE
Lock (page 55) to
lock exposure on one
part of a scene and
use focus lock to lock
focus on another.
You can then take
the picture, or even
recompose the scene
first.
• The center AF point
is the best AF point
to use because it’s
more sensitive and
accurate. Also, with
a fast lens from f/1.0
to f/2.8, high-pre-
cision focusing is
based on the center
AF point.
• Custom Function
IV-1 Shutter button/
AF-ON button (page
152) lets you change
the way you lock
focus and exposure.
• AI Servo AF and
automatic AF point
selection is a great
combination to use
with moving sub-
jects.
DISPLAYING AF POINTS IN PLAYBACK
When you play back images or view them in review mode, you can display
the AF point or points used to set focus. This lets you confirm that the camera
focused where you wanted it to.
USING FOCUS LOCK
To change the position of the plane of critical focus in One-Shot AF mode
(page 72), you can use focus lock. The 5D Mark II has a two-stage shutter
button. When you press it halfway down, the camera sets focus, and also ex-
posure if you are using evaluative metering (page 48). When the focus confir-
mation light in the viewfinder glows a steady green, these readings are locked
in. If you don’t release the shutter button, you can then point the camera
anywhere else and the settings remain unchanged. This lets you set the focus
at any distance from the camera to control both focus and depth of field.
• When using evaluative metering with One-Shot AF (the default), press-
ing AF-ON or pressing the shutter button halfway down locks exposure and
focus.
• When using AI Servo AF in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes, neither focus nor
exposure is locked and both are set when you take the picture.
• Any other combination of metering (page 48) and focus (page 72) modes
locks just focus.
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Manual focus is useful
when the main subject
doesn’t fall on one of
the AF points, or when
you want to focus on
a very specific spot
such as the wing of a
butterfly.
The lens focus switch.
USING MANUAL FOCUS
1. Set the focus switch on the lens to M or MF.
2. Position one of the active AF points over the part of the scene you
want critically sharp.
3. Hold the shutter button halfway down and turn the focus ring on the
lens. When focus is achieved, the AF point used to set focus flashes
red and the focus confirmation light glows a steady green.
TIP
• In Live View you
can enlarge part
of the image up to
10x for very precise
manual focusing
(page 140).
Click to explore focus
lock.
USING FOCUS LOCK
1. With autofocus set to One-Shot AF (page 72), compose the image
so the subject you want to lock focus on is covered by one of the AF
points in the viewfinder. (It works best if you use the more accurate
center AF point.)
2. Press the shutter button halfway down and hold it there to lock in
focus. The green focus confirmation light lights up and the AF point
being used to set focus briefly flashes red in the viewfinder.
3. Without releasing the shutter button, recompose the scene and press
the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.
MANUAL FOCUS
To manually focus, set the lens’ focus switch to M or MF (for Manual) and
turn the lens’ focus ring. If you are using an USM (Ultrasonic Motor) lens
that has a distance scale in One-Shot AF mode, you can turn the focusing ring
on the lens to fine tune focus after focus is achieved (called full-time manual
focusing). Manual focus is extremely useful when autofocus has problems,
when you want to quickly focus on an off-center subject or a subject that is in
a busy setting where the camera has trouble isolating the subject you want, or
when you want focus fixed no matter how the subject moves.
Hold the shutter button halfway down as you manually focus. When the sub-
ject covered by the active AF point comes into focus, the AF point flashes red
and the focus confirmation light glows a steady green.
After focusing, you can recompose the scene at will without focus changing or
having to use focus lock.
FOCUSING TECHNIQUES
In addition to the 9
visible AF points, there
are 6 others you can’t
see, all within the spot
metering circle. Those
on the corners are
horizontal-line sensitive
with f/5.6 lenses. The
other two are vertical-
line sensitive with f/2.8
and f/5.6 lenses.
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Here the camera’s
depth of field was just
deep enough to keep
the bird in focus. Parts
of the image closer
to the camera and
further away become
increasingly less sharp.
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CONTROLLING DEPTH OF FIELD
Sharpness—or the lack of it—is immediately noticeable when you look at
a photograph. If you are making a portrait, you want only the person to be
sharply focused, but not a distracting background. In a landscape, on the
other hand, often you will want everything sharp from close-up rock to far
away mountain. Once you understand how to control depth of field, you will
feel much more confident when you want to make sure something is—or
isn’t—sharp.
To control depth of field, you have three factors to work with.
• Aperture size. The smaller the aperture, the greater the depth of field. The
larger the aperture, the shallower the depth of field.
• Camera-to-subject distance. As you move father from the subject you are
focused on, you increase depth of field. As you move closer, you decrease it.
• Lens focal length. A shorter focal length lens increases depth of field and a
longer one decreases it.
Each of these three factors affects depth of field by itself, but even more so in
combination. You can get the shallowest depth of field with a lens zoomed in
on a nearby subject using a large aperture. You get the greatest depth of field
when you are far from a subject, with a wide-angle lens, using a small aper-
ture.
EFFECT
ON DEPTH
OF FIELD
DEEPER SHALLOWER
APERTURE
SIZE
CAMERA TO
SUBJECT
DISTANCE
AMOUNT AND
DIRECTION OF
ZOOM
Click to explore how the
aperture affects depth
of field.
To check depth-of-
field in the viewfinder
press the depth-of-field
preview button (page
71).
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USING DEEP DEPTH OF FIELD
Often you will want to get as much depth of field as possible because impor-
tant parts of a scene that you want sharp are both near to and far from the
camera. Maximum depth of field seems particularly important for photo-
graphs of landscapes and other scenes where a distant horizon is a part of the
picture.
When a subject extends to the far distance, many photographers unthinkingly
focus on that part of the scene. When you are focused on that distant point,
everything beyond it will be sharp. But since one-third of the available depth
of field falls in front of the point on which you are focused and two-thirds
behind it, you are wasting two-thirds of your depth of field. That may mean
that some other part of the scene in the foreground will not be included in the
one-third remaining depth of field and consequently will not be sharp.
Instead of focusing on infinity, if you focus on some object one-third of the
way between you and the horizon, you bring forward the point on which you
are focused and increase the depth of field in the foreground of your picture.
This new point of focus is called the hyperfocal distance. You can use this
procedure not just for landscapes, but whenever you want to shift depth of
field toward and away from the camera.
Zooming out and
using a small aperture
keeps everything in
the foreground and
background in focus.
When you focus on the
most distant part of
the scene, here it’s the
mountains, all available
depth of field to the
right of that point is
wasted. As a result, the
middle and foreground
are not sharp because
they don’t fall within the
range of available depth
of field.
By focusing on the
hyperfocal distance,
the most distant part
of the scene remains in
focus but the near point
of depth of field moves
closer to the camera.
The entire scene is
sharp.
USING DEEP DEPTH OF FIELD
78
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!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+,-')(.%/"-0"%,-;-)"2()*,%
USING SHALLOW DEPTH OF FIELD
Shallow depth of field, sometimes called selective focus, is a great way to
isolate a subject from a distracting foreground or background. When every-
thing in a picture is equally sharp, the viewer gives equal attention to all parts
of the scene. But if some parts of an image are sharp and others are not, the
viewer is drawn to the sharpest part. You can selectively focus the camera and
your viewer’s attention on the most important part of the scene by limiting
depth of field so the significant elements are sharp while the foreground and
background are less so.
DECREASING DEPTH OF FIELD
! Use a neutral density filter for a larger aperture.
! Zoom the lens in or move closer to enlarge the subject.
! Use aperture-priority mode or program shift to select a large aper-
ture such as f/2.8.
Only the bubble
gum blower is sharp
while figures in the
foreground and
background aren’t.
Here attention is drawn
to the sharp monarch
butterfly caterpillar and
the boy’s face is soft
and less distracting, but
sharp enough that you
can see the expression.
Click to explore
selective focus.
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CONVEYING THE FEELING OF MOTION
Although sharpness is a laudable goal, it isn’t the only one. The creative use
of blur can lead to some interesting photos—especially when conveying the
feeling of motion. The shutter speed can be selected to blur some or all of an
image. Many times you don’t do anything but benefit from a happy accident.
Anything that moves day or night is a candidate for creative blurring. Your
only limitation is getting a slow enough shutter speed in bright light.
Panning the camera in the same direction as a moving subject produces an
image where the subject is relatively sharp against a blurred background.
Your movement should be smooth and controlled to get a good pan, so begin
to pan the camera before the subject enters your viewfinder. Smoothly de-
press the shutter button as you follow the motion of the subject, keeping it in
the same position in the viewfinder. Follow through as you would in golf or
tennis. Panning takes practice so take as many images as you can. Results are
quite unpredictable because your body motion adds yet another variable to
the final picture.
Here a fast shutter
speed froze everything
but the ball.
CONVEYING
MOTION
! Try blurring
images in low-
light situations. In
bright light, the
shutter will open
and close too fast.
! Use shutter-pri-
ority mode pro-
gram shift to select
a slow shutter
speed.
! Use a neutral
density filter to get
a slower shutter
speed.
! When panning
with a moving sub-
ject, use AI Servo
AF mode (page 72)
to keep the image
focused as long as
you hold the shut-
ter button halfway
down.
Panning with this
barred owl blurred the
background and created
an impressionistic
image.
CONVEYING THE FELLING OF MOTION
80
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Chapter 4
Capturing Light & Color
I
mage sensors in digital cameras are designed to produce colors that
match those in the original scene. However, there is a lot of variation
among sensors and among the circuits and software that process raw
images into final photographs. The results you get depend, in part, on the ac-
curacy with which you expose the image and how the camera handles colors.
With film cameras, photographers usually explored a wide variety of films be-
fore settling on the one or two they liked best. This is because each film type
had it’s own unique characteristics. In some the grain was small, in others it
was larger. A film may have had colors that were warmer than other films, or
slightly colder. These subtle variations among films were what made photog-
raphers gravitate to one or the other. With digital cameras, you don’t have
the same choice offered by film cameras. The “film” in the form of an image
sensor is built into your camera. Whatever its characteristics are, they are the
characteristics you have to live with until you buy another camera.
In this chapter, we explore the world of light and color and how you manage
it in your photos.
CONTENTS
• Where Does Color
Come From? • White
Balance and Color •
Using White Balance
Correction & Bracket-
ing • Color and Time
of Day • Sunsets and
Sunrises • Weather
• Photographing at
Night • The Direction
of Light • The Quality
of Light
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WHERE DOES COLOR COME FROM?
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WHERE DOES COLOR COME FROM?
Why do we see colors? Light from the sun or from a lamp seems to have no
particular color of its own. It appears simply to be “white” light. However, if
you pass the light through a prism, you can see that it actually contains all
colors, the same effect that occurs when water droplets in the atmosphere
separate light into a rainbow. A colorful object such as a leaf appears green
because when white light strikes it, the leaf reflects only the green wave-
lengths of light and absorbs the others. A white object such as a white flower
appears white because it reflects most of the wavelengths that strike it,
absorbing relatively few. Ink dyes or pigments in color prints also selectively
absorb and reflect certain wavelengths of light and so produce the effect of
color.
Although light from the
sun appears colorless
or “white,” it actually
contains a range of
colors similar to a
rainbow. You can see
these colors using a
prism to separate them
out.
White objects
reflect most of the
wavelengths of light
that strike them. When
all of these wavelengths
are combined, we see
white. On the other
hand, when all of them
are absorbed, and none
reflected, we see black.
A green object such
as a leaf reflects only
those wavelengths that
create the visual effect
of green. Other colors in
the light are absorbed
by the leaf.
Click here to explore
color and prisms.
“White” light actually
contains light of
different colors. The
overall color cast of the
light changes as the
proportions of the colors
change.
82
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WHITE BALANCE AND COLOR
Although light from the sun or from a light bulb looks white to us, it not only
contains a mixture of all colors, it contains these colors in varying propor-
tions. Light from the midday sun, for example, is much bluer than light from
a sunrise or a tungsten lamp. To produce what appears to us to be normal or
accurate color balance, the image we capture must contain the colors in the
original scene. One problem is that these colors are affected by the color of
the light source.
One way to describe the color of a light source is by its color temperature,
specified in degrees Kelvin. This is similar to a thermometer that calibrates
heat temperatures in degrees centigrade. The color temperature scale ranges
from the lower color temperatures of reddish light to the higher color tem-
peratures of bluish light.
Daylight has a color temperature of about 5,000–5,500 K and adds no color
cast to pictures. Light sources with a lower color temperature, such as incan-
descent or fluorescent, add a red or yellow cast. Those with a higher color
temperature, such as open shade, add a blue cast. To adjust colors so photos
have no color cast and look like they were shot outdoors at midday, we use a
system built into the camera called white balance.
You can check white balance by looking at a captured image on the camera’s
monitor. If you examine it closely, you may notice that white areas in particu-
lar have some color cast to them. If so, you may want to adjust white balance
for subsequent shots taken under the same light source.
USING PRESET WHITE BALANCE SETTINGS
The 5D Mark II offers a variety of white balance settings, each for a different
lighting situation. In auto modes Auto white balance (AWB) is automatically
selected. In P, Tv, Av, M or B mode you can select Auto, one of the six presets,
or use the Custom or Kelvin settings for even greater control. The numbers
in parentheses following each mode below indicate the setting’s approximate
color temperature in degrees Kelvin.
• Auto (AWB) automatically selects the white balance to match the current
light source. Select another mode if this mode doesn’t give you the results you
want. (3000–7000 K)
• Daylight is best when photographing outdoors in sunlight. (5200 K)
• Shade is best when photographing in open shade. (7000 K)
• Cloudy is best when photographing outdoors in cloudy or overcast condi-
tions, in twilight or at sunset. (6000 K)
• Tungsten is best when photographing indoors under incandescent lights.
(3200 K)
• White Fluorescent is best when photographing indoors under white
fluorescent lights. (4000 K)
• Flash is best photographing with an external flash. (6000 K)
• Custom (page 83) is best when other settings don’t give you the results you
want. (2000–10000 K)
• Kelvin (page 84) is best when setting a specific color temperature. (2500–
10000 K)
Clockwise from top,
auto (AWB), daylight,
shade, cloudy,
tungsten, florescent,
flash, custom, and
Kelvin icons.
TIPS
• Color temperature
ranges from high
temperature blues
to low temperature
reds. As color tem-
perature increases it
moves through the
colors red, orange,
yellow, white, and
blue white in that
order.
• If you capture
images in the RAW
format (page 28),
you can adjust white
balance on your
computer instead of
having the camera
do it.
Click here to explore
how the white balance
setting affects the way
images are captured.
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WHITE BALANCE AND COLOR
CREATING AND USING A CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE SETTING
If none of the preset white balance settings give you the results you want, you
can create your own. To do so, you first photograph a sheet of plain white
paper or a commercially available 18% gray card under the same light you’ll
be photographing in. You then use the captured image to set and save a cus-
tom white balance. Once saved you can access the custom setting at any time
by selecting the custom white balance icon just as you select any other white
balance setting.
• A gray card requires no exposure adjustment and gives you a more accurate
white balance.
• If you photograph a white paper, you may want to try using +1 or +2 expo-
sure compensation to lighten the image.
• When photographing a white or gray card, you may want to use manual
focus to ensure it’s in focus.
• If you take pictures of a standard white paper or gray card under the light-
ing you frequently photograph in, and keep the images on your CF card, you
can select one at any time with the Custom WB menu command. It’s like hav-
ing a library of custom white balance settings to choose from.
• If you take a photo with Picture Style set to Monochrome (page 149), it can-
not be used to set white balance.
SELECTING A WHITE BALANCE MODE
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press the WB but-
ton and then turn the Quick Control Dial to select a white balance
icon displayed on the LCD panel and monitor (AWB is the default).
2. Take photos using the changed setting.
3. When finished, repeat Step 1 to reset white balance to AWB (Auto) or
the mode will be remembered even when you turn off the camera.
TIPS
• If you like the
warm glow of incan-
descent lights, you
can capture it by
setting white balance
to daylight.
• You can save three
user defined Pic-
ture Styles for color
saturation and tone
and then select any
one of them for a
specific situation
(page 149). You can
also select the wide-
gamut Adobe RGB
color space to attach
to your images (page
84).
• You can also use
the White balance
command on the
Shooting 2 menu tab
to set white balance.
SETTING A CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B modes, and white bal-
ance set to any setting, photograph a white subject or gray card while
it fills the spot metering circle in the viewfinder.
2. Press MENU, select the Shooting 2 menu tab, turn the Quick Control
Dial to highlight Custom WB, and press SET to display the image
you took in Step 1.
3. Press SET to use the image to set white balance, or turn the Main
or Quick Control Dial to display another picture first and then press
SET. When asked to confirm using the image to set white balance,
select OK and press SET. When reminded to set white balance to
Custom, press SET.
4. Press the MENU or shutter button to exit the menu.
5. Press the WB button and turn the Quick Control Dial to select the
icon for custom white balance on the LCD panel and monitor.
The custom white
balance icon.
A gray card.
The spot metering circle
in the viewfinder.
84
CHAPTER 4. CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR
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SETTING COLOR TEMPERATURE IN KELVINS
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press MENU and
select the Shooting 2 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight White balance and press
SET, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight K which is displaying
the current color temperature setting.
3. Turn the Main Dial to change the setting to any temperature between
2500–10000K in 100K increments (5200 K is the default) and press
SET to select it.
4. Press MENU to exit the menu, and white balance is set to Kelvin with
the letter “K” displayed on the LCD panel.
5. When finished, reset white balance to AWB (Auto) as described on
page 82 or the selected color temperature will be used even when you
turn the camera off and back on.
The effects of color
balance are most
obvious in the early
morning and late
evening when the
sunrise or sunset often
changes the color of
everything you see.
The Color temp icon.
USING A SPECIFIC COLOR TEMPERATURE
As you’ve seen, one way to describe the color of a light source is by its color
temperature in degrees Kelvin. Lower color temperatures will make the im-
age bluer and higher ones will make it redder. If you know the color tem-
perature of your lights or have a color meter to measure them you can set the
camera to an exact match.
• When using color temperature under artificial light, you may need to use
white balance correction to adjust magenta or green bias (page 85).
• If you use a color temperature meter to determine the color temperature
of the light, you should take test shots and use white balance correction to
ensure the best possible results.
SELECTING A COLOR SPACE
You can switch between the default sRGB and the wider gamut (range of col-
ors) Adobe RGB color space. sRGB, which has a narrower gamut, is the color
space used in auto modes and is suitable for images that will be displayed on
a monitor. However, if you plan on editing your images and making high-
quality prints, the wider gamut Adobe RGB is a better choice. The only draw-
back is that Adobe RGB images look subdued on a sRGB personal computer
monitor and when printed on a printer that’s not compatible with Design rule
for Camera File System 2.0 (Exif 2.21). However, you can always use a pro-
gram such as Photoshop or Lightroom to convert images from Adobe RGB to
sRGB without any loss in quality.
SELECTING A COLOR SPACE
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press MENU and
select the Shooting 2 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Color space and press SET
to display the choices sRGB and Adobe RGB.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice and press SET.
4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
TIPS
• All image filenames
begin with IMG_
except for those shot
using the Adobe RGB
color space which
begin with _MG_.
• High temperatures,
high ISOs, and long
shutter speeds can
all have adverse af-
fects on the colors in
your images.
• In Adobe RGB an
ICC profile is not at-
tached to image files.
Click to explore how
sRGB and Adobe RGB
color spaces compare
when it comes to the
range of colors they can
capture.
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USING WHITE BALANCE CORRECTION & BRACKETING
USING WHITE BALANCE CORRECTION & BRACKETING
When you want to fine-tune white balance you can do so by correcting or
bracketing it.
• You can correct the color temperature used for white balance much as you
would on film cameras with color filters. To do so, you move a dot around the
WB correction/WB bracketing screen with the Multi-controller, selecting any
one of nine levels.
• You can bracket white balance by having a single image processed into
three pictures with different color adjustments using the Main Dial to specify
the degree of change between images. The image is bracketed with up to +
or – 3 levels of a blue/amber (B/A) bias, or magenta/green (M/G) bias. The
first version is processed at the set white balance and the other two are made
more blue/amber or magenta/green. You cannot bracket white balance when
using the RAW format, but there is no need to do so because you can change
white balance later on your computer. You can combine white balance brack-
eting with autoexposure bracketing (page 57), but you will get 9 images in
each series. While an image is being processed into a series you cannot take
another picture so continuous mode (page 137) slows down.
USING WHITE BALANCE CORRECTION/
BRACKETING
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press MENU,
select the Shooting 2 menu tab, highlight WB SHIFT/BKT and press
SET to display the WB correction/WB bracketing screen.
2. Do one or both of the following:
! To make color corrections use the Multi-controller to move the
dot towards B (blue), G (green), A (amber), and M (magenta). In the
upperright corner of the screen SHIFT shows the bias direction and
correction amount. When the shift is 0,0 there is no correction.
! To set the bracketing direction and level turn the Quick Control
Dial. This expands the single dot to three dots that indicate what the
white balance will be for each of the three shots. The middle dot is
at the white balance recommended by the camera and the left and
right dots indicate how much white balance is decreased (bluish) and
increased (reddish). Turning the dial clockwise sets B/A bracketing
and counterclockwise sets M/G bracketing. The BKT indicator to the
right of the grid shows the bracketing direction and level. (Pressing
INFO undoes all changes.)
3. Press SET to return to the menu and then press the MENU or shutter
button to exit the menu.
! If you have made color corrections, a WB +/- icon is displayed in
the viewfinder and on the LCD panel.
! If you have set bracketing, the current white balance icon on the
LCD panel flashes.
4. Take your photos and when finished, repeat Steps 1–3 to reset BKT
and SHIFT to 0. If you don’t every shot you take will be corrected or
bracketed.
TIPS
• When white bal-
ance bracketing is
in effect the cur-
rent white balance
icon on the LCD
panel blinks and the
remaining pictures
readout shows only
one-third the number
of images it would
normally show.
• Much of what you
do to adjust white
balance at the time
of shooting is done
more easily after
taking pictures when
you use the RAW
format (page 28).
• Each level of blue/
amber is equivalent
to 5 mireds of a color
conversion filter.
• Custom Functions
I-4 and I-5 specify
when bracketing is
cancelled and the
order of the bracket
sequence (page
152).
The white balance
correction (left) and
bracketing (right) icons
are displayed on the
monitor when they are
in effect.
The WB correction/
WB bracketing screen
showing white balance
bracketing in the Blue/
Amber (B/A) direction.
86
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COLOR AND TIME OF DAY
In photography, there is a color of light called “daylight” that occurs between
10 A.M. and 2 P.M on a clear day. During these hours, colors appear clear,
bright, and accurately rendered in a photo. Before and after this period,
the light can change from a warm red at sunrise to a warm red or orange at
sunset. This is because before and after midday, light from the sun is modi-
fied by the extra distance it travels through the Earth’s atmosphere. Some of
the blue light is filtered out, leaving the light with a more reddish cast than at
midday. This is easily seen very early or late in the day when the light is often
quite red-orange in tone. The change in color has a significant affect on your
pictures, but this reddish cast is a wonderful light to photograph in.
When clouds cover the sky, the light also changes, this time to a more bluish
light, much like that found in open shade.
Early morning and late
afternoon light produce
a more reddish color
balance than you get at
midday.
Just before dawn and
at dusk, colors often
appear muted or mono-
chromatic. During these
hours when light is
relatively dim, you often
have to use an extra-
long exposure time.
Midday light on a sunny
day will produce colors
that appear natural and
accurately rendered.
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SUNSETS AND SUNRISES
Sunsets and sunrises are relatively easy to photograph because the exposure
is not as critical as it is with some other scenes. If you underexpose the scene
slightly, the colors will simply be a bit richer and darker. Slight overexposure
will make the same scene slightly lighter.
The sun often takes on
a flattened appearance
as it rises above the
horizon. When partially
obscured and softened
by a haze, its warm,
red glow illuminates the
foreground.
The colors in the sky are often richest in the half hour before the sun rises
and the half hour after it sets. It pays to be patient as you watch the sky
change during these periods. For one thing, when the sun is below the hori-
zon and not in the image exposure problems are reduced. Also, clouds in the
sky often light up dramatically and in some cases, reflect the light to other
clouds until you find yourself under a wonderful canopy of reflected color.
With the bright disk
of the sun included in
a sunset or sunrise,
your picture may
come out somewhat
underexposed and
darker than you expect
it to be. Add 1 or 2
stops of exposure to a
sunset or sunrise that
includes the disk of the
sun.
Sunrises and sunsets by
themselves aren’t very
interesting. It’s objects
in the foreground, such
as a skyline, or unusual
atmospheric effects
such as this dark cloud
that give them some
punch.
WARNING!
• Never look at the
bright sun through
the viewfinder. You
can seriously dam-
age your eyes.
SUNSETS AND SUNRISES
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Every sunrise and sunset is unique and the variations can be truly amazing.
It’s certainly not true that “if you’ve seen one sunrise or sunset, you’ve seen
them all.” If you want the sun in the photo, it’s best if it is softened and partly
obscured by a mist or haze. If it rises as a hot white or yellow ball, find an-
other subject or turn around and photograph the scene it’s illuminating. The
rich, warm light changes the colors of everything it hits. This is a magic time
to capture images that will really stand out. Colors take on a warm, soft glow
that can’t be found at any other time of the day.
Here the camera was
positioned so the rising
sun was behind one
of the grain elevators
where it wouldn’t burn
out the image with its
glare.
Instead of shooting into
the sun at sunrise or
sunset, shoot with it
behind you to capture
rich, warm colors of
scenes bathed in the
sun’s light.
A long-focal-length lens
enlarges the disk of the
sun so that it becomes a
more important part of
the picture. Foreground
objects silhouetted
against the bright sky,
can also add interest.
ANTICIPATING THE SUN AND MOON
When planning to integrate the sun or moon into an image it helps to know when
it rises or sets and what phase the moon is. This information is available in alma-
nacs and on the Web at the U.S. Naval Observatory (http://www.usno.navy.mil).
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Rainbows always make good pictures. The problem is, you rarely find them
where you want them, when you want them. To get better at capturing them,
you should know how they form so you can anticipate them. Rainbows are
formed when sunlight is refracted by raindrops. You’ll usually find the combi-
nation of rain and sun at the leading or trailing edge of a summer storm. You
A very light mist can
dim the sun enough
to include it in a
photograph. If it weren’t
partially obscured by
the fog, it would appear
as a white dot against a
very dark background.
Snow covered scenes
are not only beautiful
to look at, they make
great photographs.
A light fog subdues
colors and softens
objects in the
background.
WEATHER
There’s no need to leave your camera home just because the sun hasn’t come
out. In fact, rain, snow, fog, and mist can add interest to your pictures. Ob-
jects at a distance often appear diffused and gray in such weather, with fore-
ground objects brighter than normal because they are seen against a muted
background. Remember to take a little extra care in bad weather to protect
your camera against excessive exposure to dampness.
WEATHER
TIP
• Canon L series
lenses are sealed and
weather resistant
as are the 580EX II
Speedlight and the
5D Mark II.
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From a plane you can
sometimes see all 360-
degrees of a rainbow.
Here you see a section
of one shot through an
airliner window. To the
right of the brighter
primary rainbow is a
dimmer secondary one.
CAMERA CARE
• In the cold, bat-
teries run down a
lot faster. To pre-
vent this, keep the
camera or battery
under your coat or
in an inside pocket
so the battery stays
warmer.
Here a rainbow
dramatically appears
in a New England
seascape.
If you stand with your back to the sun while looking at a rainbow, imagine a line
from the sun passing through your eye, through the Earth, and out into space.
(This is called the antisolar point.) The rainbow forms a complete circle around this
imaginary line, however from ground level part of it is always below the horizon. A
line drawn from your eye to the top of the rainbow forms a 42-degree angle with
the imaginary line from the sun through your eye. (If there is a secondary rainbow,
it forms an angle of 51-degrees.) Because these angles determine the position of
the rainbow in the sky, it will sink as the sun rises and rise as the sun sinks. At
some points, the entire rainbow, not just the bottom half, will be below the horizon
where you can’t see it. That’s why you’ll never see a summer rainbow at midday
when the sun is directly overhead.
can’t see rainbows at all times of the day. To understand why, visualize the
way the rainbow works.
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PHOTOGRAPHING AT NIGHT
You can photograph many different things outdoors at night, so don’t put
your camera away just because the sun is gone for the day. Light sources
(street lights, automobile lights, neon signs, or fires) or brightly lit areas (il-
luminated buildings or areas under street lights) will dominate pictures at
night because they stand out strongly against darker backgrounds. Plan to
use these bright areas as the dominant part of your picture. A tripod or solid
surface will support your camera during long exposures and prevent blur
caused by camera motion during the time the shutter is open.
This scene of Faneuil
Hall in Boston was
shot at night with just
illumination from street
lights.
To capture interesting images of fireworks, put people or water in the fore-
ground. It also helps if there are identifiable objects in the image such as
an illuminated building or monument to give the viewer a sense of place.
Get upwind from the show since fireworks generate a lot of smoke that can
become a problem if you are downwind. If you are upwind, the smoke will
become part of the image, illuminated by the fireworks. Set your exposure for
fireworks by switching to Av (aperture-priority) or Tv (shutter-priority) mode
and try for a setting of f/2.8 at 1/30 second. Try a series of exposures of dif-
ferent bursts because there is a certain amount of luck involved. If there are
foreground figures you might try fill flash (page 123).
You can try increasing the ISO, use exposure compensation, and try differ-
ent combinations of aperture and shutter speed. Finally, for really interest-
ing effects, you might switch to Bulb (B) mode (page 92) and select a small
aperture so you can keep the shutter open long enough to capture multiple
bursts. You might also explore using Program AE and program shift to get
the slowest possible shutter speed (page 42).
The moon, especially when full, adds a lot to an image. The best time to cap-
ture the moon is when it’s near the horizon. Because it is close to foreground
objects at that time, it looks much larger than when it’s higher in the sky.
Fireworks can be
dramatic, but are
difficult to capture. You
need to experiment
and a digital camera is
perfect for that because
you can instantly review
your results.
TIP
• If the camera has
trouble focusing,
switch to manual
focus, or attach an
EX-series flash so it
can strobe to assist
focus.
PHOTOGRAPHING AT NIGHT
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USING BULB EXPOSURES
1. Set the Mode Dial to B (Bulb) and the Power Switch to the white line
above ON.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to select an aperture.
3. Press and hold down the shutter button for as long as you wish. A
timer is displayed on the LCD panel to guide you and counts up to
999 seconds.
Keep in mind that the moon is relatively dim and usually requires long ex-
posures. Since it’s moving relative to the Earth, longer exposures can actu-
ally blur it, giving it a slightly oblong shape. To reduce the chances of this
happening, shoot just before sunrise or just after sunset when there is still
some light in the atmosphere from the recently set sun. (It bends around the
Earth’s curvature due to refraction in the atmosphere.)
Try using flash when photographing people at twilight, night, or dawn. It
illuminates foreground subjects and a slow shutter speed lightens the back-
ground. This is especially good for outdoor shots with foreground subjects in
front of an illuminated background such as a cityscape. Since a slow shutter
speed may work best in this mode, you may need to support the camera (page
65).
At night you can use the Bulb (B) mode to capture light trails from moving
cars and star trails as the Earth rotates under a canopy of stars. When in this
mode, the timer goes to 999 seconds (over 16 minutes) as long as you hold
down the shutter button and moving lights paint lines in the image. To avoid
blur from camera shake, you must use a tripod or other secure support. It can
be tiring to hold the shutter button down, and hard to keep from moving the
camera. It is much easier to use a remote control to lock the shutter open for
long exposures (page 138). Keep in mind that when using Bulb (B) mode, you
can’t see through the viewfinder while the exposure is being made. Also long
exposures add noise to an image but you can turn on Custom Function II-1
Long exposure noise reduction (page 152) to reduce it.
TIPS
• You might want to
switch to Tv (shut-
ter-priority) mode so
you can use shutter
speeds as slow as 30
seconds (page 44),
or use the Bulb (B)
mode (page 92).
• Turn on Custom
Function II-1 to
reduce the effects of
noise on long expo-
sures (page 151).
• If you combine
Bulb (B) mode, the
self-timer, and mirror
lockup, hold down
the shutter button
during the entire
self-timer delay time
and bulb exposure
time). If you release
it before the timer
ends, there will be
a shutter-release
sound but no picture
is taken.
Pressing the LCD Panel
Illumination button
lights the LCD panel
so it’s readable in the
dark. It turns off after
6 seconds of inactivity.
Turning the Mode
Dial or pressing any
shooting related button
extends it.
To check depth-of-
field in the viewfinder
press the depth-of-field
preview button (page
71).
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THE DIRECTION OF LIGHT
The direction that light comes from relative to your camera’s position is im-
portant because it determines where shadows will be visible in your picture.
It can also affect your exposure. Backlighting, for example, can have your
subject silhouetted against a background so bright that your automatic ex-
posure system will underexpose the scene and make the subject even darker.
This is fine, if you want a silhouette. If you don’t, you should use exposure
compensation to lighten the image.
Four main types of lighting are illustrated here: front-lighting, side-lighting,
backlighting, and top-lighting. Notice the position of the shadows in these
photographs and how they affect the subjects.
Side-lighting, increases
the sense of texture
and volume because it
casts shadows visible
from the camera’s
position. Landscape
photographers often
prefer to work early
in the morning or late
in the day because
the low sun sidelights
scenes and adds
interesting surface
textures.
Front-lighting decreases
visible shadows and
minimizes surface
details as well as the
apparent depth or
volume of the subject.
THE DIRECTION OF LIGHT
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Top-lighting can occur
outdoors at midday or
indoors where ceiling
lights predominate. If
you are photographing
a person, you will notice
that top-lighting tends
to cast shadows in eye-
sockets and illuminate
the top of the nose
brightly. To avoid this
effect, you might try
moving the person into
the shade.
Top-lighting, such
as that found at
midday, can selectively
illuminate things, such
as this flag in the man’s
back pocket, that would
be in shadow with light
coming from a lower
angle.
Backlighting puts the
side of the subject that
is facing the camera
in shade. Automatic
exposure tends to make
backlit scenes too dark.
You can add exposure
to lighten the picture,
especially those parts
that are in shade.
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THE QUALITY OF LIGHT
THE QUALITY OF LIGHT
Light not only has direction, it can be direct or diffused. Direct light that
comes mainly from one direction produces relatively high contrast between
bright highlights and dark shadows. Diffused light bounces onto the sub-
ject from several directions, lowering contrast. Contrast, in turn, affects the
brilliance of colors, the amount of visible texture and detail, and other visual
characteristics.
In direct light you may have to choose whether you want highlights or shad-
ows to be correctly rendered because image sensors can accurately record
only a limited range of contrast between light and dark areas. If this creates a
problem because both highlights and shadowed areas are important, you can
sometimes add fill light to lighten shadows and decrease contrast or adjust
the camera’s contrast setting (page 149). In diffused light, colors tend to be
softer than in direct light and textures are also softened because shadow
edges are indistinct.
Direct light comes from
a point source, such as
the sun on a clear day.
It produces dark, hard-
edged shadows that
crisply outline details.
Here the light and
shadows almost form an
abstraction.
Diffused light comes
from a light source
that is so large rela-
tive to the subject that
it illuminates from
several directions. On
a hazy or overcast day,
illumination comes
from the entire dome
of the sky, not from the
brighter, but smaller,
sun. Indoors, light
bounced into an um-
brella reflector or onto
a wall or ceiling creates
a broad source of light
that wraps around the
subject.
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T
he 5D Mark II is one of the latest affordable digital cameras that lets
you draw from a vast array of interchangeable lenses. These range from
fish-eye lenses for extreme wide-angle shots, to lenses that will capture
an athlete’s expression across the width of a football field. If you’re new to
photography, you’ll be amazed at the difference high-quality interchangeable
lenses can make.
A favorite lens of many photographers is a high quality zoom lens that lets
you quickly zoom in or out to meet different photographic opportunities.
Zoom in on a subject and you can capture distant action at sporting events or
in the field. Zoom out and you can capture a wide-angle view of a large group,
a roomy interior, or of an expansive landscape. The ability to change your
angle of view as you frame your image is one of your most powerful creative
controls. But there are many more lenses to choose from. They include macro
lenses, tilt-shift lenses, and even soft focus lenses for misty, romantic por-
traits and landscapes.
Chapter 5
Understanding Lenses
CONTENTS
• Canon Lenses •
Lens Peripheral Illu-
mination Correction •
Focal Length • Zoom
Lenses • Normal
Lenses • Wide-Angle
Lenses • Telephoto
Lenses • Macro
Lenses and Acces-
sories • Tilt-Shift
Lenses • Lens Acces-
sories • Perspective
in a Photograph
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CANON LENSES
One of the best things about the 5D Mark II is that it can use any one of the
60 or so lenses from the Canon line. Even better, if you have a 35mm EOS
camera you can switch your lenses between film and digital cameras. Let’s
take a look at some of the things that Canon lenses have in common.
ELECTRONIC LENS MOUNT
The Canon family of EF (Electronic Focus) lenses was introduced with the
first EOS camera in 1987. Instead of mechanical linkages, all communications
between the lens and the camera pass through electrical contacts. These con-
nections provide the power needed by a small motor in the lens that controls
autofocus and the electromagnetic diaphragm (EMD) that controls aperture
settings. This electronic system is much more accurate, reliable, and flexible
than older mechanical linkages. Until recently all Canon’s lenses were de-
signed to work with all EOS film and digital cameras. With the introduction
of EF-S lenses (the “S” stands for short back focus), this has changed. These
lenses work only with EOS digital cameras having an APS-C sized image sen-
sor such as the 50D. They can’t be used with cameras such as the 5D Mark
II because their smaller image circle (page 101) isn’t large enough to cover a
larger full frame sensor and they use a different mount. These lenses have a
white index mark in addition to the traditional red marking, and a rear rub-
ber ring that prevents any damage should you mistakenly try to mount the
EF-S lens on a camera it’s not designed for.
When you change lenses, be careful that dust or other debris doesn’t enter
the camera through the lens opening. In fact, keep this opening covered with
a lens or the body cap as much as possible. Don’t change lenses or remove
the body cap in a dusty or windy environment, and when you do remove the
cap or lens, keep the opening pointed down. Should foreign matter find its
way onto the image sensor it will show up as dark specks or blotches in your
photographs. If you notice this in your images, see page 165.
MOUNTING AND UNMOUNTING A LENS
1. In a dust and wind free environment, twist the rear lens cap counter-
clockwise until it stops, then lift it up to remove it. Remove any body
cap from the camera the same way.
2. Align the red dot on the lens, with the red dot on the camera body’s
lens mount.
3. Insert the lens into the mount and turn it clockwise (as you face the
lens) until it clicks into place. Gently try to turn the lens in the other
direction to ensure that it’s securely locked in place. Set the focus
switch to AF or MF (M on some lenses).
4. To remove the lens, press the lens release button and turn the lens
counterclockwise so the red or white index mark is at the top, then
remove it.
If you have the money,
Canon has the lens.
FOCUSING TECHNOLOGY
Canon EF lenses have a focus switch that let’s you select autofocus (AF) or
manual focus (M on older lenses and MF on newer ones). When set to M or
MF you focus by turning the focus ring on the lens. When using an USM (Ul-
trasonic Motor) lens with a distance scale in One-Shot AF mode, you can turn
The lens release button.
TIP
• The mount on an
EF-S lens doesn’t
work with the 5D
Mark II. These lenses
are designed for use
with EOS digital cam-
era models that use
a smaller APS-C sen-
sor. They won’t work
with cameras such as
the 5D Mark II using
full-frame sensors.
The lens focus switch.
CANON LENSES
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the focusing ring on the lens to fine tune focus after focus is achieved (called
full-time manual focusing). This let’s you override the autofocus system to
“fine-tune” the focus without having to look up from the viewfinder to find
the focus switch to change modes. Full-time manual focus comes in two ver-
sions. Electronic manual focusing detects how much you’ve turned the focus
ring and then uses the focusing motor to focus the lens by the same amount.
Mechanical manual focusing adjusts the focus manually as you turn the focus
ring.
As the lens focuses, it uses one of five different focusing methods that include
the following:
• Overall extension where the entire optical system moves forward or back-
ward.
• Front group extension where only the front-most lens group moves forward
or backward.
• Front group rotation extension, used only in zoom lenses, where the front-
most lens group rotates as it moves forward or backward.
• Inner focusing where only the lens group between the front lens and the
aperture diaphragm is moved.
• Rear focusing when only the lens group behind the aperture diaphragm is
moved.
Some lenses have a focus preset feature so you can store the desired focusing
distance in memory and later instantly focus the lens at that distance. This
lets you focus elsewhere and then instantly return to the preset focus distance
if necessary. This is ideal in sports and nature photography where you are
monitoring action at a specific point such as a nest or goal, but where you
also want to capture other action.
A few lenses have an AF stop feature that prevents focus from shifting when
something passes between you and the subject you’re focused on. You turn
this feature on by pressing an AF Stop button on the lens. You can control the
effect with Custom Function III-2 Lens AF stop button function (page 152).
ULTRASONIC MOTORS
Since electronically coupled lenses need to move lens groups to focus the
image, Canon developed small, light, and powerful motors that fit inside the
lens. One of their most impressive is the Ultrasonic Motor (USM). Unlike
traditional motors that use a magnetic field to rotate an armature, these
motors use ultrasonic vibrational forces to rotate a ring. The motor contains
two rings; one that is fixed and one that rotates. As electricity is applied to
piezoelectric ceramic elements on the fixed ring, the ring generates ultrasonic
vibrations that rotate the movable ring with significant force. The result is a
motor that is fast, reliable, accurate and almost silent.
IMAGE STABILIZATION
If you’ve ever photographed in dim light, or tried to hand-hold a long tele-
photo lens, you know how easy it is to get blur in your images from camera
shake. In most cases, we resort to tripods or other camera supports. Howev-
er, Canon has another way; image stabilization (IS). Lenses with this feature
contain gyro sensors that sense movement of the lens and micro-motors that
instantly shift a special image stabilization lens group to compensate for the
motion and keep the image steady on the sensor. These lenses break the old
On some zoom lenses,
setting the Distance
Limiter Switch to FULL
lets the lens try to focus
over it’s entire range.
When set to LIMIT, it
will only try a specific
range of distances.
To turn image
stabilization on, you
set the switch to the
vertical line. To turn it
off you set the switch to
the “o”.
Click to explore how
image stabilization
reduces but doesn’t
eliminate blur caused by
camera movement.
Click for a PDF listing
Canon lenses.
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CANON LENSES
rule that you should never hand hold a lens using a shutter speed slower than
the reciprocal of the lens focal length (page 101). For example, when using a
100mm lens, you normally shouldn’t use a shutter speed slower that 1/100.
Image stabilized lenses let you add two or three stops to that calculation so
you can handhold an image stabilized version of the same lens at 1/30 of a
second shutter speed.
Note that when using an image stabilized lens on a tripod, you should turn off
image stabilization to save power. Some Canon lenses have two IS modes. IS
Mode-1 works for normal shooting and IS Mode-2 stabilizes the image as you
pan the camera to follow a moving subject.
• The Image Stabilizer is not effective for moving subjects or when there is
excessive shaking such as on a rocking boat.
• If you use the EF24-105mm f/4L IS USM lens for panned shots, correction
of camera shake might not be so effective.
• The Image Stabilizer can operate with the focus mode switch set to either
AF or MF and when the camera is mounted on a monopod.
INFORMATION ON A CANON LENS
When you look at Canon lenses, or read about them, you may be confused at
first by all of the information cryptically provided. Here is what each of the
terms or abbreviations refers to.
• EF—The lens is one of the EF (electronic focus) family of lenses that works
with the 5D Mark II and with any EOS SLR, Advanced Photo System EOS
SLR, and any camcorder with a VL mount.
• EF-S—These lenses work only with Canon digital cameras, like the 50D, us-
ing a smaller APS-C sized image sensor.
• 28–105mm—The lens’s focal length or zoom range in millimeters.
• f/2.8—The maximum aperture that you can use with the lens. On many
lenses it’s listed on the lens as a ratio such as 1:2.4 or 1:3.5–5.6. On zoom
lenses, two maximum apertures are given because the aperture changes as
you zoom the lens in and out. Canon makes a series of f/4L lenses that don’t
change the aperture as you zoom the lens. This lets you set exposure and
zoom all the way through the lens’s zoom range without the aperture or shut-
ter speed varying.
• L—An indication that the quality of the lens is especially high (or Luxury).
• USM—The lens features an ultrasonic motor and the lens is marked UL-
TRASONIC.
• II—The Roman numeral indicates that the lens has been revised or im-
proved upon from an earlier version.
• IS—The lens has image stabilization built in.
• TE-S—The lens is a tilt-shift lens used for perspective and depth of field
control.
• Macro—The lens is designed for close-up photography.
• DO—Diffractive Optical Element technology makes the lens smaller and
lighter than it would otherwise be.
Lenses with larger
maximum apertures let
you use faster shutter
speeds and are often
called “faster” lenses.
The EF 85mm f/1.2L II
USM lens.
The Canon EF 400mm
f/4 DO uses the
technology called Multi-
Layer Diffractive Optical
Element that makes it
smaller and lighter than
it would otherwise be.
The Canon Tripod
Collar B supplied with
some lenses provides
a tripod mount so you
can mount the lens,
rather than the camera,
to a tripod. With longer
lenses in particular, this
provides a much better
balance point for the
combined weight of the
camera body and lens.
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LENS PERIPHERAL ILLUMINATION CORRECTION
When photographing evenly toned subjects such as a blue sky, lenses often
capture the image with darker corners and sometime dark edges. This effect
is called vignetting and is caused by light fall-off; the lens projecting less light
as the distance from the center of the image increases. Lens peripheral illu-
mination correction evens out this fall-off of light so brightness is even across
the image. This correction can be applied automatically in the camera as you
capture JPEG images, and on the computer using Digital Photo Professional
(included software) when using the RAW format.
Since light fall-off varies from one lens type to another, correction data for 25
lenses is registered in the camera. Using the EOS Utility (included software),
you can check which lenses have their correction data registered, and reg-
ister data for unregistered lenses that you use. For details, see the Software
Instruction Manual (CD-ROM) for the EOS Utility.
• In auto modes, peripheral illumination correction is automatically applied
to JPEG images and can’t be disabled.
• In P, Tv, Av, M or B modes peripheral illumination correction is enabled by
default, but you can disable it should you choose to do so.
• Noise might affect the corners and edges of some corrected images.
• When using a non-Canon lens, set correction to Disable even if Correction
data available is displayed.
•Lens peripheral light correction is applied when a lens extender is attached.
• The amount of in-camera correction is somewhat less than what’s obtain-
able with Digital Photo Professional.
• If the lens does not have distance information, the degree of correction is
lower.
•If the correction data for the attached lens is not registered to the camera,
the result is the same as when the correction is set to Disable.
• At higher ISO speeds, less correction is used.
• Correction might not be noticeable when using a lens with minimal light
falloff in the corners and edges.
TURNING LENS PERIPHERAL ILLUMINATION COR-
RECTION ON AND OFF
1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode, press MENU and select the
Shooting 1 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Peripheral illumin. correct.
and press SET to display a description of the attached lens and a
notice that correction data is or isn’t available.
3. If correction data is available, turn the Quick Control Dial to high-
light Enable or Disable and press SET.
4. Take the picture and it will be displayed with the corrected peripheral
light.
TIPS
• Since fall-off is
most obvious in
photos taken at
large apertures, you
can select a smaller
aperture that uses
the center portion of
the lens.
• Light fall-off in-
creases when the
lens is focused at
infinity. It decreases
when focused at
closer distances
because the lens
projects a larger
image circle so the
corners and edges of
the captured image
are not at the edges
of the circle.
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FOCAL LENGTH
A fixed focal length lens, has a single focal length. A zoom lens lets you
choose any focal length within the range the lens is designed for. When you
change focal lengths by changing or zooming lenses, two important effects
are immediately obvious in the lens’ angle of view and its magnifying power.
• Angle of view refers to how much of a scene the lens covers. A short focal
length lens, also called a wide-angle, captures a wide expanse of a scene. A
longer focal length narrows the field of view so you can isolate small portions
of the scene without moving closer to the subject.
• Magnification is related to the lens’ angle of view. Since a wide-angle lens
includes a wide sweep of the scene, all of the objects in the scene are reduced
to fit into the image. A longer focal length lens, with its narrower angle of
view, captures a smaller area of the scene, making objects in that area appear
larger.
Canon has a wide variety of zoom lenses covering various focal length ranges
between 10mm and 600mm.
The focal length of a lens is based on its physical attributes, so it’s an absolute
value. However, a given focal length lens may have a different “effective” focal
length on different cameras. This is because the effective focal length depends
on the size of the image sensor the camera uses. On a camera with a smaller
image sensor, a given focal length lens appears to magnify more because it’s
capturing a smaller area of the image circle.
The 5D Mark II uses a full frame sensor, the same size as a frame of 35 mm
film. But most SLRs, including many from Canon, use sensors that are small-
er so they essentially capture only the central area of the image circle project-
ed by the lens. As a result, the effective focal length increases by a factor of 1.6
times compared to the indicated focal length of the lens. For example, on one
of these cameras a 35 mm lens is equivalent to 56mm. This multiple works
across the entire range of focal lengths, making wide-angle lens less so on the
digital SLR than on a film or full-frame digital SLR, and making telephoto
lenses more so.
A lens projects a circle
of light and the size
of the image sensor
determines how large
an area of the circle
is captured. The
50D (smaller frame)
captures a smaller area
than the 5D Mark II
(larger frame).
Click to explore sensor
sizes.
Click to explore how the
size of an image sensor
determines the focal
length of a lens.
The longer a lens’ focal
length, the narrower its
angle of view.
Click here to explore
how the focal length of
a lens determines its
angle of view.
FOCAL LENGTH
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ZOOM LENSES
A zoom lens lets you choose any focal length within the range the lens is
designed for.
Zooming a lens is like
walking toward or away
from the scene but
without changing the
perspective (page 112).
Here, a lighthouse in
Maine is photographed
a number of times from
the same spot. The
images vary from wide-
angle to telephoto.
ZOOMING A
LENS
! To zoom a Canon
EF lens, turn the
zoom ring on the
lens one way to
zoom in and the
other way to zoom
out.
TIP
• Zoom before focus-
ing since zooming
can throw off focus.
The lens was zoomed
during a long exposure.
The zoom indicator on
a lens.
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NORMAL LENSES
SEE FOR YOURSELF
• A lens is called normal because it captures a scene just as the human eye does
even though the eye’s angle of view is much wider than any normal lens. Howev-
er, you can demonstrate for yourself why a specific focal length is normal for your
camera. When a passenger in a car, try zooming the lens or change focal lengths
as you watch the traffic ahead through the viewfinder. A longer focal length
makes distant cars appear right on top of you. A shorter focal length makes cars
look far ahead, even when relatively close. A normal focal-length makes the cars
appear in the same distance relationship as you perceive them ordinarily.
Another demonstration is to take two photographs of greatly different size and
tape them to a wall. Look at them one at a time through the viewfinder with the
lens zoomed to a normal focal-length. Move close enough so each fills the moni-
tor. You’ll discover you are at the correct distance for viewing the prints. With
a longer focal-length you would feel too far away, and with a shorter one, too
close.
Canon’s EF 50mm
f/1.0L USM lens,
although not made
anymore, has a
maximum aperture of
f/1.0–extremely fast!
NORMAL LENSES
A “normal lens” for a 35mm camera usually refers to a lens with a 50 mm fo-
cal length (35 mm equivalent). When you zoom your lens to this focal length
and look at the image on the screen, the scene looks about the same as it does
to the unaided eye. With the lens zoomed all the way out things appear closer
than they actually are. With it zoomed out to a wide-angle, everything looks
farther away.
A normal-focal-length zoom isn’t necessarily the one photographers nor-
mally use. Many urban or street photographers prefer the wider angle of
view and greater depth of field provided by a shorter focal length. Portrait,
event, sports and nature photographers often prefer a lens with a longer focal
length.
It’s hard to look at a
photo and tell what
focal-length lens
was used to take it.
However, objects in
an image taken with
a normal lens look
normal in their spatial
relationships.
104
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WIDE-ANGLE LENSES
Wide-angle (short focal length) lenses capture a wide expanse of a scene.
This wide angle of view is ideal for use in tight spaces, when photographing
landscapes, and in small rooms where you can’t position the camera a great
distance from the subject.
If you don’t get too
close to your subjects,
a wide-angle lens is
good for indoor portraits
where including the
setting is important.
Wide-angle lenses are
ideal when you need
great depth of field
because part of the
scene is close to the
camera and part farther
away. It also makes
focusing less critical so
you can capture those
fleeting moments you
might otherwise miss.
A wide-angle lens also has great depth of field that makes it ideal for street
or action photographs. When out to capture quickly unfolding scenes, you’ll
have maximum depth of field when you respond quickly to a photo opportu-
nity.
Click to see how
extreme wide-angle
lenses can be used
to create 360 degree
interactive panoramas.
TIP
• Avoid using small
apertures with wide
angle lenses. They
can create diffraction
patterns that de-
grade image sharp-
ness.
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WIDE-ANGLE LENSES
Short lenses also let you focus very close to your subject, and the effect this
can have on the perspective in your images can be dramatic. Objects very
close to the camera loom much larger than those farther away. This distor-
tion in the apparent size of objects can deliberately give emphasis and when
carried to an extreme will give an unrealistic appearance to a scene.
Canon’s 15mm fisheye
lens gives a circular
“fisheye” look to
images.
Canon’s 14mm
wide-angle lens is a
rectilinear lens so its
images don’t have the
distorted look of some
fisheye lenses.
Wide-angle lenses have
tremendous depth of
field. Here one was
used to shoot through
a toy space station and
make Quinlan look like
a giant.
106
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TELEPHOTO LENSES
A telephoto (long focal length) lens acts somewhat like a telescope: It mag-
nifies the image of your subject. This is especially useful when you can’t get
close to your subject—or don’t want to. These lenses are ideal for wildlife,
portrait, and candid photography, whenever getting close to a subject might
disturb or distort it.
As the focal length increases, depth of field gets shallower so you must focus
more carefully. Also, a long lens visually compresses space, making objects in
the scene appear closer together than they actually are.
The primary drawback of longer lenses is that they often have smaller maxi-
mum apertures that require longer shutter speeds. Also, since a long lens
magnifies movement, just as it magnifies the subject, you may have to sup-
port the camera better to get maximum sharpness.
A long lens makes
the sun look larger in
relation to foreground
objects.
Zooming in makes
distant objects appear
compressed. Here a
long lens has been used
to “compress” a street
scene at the foot of
the Rocky Mountains in
Colorado.
When the lineup of cement trucks (bottom) is shot head-on with a long lens (top)
they appear much closer together then they really are. This is actually due to the
distance from the subject, not the focal length of the lens, but the effect is easy to
get with a long lens.
Telephoto lenses come
in fixed focal lengths
and as zooms. This is a
10x 35–350mm zoom.
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TELEPHOTO LENSES
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/distortion/
A telephoto lens is an excellent portrait lens, especially for head-and-shoul-
ders portraits. It lets you keep your distance and still fill the viewfinder frame
with the subject. Keeping at a distance eliminates the exaggerated perspective
caused by working very close to a subject with a shorter focal length lens. It
also helps relax your subjects if they get uneasy, as many people do, when a
camera comes close.
You can extend the focal length of a fixed focal length lens (without affect-
ing the minimum focus distance) using an extender, an optical device that
mounts between the lens and camera body. With the 5D Mark II, you can use
both 1.4x and 2.4x extenders. The 1.4x extender requires you to open up one
stop and the 2x requires 2 stops. If a lens’ maximum aperture is smaller than
f/4 for the 1.4x extender or f/2.8 for the 2x, you have to use manual focus.
A long lens lets you
get portraits without
crowding in on the
subject. This let’s you
capture more natural
expressions.
Using a wide-angle lens
close to the subject
adds some distortion
to the portrait but it
still works as an image.
Perhaps not as flattering
as it might be, the
image is probably more
interesting to others
than to the subject.
Extenders fit between
the lens and camera
body to increase focal
lengths by 1.4x or 2x.
The II series works
with both EF and EF-S
lenses.
Click here to explore
how a wide angle lens
can distort a subject.
108
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This small, but very
colorful Tussock moth
caterpillar was captured
with a macro lens.
MACRO LENSES AND ACCESSORIES
When photographing small objects from coins to insects, your lens’ focal
length and minimum focusing distance affect how small objects are captured
in photos. For example, if you’re photographing a small coin, you probably
don’t want it to appear as a tiny coin surrounded by a large background.
More likely you’d like a photo showing a large coin surrounded by a small
background. For many pictures, just zooming your lens in on the subject will
suffice. However, macro lenses allows you to get closer to the subject, making
smaller subjects much larger in the final image. If you can’t get close enough
to an object to fill the image area, you can always crop out the unwanted ar-
eas later. However, the more you crop, the smaller the image becomes.
Canon offers a wide range of macro lenses that are compatible with Canon’s
extension tubes and macro flash units (page 127).
• The EF 50mm f/2.5 Compact Macro focuses up to 9.1 inches (231mm) for
1:2 (half life-size) magnification. At 9.1 inches and f/11, depth of field is 0.24
inches (6mm). The EF Life Size Converter for the lens extends its range to
between 1:4 and 1:1 magnification and also compensates for spherical aberra-
tions.
• The EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens focuses over the full range from
infinity down to life size (1:1 reproduction ratio). The lens allows full-time
manual focusing so you can override autofocus to fine tune it. When shooting
at life size (1x) magnification, the minimum working distance between the
lens and the subject is approximately 6 inches (152mm), providing enough
room for a flash or other light source to illuminate the subject.
• The EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro USM Telephoto Lens shoots throughout the
focusing distance range from 1x to infinity. The lens has full-time mechanical
manual focusing and focuses as close as 1.5ft (0.48m).
The 180mm macro
lens gives you plenty
of working distance
when doing close-up
photography.
The 50mm macro lens.
The camera body has
a symbol that indicates
the position of the
image plane should
you ever need to know
where it is.
TIP
• For maximum
magnification, zoom
all the way in, set
the lens focus mode
to M or MF (manual),
and turn the focus
ring to the minimum
focus distance. Look
through the viewfind-
er as you focus the
subject by moving in
and out.
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MACRO LENSES AND ACCESSORIES
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/macromag/
• The manual focus MP-E65mm f/2.8 Macro Photo Lens extends the capa-
bilities of conventional macro lenses and is designed exclusively for high-
magnification close-ups from 1x to 5x. Working distances (from the front of
the lens to the subject) range from 4 inches at 1x (life size) to 1.6 inches at 5x.
The lens is equipped with a detachable tripod collar.
• Extension tubes EF 12 II and EF 25 II fit between the lens and the camera
body and allow the lens to focus much closer than normal, giving increased
magnification. The larger the amount of extension and the shorter the focal
length of the lens used, the greater the increase in magnification. (The newer
series II extension tubes work with both EF and EF-S lenses. Older extension
tubes work only with EF lenses.)
• Canon’s Angle Finder C attaches to the viewfinder eyepiece so you can
photograph from a low angle without kneeling or lying down. It’s also great
when doing copy work and macro photography. It features a rubber eyecup,
a built-in adjustable diopter, and a roof prism that keeps the image correctly
oriented. The viewfinder has switchable magnification (1.25x or 2.5x). The
1.25x setting shows the entire frame including exposure data outside the
picture area, while the 2.5x setting provides a magnified view of the center of
the image area—excellent for critical focusing with macro lenses and other
specialty optics.
The Canon Life-size
Converter EF is an
extension tube.
Angle Finder C.
A monarch butterfly
captured with a macro
lens.
The Canon MP-E65mm
f2.8 1–5x Macro lens.
INCREASING DEPTH OF FIELD IN CLOSE-UPS
! Increase the illumination of the subject to stop down the aperture.
! Don’t get any closer to the subject than you have to.
! Focus on the most important part of the subject keeping in mind that in
close-ups, depth of field is half in front and half behind the plane of critical
focus.
! Use aperture-priority (Av) or program shift to select a small aperture
(pages 44 and 42).
Click here to explore
macro lens enlargement
factors.
110
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TILT-SHIFT LENSES
Tilt-shift lenses serve two very important purposes. The tilt controls depth of
field and the shift controls the way vertical lines appear in the image. Until
Canon developed these kinds of lenses, their effects could only be achieved
on a large format camera. The lenses charge a small penalty for all of their
flexibility. They can cause metering errors and require you to focus manually
and open up one or two stops.
• Tilting the lens allows you to control depth of field in an image without
changing the aperture. Normally, the glass elements in a lens are parallel to
the image sensor. To change the depth of field for a given subject and camera
position you have to open or close the aperture. With a lens that tilts from
side to side or top to bottom, the plane of critical focus can be tilted one
way to dramatically increase depth of field or the other way to dramatically
decrease it. This makes it possible to use a large aperture and still get great
depth of field. The larger aperture allows faster shutter speeds so you can
capture scenes you might have missed before, such as a field with flowers
blowing in the wind.
• Shifting the lens helps you correct for converging vertical lines that occur
when you tilt the camera to capture trees, buildings, or other tall subjects.
These lines converge in the image whenever the camera is tilted and the im-
age sensor is no longer parallel to the subject. Using the lens’ shift function,
the lens can be shifted upward to eliminate the foreground while keeping the
image sensor parallel to the subject.
• You can create panoramic images, or even stereo pairs, by taking two pho-
tos with the lens shifted in opposite directions.
• When photographing reflective subjects, you can eliminate your reflection
by moving the camera to a position where the reflection doesn’t show, and
then shifting the lens to center the subject in the picture area. The same tech-
nique can be used to eliminate unwanted subjects in the foreground.
Canon has three Tilt-Shift (TS-E) lens in different focal lengths. All three
can rotate 90 degrees, tilted +/-8 degrees, and shifted +/-11 mm. On the 24
mm lens, some of the shift and tilt ranges are marked in red because images
may be vignetted if shifted or tilted into these zones on a 35mm or full frame
digital camera. Vignetting occurs because the lens focuses a circle of light on
the image plane and as you tilt and shift, the image sensor captures different
parts of the circle.
A Canon TS-E lens.
A bubble level that
slips into the hot shoe
assures you that the
camera is perfectly
level when using the
camera’s shift control.
This is the Bl2 from
Kaiden.
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The house on the left,
shot by pointing the
camera up to get in
the entire house, has
converging vertical
lines and looks tilted.
In the photo on the
right taken with the
lens shifted, the house
looks rectangular and
all vertical lines are
parallel.
Click to see these
images animated.
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LENS ACCESSORIES
LENS ACCESSORIES
All but the largest Canon lenses have threads into which you can screw filters
and other accessories. However, keep in mind that many of the effects cre-
ated by traditional screw on filters can now be done with software filters in
programs such as Adobe Photoshop. Applying the effects after capturing
an image not only lets you experiment with effects and see what they do in
real-time, it also allows you to have an unaffected version of the image. Also,
if you are using the Picture Styles Monochrome setting, there are a number
of software filters built into the camera (page 149). If you do want to use lens
attachments, here are some to consider.
• Lens hoods protect the front element from bumps and keep stray light from
striking the front of the lens and causing flare or ghost images.
• Caps protect the front and rear of the lens when it’s not in use. A body cap
prevents dust from entering the camera when no lens is attached.
• Protect filters keep the front element of your lens from getting scratched or
dirty.
• Circular polarizing filters remove reflections from glass, water, and other
reflective surfaces, darken blue skies, and improve color saturation. If you use
a linear polarizing filter, you can’t use autofocus.
TIP
• If you use more
than one filter at a
time you may get
vignetting (dark cor-
ners in your images).
A polarizing filter (top)
darkens the sky and
removes reflections
from foliage so it has
more color. A shot
without a filter is shown
at the bottom.
Cases protect lenses
from shocks and other
abuse. Courtesy of
Kenesis.
Lens hoods protect
the front element and
reduce lens flare.
For larger apertures or
slower shutter speeds,
you can use a screw
on neutral density
filter that cuts the light
entering the lens.
• Skylight filters reduce the blue casts you often get when photographing
subjects in the shade on sunny days.
• UV filters absorb ultraviolet light and cut the haze when photographing
landscapes or from airplanes.
• Neutral density filters cut the light entering the camera so you can use
slower shutter speeds or wider apertures in bright light.
• Soft focus filters soften the focus to make portraits more flattering and to
make hazy, romantic landscapes.
• Close-up lenses magnify the subject without affecting aperture settings.
• Color conversion filters let you fine-tune the way you capture colors.
112
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As the camera is moved
closer to the foreground
subject and zoomed
out to keep it the
same size (top), the
background diminishes
in size relative to the
foreground. When you
move back and zoom
in, the background
looms over the
foreground subject
(bottom). This changing
relationship between
the size of objects in
the foreground and
background creates
the difference in
perspective.
PERSPECTIVE IN A PHOTOGRAPH
A photograph can appear to compress space so that objects appear closer
together than you expect. Another photograph of the same scene can seem to
expand space so that objects appear farther apart than normal. These appar-
ent distortions in perspective—the appearance of depth in a photograph—are
often attributed to the focal length of the lens being used but are actually
caused by your distance from the subject.
As you move closer and
select a focal length
that keeps the subject
the same size, the angle
of view widens and the
background diminishes
in size.
Click to explore
perspective.
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A
utomatic electronic flash is so convenient and easy to use that you are
usually unaware it even fires. With an external EX-series Speedlite
attached, it’s always ready when your autoexposure system decides it’s
needed. Speedlites let you swivel or rotate the flash head so you can bounce
light off walls and ceilings. This lets you get softer light on the subject so
contrast is reduced and hard shadows are minimized. Other flash units are
designed for macro photography so you can capture stunning close-ups in
bad light and even in windy conditions. Regardless of which flash you choose,
it can be set to operate automatically or you can make a number of manual
settings.
As important as flash is, it isn’t your only source of controlled lighting. You
can also use the camera in a home studio setting, perhaps taking formal por-
traits, or photographing smaller items for your records, insurance, sharing,
or even selling on eBay.
In this chapter we explore all of these forms of lighting including an exter-
nal flash and studio lighting. In the process you’ll learn what makes lighting
more effective and when, where, and how to use and control it.
Chapter 6
Using Flash and Studio Lighting
CONTENTS
• How Flash Works
• Using an Exter-
nal Flash • External
Speedlite Control
• Controlling Flash
Exposures • Portraits
with Flash • Using Fill
Flash • Using Slow
Sync Flash • Using
Available Light • Us-
ing Flash in Close-ups
• Studio Lighting •
Portrait and Product
Lighting—Introduc-
tion • The Main Light
• The Fill Light • The
Background Light •
The Rim Light
CHAPTER 6. USÌNG FLASH AND STUDÌO LÌGHTÌNG
114
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HOW FLASH WORKS
The 5D Mark II has a hot shoe into which you can slip any Canon EX-series
Speedlite. Every flash has a maximum useful range—indicated by its guide
number. The higher the number, the more powerful the flash and the greater
its range. How bright the light from a flash is when it reaches a subject de-
pends on the flash’s power and on how far the light has to travel. The further
the subject is from the flash, the less light will reach it and so the less light
will be reflected from the subject back toward the camera.
When the flash fires, the beam of light expands as it moves father from the
camera so the light becomes weaker the farther it travels. The rate at which
the light falls off is described by the inverse square law. If the distance be-
tween the flash and subject is doubled, only one quarter the amount of light
will reach the subject because the same amount of light is spread over four
times the area. Conversely, when the distance is halved, four times as much
light falls on a given area.
When subjects in an image are located at different distances from the camera,
the flash exposure will only be correct for those at one distance—normally
those closest to the camera or in the middle of the area metered by the auto-
exposure system. Subjects located farther from the flash will be increasingly
darker the farther they are from the flash.
When you take a flash photo, the first shutter curtain opens to begin the
exposure, then the second curtain closes to end it (page 31). At shutter speeds
above 1/200 the second curtain starts to close before the first curtain is fully
open. As a result, a “slit” formed by the two curtains moves across the image
sensor and normally only a part of the image can be captured by the brief
burst of flash. The rest of the sensor is blocked by one or both curtains. The
fastest shutter speed at which the image sensor is fully uncovered at some
point is called the flash sync speed, and on the 5D Mark II this is 1/120 sec-
ond. If you select a faster shutter speed directly or indirectly, the camera will
override you and lower it.
• In Tv (shutter-priority) mode, you select a shutter speed of 1/200 second or
slower, and the camera selects the aperture. The exposure of the main subject
is determined by the flash and the exposure of the background is determined
by the shutter speed.
• In Av (aperture-priority) you set the aperture and the shutter speed is au-
tomatically set to 1/200 seconds (the fastest shutter speed you can use with
flash, or slower. Using Custom Function I-7 Flash sync. speed in Av mode
(page 135) you can set the shutter speed to vary automatically or remain fixed
at 1/200 when using flash in Av mode. Auto (the default) correctly exposes
the main subject but prevents shutter speed slow enough to lighten the back-
ground when photographing in dim light.
• In M (manual) mode, you set the shutter speed to 1/200 or slower, and se-
lect a matching aperture. The exposure of the main subject is determined by
the flash and the exposure of the background is determined by the aperture
and shutter speed settings.
• In Bulb (B) mode you select the aperture and the shutter stays open as long
as you hold down the shutter button.
Flash light falls off
(becomes dimmer)
the farther it travels.
Objects near the flash
will be lighter in a
picture than objects
farther away. You can
use this to advantage;
for example, at night
you can isolate a main
subject against a dark
background.
As the distance doubles,
the amount of light
illuminating the subject
is only one-quarter of
the original amount.
Click to explore the
inverse square law.
Click here to explore the
flash sync speed.
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Click here for an Excel
worksheet you can
use to explore Guide
Numbers.
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USING A CANON SPEEDLITE
Since the 5D Mark II has no built-in flash, you need a Canon EX-series
Speedlite such as the 580EX II or 430EX II mounted on the camera’s hot
shoe or attached by a hot shoe cord (OC-E3) for off-camera use. At the time
this book was written these were the only Canon Speedlites that were fully
compatible with the 5D Mark II. By the time you read this there may be oth-
ers. One of the biggest advantages of these Speedlites is that you can tilt and
swivel the flash head to bounce light off ceilings and walls. This illuminates
the subject with softer light that reduces contrast and opens up shadow areas
to reveal details.
The power and range of a flash is specified by it’s Guide Number and both of
these Speedlites are quite powerful. When using a 105mm lens and with the
ISO set to 100, the 580EX II has a maximum Guide Number of 58 (in meters)
and 190 (in feet). Under the same conditions, the 430EX II is slightly less
powerful, with a maximum Guide Number of 43 (in meters) and 141 (in feet).
The Guide Number is not fixed, but is directly related to the lens focal length
and ISO. As you increase or decrease either of these, you also increase or
decrease the guide number.
These Speedlites zoom the flash head automatically to match the focal length
of the attached lens, or you can select from a list of focal lengths between
24–105mm. This maximizes the efficiency of light distribution and produces
more flashes from a set of batteries. When used with the EOS 5D Mark II,
these Speedlites also communicate with the camera to adjust auto white bal-
ance based on the charge level of the batteries and the duration of each flash
burst, resulting in consistently accurate color for every shot.
Both Speedlites have a built-in AF-assist beam that assists focusing in dim
light up to 2–32.8 feet (0.6–10m), a swiveling flash head that turns a full 180
degrees in both directions, while a single release lock controls tilt and swivel
adjustments. The flash normally covers wide-angle lenses down to 24mm
but it has a wide-angle diffuser you can use to cover focal lengths as short as
14mm. The flash also features a new catchlight reflector for optimal lighting
quality during bounce-flash photography.
Both the 580EX II and 430EX II are dedicated flash units, designed to work
with the 5D Mark II (and a few other Canon cameras). This means they are
fully integrated and can be set from either the camera or the flash (page 118).
For example, on the 580EX II you can set flash exposure compensation from
either the camera of flash, while flash bracketing is set only on the flash, and
FE lock is set only on the camera.
The 5D Mark II has a PC (Prontor-Compur) terminal so you can use cables to
connect the camera to a studio flash. When you take a picture, a signal is sent
from the camera along the cable to fire the studio flash. To access the termi-
nal you open the rubber cover on the left side of the camera marked with a
lightening bolt icon. The PC terminal under the cover is also marked with the
same icon. When using this terminal don’t connect any flash unit to it that
requires 250 volts or more. Also, you can’t use the hot shoe and PC terminal
at the same time.
Both Speedlites are powered by four AA batteries. There is also an optional
Compact Battery Pack (CP-E4) that reduces recycling time and increases the
number of flashes per charge.
Click here to explore
how a flash head can
pivot up and down and
rotate for bounce flash.
Canon off camera shoe
cord.
You can connect the
flash to the camera with
a hot shoe cord instead
of directly mounting it
on the hot shoe.
USING A CANON SPEEDLITE
The 580EX II is
compatible with all
digital EOS cameras as
well as G-series and
other cameras in the
Canon line. It’s range is
98.4 feet with a 50mm
f/1.4 lens at ISO 100.
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CONTROLLING FLASH EXPOSURES
When using flash there are times when the main subject is too dark or light.
In these situations, you can adjust the flash power to lighten or darken the
part of the scene illuminated by the flash. As you’ve seen, you can use expo-
sure compensation, exposure lock and autoexposure bracketing to control
daylight exposures (pages 55). You have access to similar controls when using
flash—although flash bracketing (page 119) is only available on the flash, not
the camera.
WHAT’S E-TTL II?
The 5D Mark II features an E-TTL II autoflash (evaluative; through the lens)
that gives outstanding natural-looking flash pictures. For example, when
used for fill flash outdoors, E-TTL II balances the light so well that it isn’t
even obvious that flash was used. E-TTL II uses subject distance and other
information to automatically modify flash power, so exposures are better
regardless of the subject’s size, reflectance, or photographic composition.
E-TTL II flash works by firing a preflash in the brief instant after you press
the shutter button and before the camera’s reflex mirror goes up. The camera
uses the preflash to set focus and exposure.
• The exposure of the main subject to be illuminated by the flash is deter-
mined by evaluative metering based on all AF points with special empha-
sis given to the one that’s active and used to set focus. If an object with an
unusually strong reflection, such as a mirror or window, is detected in any of
these metering zones, the reading from that zone is factored out or adjusted
to prevent an incorrect exposure.
• The exposure of the background illuminated by available light is also deter-
mined using evaluative metering.
These two readings are used to calculate and set the flash output for the best
possible exposure of the main subject, while maintaining a subtle balance
between flash and natural lighting. The flash output determines the exposure
of the main subject and the camera’s aperture and shutter speed determine
the exposure of the background.
FLASH EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
Flash exposure compensation lets you manually adjust the output of the flash
and hence the exposure of the main subject without changing the camera’s
aperture or shutter speed. This is an ideal way to balance flash and natural
light when using fill flash and to correctly expose scenes or subjects that are
darker or lighter than normal (middle-gray). The 5D Mark II’s flash exposure
compensation function lets you vary flash exposures plus or minus 2 stops in
one-third stop increments for any attached EX-series Speedlite. (If you set
flash exposure compensation on both the camera and the external flash, the
external flash setting takes precedence.)
You can use flash exposure compensation in conjunction with regular expo-
sure compensation. Doing so lets you use regular exposure compensation to
lighten or darken the background that’s illuminated by natural light, and use
flash exposure compensation to lighten or darken the main subject illuminat-
ed by the flash. This is a powerful combination of exposure controls that let’s
you capture images just the way you want them.
TIP
• When Custom
Function II-4 Auto
Lighting Optimizer is
enabled (the de-
fault—page 152),
flash exposure com-
pensation may not
work as expected.
Change the setting
to Disable for best
effects.
• Speedlite is
Canon’s name for
their flash units.
Nikon uses the term
Speedlight, and both
terms have the same
pronunciation.
Flash usually gives you
very good exposures
but if you block a
sensor, you can get odd
results like this gross
overexposure of the
foreground subject.
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The AE/FE Lock icon
marks the flash
exposure lock button
and is displayed in the
viewfinder when flash
exposure is locked.
USING FLASH EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
1. With a supported flash attached and on, set the Mode Dial set to P,
Tv, Av, M or B.
2. Press and release the Flash Exposure Compensation button and then
turn the Quick Control Dial to move the marker on the flash exposure
level indicator displayed on the LCD panel and monitor and in the
viewfinder.
! To underexpose and darken the flash illuminated part of the image,
move the marker toward the minus (-) end of the scale.
! To overexpose and lighten it, move the marker toward the plus (+)
end of the scale.
When flash exposure compensation is set to anything but 0, the flash
exposure compensation icon is displayed in the viewfinder, and on
the LCD panel and monitor.
3. Take your picture, and when finished reset flash exposure compensa-
tion to 0 otherwise it will be remembered even when you turn off the
camera.
The flash exposure
compensation icon
marks the Flash
Exposure Compensation
button and is displayed
on the LCD panel and
monitor and in the
viewfinder when flash
compensation is set to
anything but 0.
An exposure level
indicator shows you how
much you have adjusted
flash output in stops.
Click here to explore
flash exposure
compensation.
TIP
• You can also set
flash exposure
compensation from
the Flash function
settings menu (page
118).
FLASH EXPOSURE (FE) LOCK
Flash exposure lock (FE Lock) acts much like AE Lock (page 55), but is used
when an external flash is attached. When you use this feature, which you
can’t do in Live View (page 139), a preflash is fired so the camera can calcu-
late the exposure. This captured reading is stored for about 16 seconds so you
have time to recompose the scene or make exposure or focus adjustments be-
fore taking the picture without losing your flash exposure information. (If you
don’t do anything for 16 seconds, FE Lock is cancelled.) FE lock is extremely
useful when you wish to place the main subject in a part of the picture area
that is not covered by one of the AF points.
USING FLASH EXPOSURE (FE) LOCK
1. With a supported flash attached and on, set the Mode Dial set to P,
Tv, Av, M or B.
2. Press the shutter button halfway down and hold it there to focus on
the subject on which you want to lock flash exposure, then press the
AE/FE Lock button (marked with an asterisk icon). A preflash fires,
FEL is displayed briefly in the viewfinder, and the AE/FE Lock icon
is displayed in the viewfinder to indicate flash exposure is locked. (If
the flash icon in the viewfinder blinks, you are too far away so move
closer and repeat this step or the image will be underexposed.
3. Release the shutter button, recompose the scene and press the shut-
ter button halfway down to set focus before taking the picture.
! To cancel FE Lock, release the shutter button and wait for the *
icon to disappear or close the flash.
! To keep flash exposure locked, continue to hold the shutter button
halfway down or hold down the AE/FE Lock button.
CONTROLLING FLASH EXPOSURES
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Setting Choices Page
Flash mode E-TTL II (default), Manual flash, MULTI
flash, TTL, AutoExtFlash, Man.ExtFlash
116,
120
Shutter sync. 1st curtain (default), 2nd curtain, Hi-speed 124
FEB Scale from -3 to +3 119
Flash exp. comp Scale from -2 and +2 116
E-TTL II Evaluative (default), Average 116
Zoom Auto (default), various focal lengths—24,
28, 35, 50, 70, 80 and 105
115
Wireless set. Wireless settings submenu –
Flash firing Enable, Disable –
EXTERNAL SPEEDLITE CONTROL
When you attach the 580EX II or 430EX II you can change their settings
from the camera using External Speedlite settings listed on the Set up 3
menu’s tab. One big advantage of being able to change flash settings from the
camera is that you can set the flash when it’s connected to the camera wire-
lessly.
EXTERNAL SPEEDLITE CONTROL
1. With a supported flash attached and on and the Mode Dial set to P,
Tv, Av, M or B modes, press MENU and select the Set up 3 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight External Speedlite control
and press SET to display a submenu.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the following settings
and press SET.
• Flash function settings displays the settings listed and described in
the section that follows. Press INFO to return all of these settings to
their defaults.
• Flash C.Fn settings displays a screen you use to select and set flash
functions on the attached flash unit (see box to left).
• Clear all Speedlite C.Fn’s resets all Custom Functions on the flash
to their defaults.
FLASH FUNCTION SETTINGS
When you select Flash function settings, a submenu is displayed. From this
menu you can control the flash settings listed in the table that follows. When
you use an EX Speedlite that’s not settable from the camera you can still set
Flash exp. comp, E-TTL II, and Flash firing.
CUSTOM FUNCTIONS
Flash C.Fn settings, available only when an 580EX II or 430EX II Speedlite
is attached, lets you set the Speedlite’s Custom Function settings (C.Fn-0 to
13) from the camera. The Custom Functions on the 580EX II include those
shown in the box to the left. Those functions also available on the 430EX II
are shown in bold. The 430 has one function the 580 doesn’t have—C.fn-14:
Flash range/aperture info.
CUSTOM FUNC-
TIONS
C.Fn-00: Distance
indicator display
C.Fn-01: Auto
power off
C.Fn-02: Modeling
flash
C.Fn-03: FEB auto
cancel
C.Fn-04: FEB se-
quence
C.Fn-05: Flash Me-
tering mode
C.Fn-06: Quickflash
w/continuous shot
C.Fn-07: Test firing
with autoflash
C.Fn-08: AF-assist
beam firing
C.Fn-09: Auto
zoom for sensor
size
C.Fn-10: Slave
auto power off
timer
C.Fn-11: Slave
auto power off
cancel
C.Fn-12: Flash re-
cycle w/exter. power
C.Fn-13: Flash expo-
sure meter set.
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EXTERNAL SPEEDLITE CONTROL
TIP
• You can press INFO
to return the and ex-
ternal flash settings
to their defaults.
Click to explore high
speed sync.
USING HIGH-SPEED SYNC
1. With a supported flash attached and on, and the Mode Dial set to
P, Tv, Av, M or B modes, press MENU and select the Set up 3 menu
tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight External Speedlite control
and press SET.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Flash function settings and
press SET.
4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Shutter sync and press SET.
5. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Hi-speed (page 119) and
press SET.
6. Press MENU or the shutter button to hide the menu and take your
photos. When finished using hi-speed sync, repeat Steps 1–5 but
select 1st curtain.
TIPS
• When using an
external flash in dim
light, its AF-assist
beam may strobe
before the exposure
to assist focusing.
You can turn this
beam on and off with
the flash’s Custom
Function C.Fn-08
AF-Assist beam firing
(page 118).
• If you have trouble
focusing, try using
the center AF point.
FLASH EXPOSURE BRACKETING (FEB)
Flash exposure bracketing (FEB), not available on the 430EX II, takes three
consecutive pictures exposed at slightly different settings. One is taken at the
exposure recommended by the camera and the other two at up to three stops
above or below that exposure. The flash output changes with each image
while the background exposure level controlled by the aperture and shutter
speed remains the same.
HIGH-SPEED SYNC (FP)
Although the camera’s flash sync speed (page 114) is only 1/200, faster shut-
ter speeds are possible when using a flash that supports high-speed sync
flash (also called FP or focal plane sync). High-speed sync can capture a fully
exposed image at shutter speeds faster than 1/200 because the flash fires
repeatedly as the “slit” formed by the shutter curtains moves across the image
sensor during the exposure. The only drawback is that the flash power is re-
duced so you can’t be positioned as far from a subject. The higher the shutter
speed you use, the closer you have to be. There are at least three situations
where you might find this technique useful:
• When using fill flash out of doors, you can use a fast shutter speed to freeze
action, or a wide aperture to throw the foreground or background out of
focus.
• When doing a portrait and want catchlights in the subject’s eyes.
• When using fill flash outdoors to lighten shadows.
High speed sync icon
displayed on flash’s LCD
panel when it’s enabled.
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WIRELESS REMOTE FLASH
Wireless flash lets you mount a master flash such as the 580EX II, or a trans-
mitter (ST-E2) on the camera’s hot shoe and trigger other remote flash units.
This allows you to get lighting effects you couldn’t possibly get with a single
flash unit. The on-camera flash or transmitter (the master unit) transmits
wireless signals to the units (the slaves) telling them when to fire. When us-
ing a master flash you can set it to flash or not as it transmits signals to the
remote units. When using wireless remote flash, you can use a modeling light
that illuminates the subject for a full second so you can preview flash effects
such as shadows and light balance before taking a picture. (You can’t use the
modeling light in Live View.) If you are using more than one flash, the model-
ing light uses the flash ratios you have chosen.
STROBOSCOPIC FLASH
Stroboscopic flash, called MULTI flash on the Flash mode menu, fires the
flash a number of times at high speed to capture multiple images of the same
subject in the same photograph. You’ve probably seen examples of this mode
in sports photography where it can be used to demonstrate or analyze a swing
of a bat or club. When you select MULTIflash on the menu, you have the fol-
lowing settings:
Flash output 1/128..1/64..1/32 Sets flash power for each burst
Frequency Specifies how often the flash fires
Flash count Specifies the number of flashes
Zoom Can be set to Auto or a variety of focal
lengths
Wireless set. Displays a submenu for wireless flash
Flash firing Enables or Disables the flash.
A dipping bird exposed
four times in the
same picture using
stroboscopic flash.
The wireless transmitter
ST-E2 fits in the
camera’s hot shoe and
triggers other flash
units.
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PORTRAITS WITH FLASH
Flash is a good source of light when you want to make portraits, particularly
of children. The light from the flash is so fast that you rarely have to worry
about your subject moving during the exposure and blurring the picture. For
the same reason you don’t have to be quite as careful about camera motion
blurring the image; you can hand-hold the camera and shoot as rapidly as the
flash will recharge.
POSITIONING THE FLASH AND SUBJECTS
You may want to choose carefully the position of the flash. Direct light from
a flash often produces less attractive results than if you tilt or rotate the
flash head to bounce the light onto the subject off a wall, ceiling, or umbrella
reflector.
When a subject is
placed close to a wall,
there will almost always
be a distracting shadow
in the image cast by
the light from the flash.
By moving the subject
away from a wall, these
shadows disappear.
When photographing
more than one subject,
each is given the same
importance when
lined up parallel to
the camera because
each receives the
same amount of
flash illumination. If
subjects are at different
distances from the
flash, they will be
illuminated differently.
This is a good way to
make one subject more
visually dominant than
others in the image.
PORTRAITS WITH FLASH
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RED-EYE
When photographing people, you’ll often see images with what’s called “red
eye.” The light from a flash has entered through the subject’s pupil, reflected
off the back of the eye (the retina), and bounced back out to the camera. Since
the retina is full of thin blood vessels, the eyes take on a red color. Red-eye is
not much of a problem when using an external flash because the flash is posi-
tioned farther away from the axis of the camera lens and you can also bounce
flash off a wall or ceiling. You are most likely to encounter red-eye when
using a long lens to photograph people at a distance, such as photographing
someone on stage from a seat in the audience. This is because as the flash-
subject distance increases, the angle between the lens and flash decreases. If
you do experience red-eye, you can use a flash shoe cord to hold or mount the
camera farther from the lens axis. You can remove red-eye with photo-editing
software, but it’s a lot easier to avoid it to begin with.
There is no way to
illustrate red-eye in
a book that’s printed
in black and white.
However, for your
entertainment, Eric
shows one way it can be
avoided.
In black & white, red-
eye can look eerie. In
color it’s even more so.
Click here to explore
red-eye.
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USING FILL FLASH
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USING FILL FLASH
When photographing people or other subjects in bright sun, shadow areas
can be so dark in the image that they show little or no detail. If the shadows
cover a large part of the subject, as they do when it’s backlit, the effect can be
distracting and unattractive. You can lighten such shadows by using flash to
“fill” the shadows to lighten them. Using fill flash is also a good way to get ac-
curate color balance under unusual lighting. With the 5D Mark II, you do so
by turning on an attached flash so it fires even when there is enough available
light to take the picture.
Click here to explore fill
flash.
With no fill flash (left)
the bright background
has caused the
main subject to be
underexposed. Using fill
flash (right), the subject
is properly exposed.
Photo courtesy of Tim
Connor.
One reason to use fill
flash outdoors is to add
catch lights to eyes—hot
spots that make the
eyes sparkle.
124
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USING SLOW SYNC FLASH
In very dim light, flash pictures often show a well exposed foreground subject
against a black or almost black background. The slow sync mode is designed
to minimize this problem by leaving the shutter open longer than usual to
lighten the background. In many cases, the slow shutter speed used in this
mode allows blur from camera shake or moving subjects to appear as blur in
images. To avoid blur from camera shake, use a tripod and photograph static
subjects. Or use this effect creatively. A short flash burst combined with a
long shutter speed gives interesting effects. The flash freezes nearby objects
sharply, and the long shutter speed lets moving objects blur and moving
lights appear as streaks. There are a number of ways to use slow sync:
Show sync flash was
used to create this
photo showing both
sharpness and blur.
Normally, when you combine a slow shutter speed with flash, the flash fires at
the very beginning of the exposure when the first shutter curtain is fully open
and the second hasn’t started to close. This is known as 1st curtain sync. If
the scene you are photographing contains bright lights that are moving, such
as automobile head or tail lights, they’ll create streaks in your image. These
can be interesting elements and used creatively.
To give you even more creative control, in P, Tv, Av, M or B modes you can
also use 2nd curtain sync. In this mode, the flash fires just before the second
shutter curtain closes rather than just after the first has fully opened.
The differences between first and second curtain sync can be quite signifi-
cant, as when using flash to photograph a moving car or other moving lights
at night:
• First curtain sync captures the car with the streaks from the head or tail
lights streaming out in front of the car, making the car appear to be mov-
ing backward. (The flash fires to freeze the car, but the car then continues to
move forward with it’s lights painting trails in the image in front of the car
until the shutter closes.)
• Second curtain sync captures the streaks flowing behind the car. (The shut-
ter opens to capture the light trails in the image as the car moves forward,
then the flash fires to freeze the car with the trails behind it.)
When using a fast shutter speed, the effects of first curtain and second
curtain sync are often identical and not much different from those taken
with slow sync off. However, as you slow shutter speeds, the effects get more
pronounced. You’ll find that you have to experiment to find what works with
subjects at different distances and moving at different speeds. In general, the
closer you get to the main subject illuminated by the flash, the more pro-
nounced the effect. When too far away the flash and ambient light are more
balanced so the subject isn’t frozen as much by the flash.
TIPS
• When using slow
sync flash, long
exposure times may
create unwanted
blur in the image.
At times like this,
you may want to use
a camera support
(page 64).
• When using a high
ISO with slow sync
the chances of over-
exposure increase as
you get closer to the
subject.
Combining flash with a
slow shutter speed can
give you unusual effects
in dim light.
USING SLOW SYNC FLASH
! To use slow sync automatically, attach a flash and set the Mode Dial
to Av.
! To better control slow sync effects, set the Mode Dial to Tv mode and
control the amount of blur by varying the shutter speed. In a fairly dim
room try 1/20 or so to start.
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USÌNG SLOW SYNC FLASH
Show sync flash lets
you use blur creatively
as shown here with
the streaked lights
highlighting the
champaign glass.
1st curtain sync (top)
fires the flash at
the beginning of the
exposure, then records
ambient light. As a
result, light streaks
from the moving
subject appear in front
of it. 2nd curtain sync
(bottom) fires the
flash at the end of the
exposure, after the
ambient light has been
recorded so the streaks
trail behind the subject.
Click here to explore
first and second curtain
sync.
USING 2ND CURTAIN SYNC
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B modes, press MENU and
select the Set up 3 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight External Speedlite control
and press SET.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Flash function settings and
press SET.
4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Shutter sync and press SET.
5. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight 2nd curtain and press SET.
6. Press MENU or the shutter button to hide the menu and take your
photos. When finished using 2nd Curtain sync, repeat Steps 1–5 but
select 1st curtain.
TIP
• When using 2nd-
curtain flash, a pre-
flash is fired for flash
metering as soon as
you press the shutter
button. The main
flash fires just before
the shutter closes.
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USING AVAILABLE LIGHT
There are times when the light is dim but you want to capture the unique
colors of the available light, or you want to photograph in places where
flash isn’t allowed. In these circumstances you need to prevent the built-in
flash from firing and support the camera for a long exposure. If the flash
fires, foreground subjects will appear as if photographed in daylight and the
background is likely to be very dark. Using available light will often even out
the lighting, however if you don’t support the camera you will likely have blur
from camera movement.
PREVENTING THE FLASH FROM FIRING
! Detach the flash from the camera or turn it off.
Available light can add
beautiful colors to a
photograph.
When photographing in dim light there are things you can do to get better
results without using the flash. Try the following procedures described on
pages 64–66:
• Increase the camera’s ISO although it will add noise to the image.
• Use the camera’s self-timer to trigger the shutter so you don’t introduce
camera motion when pressing it with your finger.
• Support the camera or use a tripod and a remote control.
TIP
• You can also use
slow sync flash to
lighten the back-
ground (page 124).
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USÌNG FLASH ÌN CLOSE-UPS
USING FLASH IN CLOSE-UPS
There are two important reasons to use flash in close-up or tabletop photog-
raphy. With flash, you can use smaller apertures for greater depth of field,
and extremely short bursts of light at close distances prevent camera or sub-
ject movement from causing blur.
Using electronic flash with predictable results takes a little effort and you
may need to practice and experiment. For example, direct on-camera flash
doesn’t give a picture the feeling of texture and depth that you can get from
side-lighting. If you use an external flash, you can bounce the flash off a
reflector, or use an off-camera flash cord to illuminate the subject from an
angle for a better lighting effect.
A special kind of flash is the ring flash. These units fit around the lens and fire
a circle of light on the subject. They are ideal for shadowless close-up photog-
raphy such as that used in medical, dental, and nature photography. Because
ring flash is so flat (shadowless), the unit can be set to fire just one side of the
ring, or one side of the ring can be fired with more intensity than the other so
the flash casts shadows that show surface modeling in the subject.
Canon’s Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX provides you with full E-TTL II flash
capability when used with the 5D Mark II. With a Guide Number of 46 (ISO
100/ft.), the MR-14EX mounts directly to Canon macro lenses. It offers flash
exposure lock, FP high-speed sync, and a number of other features. The flash
has two flash tubes that can be used together or independently. When used
together, lighting ratios between the two tubes can be set in one-half stop
increments up to +/- 3 stops.
The Macro Ring Lite is also equipped with twin focusing lamps and a set of 7
Custom Functions that allow you to modify flash operation for specific shoot-
ing conditions. The MR-14EX requires 4 AA-size batteries and is equipped
with a socket for optional external power supplies such as the Canon Com-
pact Battery Pack CP-E4 to reduce recycling time and increase the number of
flashes per set of batteries.
The Macro Twin Lite, designed for serious close-up, nature, and macro pho-
tography, gives a directional quality of light, rather than the flat light char-
acteristic of the ring flash. Two separate flash heads can be swiveled around
the lens, can be aimed separately, and even removed from their holder and
mounted off-camera. Like the MR-14EX, the new Macro Twin Lite MT-24EX
is fully E-TTL II compatible with all EOS bodies, including digital SLRs, and
even allows Wireless E-TTL II flash control with one or more EX-series “slave
units.” It also provides easy ratio control of each flash head’s output, over a
six-stop range.
Flash was used to
freeze the katydid and
stinkbug.
The Macro Ring Lite
MR-14EX (top) and
the Macro Twin Lite
MT-24X (bottom) are
designed for close-up
photography.
When photographed
without flash, the
background can be light
and distracting (left).
Photographed with flash
and using exposure
compensation to darken
the background, sets
off the main subject
(right).
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STUDIO LIGHTING
There are two important reasons to use artificial lighting in studio photog-
raphy. First, increasing the level of light lets you use smaller apertures for
greater depth of field, and faster shutter speeds to reduce blur from camera
or subject movement. Second, you can better control the illumination of the
subject, placing highlights and shadows to reduce or emphasize modeling.
CANDIDATES FOR STUDIO LIGHTING
There are a number of subjects that lend themselves to being photographed
under controlled lighting. Here are just some of them.
• Portraits can be either candid or more formal. Candid portraits are usually
captured during the flow of action. It’s the more formal ones that give you the
time needed to arrange lighting.
• Small three-dimensional objects need to be illuminated properly to bring
out shapes, details and colors. You can light a subject in several ways, de-
pending on your objectives. For example, an object with low relief, such as a
coin needs to be cross-lit to bring out surface details. A translucent or trans-
parent object needs to be backlit to bring out colors. As you’ll see, many of
these subjects photograph better with the diffuse lighting provided by a light
tent.
• Flat copy such as posters, stamps, prints, or pages from books require soft,
even light over their surface and the camera’s image sensor must be exactly
parallel to the subject to prevent “keystoning.” Even then, most lenses will
curve otherwise straight lines at the periphery of the image because they
are not designed for copying and are not perfectly rectilinear. (This is called
curvilinear distortion.) There are other lens aberrations that make it difficult
to keep the entire image in focus at the same time. One suggestion is to use a
small aperture that increases depth of field and uses the center portion of the
lens where aberrations are least likely to affect the image.
LIGHTING
For good portraits or product shots, you’ll find that direct on-camera flash
creates hard shadows and doesn’t give a picture the feeling of texture and
depth that you can get from side-lighting. When you use an external flash, try
using an off-camera flash cord so you can handhold it to the side to light the
subject from an angle.
• Light tents bathe a subject in soft, even lighting and are particularly useful
for complex subjects such as bouquets, highly reflective subjects such as jew-
elry, and translucent subjects such as glassware. A subject placed in the light
tent is surrounded by a translucent material which is lit from the outside. If
the subject is small enough, you can use a plastic gallon milk bottle with the
bottom cut out and the top enlarged for the camera lens. When positioned
over the subject and illuminated by a pair of floodlights, the light inside the
bottle is diffused by the translucent sides of the bottle. The result is a very
even lighting of the subject.
• Studio lights use reflectors mounted on adjustable stands. Keep in mind
that the color of the light you use to illuminate an object affects the colors in
the final image. For best results you need bulbs that are daylight balanced.
The best of these are daylight fluorescents because they don’t give off any
heat and last a very long time. The quality of the stands and reflectors is also
When lighting flat
objects you want the
light even over the
entire surface. To do
this you need two lights
set at 45 degree angles
so there are no hot
spots or reflections.
Lights courtesy of
tabletop studios—
http://www.ezcube.com
5000k compact
fluorescent bulb highly
recommended for
product photography.—
http://www.ezcube.com
Light tent with red
goblet—
http://www.ezcube.com
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STUDIO LIGHTING
important because they should be easy to work with and lock in position.
• Reflectors. When the light illuminating a small subject casts hard, dark
shadows, you can lighten the shadows by arranging reflectors around the
subject to bounce part of the light back onto the shadowed area. You can use
almost any relatively large, flat reflective object, including cardboard, cloth,
or aluminum foil (crumpling the foil to wrinkle it, then opening it out again
works best). Position the reflector so that it points toward the shadowed side
of the subject. As you adjust the angle of the reflector, you will be able to
observe its effects on the shadows. Use a neutral-toned reflector so the color
of the reflector doesn’t add a color cast to the image.
A light tent can make
an amazing difference
in table-top photos—
http://www.ezcube.com
This very complex
subject was shot in a
lite tent. The soft diffuse
light reached every
part allowing it to be
captured without dark
shadows and burned
out highlights.
http://www.ezcube.com
A medallion placed on
a light panel and shot
from above has a pure
white background. A
small lamp is used to
side light the coin to
bring out its relief.
http://www.ezcube.com
• Light panels are an ideal source of light because they have so many uses.
When you place an object on the illuminated panel and shoot from above, the
area surrounding the object is captured as pure white. If you cut a hole in a
sheet of background paper and arrange it as a sweep above the panel, a glass
placed on the hole appears to glow from within as light streams through the
hole and through the glass. Finally, by tipping a panel on its side, it can be
used as a background or like any other light source.
• Flash. There is definitely a role for on camera flash in studio photography.
It doesn’t hurt to see what results you get from an external flash. You might
even want to try the Macro Twin Lite MT-24X because you can rotate the two
flash heads to bounce light off reflectors or off the walls of a light tent.
130
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BACKGROUNDS
Some thought should be given to the background you use. It should be one
that makes your subject jump out, and not overwhelm it. The safest back-
ground is a white or neutral curved sweep like the one that comes with an
EZcube light tent. It can be lit so it disappears in the photo or so it provides
a smooth gradation of light behind the subject. It’s safe, because most things
photograph well against it. Other options include black, colored or graduated
backgrounds, and these should be selected to support and not clash with the
colors in the subject. The texture of the background is also a consideration.
For example, black velvet has no reflections at all while black poster board
might show them.
There are times when you don’t want a background in a photo so the subject
is silhouetted against a pure white background. You’ll often see this tech-
nique used in catalog photos but it’s also a great way to make it easy to select
an object in a photo-editing program so you can cut it out and paste it into
another image. To get this effect you need to overexpose the background. In
some cases this is as easy as pointing lights at it. In the case of small objects,
a light panel makes it very easy.
RISERS
A white, black, colored or clear high gloss acrylic platform, called a riser,
provides a soft reflection of the subject placed on top. The elevation of the
platform on a clear riser also eliminates any shadow beneath the subject
because raising it throws the background out of focus. This helps the back-
ground “disappear.” If you position the subject in the middle of the riser,
you can then crop out the edges with a photo-editing program so the subject
seems to float in space.
SPECIAL BULBS
You can experiment with different kinds of lights. For example, TabletopStu-
dio.com introduced their Diamond Dazzler bulb with 18 daylight color LEDs
to bring out the brilliance in faceted gemstones.
Here a crystal glass
was shot in a light
cube against a black
background to set it off.
A hole was cut in a
piece of black paper
and placed on a light
panel. The glass was
then placed over the
hole and looks like it’s
illuminated from within.
The Diamond Dazzler
light brings out the
brilliance of diamonds.
Courtesy of tabletop
studios—
http://www.ezcube.
com.
A riser creates
attractive reflections
and softens the
background. Courtesy of
tabletop studios—
http://www.ezcube.
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PORTRAIT AND PRODUCT PHOTOGRAPHY—INTRODUCTION
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PORTRAIT AND PRODUCT PHOTOGRAPHY—INTRODUCTION
In the studio, you usually use more than one light to illuminate a portrait or
product. The goal is often to create light that looks like that found outdoors.
The lights can be hot lights, strobes, or slave flash units–or even fill cards.
Sometimes you can get away with only one or two lights but the use of main,
fill, background and rim lights is a classic studio lighting setup for portraits
that can be adapted to other subjects.
• The main light is positioned somewhat to one side of the subject and some-
what above it.
• A fill light is placed opposite the main light, but more nearly at the subject’s
level.
• A background light is used to control the lighting on the background be-
hind the main subject.
• A rim light is placed quite high and behind the subject to highlight edges
and separate the subject from the background.
For most purposes you can get by with just the main light and a fill light. In
fact, you can often get along with just the main light by replacing the fill light
with reflectors to bounce light into the shadows. The way you position a light
relative to the subject is very important.
• As you move a light farther away from the subject you reduce the light fall-
ing on it. Because there is less light you may have to use a larger aperture
which gives less depth of field.
• Moving a light back hardens its light, while moving it closer softens it. By
moving a light farther away, you also reduce the light it illuminates the sub-
ject with. On strobes, you do it by adjusting the light’s intensity. On continu-
ous lights you can do the same with a dimmer switch. You can have one light
illuminate the subject with more intensity than another light. The difference
between the two lights is called the lighting ratio.
• Positioning the light at an angle to the subject will make the light uneven
over the subject. The part of the subject closest to the light source will receive
more light. The exposure will only be correct at one distance—normally the
part metered by the autoexposure system. Parts of the setup located farther
from the light source will be increasingly darker the farther away they are.
Most photographers
without studios use
continuous lights
that usually have
three parts—stands,
reflectors, and bulbs.
Click to explore hard
and soft light.
132
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!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+,-')(.%/"-0"%.:/<%
Click to explore the
main light.
THE MAIN LIGHT
Outdoors the brightest source of light is usually the sun. In the studio, the
sun’s role is filled by the main light. Like the sun it’s the brightest source of
light and casts the darkest shadows.
Like the sun, the main
light is often positioned
above and slightly to
the side of the subject.
Placing the light above
the subject creates
light on the subject that
is familiar, as are the
shadows it creates.
Here the main light is
set to the left, above,
and right of the subject.
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THE FILL LIGHT
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Click to explore the fill
light.
THE FILL LIGHT
A fill light represents the light that falls on an outdoor subject from the broad
expanse of an open sky, or reflecting from surfaces in the landscape. The fill
light is almost always less bright than the main light, in fact about half as
bright. Its relative brightness can be controlled in a number of ways. For ex-
ample, it can be placed farther away from the subject, you can add a diffuser,
or you can use a less powerful light.
The fill light, placed
opposite the main light,
opens shadows by
lighting the dark side of
the subject facing away
from the main light.
The fill light on the
right of the subject is
moved from close to
the subject (left) to
farther away (middle
and right). The closer it
is, the more it lightens
shadows created by the
main light.
134
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!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+,-')(.%/"-0"%H:)@6+(*<1%
Click to explore the
background light.
THE BACKGROUND LIGHT
A background light controls how light or dark the background behind the
subject is. A lighter or darker background can help visually separate the sub-
ject from the background. It can also lighten shadows cast on the background
by other lights. In fact, if made bright enough, it can silhouette the subject.
The background light can be varied for different effects. When only spillover light
illuminates the background (far left) it’s a uniform gray. When not illuminated at all
(second from left) it’s black. When the background is lit by a spot it is graduated
(second from right). When illuminated with a bright light it is burned out to pure
white (far right).
The background light is
off to the side and lights
the background behind
the subject without
lighting the subject
itself.
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THE RIM LIGHT
!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+,-')(.%/"-0"%+/.%
THE RIM LIGHT
A rim light positioned behind the subject and facing toward the camera il-
luminates the edges of the subject from behind so they glow and are visually
separated from the darker background. In portrait photography a rim light is
often used to back light the hair.
The final image is
beautifully lit and
well separated from
the background. It’s
a visually interesting
image.
The rim light is often set
up behind the subject
and slightly higher
than the other lights.
Because this light is
facing the camera, it’s
important that it be
completely blocked by
the subject or out of the
field of view. If not you
may get lens flare and
lowered contrast. One
way to block the light
is to position a piece
of cardboard (called a
gobo) between the light
and subject.
Click to explore the rim
light.
136
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Chapter 7
Other Features and Commands
A
s you’ve seen by now, the 5D Mark II has many settings that control
how your camera operates. In this chapter we discuss those features
not covered elsewhere in the book. You’ll see how to shoot up to 3.9
images per second in continuous mode, shoot remotely, use the monitor to
compose, focus and capture still images and movies in Live View, use and
customize picture styles, save your own settings and menus, set Custom
Functions, and make many other useful settings. You should find a great deal
of information here that you’ll be glad to know. Finally you’ll see how to care
for your camera and remove the dust that tends to accumulate on the surface
of the image sensor.
CONTENTS
• Continuous Photog-
raphy • Remote Con-
trol Photography •
Shooting Still Images
in Live View • Shoot-
ing Movies in Live
View • Using Picture
Styles • Registering
Your Own Settings
• Using Custom
Functions • Using
My Menu • Changing
Other Settings • Car-
ing for Your Camera
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CONTINUOUS PHOTOGRAPHY
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/continuous/
CONTINUOUS PHOTOGRAPHY
To be sure you catch those fleeting moments so common in people, sports
and wildlife photography, you can use continuous mode to capture up to 3.9
images per second as long as you hold down the shutter button.
As you use these modes to capture images, they are first stored in a buffer,
basically internal memory, because this can be done faster than storing them
to a CF card. The buffer can store and process up to 310 Large/Fine JPEGs
when you’re using an UDMA CF card, 78 when using a non-UDMA card, or
13 or 14 RAW images when using either kind of card. To capture more images
in a single burst, reduce the image size, quality or format (page 27). Obvi-
ously there isn’t much of an advantage for RAW shooters, especially given the
higher cost of UDMA cards. However, you can also use these faster cards for
capturing high definition movies (page 145).
When the buffer becomes full, buSY is displayed in the viewfinder and the
camera starts capturing images much more slowly as it frees up room in the
buffer by moving more images to the CF card. After an image is moved and
room is again available in the buffer, the camera captures another image.
When the viewfinder display is active, a readout to the left of the focus indi-
cator shows how many more images will fit in the buffer. The readout doesn’t
go above 99, so when 99 is displayed it means you can capture 99 or more.
In One-Shot AF, focus doesn’t change after the first picture. In AI Servo AF
it does. When Custom Function II-2 High ISO speed noise reduction is set to
Strong, the maximum continuous rate falls dramatically. Some other settings
may slow down the capture rate. For example, a low battery, a slow shutter
speed, or using flash or AI Servo AF, takes photos more slowly as does taking
repeated short bursts instead of one long one.
Once you capture a sequence of pictures you can then choose the best image
from the sequence or use all of them to create an animation on your comput-
er as an animated GIF or Flash movie. When viewed with a Web browser, the
images are quickly displayed one after the other like frames in a movie.
SELECTING A CONTINUOUS MODE
1. With the Mode Dial set to CA, P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press the AF-
DRIVE button and then turn the Quick Control Dial until the con-
tinuous mode icon is displayed on the LCD panel and monitor.
2. To run off photos, hold down the shutter button until you or the
camera decides enough is enough. When you release the shutter
button, the shots remaining count is displayed at the bottom of the
viewfinder next to the focus confirmation indicator. The last photo in
the burst is briefly displayed on the monitor.
3. When finished, repeat Step 1 but select a different drive mode.
The low speed
continuous (left) and
high speed continuous
(right) icons.
Continuous mode
can capture a series
of positions in sports
photography.
Click to see how
continuous mode can be
used creatively.
138
CHAPTER 7. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS
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REMOTE CONTROL PHOTOGRAPHY
To get the sharpest possible images, the camera has to be perfectly still and
free from even slight vibrations created when you press the shutter button or
the mirror swings up. To reduce or eliminate vibrations when you take a pic-
ture, especially when using a long lens, taking close-ups, using mirror lockup
or Bulb (B) mode, you can use one of the 2.6 foot (80 cm) cable releases that
connect to the camera’s N-3 type remote control connector.
• The Remote Switch RS-80N3 replicates all of the functions of the camera’s
shutter button. You can press the shutter button halfway down, all the way
down, and even lock it down for long bulb exposures (page 92).
• The Timer Remote Controller TC-80N3 has a remote shutter button but
also has additional features including a self-timer, interval timer, long-expo-
sure timer, and exposure-count setting feature. You can set the timer any-
where from 1 second to 99 hours, 59 min., 59 sec. To make settings easier you
use a dial to quickly enter numeric settings and the device’s LCD panel can
also be illuminated.
• Canon makes two wireless controllers that communicate with the camera
using its remote control sensor. Using either you can trigger the shutter from
to about 5 meters/16.4 feet from the camera. RC-1 lets you shoot immediately
or with a 2-second delay, and RC-5 has a 2-second delay.
When taking pictures with a remote control, light can leak in through the
viewfinder and affect the exposure. To prevent this, remove the eyecup from
the viewfinder and slip the eyepiece cover, carried on the camera strap, over
the eyepiece. To remove the eyecup cover, grasp both sides and slide it up
and away from the camera.
The 5D Mark II includes EOS Utility software you can use to remotely oper-
ate the camera while viewing the computer screen instead of the camera’s
viewfinder. Using this program you can change camera settings and specify
a start time and interval time for a series of photos. This lets you set up the
camera and get pictures like the one of the squirrel below.
The RS-80N3 (top) and
TC-80N3 (bottom).
The EOS Utility
program.
Slipping the eyepiece
cover over the
viewfinder blocks light
from entering and
affecting the exposure.
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SHOOTING STILL IMAGES IN LIVE VIEW
In any shooting mode other than Full or Creative Auto, you can use the
monitor, or even a connected computer, to compose and focus still images—a
procedure called Live View. (You can do stills in auto modes, using the
Stills+movie setting discussed in the next section.) In most ways using Live
View is just like using the viewfinder. The difference is that in Live View the
camera lifts the mirror up and out of the way (the viewfinder blacks out) and
opens the shutter so the image sensor can capture the scene in real time and
display it on the monitor. You’ll find this mode especially useful when using
a tripod and macro lens to capture close-ups requiring very precise manual
focusing. It’s also useful in a studio setting because the EOS Utility software
and the USB cable supplied with the camera let you use a computer’s screen
to compose, focus and capture images. You can even download captured
images directly to the computer’s hard drive. Although Live View is not de-
signed specifically for hand-held photography or moving subjects, there’s no
reason you shouldn’t give it a try.
Live View has two levels of on and off. You begin by enabling it, which is
like switching it to standby mode. When finished, you disable it. When it’s
enabled and you want to actually use it, you just press the Live View button to
turn it on and off.
USING LIVE VIEW FOR STILLS ONLY
1. With the camera in P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, set the lens focus mode
switch to MF or AF, press MENU and select the Set up 2 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Live View/Movie func set.
and press SET.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight LV func. setting and press
SET to display the Live View function settings screen with three
choices:
• To turn off Live View select Disable.
• To capture still images with Live View select Stills only then select
Stills display or Exposure simulation (page 141) and press SET.
• To capture movies and stills, select Stills+movie (page 145)
4. Press the Live View button to raise the mirror and open the shutter
so the scene is displayed on the monitor and the viewfinder blacks
out.
5. Manually focus the image by turning the focus ring on the lens, or
press AF-ON to focus it automatically using the current AF mode
(page 142), and if necessary:
• To adjust exposure, turn the Quick Control Dial.
• To magnify the image on the monitor for very precise manual focus-
ing, press the Magnify button repeatedly to cycle through 5x, 10x and
back to full view.
6. Take the picture and after image review ends, the camera automati-
cally returns to Live View shooting.
7. When done using Live View for the moment, press the Live View but-
ton. When finished, repeat Steps 1–3 but select Disable.
TIPS
• A side benefit of
Live View is that
it reduces vibra-
tion by lifting the
reflex mirror out of
the way long before
the exposure takes
place. In this respect
it is much like mirror
lockup (page 152).
• For more on using
Live View with your
computer, check the
software instruction
manual covering EOS
Utility.
The Live View button on
the back of the camera.
Using an optional
wireless transmitter
WFT-E4/WFT-E4A you
can make the camera/
computer connection
wirelessly at distances
up to almost 500 feet
(150m).
SHOOTING STILL IMAGES IN LIVE VIEW
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MANUAL FOCUSING
Manual focus is much more accurate than autofocus, especially when you
press the Magnify button to enlarge the area within the magnify frame
(except in Live Face View). To begin, press the Multi-controller to move the
rectangular focusing frame over an important area of the scene (press it
straight down to center the frame), and press the Magnify button to enlarge
the area within the frame. Each time you press it you cycle through Full view
> 5x > 10x and then back to Full view. When magnified, turn the focus ring
on the lens to focus the subject before taking the picture. For tips on focusing
see page 143.
LIVE VIEW/MOVIE FUNCTION SETTINGS
The Live View/Movie func set command on the Set up 2 menu displays a
submenu with the choices in the following table. Those grayed out are not
available in Full or Creative Auto modes. All choices are discussed on the
pages that follow.
COMMAND DESCRIPTION PAGE
Movie recording Enables movie recording in Full and Cre-
ative (CA) auto modes.
145
LV func. setting. Turns Live View mode on and off and lets
you set the Live View function settings
and Screen settings type.
139
Grid display Turns on and off a grid on the monitor. 141
Silent shoot. Selects one of three modes to make Live
View camera operation quieter.
141
Metering time Specifies how long metering stays on and
AF Lock measurements are retained.
142
AF mode Specifies one of three autofocus modes—
Quick, Live, or Live face.
142
Movie rec. size Specifies movie frame size 145
Sound recording Turns sound recording with movie on or
off
145
Clicking this button on
EOS Utility displays
the scene the camera
sees on your computer
screen. You can then
remotely adjust white
balance and focus,
check histograms and
depth of field, and take
pictures.
In direct sunlight, or
other situations that
might heat the camera,
the high temperature
icon (above) may be
displayed to indicate
that image quality may
be degraded by noise or
irregular colors. If you
continue shooting, Live
View may discontinue
automatically and
not resume until the
camera’s temperature
falls.
USING LIVE VIEW FUNCTION SETTINGS
1. With the camera in any shooting mode press MENU and select the
Set up 2 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Live View/Movie func set.
and press SET.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice and press SET
to display options. Highlight your choice, and press SET again.
4. Press MENU twice to hide the menu.
LIVE VIEW FUNCTION SETTINGS
• Disable turns off Live View.
• Stills only enables the capture of still images.
• Stills+movie enables the capture of stills and movies (page 145). You can
even capture stills during a movie, although during playback the movie will
briefly pause at the place you took them and you’ll hear the shutter in the
movie sound track.
The Live View function
settings menu.
In this table movie
recording is only
displayed in Full and
Creative Auto modes
and grayed out settings
are not available in
those modes.
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SHOOTING STILL IMAGES IN LIVE VIEW
SCREEN SETTINGS TYPE
• Stills display displays stills at the standard brightness to make them easy to
see.
• Exposure simulation, when enabled, displays the Exp.SIM icon and the
brightness of the image on the monitor adjusts to roughly match the bright-
ness of the image you will capture. When disabled (the default), the image
is displayed normally to make it easier to compose the shot. When enabled,
pressing INFO displays a histogram to guide you in getting the best possible
exposure (page 59). If you use flash or Bulb (B) mode (page 92) the histo-
gram is grayed out but still works, although it may not be accurate.
• Movie display displays still images at the standard brightness and the
aspect ratio is based on the movie recording size you’ve selected (page 145).
(The semi-transparent mask framing the image area is not included in the re-
corded movie.) In this mode you can take still photos by pressing the shutter
button. The shutter speed, aperture, and ISO speed are set automatically.
GRID DISPLAY
Grid display turns coarse or fine grid lines off (the default) and on. When on,
it’s easier to align horizontals and verticals in an image.
SILENT SHOOTING
You can set Silent shoot to Mode 1, Mode 2, or Disable to avoid alarming
people or wildlife.
• Mode 1 (the default) is quieter than normal camera operation. Normally,
when you press the shutter button to take a picture in Live View, the sec-
ond shutter curtain closes, and the image sensor is cleared. The first shutter
curtain then opens to begin the exposure, and the second closes again to end
it. In silent modes, the camera leaves the second curtain open and simulates
its opening by activating the sensor one row of pixels at a time just as if the
curtain were sliding over it to uncover the rows. The second curtain then
closes to end the exposure. At shutter speeds faster than 1/200 this combina-
tion of an electronic first curtain and mechanical second curtain creates a slit
moving across the sensor. In continuous mode you can shoot up to 3 images
per second with only the sound of the second shutter closing once for each
picture. Also, since the first curtain is an electronic shutter in this mode the
release time is infinitesimal so you can capture instantaneous actions.
• Mode 2 takes a shot and then suspends camera operations if you continue
to hold the shutter button down. When you release the shutter button back to
the halfway position the camera sounds softly as the shutter cocks. Delaying
the shooting sound can minimize the disturbance in some situations. In con-
tinuous mode you can only take single shots, and if you use a remote control-
ler this mode operates just like Mode 1.
• Disable is used for more accurate exposures when making vertical shifts
with a TS-E tilt-shift lens (page 110), extension tubes (page 108) and non-
Canon external flash units. When you release the shutter button in this mode
it sounds as if two pictures are taken although only one is.
• If you use flash, Disable takes effect even when you have selected Mode 1
or Mode 2.
• When using a non-Canon flash unit, select Disable since the flash won’t
fire if Mode 1 or Mode 2 is selected.
TIP
• When Silent shoot
is set to Mode 1 or
2 and flash is used,
the camera operates
as if it were set to
Disable.
The Exp.SIM icon on the
monitor indicates the
following:
• Displayed in white,
the Live View image’s
brightness is close
to what the captured
image will look like.
• When blinking, the
lighting is too dim or
bright and the Live
View image doesn’t
accurately reflect
image brightness on
the monitor. However,
the captured image will
reflect the exposure
setting.
• When gray, an
external flash is on or
the Mode Dial is set to
B (Bulb). The histogram
is also grayed out and
may not be properly
displayed in low light or
bright light conditions.
Screen settings type
icons include Stills
display (left) Exposure
simulation (middle) and
Movie display (right).
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METERING TIMER
You can change Metering timer to specify how long the metered exposure
setting and AE lock setting is retained. The default is 16 seconds and the
available range is 4 seconds to 30 minutes.
AF MODE
Although not as precise as magnified manual focus, you can autofocus by
switching the lens focus switch to AF and pressing the AF-ON button. The
camera then focuses using the AF mode you have selected.
1: Quick mode (the default) is the fastest way to autofocus in Live View but
the screen briefly goes black. In this mode, the small AF point or points that
will be used to set focus and a larger magnifying frame are displayed on the
monitor. To select a different AF point, press the AF-DRIVE button and use
the Multi-controller. You can also use the Multi-controller by itself to move
the magnifying frame, and then press the Magnify button to enlarge the area
within the frame.
When you press AF-ON and hold it down to focus, the reflex mirror lowers
and the monitor goes black while focus is performed by the camera’s dedi-
cated AF sensor in One-Shot AF mode just as though you were using the
viewfinder. When focus is achieved, the camera beeps and the mirror goes
back up so the Live View image reappears with the AF point or points used to
focus briefly flash red. At this point you can refocus or press the shutter but-
ton to take the picture.
Although you can set the autofocus mode to AI Servo AF or AI Focus AF
(page 72), autofocus ends when the camera returns to the Live View image
display, so you can’t keep a moving subject in focus.
2: Live mode uses the image sensor to focus and is less likely to achieve focus
quickly, if at all. Its only advantage is that the screen doesn’t go black as the
camera autofocuses.
In this mode a large AF point that looks just like the magnifying frame in
Quick mode is displayed in the center of the monitor. You can move it any-
where but near the frame edges with the Multi-controller, and magnify the
area it frames with the Magnify button. When you then press and hold down
the AF-ON button, the camera focuses on the area within the frame without
lowering the mirror. When focus is achieved, the camera beeps and the large
AF point turns green. At this point, release the AF-ON button and use the
shutter button to take the picture. If focus can’t be achieved, the large AF
point turns red, so release the AF-ON button and try focusing on another part
of the scene.
3: Live Face mode can locate and frame forward facing faces in a scene.
If only one is found it is indicated with frame corners. If more than one is
framed, one has sideway pointing arrowheads. When these are displayed you
can accept the selected face or use the Multi-selector or Quick Control Dial
to select another. When you press AF-ON, if focus is achieved the AF point
turns green and the camera beeps. If focus is not achieved, the AF point turns
red.
• If a face isn’t detected, you can press the Multi-controller straight down
to switch to Live mode and display a focus frame in the center of the scene,
move it with the Multi-controller to any part of the scene, and press AF-ON
to focus on the selected area. (You can’t use it to magnify in this mode.) When
finished, press the Multi-controller straight down to return to face focus.
TIPS
• In Live View you
can’t initiate autofo-
cus using the shutter
release button on
the Remote Switch
RS-80N3 or Timer
Remote Controller
TC-80N3.
• During autofocus-
ing no AF points
are displayed on
the screen but they
are still operational.
Canon recommends
that you position the
focusing frame at the
center and select the
center AF point for
autofocusing.
• You can select an
AF mode by pressing
AF-DRIVE and turn-
ing the Main Dial.
The camera indicates
which face it thinks
is most important by
adding a pair of arrow
heads to it.
AF mode icons.
Focus frames when
there is more than on
face (left) and the most
important face (right)
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SHOOTING STILL IMAGES IN LIVE VIEW
• If a face is detected near the edge of the frame where autofocus won’t work,
the focus frame is grayed out. When you then press the AF-ON, the center AF
point is used for focus.
• When the scene is way out of focus faces aren’t detected so turn the focusing
ring on the lens to focus, even approximately and try again.
• Focus detect isn’t perfect. Objects that aren’t faces are sometimes detected
by mistake. Faces that are very small or large in the picture, too bright or too
dark, titled horizontally or diagonally, or partially hidden are not detected.
The focusing frame might cover only part of a face.
GENERAL TIPS IN LIVE VIEW
• The monitor displays 100% of the area that will be captured in the photo.
• Live View ends automatically at the specified Auto power off time (page 161)
. When Auto power off is set to Off, the Live View shooting stops automati-
cally after 30 minutes although the camera’s power remains on.
• Live View is cancelled if you select Dust Delete Data (Shooting 2 menu),
Sensor cleaning (Set up 2 menu), or Clear settings or Firmware Ver (Set up
3 menu).
• Using the supplied video cable or an optional HDMI cable you can display
the Live View screen on a TV set.
• Don’t point the camera at the sun or you can damage the image sensor.
• Live View consumes more power than normal operation. You can shoot up
to 200 pictures in a warm setting, and as few as 180 when the temperature
falls toward freezing. Autofocus reduces the number of shots you can take.
Continuous Live View shooting is possible for up to 2 hours; somewhat less
when it’s cold.
• You use buttons and menus to change settings and playback images in Live
View just as you do when using the viewfinder.
• When you press the AF-DRIVE or ISO-Flash Exposure Compensation but-
ton, a setting screen appears on the monitor so you can change the settings.
• Live View shooting disables some Custom Function settings (page 152).
LIVE VIEW FOCUSING TIPS
• To check depth of field, press the depth of field preview button (page 71).
The brightness of the display is close to the captured image even at small ap-
ertures. You can’t do this with Screen setting set to Movie display (page 141).
• You can’t use the focus preset feature on super telephoto lenses.
• There are many things that affect the camera’s ability to autofocus in Live
View. If you encounter problems, switch to Quick mode or use manual focus-
ing.
• The image brightness may change during and after autofocusing.
• If the image flickers to the extent it makes focusing difficult, press the
Live View button to suspend Live View, adjust the lighting, and press the
Live View button again to resume Live View. Check that the flickering has
stopped, then autofocus.
• When autofocusing the AF-assist beam on an external flash is not emitted.
The face detect icon.
TIPS
• Face detection
takes a great deal of
control out of your
hands but the se-
lected face isn’t used
just to set focus but
also exposure and
white balance.
• The camera may
sometimes misiden-
tify objects as faces.
• Faces may not be
detected when too
small, too large, too
bright or dark, tilted,
or partially hidden.
• Movie Recording
Size and Sound Re-
cording are discussed
in the next section.
To check depth-of-
field in the viewfinder
press the depth-of-field
preview button (page
71).
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MAGNIFIED VIEW FOR FOCUSING
• You can’t magnify the image in Live Face mode.
• When the scene is magnified on the monitor, the camera enhances image
sharpness from what it will on the captured image to help you better evaluate
focus and sharpness on the screen.
• When an image is magnified the shutter speed and aperture settings are
displayed in orange on the monitor.
• Pressing the AE lock button won’t lock exposure when the image is magni-
fied.
• The speed of autofocusing may be different during the full view and magni-
fied view.
• If you can’t achieve autofocus in magnified view, return to full view and try
again.
• If you autofocus in Live mode’s full view and then magnify the image, focus
may be off.
• While the image is magnified, the exposure might not come out as desired.
To remind you of this the shutter speed and aperture are displayed in red.
LIVE VIEW EXPOSURE TIPS
• Press the INFO button to change the information displayed including a live
histogram and exposure level indicator.
• If a light source within the scene varies, the image on the screen may flicker.
If this happens press the Live View button once to suspend Live View shoot-
ing, adjust the lighting and then press the Live View button again to continue.
• Extremely bright sources in the scene, such as the sun, might be black on
the screen but will be captured correctly.
• Under low light or bright light conditions, the Live View image on the moni-
tor might not reflect the brightness of the captured image.
• If you set the LCD brightness to a bright setting (page 161), you may see
chrominance noise in the Live View image on the monitor but it won’t be
captured in the image.
• If you recompose the scene, the brightness of the image on the monitor may
briefly change. Wait until it readjusts or your photo’s exposure may be off.
• You can use flash, and when it fires the mirror drops down briefly so the
camera can measure the preflash used to set the flash exposure. There are
two shutter sounds but only one photo is taken. You can’t use FE lock, model-
ing flash, or test flash in Live View.
• During Live View shooting, metering is set to evaluative regardless of the
menu setting.
• During continuous shooting (page 137) exposure is locked in with the first
image.
• When Custom Function II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer (page 152) is set to
any setting other than Disabled, the image on the monitor looks bright even
when you select a minus (-) exposure compensation.
• Before taking a long exposure, stop Live View shooting temporarily and wait
several minutes before shooting. This is to prevent image degradation.
The magnifying frame
can be moved about
the screen.
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SHOOTING MOVIES IN LIVE VIEW
You can shoot movies in all shooting modes including Full and Creative Auto.
Just by pressing the SET button in Live View you can capture HD movies at
1920 x 1080 pixels or standard 4:3 TV quality (SD) movies at 640 x 480 pix-
els—both formats at 30 frames per second (fps). While doing so you can press
the shutter button to interrupt the movie and capture a still image. Picture
Styles (page 149) and other settings you make to adjust image characteristics
apply to movies so you have a significant amount of creative control over the
quality of your movies. You can also use any of 60 or more Canon EF lenses
from ultra-wide-angle and fish-eye to macro and super telephoto.
When shooting movies
at the 1920 x 1080
size (Full HD quality),
use a large-capacity
card having an actual
reading/writing speed
of at least 8 MB/sec.
Recording and playing
back from slower
cards may not work
as expected. To check
a card’s read/write
speed, refer to the card
manufacturer’s Web
site.
USING LIVE VIEW FOR STILLS+MOVIES
1. With the Mode Dial set to any shooting mode, press MENU, display
the Set up 2 menu, highlight Live View/Movie func. set. press SET
and then do one of the following:
• In auto modes highlight Movie recording and set it to Enable.
• In P, Tv, Av, M or B mode select LV func. setting, select
Stills+movie, then select Movie display (page 141).
2. To set the movie recording size select Movie rec. size and set the size
to 1920x1080 (Full High-Definition) quality or 640x480 (standard
quality).
3. To display the Live View image press the Live View button.
4. Focus the subject using AF or manual focus (page 142).
5. To begin recording the movie, press SET and while it’s being record-
ed, a recording indicator (a red dot) is displayed on the upper right of
the screen.
6. To stop recording the movie press SET again.
BASIC MOVIE TIPS
• Movies can range up to 4GB or 30 minutes, whichever comes first.
• A 4GB card will store about 12 minutes of 1920 x 1080 video and 24 min-
utes of 640 x 480. When you run out of room on the card, the movie record-
ing size and remaining shooting time are displayed in red on the monitor.
• If you use a card having a slow writing speed, a five-level indicator on the
right side of the monitor may appear during movie shooting. It indicates how
much data has not yet been written to the card (remaining capacity of the in-
ternal buffer memory). The slower the card, the faster the indicator will climb
upward. If the indicator becomes full, movie shooting will stop automatically.
If the card has a fast writing speed, the indicator will either not appear or the
level will not increase much. Before using a card for movies, record a few test
movies to see if the card can write fast enough.
• A fully charged battery pack will capture about 90 minutes of video at
23°C/73°F and about 80 minutes total at 0°C/32°F.
• The camera’s built-in microphone records sounds the camera makes. To re-
duce or eliminate these noises you need an external microphone. The built-in
microphone records in monaural but external stereo microphones equipped
TIP
You can use Custom
Function IV-3 Assign
SET button to use
the SET button to
turn on Live View
and start and stop
movie recording with
a single button.
SHOOTING MOVIES IN LIVE VIEW
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with a stereo mini plug (3.5mm diameter) can be plugged into the camera’s
external microphone IN terminal. Sound levels are adjusted automatically.
• Movies are recorded in the MOV format using an MPEG-4 video compres-
sion and sound is recorded in PCM2 format without compression. They are
recorded in the sRGB-equivalent color space optimized for movies.
• When you take a still image while recording a movie, it’s stored separately
but also displayed for one second during movie playback and then the movie
resumes. The shutter speed and aperture are set automatically and the ISO
speed is set automatically between 100–3200. The shutter speed and aper-
ture displayed in the Live View screen when the shutter button is pressed
halfway are for shooting still photos.
• Since movie aspect ratios are different from still images, a semi-transparent
mask on the monitor indicates the captured area.
• External flash won’t fire for still photos taken during movie shooting.
• When you take still photos during movie shooting with the drive mode set
to the 10 second or 2 second self-timer, single-image shooting takes effect
automatically.
• You can use Remote Controller RC-1/RC-5 to start and stop the movie
shooting. With RC-1, set the timing switch to 2 (2-sec. delay), then press the
transmit button. If the switch is set to immediate shooting, still photo shoot-
ing takes effect.
• Under low light or bright light conditions, or when their is a bright light
source in the scene, the Live View image might not accurately reflect the
brightness of the captured image. The movie is recorded much as it is dis-
played.
• Under low light, the Live View image on the monitor might show chromi-
nance noise and in movies this noise is recorded much like it is displayed on
the monitor.
CAMERA SETTINGS
• In P, Tv, Av, M and B modes, if LV func. setting is set to Stills+movie, you
can still shoot movies by pressing SET even if Screen settings has been set to
Stills display or Exposure simulation.
• For movie shooting, the ISO speed is set automatically. ISO 100 is set as
standard, then it can increase up to ISO 6400 (expandable to H1: 12800) for
low-light conditions.
• When Screen settings (page 141) is set to Stills display or Exposure simu-
lation, the start of a movie may momentarily record a substantial exposure
change.
• When Screen settings (page 141) is set to Movie display, the depth-of-field
preview button doesn’t work.
• When Custom function II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer is set to anything
other than 3 Disable, the image may look bright even if a decreased exposure
compensation has been set.
LENSES AND FOCUS
• When the attached lens has an Image Stabilizer it operates at all times even
if you do not press the shutter button halfway down. This may reduce the
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SHOOTING MOVIES IN LIVE VIEW
shooting time or number of stills. When using a tripod or when the Image
Stabilizer isn’t necessary, set the IS switch on the lens to OFF.
• Autofocusing during movie shooting is not recommended since it might
momentarily throw the focus way off or change the exposure. If the AF mode
has been set to Quick mode, autofocus is not possible even if you press the
AF-ON button during movie shooting.
• The focus preset feature on super telephoto lenses cannot be used.
EXPOSURE TIPS
• With Screen settings set to Movie display or during movie recording, you
can adjust the image brightness (exposure compensation) by setting the
power switch to the white line above ON and turning the Quick Control Dial
(except in auto modes).
• During movie shooting, you can lock the exposure (AE lock) by pressing the
AE Lock button. To cancel the AE lock, press the AF point selector button.
(The metering timer doesn’t operate when recording movies.)
• Center-weighted average metering is used for movie shooting. If the AF
mode is set to Face detection mode, the exposure control is evaluative meter-
ing linked to the detected face.
THINGS TO AVOID
• When you use Live View for a long time, the camera’s internal temperature
may increase and it can degrade image quality. Terminate Live View shooting
when not shooting images.
• Before recording a movie, stop Live View shooting temporarily and wait
several minutes before shooting. This is to prevent image degradation.
• Live View shooting in high temperatures and at high ISO speeds may cause
noise or irregular colors.
• If you shoot still photos at a high ISO speed or shoot a movie in low light,
horizontal stripes may become noticeable as noise.
USING A TV AS THE MONITOR
• While shooting a 1920 x 1080 movie with the camera connected to a TV us-
ing an HDMI cable, the image on the TV is small. However, the movie itself is
recorded at 1920 x 1080.
• While shooting a movie with the camera connected to a TV, the TV doesn’t
output the sound although it is recorded.
To turn image
stabilization on, you
set the switch to the
vertical line. To turn it
off you set the switch to
the “o”.
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Movie icons on the
playback panel include
(from left to right) Exit,
Play, Slow Motion, First
Frame, Previous Frame,
Next Frame, Last
Frame.
Movie Playback volume
indicator.
PLAYING MOVIES
You can playback movies on the camera’s monitor or a connected TV (page
23).
PLAYING BACK MOVIES
1. Press the Playback button and turn the Quick Control Dial to select
a movie. Press the INFO button to switch to the information display
you want to use.
• In single-image display, a movie icon is displayed in the upper left
corner of the monitor when a movie is displayed.
•In index display, the perforations on the left edge of the image
indicates that it is a movie. Movies cannot be played from the index
display so press the Magnify button to switch to the single-image
display.
2. With the movie displayed in single-image view, press SET to display
the movie playback panel at the bottom of the monitor.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the Play icon on the play-
back panel and press SET to start the movie.
• To pause and restart the movie at any point, press SET.
• To adjust the sound volume on the camera turn the Main Dial. If
the camera is connected to a TV set, adjust the sound volume on the
set.
• To cancel playback, press the Playback button or press the shutter
button halfway down.
• Still photos embedded in a movie are displayed for about 1 second in play-
back.
• You can’t edit movies in the camera, however once you download them
to your computer you can use ZoomBrowser EX/ ImageBrowser to delete
frames at the beginning or end of the movie.
• If the brightness suddenly changes greatly during movie shooting, that part
might look momentarily still when you playback the movie.
• Movie filenames start with MVI_ and have the extension .MOV.
Icon that indicates a
movie in playback’s
single-image view.
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USING PICTURE STYLES
USING PICTURE STYLES
Picture Styles store settings for still images and movies. The settings have
been chosen by Canon, but you can change them in P, Tv, Av, M and B modes
to better suit your own tastes.
SELECTING PICTURE STYLES
The styles from which you can choose include the following (only Standard,
Portrait, Landscape and Monochrome are available in Creative Auto mode.)
• Standard images are sharpened to look crisp, and the color tone and satura-
tion are set to render vivid colors. This is the Full Auto mode’s setting.
• Portrait images have color tone and saturation set to obtain natural skin
tones. Sharpness is set so the image is softer and kinder to skin.
• Landscape has color tone and saturation set for deep, vivid blues and
greens for skies and foliage. Sharpness is set one step more than Standard so
that the outlines of mountains, trees and buildings look crisp.
• Neutral captures natural color and no sharpness is applied. This is the set-
ting preferred by professionals who edit their images in a program such as
Photoshop because it has the least effect on the images.
• Faithful applies no sharpening and renders colors as faithfully as it can to
the original subject.
• Monochrome lets you shoot in black and white, or another tone of your
choice. When you select this setting B/W is displayed on the LCD panel and
in the viewfinder.
• User defined 1–3 can be set to any settings you prefer (page 150). The initial
settings are the same as Standard.
SELECTING PICTURE STYLES
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press the Picture
Style selection button to display choices on the monitor. (You can
also select Picture Style from the Shooting 2 menu tab.)
2. To select a style, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the Picture
Style you want to use and press SET.
3. Take your photos and when finished repeat Steps 1–2, then highlight
Standard style (the default) and press SET.
TIPS
• Style settings, in-
cluding monochrome,
affect RAW image
thumbnails and pre-
views, but make no
changes to the actual
images.
• The Neutral and
Faithful styles as-
sume you will adjust
the images using a
photo-editing pro-
gram. These settings
are not for images
you will print directly
from the camera or
at a kiosk.
• Using Canon’s
Picture Style Editor
you can design the
look of your photo-
graphs by inputting
your own preferred
style, color and tone
curves.
ADJUSTING PICTURE STYLES
For each of the styles, you can adjust sharpness, contrast, saturation and
color tone. In Monochrome the color saturation and tone choices in the other
styles are replaced by choices for filter and toning effects. Toning effects add
an overall tint to the image, and filters act like the glass filters that can be at-
tached to lenses.
• Yellow makes clouds crisper while leaving the blue sky unaffected.
• Orange darkens a blue sky and makes sunrises and sunsets more brilliant.
• Red is like orange, only more so, and also brightens fall foliage.
TIPS
• For additional
pictures styles and
more informa-
tion visit Canon at:
http://web.canon.
jp/imaging/pictur-
estyle/index.html
• To see the effects
of Picture Styles,
select them one after
another while watch-
ing the scene on the
monitor in Live View.
The Picture Styles Editor
tool palette.
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On the Picture Styles
screen, the icons refer
to (from left to right)
sharpness, contrast,
saturation, and color
tone. When you select
the Monochrome style,
the last two icons are
replaced with ones for
filter effects and color
toning.
REGISTERING A PICTURE STYLE
You can adjust any existing Picture style, and save those changes in one of the
three user definitions. This allows you to reuse the settings at some point in
the future without having to readjust them.
ADJUSTING PICTURE STYLES
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press the Picture
Style selection button. (You can also select Picture Style from the
Shooting 2 menu tab.)
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the style you want to edit
and press INFO to display the Detail set screen for that style.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight a setting you want to adjust,
and press SET to activate its scale or display a list of choices.
4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to adjust the setting or select a choice
from the list, and press SET to return to the Detail set screen. (You
can return a style to it’s default values by highlighting Default set and
pressing SET.)
5. Adjust other settings or press MENU to return to the Picture Style
Screen. Any setting for the selected style that’s been changed is dis-
played in blue.
6. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
• Green improves skin tones in portraits and makes green foliage crisper and
brighter.
There are three unspecified styles (User defined 1–3) that you can set up for
your own situations. Initially the first three Picture Styles, Standard, Portrait
and Landscape, include sharpness levels 3, 2 and 4, respectively, settings that
are best for images that won’t be edited in a program such as Photoshop.
REGISTERING PICTURE STYLES
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press the Picture
Style selection button. (You can also select Picture Style from the
Shooting 2 menu tab.)
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the three User Def
settings and press INFO to display the Detail set screen.
3. Highlight Picture Style, press SET, turn the Quick Control Dial to
highlight the style you want to base your user definition on, and press
SET again to return to the Detail set screen.
4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight a setting you want to adjust,
and press SET to activate its scale.
5. Turn the Quick Control Dial to adjust the setting or select a choice
from a list, and press SET to return to the Detail set screen.
6. Repeat Steps 4–5 to adjust other settings or press MENU to return to
the Picture Style Screen. Any setting for the selected style that’s been
changed is displayed in blue.
7. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
TIP
• Sharpness can
be set from 0
(less sharp) to +7
(sharper).
• Contrast can be set
from -4 (low) to +4
(high)
• Saturation can be
set from -4 (low) to
+4 (high)
• Color tone can be
set to -4 (reddish
skin tone) to +4
(yellowish skin tone)
• Filter can be set
to None, Yellow, Or-
ange, Red or Green.
• Toning effect can
be set to None, Se-
pia, Blue, Purple or
Green.
TIP
• Initially the first
three Picture Styles,
Standard, Portrait
and Landscape,
include sharpness
levels 3, 2 and 4,
respectively, settings
that are best for im-
ages that won’t be
edited in a program
such as Photoshop.
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REGISTERING YOUR OWN SETTINGS
REGISTERING YOUR OWN SETTINGS
If you use the same settings over and over again it may be worthwhile saving
them for future use. The 5D Mark II allows you to save three sets and then
instantly access one of them at any time just by turning the Mode Dial to C1,
C2 or C3. Storing your own settings is as simple as setting the camera the
way you want it and then selecting the Set up 3 menu’s Camera user setting.
Most settings can be registered but some, such as date/time, language, com-
munication setting, video output and others cannot be.
• Changes you make to settings when using C1–C3 modes are reset to the
registered settings when Auto power off takes effect or you turn off the cam-
era. The default settings are the same as Program AE (P) mode, but changes
won‘t be remembered from one session to the next.
• When revising custom settings you’ve already registered, start with the
Mode Dial set to C1–C3 so your original settings are used as the starting
point. (You can’t do this if one of the changes you want to make is the shoot-
ing mode.)
• You cannot register My Menu settings (page 158).
• When the Mode Dial is set to C1–C3, the Set up 3 menu’s Clear settings
(page 164) and the Custom Function menu’s Clear all Custom Func (C.Fn.)
(page 152) commands don’t work. To clear settings use the Clear settings
command described in the QuickSteps box that follows.
• To check the settings in any C mode, select the mode and press INFO.
REGISTERING CAMERA SETTINGS
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, and the settings
you want to save already made in that mode, press MENU and select
the Set up 3 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Camera user setting and
press SET to display two choices.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Register and press SET to
display a list of the custom modes.
4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Mode Dial:C1, C2 or C3 and
press SET. When asked to confirm, highlight OK and press SET.
5. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
6. Do any of the following:
• To use the stored settings, turn the Mode Dial to C1, C2 or C3.
• To change the stored settings, select C1, C2 or C3, change settings
and then repeat Steps 1–5 to store them in place of the current set-
tings.
• To reset the settings to their defaults which are the same as P (Pro-
grammed) mode, repeat Steps 1–3 but select Clear settings. Select
the mode you want to clear and press SET. Highlight OK and press
SET again.
TIPS
• Picture Styles (page
149) provide another
way to store settings
for future use.
• A great thing about
registering settings
is that they are not
affected when you
clear all camera
settings (page 164)
or clear all Custom
Functions (page
152).
TIP
The following menu
settings can be regis-
tered:
• Shooting 1: Qual-
ity, Beep, Shoot w/o
card, Review time,
Peripheral illumina-
tion correction
• Shooting 2:
Exposure compen-
sation/AEB, White
balance, Custom WB,
WB SHIFT/BKT, Color
space, Picture Style
• Playback 2: High-
light alert, AF point
display, Histogram,
Slide show, Image
jump
• Set up 1: Auto
power off, Auto ro-
tate, File numbering
• Set up 2: LCD
brightness, Sensor
cleaning (Auto clean-
ing), Live View/Movie
function setting
• Set up 3: INFO.
button, External
Speedlite control
• Custom Functions:
All
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USING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS
The 5D Mark II has twenty-five Custom Functions you can use in P, Tv, Av, M
and B modes to control camera operations. Since there are so many Cus-
tom Functions they are grouped into four categories numbered with Roman
numerals—I: exposure, II: Image, III: Auto focus/Drive, and IV: Operation/
Others. Within each category are Custom Functions numbered with Arabic
numbers. To identify a specific function, we use both numbers. For example,
to identify the function AF-assist beam firing, we refer to it as III-5.
The AE/FE Lock icon.
C.FN I: EXPOSURE
Number Settings Page
I-1 Exposure level increments 153
I-2 ISO speed setting increments 153
I-3 ISO expansion 153
I-4 Bracketing auto cancel 153
I-5 Bracketing sequence 154
I-6 Safety shift 154
I-7 Flash sync. speed in Av mode 154
C.FN II: IMAGE
Number Settings Page
II-1 Long exposure noise reduction 154
II-2 High ISO speed noise reduction 154
II-3 Highlight tone priority 154
II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer 155
C.FN III: AUTO FOCUS/DRIVE
Number Settings Page
III-1 Lens drive when AF impossible 155
III-2 Lens AF stop button function 155
III-3 AF point selection method 155
III-4 Superimposed display 155
III-5 AF-assist beam firing 155
III-6 Mirror lockup 155
III-7 AF point area expansion 156
III-8 AF Microadjustment 156
C.FN IV: OPERATION/OTHERS
Number Settings Page
IV-1 Shutter button/AF-ON button 156
IV-2 AF-ON/AE lock button switch 157
IV-3 Assign SET button 157
IV-4 Dial direction during Tv/Av 157
IV-5 Focusing screen 157
IV-6 Add original decision data 157
In these tables,
the shaded Custom
Functions are not
available in Live View.
• I-1, I-3, II-3, II-4,
III-1 and IV-2 all work
in both still and movie
Live View.
• I-2, I-4, I-7, II-1,
II-2, IV-3, IV-4, and
IV-6 work only with Live
View stills
• III-2, III-4, III-5,
III-8, IV-1 and IV-3
partially work with Live
View stills or movies
The Custom Functions
menu tab icon.
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USING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS
C.FN I: EXPOSURE
I-1 Exposure level increments selects 0: 1/3-stop or 1: 1/2-stop increments
for shutter speeds, apertures, exposure compensation and other exposure
settings other than ISO.
I-2 ISO speed setting increments selects 0: 1/3-stop or 1: 1-stop increments
for ISO settings.
I-3 ISO expansion can be set to 0: Off and 1: On. When On you can select an
ISO of 50 by selecting L, 12800 by selecting H1 and 25600 by selecting H2
(page 65).
I-4 Bracketing auto cancel specifies when AEB and white balance bracketing
are cancelled.
• When On, AEB (page 57) and WB-BKT (page 85) are cancelled when you
turn off the camera, clear camera settings, or when an external flash is
ready to fire.
• When Off, AEB and WB-BKT settings are retained when you turn off the
camera. When an external flash is ready to fire, AEB is cancelled although
the AEB amount is retained in memory.
TIP
• When you clear all
Custom Functions, it
has no effect on the
setting for Custom
Function IV-5 Focus-
ing screen or Custom
Function III-8 AF
Microadjustment.
CHANGING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press MENU and
select the Custom Functions menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the Custom Function
groups C. Fn I–C. Fn IV and press SET to display the Custom Func-
tions in the selected group. The current setting for each function is
listed below its number. The default settings are all 0.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to select one of the Custom Functions
and press SET to display the available choices.
4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the choices and press
SET to select it and display it in blue.
5. Change other functions in the group, or press MENU to return to the
main Custom Functions menu.
6. Select another group or press the MENU or shutter button to hide
the menu.
CLEARING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press MENU and
select the Custom Functions menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Clear all Custom Func. (C.
Fn) and press SET.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight OK and press SET to clear
the functions (except IV-5 Focusing Screen and III-8 AF Microad-
justment) and return to the menu.
4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
TIP
• The default setting
for each Custom
Function is the first
one listed, which is
always numbered 0.
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I-5 Bracketing sequence can be set to 0: 0, -, + or 1: -, 0, +. The 0, - and +
mean different things depending on other autoexposure and white balance
bracketing settings as shown in the following table:
AEB
WB Bracketing
B/A Direction M/G Direction
0: Standard exposure 0: Standard white balance 0: Standard white balance
-: Decreased exposure -: More blue -: More magenta
+: Increased exposure +: More amber +: More green
I-6 Safety shift can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable (Tv/Av). When enabled
in Av or Tv modes, exposure is automatically adjusted at the last possible mo-
ment if the lighting changes.
I-7 Flash sync speed in Av mode sets the shutter speed or range of shutter
speeds used with an external flash in Av mode. Settings other than Auto may
use such fast shutter speeds that night scenes and dark backgrounds will be
dark in the image.
• 0: Auto allows the camera to select any shutter speed up to 1/200.
• 1: 1/200-1/60 sec. auto ensures that the shutter speed never falls below
1/60 so you won’t get as much camera shake.
• 2: 1/200 sec. (fixed) keeps the shutter speed as high as possible to avoid
camera or subject blur and is especially useful when using telephoto lens-
es. (Night scenes and dark backgrounds will be darker than for setting 1.)
C. FN II: IMAGE
II-1 Long exposure noise reduction sets the noise reduction mode.
• 0: Off turns off noise reduction for long exposures.
• 1: Auto uses noise reduction for photos taken with shutter speeds of 1
second or slower but only when noise is detected in an image.
• 2: On reduces noise in all images taken at exposures of 1 second or more.
With this setting, if a long exposure is made during Live View shooting,
BUSY is displayed on the monitor while noise reduction is applied. With
this setting, the maximum burst for continuous shooting will decrease.
II-2 High ISO speed noise reduction can be set to 0: Standard, 1: Low, 2:
Strong, and 3: Disable. When not disabled, noise reduction is applied at all
ISO speeds, and has the greatest effect at high ISO speeds. At low ISO speeds,
the noise in the shadow areas is reduced. Change the setting to suit the noise
level. When on, after the picture is taken the noise reduction process may
take the same amount of time as the exposure. Continuous shooting rate
drops because a new photo can’t be taken until the noise reduction process
for the previous one is completed. The effects of noise reduction are not
shown on the monitor.
II-3 Highlight tone priority can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable. When
enabled, highlight details are improved although noise in shadow areas may
increase. The dynamic range between 18% middle gray and the brightest
highlights is expanded so the gradation between the grays and highlights
becomes smoother. When shooting JPEGs this is a good setting for weddings
and landscapes since it captures more detail in white subjects such as wed-
ding dresses, clouds, and snow. Also, the ISO range is 200–6400, and to re-
mind you it’s on, a D+ icon is displayed on the monitor and in the viewfinder.
TIPS
• The time it takes to
process an image to
remove noise is the
same as the expo-
sure time.
• Noise reduction
isn’t reflected in the
image displayed on
the camera’s moni-
tor.
• An image, even
in Live View, isn’t
displayed on the
monitor until noise
reduction processing
is complete.
The dynamic range
icon is displayed on
the monitor and in the
viewfinder when II-3
Highlight tone priority is
set to 1: Enable.
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USING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS
II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer adjusts image brightness and contrast automat-
ically if an image would otherwise be too dark or have contrast that’s too low.
Your setting choices include 0: Standard, 1: Low, 2: Strong, and 3: Disable.
(Depending on the shooting conditions, image noise may increase.) In auto
modes, Standard is used, in Manual (M) and Bulb (B) modes it’s disabled,
and in P, Tv and Av Standard is used but you can change it or turn it off.
C.FN III: AUTO FOCUS/DRIVE
III-1 Lens drive when AF impossible can be set to 0: Focus search on or 1:
Focus search off. When Off, if the camera can’t achieve focus, it stops trying
instead of going dramatically out of focus. This setting is especially useful
with macro and super telephoto lenses.
III-2 Lens AF stop button function has settings that control focus, exposure,
and image stabilization on super telephoto lenses with AF stop buttons. If
you have one of these lenses refer to the manual that came with the lens
and page 178 in the Canon 5D Mark II user manual. The choices include 0:
AF stop, 1: AF start, 2: AE lock, 3: AF point:M->Auto/Auto->Ctr, 4: ONE
SHOT-AI SERVO and 5: IS start.
III-3 AF point selection method gives you three ways to manually select an
AF point (page 73):
• 0: Normal works by pressing the AF Point Selection button and then us-
ing the Multi-controller, Main or Quick Control Dial.
• 1: Multi-controller direct lets you press the Multi-controller to directly
select an AF point without first having to press the AF Point Selection
button. Pressing the AF Point Selection button in this mode selects all AF
points for automatic AF point selection.
• 2: Quick Control Dial direct lets you turn the Quick Control Dial to select
AF points without having to first press the AF Point Selection button. In
this mode, AF points are not displayed on the LCD panel. Holding down
the AF Point Selection button while turning the Main Dial sets exposure
compensation.
III-4 Superimposed display determines how AF points in the viewfinder
react when focus is achieved.
0: On has the AF point(s) used to set focus flash red.
1: Off turns off the red flash, however, if you manually select an AF point
(page 73) the selected AF point still flashes red.
III-5 AF-assist beam specifies if an external flash’s AF-assist beam comes on
in dim light. You may want to turn it off in some circumstances since it draws
attention.
! 0: Enable enables the AF-assist beam. For this to work, the Speedlite’s
Custom Function controlling its AF-assist beam must also be enabled. (See
the manual that came with your Speedlite.)
! 1: Disable disables the AF-assist beam.
III-6 Mirror lockup lets you 0: Disable or 1: Enable mirror lockup. When
enabled, the mirror locks up before the shutter opens so vibrations caused by
its swinging up don’t soften the captured image. This is a very useful feature
when taking macro close-ups, or using very long lenses, and its effects are
enhanced if you use a remote switch. When enabled, here is how it works:
Indicators in the
viewfinder (top) and on
the LCD panel (bottom)
show which AF point is
selected.
TIP
When using mirror
lockup:
• Don’t leave the
mirror up for long in
bright light, or point
the camera at the
sun. Doing so can
damage the shutter
curtains.
• Use a remote
switch (page 138), or
the self-timer (page
64), to avoid blur
caused by camera
movement as you
press the shutter
button.
• In continuous
mode, only one
picture can be taken
at a time when using
mirror lockup.
• When you raise the
mirror in bright light,
take the picture as
soon as possible.
TIPS
• The AF-assist beam
doesn’t just illumi-
nate the subject,
it also projects a
striped pattern on it
that the camera can
use for focusing.
• The AF-assist beam
does not fire in AI
Servo focus mode.
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! Pressing the shutter button all the way down raises the mirror (the view-
finder goes dark), and pressing it again fires the shutter and lowers the
mirror. If you don’t press the shutter button within 30 seconds, the mirror
lowers automatically.
! When using the self-timer (page 64), pressing the shutter button all the
way down raises the mirror (the viewfinder goes dark) and then the shut-
ter opens 10 seconds or 2 seconds later.
! When using Bulb (B) mode and the self-timer, press and hold down the
shutter button until the photo is taken.
III-7 AF point area expansion, when enabled while using AI Servo AF and
the center AF point, activates the six Assist AF points so seven AF points
track the subject. This is effective for subjects that move erratically, making it
difficult for only the center AF point to track it.
III-8 AF Microadjustment is used to correct a lens’s focus. It’s normally not
required and adjustments may even prevent correct focusing from being
achieved. If you do adjust focus, you can do so individually for up to 20 spe-
cific lenses, or use the same adjustment for all of your lenses. You can adjust
focus in ±20 steps (- adjusts forward and + adjusts backward) but the degree
of adjustment made in each step depends on the maximum aperture of the
lens. Whenever you attach a lens that has been adjusted, its point of focus is
shifted accordingly. To be sure you get the correct adjustment, take some test
shots—preferably at the spot where you will be photographing—and readjust
as necessary.
• With setting 1 or 2 highlighted, press the INFO button to view the register
screen.
• To cancel all the registered adjustments, press the Erase button.
0: Disable turns off any adjustments.
1: Adjust all by same amount applies the same adjustment to all lenses.
2: Adjust by lens registers adjustments for up to 20 different lenses. If adjust-
ments for 20 lenses have already been registered and you want to register an
adjustment for another lens, select a lens whose adjustment can be overwrit-
ten or deleted. If you use a lens extender, the adjustment is registered for the
lens and Extender combination.
• The registered AF microadjustments will be retained even if you use the
Custom Function menu’s Clear all Custom Func (C.fn) command to clear all
settings (page 152). However, the setting itself will be set to Disable.
C.FN IV: OPERATION OTHERS
IV-1 Shutter button/AF-ON button specifies how the shutter button and AF-
ON buttons work together. When a slash (/) is used in a setting below, the
part before the slash refers to the function of the shutter button, and the part
after the slash refers to AF-ON (see tips box to the left for additional defini-
tions):
0: Metering + AF start has either button start metering and autofocus.
1: Metering + AF start/AF stop has the shutter button start metering and
autofocus and the AF-ON button stop autofocus.
2: Metering start/Meter + AF start has the shutter button start metering,
TIP
• Metering is the
same as pressing the
shutter button down
to turn on metering
and the exposure
displays in the view-
finder and on the
LCD panel.
• AF start in One-
Shot AF mode is the
same as focus lock.
In AI servo mode its
the same as pressing
the shutter button
halfway down to
start focusing.
• Metering + AF
start is the same as
pressing the shutter
button halfway down
to set exposure and
focus.
• AF stop in One-
Shot autofocus
mode, is the same as
pressing the shutter
button halfway down
to lock focus. In AI
servo more it’s the
same as pressing the
shutter button all
the way down to set
focus and exposure
just before the pic-
ture is taken.
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USING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS
and the AF-ON button start metering and autofocus. This is used for sub-
jects that repeatedly move and stop. In AI Servo AF mode, you can press
AF-ON to repeatedly start and stop AI Servo AF. Exposure is set at the last
possible moment.
3: AE lock/Metering + AF start lets you set focus and exposure on dif-
ferent parts of the scene. Pressing the shutter button halfway down locks
exposure, while pressing the AF-ON button starts metering and autofocus.
4: Metering +AF start/Disable disables the AF-ON button.
IV-2 AF-ON/AE lock button switch can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable.
When enabled, the functions of the AF-ON and AE lock/FE lock/Index/
Reduce button are switched. In playback mode, press AF-ON to reduce a
zoomed image or switch to index view.
IV-3 Assign SET button specifies how the SET button functions. (When using
Live View, choices 1–4 are overridden.)
! 0: Normal (disabled) pressing SET makes choices when you highlight
commands on the menu.
! 1: Image quality changes image quality (page 27) when you press SET
and then turn the Quick Control Dial.
! 2: Picture Style selects a style (page 149) when you press SET and then
turn the Quick Control Dial.
! 3: Menu display displays the menu when you press SET (page 17).
! 4: Image replay switches to playback mode when you press SET (page
20).
! 5: Quick Control screen (page 16) is displayed when you press SET.
! 6: Record movie (Live View) starts movie recording (page 145).
IV-4 Dial direction during Tv/Av can be set to 0: Normal or 1: Reverse Di-
rection. When reversed:
• The effects of the Quick Control Dial and Main Dial are reversed when
selecting a shutter speed and aperture in Manual (M) mode.
• In other shooting modes the Main Dial is reversed, but the direction of
the Quick Control Dial remains unchanged in Manual (M) mode when set-
ting exposure compensation.
IV-5 Focusing Screen is used to specify which focusing screen is installed
in the camera (page 12). The choices include 0: Eg-A (the standard screen
that comes with the camera), 1: Eg-D (has a grid to help align horizontals
and verticals), and 2: Eg-S (best for precise manual focusing of lenses with
maximum apertures of f/2.8 or more). Your choice here is not affected by
the commands used to clear Custom Functions (page 152). Instructions on
changing screens are included in the package.
IV-6 Add original decision data, when turned on, appends data to the image
file that lets you verify if an image is original or not. When played back a pad-
lock icon is displayed. To verify if the image is an original you’ll need the Data
Verification Kit OSK-E3.
When C.Fn IV-6 is On,
the verification icon is
displayed.
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USING MY MENU
You can store up to six frequently used menu commands or Custom Func-
tions so you can access them more quickly. Normally the commands you add
to the menu are displayed when you select the My Menu tab. However, if
you enable Display from My Menu they are displayed first when you press
MENU, regardless of which menu tab was last displayed.
REGISTERING MY MENU SETTINGS
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and display the My Menu
tab listing any menu settings you have already registered, if any.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight My Menu settings and press
SET to display a submenu.
3. Highlight any of the following commands and press SET:
! Register let’s you turn the Quick Control Dial to select menu com-
mands and press SET to add them. When asked to confirm the addi-
tion, highlight OK and press SET.
! Sort changes the order of the registered items on the menu.
! Delete and Delete all items deletes one or all of the previously listed
menu items.
! Display from My Menu, when enabled, displays My Menu first
when you press MENU.
4. When finished with any step, press the MENU or shutter button to
return to Step 3.
5. To hide the menu, press the shutter or MENU button.
The My Menu tab’s icon.
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CHANGING OTHER SETTINGS
The 5D Mark II has a number of commands that change the basic settings of
your camera.
SHOOTING WITHOUT A CF CARD
One of the camera’s default settings lets you shoot pictures without a CF card
in the camera. They are even displayed on the monitor so you think you are
capturing them, but they are not saved. To ensure you don’t take unsaved
pictures, turn off the Shoot w/o card setting.
SETTING THE DATE AND TIME
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 2
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Date/Time and press SET to
display the Date/Time screen.
! To change the setting in the yellow frame, press SET, turn the
Quick Control Dial, then press SET again.
! To move the yellow frame to the next setting, turn the Quick Con-
trol Dial.
3. When finished, highlight OK and press SET. Press the MENU or
shutter button to hide the menu.
SETTING THE DATE AND TIME
When you first use the camera, or when the batteries have been removed or
run down for an extended period, you need to set the date and time so your
image files are correctly dated.
SHOOTING WITHOUT A CF CARD
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Shooting 1
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Shoot w/o card and press
SET to display the choices On (the default) and Off.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then
press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
CHANGING THE REVIEW TIME
When you take a picture, it is normally displayed on the monitor for two
seconds so you can review it. You can change this setting to Off so the image
isn’t displayed, or change the review time to 2, 4, or 8 seconds, or Hold. If
you select Hold, the image stays displayed on the monitor until you press the
shutter button halfway down to clear it, or auto power off takes effect. While
the image is displayed, you can press the Erase button to delete it or press
INFO to change the display format.
CHANGING OTHER SETTINGS
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RESET FILE NUMBERS
By default, each photo you take is given a unique sequential number from
0001 to 9999. The images, up to 9999, are stored in folders numbered from
100 to 999. There are two ways to manage numbering when you change CF
cards:
• Continuous (the default) continues numbering in sequence so you don’t
have duplicate filenames.
• Auto reset restarts numbering at 0001 when you change cards. This can
cause problems if you copy images into the same folder on the computer
because there can be duplicate file names.
• Manual reset does what Auto reset does, but only when you use this com-
mand, which also creates a new folder on the card. This can be a useful way
to organize images. If you use the same card, you can use this command each
day and each day’s photos will be stored in their own folder. You can also use
the command when you change projects or assignments to the same effect.
You can also use the Set up menu’s Select folder command (page 162) to cre-
ate and select folders.
SPECIFYING FILE NUMBER SEQUENCES
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 1
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight File numbering and press
SET to display choices.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then
press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
TURNING THE BEEP ON AND OFF
You can turn off the camera’s beep in situations where it may draw attention,
as at a wedding or when photographing wildlife.
TURNING THE BEEP ON AND OFF
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Shooting 1
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Beep and press SET to dis-
play the choices On (the default) and Off.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then
press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
CHANGING THE REVIEW TIME
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Shooting 1
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Review time and press SET
to display a list of times, Hold and Off.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then
press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
TIP
• All image filenames
begin with IMG_
except those taken
using the Adobe RGB
color space. Those
begin with _MG_.
• In Continuous and
Auto reset modes, if
the new card already
has images on it,
numbering may
begin at the highest
number. The only
way to ensure the
first image is 0001
is to format the card
before using it.
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CHANGING OTHER SETTINGS
SETTING THE AUTO POWER OFF TIME
Normally the camera will turn off if you don’t use any of the controls for a
minute. You can select a longer time or even turn this feature off. When the
camera does turn off, pressing the shutter button turns it back on. No mat-
ter which setting you use, the monitor turns off after 30 minutes to conserve
power.
ADJUSTING THE AUTO POWER OFF TIME
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 1
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Auto power off and press
SET to display a list of times and Off.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then
press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
FORMATTING CF CARDS
It’s always advisable to format new CF cards to work with the camera, or re-
format a card if you encounter problems. Just be aware the formatting a card
erases all of the files on it, including any that have been protected.
TRAVELING OPTIONS—LANGUAGE AND VIDEO SETTINGS
At rare times you may need to specify a different language for the menus, or
change the video system (NTSC or PAL) to give a slide show on a TV.
CHANGING THE LANGUAGE OR VIDEO SETTING
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU, select the Set up 2 menu
tab, then do one of the following:
! To change the language, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight
Language and press SET to display the language choices.
! To change the video system, turn the Quick Control Dial to high-
light Video system and press SET to display the choices NTSC and
PAL.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then
press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
ADJUSTING MONITOR BRIGHTNESS
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 2
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight LCD brightness and press
SET to display a menu listing Auto and Manual. Turn the Main Dial
to select one to display a thumbnail, the brightness adjustment scale
and a gray scale.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial so all segments of the gray scale can be
distinguished from one another and the thumbnail looks good, press
SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
ADJUSTING MONITOR BRIGHTNESS
You can adjust the brightness level of the monitor so it better matches the
lighting under which you are viewing it.
ALL IS NOT LOST
• This might be a
good point to in-
troduce some good
news. If you ever
delete files or format
a memory card by
mistake, you can
recover your im-
ages. The first step
is to stop taking
pictures because new
ones can overwrite
the old and make
them impossible to
recover. Next, get a
program that recov-
ers the files. To find
one Google the term
“image recovery.”
162
CHAPTER 7. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS
FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
SETTING AUTO ROTATE
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 1
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Auto rotate and press SET.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the icon for On for camera
and computer (the default), On for computer only, or Off, press SET,
then press the MENU or shutter button when the menu reappears.
TIP
• If you turn Auto
Rotate off, you can
still rotate images for
playback using the
Rotate command in
playback mode (page
22).
FORMATTING A CF CARD
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 1
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Format and press SET to
display the prompt Format card and the choices Cancel and OK.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then
press the MENU or shutter button when the menu reappears.
TURNING AUTO ROTATE ON AND OFF
When you rotate the camera into a portrait mode (the vertical position) to
take a photo and then play it back on the computer screen or TV, you have
to tilt your head to see it. To avoid this, the 5D Mark II’s orientation sensor
senses the position of the camera and automatically rotates pictures you take
vertically so they are displayed vertically when played back. Images are not
rotated in review mode and when the camera is pointed up or down the ori-
entation sensor may be confused and not automatically rotate an image. Not
all computer software supports this feature.
TIP
• If you going to
share or dispose of
a CF card, keep in
mind that formatting
it does not actu-
ally delete the data
stored on it.
CREATING AND SELECTING FOLDERS
The 5D Mark II starts by creating one folder on the CF card named
100EOS5D It then creates a new folder automatically (up to 999EOS5D)
when the current folder contains 9999 images. However, you can also create
a folder and then select it to store your photos.
CREATING AND SELECTING FOLDERS
1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 1
menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Select folder and press SET.
! To select a folder when there is more than one, turn the Quick Con-
trol Dial to highlight it and then press SET to select it.
! To create a new folder, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Cre-
ate folder and press SET to select it. Turn the Quick Control Dial to
highlight OK and press SET to create the folder.
3. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
The Auto rotate menu
choices include—both
camera and computer,
computer only, and off.
163 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
CHANGING OTHER SETTINGS
FIRMWARE VERSION
If Canon releases updated firmware for the camera you use this command to
install it. Follow the directions that come with it. If you want to see what ver-
sion is currently loaded, this command lists it.
CHECKING/UPDATING YOUR FIRMWARE VERSION
1. With the camera in any mode, press the MENU button and select the
Set up 3 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Firmware Ver and the ver-
sion number. If you download an updated version from the Canon
Web site to a memory card, inserting the card and selecting this set-
ting installs it in the camera. Follow the instructions that come with
the upgrade.
3. Press MENU to hide the menu when it reappears.
TIP
• You can use EOS
Utility that comes
with your camera to
add copyright infor-
mation to your pho-
to’s Exif information
as you capture them.
When you then select
Clear settings on
the Set up 3 menu,
one of the choices
is Delete copyright
information used to
delete the copyright
information. If you
haven’t added copy-
right information, the
command is grayed
out on the screen.
BATTERY INFO
You can check the battery’s condition on the monitor. The Battery Pack LP-
E6 has a unique serial No., and you can register multiple battery packs to
the camera. When you use this feature, you can check the registered battery
pack’s remaining capacity and operation history. On the Set up 2 menu, select
Battery info.
164
CHAPTER 7. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS
FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
RESETTING CAMERA SETTINGS
1. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press MENU and
select the Set up 3 menu tab.
2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Clear settings and press
SET, the highlight Clear all camera settings and press SET.
3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight OK and press SET to clear
the settings and return to the menu.
4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
RESETTING CAMERA SETTINGS
As you change settings, it is sometimes easy to forget what you’ve done or it’s
time consuming to reset them to their original values. In these situations you
can quickly reset all of the settings to their original factory default settings as
shown in the table that follows. This command does not affect Custom Func-
tions (page 152) or the Set up 3 menu’s Camera user setting (page 151) that
registered settings to C1, C2 and C3 modes.
Shooting Settings Image-recording Settings
AF mode One-Shot AF Quality Large/Fine
AF point selection Automatic ISO speed Auto
Metering mode Evaluative Picture Style Standard
Drive mode Single Color space sRGB
Exposure comp 0 While balance AWB
AEB Cancelled WB correction Cancelled
Flash exp comp 0 WB-BKT Cancelled
Live View shooting Disable Peripheral illumi-
nation correction
Enable/Correction
data retained
Custom Functions No changes File numbering Continuous
Auto cleaning Enable
Dust delete data Erased
Shooting Settings Camera Settings
Auto power off 1 minute Image jump 10 images
Beep On Auto rotate On
Shoot w/o card On LCD brightness Auto: Standard
Review time 2 seconds Date/Time No changes
Highlight alert Disable Language No changes
AF point display Disable Video system No changes
Histogram Brightness Camera user set-
tings
No changes
My Menu settings No changes
165 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
http://www.photocourse.com/itext/dust/
CARING FOR YOUR CAMERA
Some of the best opportunities for interesting photographs occur during bad
weather or in hostile environments. You can take advantage of these opportu-
nities as long as you take a few precautions to protect your camera.
CLEANING THE IMAGE SENSOR
If you change lens a lot, or even once in a windy or dusty environment, dust
can enter the camera and stick to the low-pass filter covering the image
sensor. This dust creates dark spots on the images. One way to check if this
has happened is to take a few photos of a clear sky or white card. Open the
images in your photo-editing program and flip through them. (On a PC run-
ning Photoshop, zoom the pictures to the same size then Ctrl-Tab through
them quickly and the dust spots jump out at you.) If all of the images have
dark spots in the same place, that’s dust on the sensor. The 5D Mark II uses
state-of-the-art technology, called the EOS Integrated Cleaning System, to
automatically eliminate this problem. It has the following stages:
• Reduce. Canon minimizes the dust and particles created by the camera it-
self, by using materials in the body cap and shutter that don’t create dust and
other particles during normal wear and tear.
• Repel. Canon treats the camera’s low pass filter with an anti-static fluorine
coating to prevent static-charged dust from adhering to it.
• Remove. The low pass filter in front of the CMOS image sensor, designed
to eliminate moiré patterns and give accurate color under all conditions, is
attached to an ultrasonic vibrating unit that literally shakes the loose dust
particles off of the surface. The newly liberated dust is then captured by an
adhesive material that keeps the particles from becoming airborne again once
the camera moves. The low-pass filter, normally a single unit, is also divided
into two components, a front and a rear. The front component, where any
dust would accumulate, is positioned far enough out from the sensor so it’s
out of focus on the image and any dust is less likely to show.
The self cleaning sensor unit’s ultrasonic anti-dust shake activates automati-
cally for one second whenever you turn the camera on or off, ensuring that
the camera will be as relatively dust free as possible, and can be activated at
other times through a simple menu selection. If you want to manually clean
the camera or disable this function, you can do so as follows:
CLEANING THE SENSOR
1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode, press MENU, display the Set up
2 menu tab, highlight Sensor cleaning and press SET.
! To turn auto cleaning on or off, highlight Auto cleaning and select
Enable or Disable.
! To clean now, highlight Clean now and press SET. When prompted
to confirm, highlight OK and press SET
! To manually clean the sensor, highlight Clean manually and press
SET. See the next page and follow the instructions on pages 152–152
of the user guide that came with your camera.
2. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
TIPS
• During cleaning
you can press the
shutter button half-
way down to cancel
cleaning and focus
for a picture.
• When cleaning
the sensor, set the
camera down on a
flat surface. For best
results, don’t tip it
forward or back.
Click to see the effects
of dust on your images.
TIP
• Change lenses in
a dust free environ-
ment and out of the
wind.
• Store the camera
with a lens or the
body cap attached.
• Remove dust from
the body cap and
lens mounts before
attaching them.
The sensor cleaning
icon that is displayed
on the monitor during
automatic sensor
cleaning.
CARING FOR YOUR CAMERA
166
CHAPTER 7. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS
FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
In addition to the EOS Integrated Cleaning System, the 5D Mark II lets
you clean the sensor with sensor swabs and cleaning fluid. NEVER used
compressed air, or other cleaning products, on the sensor. Cleaning supplies
are available from B&H and Calumet. The most popular products seem to
be those from Photographic Solutions (http://www.photosol.com). For
more information Google “cleaning image sensor” but proceed at your own
risk. One of the best Web sites I’ve found on this topic is Cleaning Digital
Cameras at http://www.cleaningdigitalcameras.com/howto.html.
To clean a sensor you use the camera’s Set up 2 menu’s Sensor cleaning
command to access Clean manually. This locks the mirror up and out of the
way and opens the shutter so you can get to the surface of the image sensor.
This is a high-risk procedure and we recommend extreme caution. It’s more
prudent to have it done by you camera company’s service center.
In addition to removing dust, the 5D Mark II will also work around it if it
can’t be removed. You just photograph a white wall or sheet of paper (or, in
a pinch, removing the lens from the camera) and the camera’s Dust Delete
Data function maps the size and position of the dust particles remaining
on the low pass filter. Once the dust is “mapped”, that information is at-
tached as metadata to all subsequently shot images regardless of recording
format, RAW or JPEG. (It’s a good idea to periodically update this informa-
tion to keep it accurate.) When the images and appended dust data map are
transferred to a computer using the 5D Mark II’s Digital Photo Professional
software, the dust information can be subtracted from the images simply by
selecting the “apply dust delete data” option. You can update the Dust Delete
Data at any time as follows:
OBTAINING DUST DELETE DATA
1. Get ready:
! Find a solid white surface without texture or pattern.
! Set the lens focal length to 50mm or more.
! Set the lens focus switch to MF and set focus to infinity. (If the lens
has no focus scale, face the front of the lens and turn it all the way
counter-clockwise as viewed from the back of the camera.
2. With the Mode Dial set to P, Tv, Av, M or B mode, press MENU,
select the Shooting 2 menu tab, highlight Dust Delete Data and press
SET to display a confirmation screen.
3. Highlight OK to display an instructional screen.
4. At a distance of 0.7–1.0 feet (20–30cm) completely fill the viewfinder
with the white surface and press the shutter button all the way down.
! If successful, you see the message Data obtained. (The image data
is stored internally and is not saved to the CF card.) OK is highlighted
so press SET.
! If unsuccessful, you’ll be asked if you want to try again. If so, select
Cancel and then repeat Step 3–4.
5. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.
Here are the five steps
recommended by
Photographic Solutions
for cleaning your image
sensor with their sensor
swabs and Eclipse
cleaning fluid. http://
www.photosol.com.
167 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
CARING FOR YOUR CAMERA
CLEANING THE CAMERA AND LENS
Clean the outside of the camera with a slightly damp, soft, lint-free cloth.
Open the “flaps” to the memory and battery compartments occasionally and
use a soft brush or blower to remove dust. Clean the LCD monitor by brush-
ing or blowing off dirt and wiping with a soft cloth, but don’t press hard and
be sure there is no grit on the cloth that can scratch the surface. Cleaning kits
are available at most office supply stores.
The first rule is to clean the lens only when absolutely necessary. A little dust
on the lens won’t affect the image, so don’t be compulsive. Keep the lens
covered when not in use to reduce the amount of cleaning required. When
cleaning is necessary, use a soft brush, such as a sable artist’s brush, and a
blower (an ear syringe makes a good one) to remove dust. Fingerprints can be
very harmful to the lens coating and should be removed as soon as possible.
Use a lens cleaning cloth (or roll up a piece of photographic lens cleaning tis-
sue and tear the end off to leave a brush like surface). Put a small drop of lens
cleaning fluid on the end of the tissue. (Your condensed breath on the lens
also works well.) Never put cleaning fluid directly on the lens; it might run
between the lens elements. Using a circular motion, clean the lens surface
with the cloth or tissue, then use the cloth or a tissue rolled and torn the same
way to dry. Never reuse tissues and don’t press hard when cleaning because
the front element of the lens is covered with a relatively delicate lens coating.
PROTECTING YOUR CAMERA FROM THE ELEMENTS
Your camera should never be exposed to excessively high temperatures. If
at all possible, don’t leave the camera in a car on a hot day, especially if the
sun is shining on the car (or if it will later in the day). If the camera has to be
exposed to the sun, such as when you are at the beach, cover it with a light
colored and sand free towel or piece of tinfoil to shade it from the sun. Dark
materials will only absorb the heat and possibly make things worse. Indoors,
avoid storage near radiators or in other places likely to get hot or humid.
When it’s cold out, keep the camera as warm as possible by keeping it under
your coat. Always carry extra batteries. Those in your camera may weaken at
low temperatures just as your car battery weakens in winter. Prevent con-
densation when taking the camera from a cold area to a warm one by wrap-
ping the camera in a plastic bag or newspaper until its temperature climbs
to match that of its environment. If some condensation does occur, do not
use the camera or take it back out in the cold with condensation still on it or
it can freeze up camera operation. Remove any batteries or flash cards and
leave the compartments covers open until everything dries out.
Never place the camera near electric motors or other devices that have strong
magnetic fields. These fields can corrupt the image data stored in the camera.
Always protect equipment from water, especially salt water, and from dust,
dirt, and sand. A camera case helps but at the beach a plastic bag is even bet-
ter. When shooting in the mist, fog, or rain, cover the camera with a plastic
bag into which you’ve cut a hole for the lens to stick out. Use a rubber band
to seal the bag around the lens. You can reach through the normal opening in
the bag to operate the controls. Screwing a skylight filter over the lens allows
you to wipe off spray and condensation without damaging the delicate lens
surface.
168
CHAPTER 7. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS
FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY, VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES.COM
PROTECTING WHEN TRAVELING
Use lens caps or covers to protect lenses. Store all small items and other ac-
cessories in cases and pack everything carefully so bangs and bumps won’t
cause them to hit each other. Be careful packing photographic equipment
in soft luggage where it can be easily damaged. When flying, carry-on metal
detectors are less damaging than the ones used to examine checked baggage.
If in doubt, ask for hand inspection to reduce the possibility of X-ray induced
damage.
STORING A CAMERA
Store cameras in a cool, dry, well ventilated area, and remove the batteries if
they are to be stored for some time. A camera bag or case makes an excellent
storage container to protect them from dust.
Digital cameras have lots of components including batteries, chargers, cables,
lens cleaners, and what not. It helps if you have some kind of storage con-
tainer in which to keep them all together.
CARING FOR YOURSELF
When hiking outdoors, don’t wear the camera strap around your neck, it
could strangle you. Don’t aim the camera directly at the sun, it can burn the
eye.
Now that you know how
to use your camera,
you can fit right in with
everyone else who is
taking photos.

3/"#+$8"9#3&3$.9>-)3/)'*$8"%.,'0

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hort Courses is the leading publisher of digital photography books, textbooks, and guides to specific cameras from Canon, Sony, Nikon, Olympus and others. All of these books are available on-line from the Short Courses bookstore at: http://www.shortcourses.com/store/ All recent books are available in both black & white printed, and full-color eBook (PDF) versions available on CDs or as instant downloads. The list of books we’ve published is always expanding so be sure to visit the store to see if there is a book on your camera, or on another topic that interests you. If you find any errors in this !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+,-')(.%/"-0"%#12%3456*/1-'#12 book, would like to make suggestions for improvements, or just want to let me know what you think I welcome your feedback. ShortCourses.com 16 Preston Beach Road Marblehead, Massachusetts 01945 E-mail: denny@shortcourses.com Web site: http://www.shortcourses.com To learn more about digital photography, visit our two Web sites: • http://www.shortcourses.com is our consumer site. • http://www.photocourse.com is our instructor/student site. © Copyright 2009 by Dennis P. Curtin. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. NOTE
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PHOTOGRAPHY ON-LINE • To learn more about digital photography. • Concepts of photography are the underlying principles that apply regardless of the camera you are using. That information is well presented in the user guide that came with your camera. freeze fast action. Be sure to visit our Web site at www. appearing in those places where they apply. and explain step-by-step how you set your camera’s controls to capture an image just the way you want to. It’s about getting great pictures. This integrated approach lets you first understand the concepts of photography and then see step by step how to use the 5D Mark II in all kinds of photographic situations. the “whys” and “hows” of photography. be sure to have fun. great photograph begins when you recognize a great scene or subject. Getting you prepared to see and capture great photographs is what this book is all about. Understanding procedures gives you the answers to the “how” kinds of questions you might have. you only need to understand how and when to use a few simple features on your camera such as focus.8& PREFACE A The Canon EOS 5D Mark II is a very high-quality 21. highlights and shadows. softness and sharpness. You think about scenes and subjects.. sunsets. The 5D Mark II accepts the full line of Canon EF and EF-S lenses. not about connecting your camera to computers and using your software. without a computer. To get more effective. But recognizing a great opportunity isn’t enough to capture it. There are no “rules” or “best” way to make a picture.com. Digital cameras make this especially easy because there are no film costs or delays. exposure controls. If you’ve previously avoided understanding these features and the profound impact they can have on your images. Every experiment is free and you see the results immediately so you can learn step by step. They include such things as how sharpness and exposure affect your images and the way they are perceived by viewers. You can then spend the rest of your life marveling at how the infinite variety of combinations make it possible to convey your own personal view of the world. This book assumes you’ve mastered the mechanics of your camera. visit our ShortCourses Web site at www. • Procedures are those things specific to one kind of camera.shortcourses. create wonderful panoramas. It doesn’t matter if you are taking pictures for business or pleasure./01$2)3)+$/++.1 megapixel camera. and possibly even great photographs.-$. and capture directly to a printer the beauty and wonder of rainbows. )2 !"#$%"#&$"'$()*)+. com for even more digital photography information. color and tone. shortcourses. fireworks.#&!. interesting. there’s a lot here to help you get better results and more satisfaction from your photography. Great photographs come from using what you know to experiment and try new approaches.45566673/"#+8"9#3&378"% . As you explore your camera. and creative photographs./"+"*#. To get better. Understanding concepts answers the “why” kinds of questions you might have about photography. and nighttime scenes. A large part of being prepared involves understanding your camera well enough to capture what you see. you need to understand both concepts and procedures. you also have to be prepared.. You’ll be able to get draThe 5D Mark II can print matic close-ups. The procedures you use with the Canon EOS 5D Mark II are integrated throughout the concepts. This book is organized around the concepts of digital photography because that’s how photographers think. you’ll be pleased to know that you can learn them on a weekend. You’ll be ready to keep everything in a scene sharp for maximum detail or to blur it all for an impressionistic portrayal. and flash.

.38 Retaining Highlight and Shadow Details .52 Scenes with High Contrast.27 CHAPTER 3 CONTROLLING SHARPNESS.....26 It’s All Black and White After All......75 Controlling Depth of Field.65 Sharpness Isn’t Everything.74 Manual Focus.68 Direction of Movement..20 Image Playback..52 How Overriding Autoexposure Works.../01$2)3)+$/++...-$.72 Autofocus Modes.50 Scenes Lighter than Middle Gray.....55 Autoexposure (AE) Lock.67 How to Photograph Motion Sharply.12 Information Display.......15 The Quick Control Dial..74 Using Focus Lock.64 Using the Self-timer/Remote Switch..59 Clipped Pixels...15 Changing Settings on the Quick Control Screen.83 Using a Specific Color Temperature..46 Types of Metering.91 The Direction of Light......42 Using Shutter-Priority (Tv) Mode..85 Color and Time of Day.21 Using the Playback Menu..93 The Quality of Light.77 Using Shallow Depth of Field....10 Using the Viewfinder..49 CHAPTER 4 CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR......i Short Courses Books and Web Site.34 Using Shutter Speed and Aperture Together.12 AF Points ...54 How to Override Automatic Exposure..82 Using Preset White Balance Settings....14 Changing Settings with Buttons and Dials..15 The INFO Button......86 Sunsets and Sunrises......17 Playing Back & Managing Your Images..55 Exposure Compensation.....16 Changing Settings with Menus.....59 Displaying Histograms.68 Speed of Subject...26 The Exposure..39 Choosing Shooting Modes..59 Evaluating Histograms ..95 !"#$%"#&$"'$()*)+.78 Conveying the Feeling of Motion..82 Creating and Using a Custom White Balance Setting...20 Image Review.64 Adjusting the ISO......24 Number of Pixels....16 The Quick Control Screen....57 Using Histograms.20 Jumping in Playback.....46 Meter Averaging and Middle Gray..13 Top View ..26 Choosing Image Size and Quality.....9 Good Things to Know.76 Using Deep Depth of Field........ii Preface..55 Autoexposure Bracketing (AEB).70 Checking Depth of Field....68 Distance to Subject and Focal Length of Lens..64 Supporting the Camera....80 Where Does Color Come From?....71 Focusing Techniques..30 Understanding Exposure..63 Getting Sharper Pictures..84 Selecting a Color Space.48 When Automatic Exposure Works Well.8 Jump Start—Using Full Auto Mode.......84 Using White Balance Correction & Bracketing.13 Rear View.12 Focus Screens.12 Anatomy of the Camera..87 Weather..72 Selectable Focusing Points...45 How Your Exposure System Works.32 The Aperture Controls Light and Depth of Field...........89 Photographing at Night.v When to Override Automatic Exposure..8"'+&'+3 CONTENTS Cover.23 Selecting Image Quality and Size.22 Giving Slide Shows...73 Displaying AF Points in Playback...50 Scenes Darker than Middle Gray.7 The 5D Mark II Camera......16 Dual Function Button Screens.51 Subject Against a Very Dark Background.62 CHAPTER 1 CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY....iv Contents..41 Using Program AE (P) & Program Shift.......45566673/"#+8"9#3&378"% 2 .69 Focus and Depth of Field...70 Focus.40 Using Creative Auto (CA) Mode.44 Using Manual (M) Mode...81 White Balance and Color........70 Depth of Field...........24 How An Image is Captured.....51 Subject Against a Very Light Background........79 CHAPTER 2 CONTROLLING EXPOSURE.......20 INFO Display......61 Sample Histograms.36 Exposure—Faucets & Buckets Analogy...31 The Shutter Controls Light and Motion.37 Exposure—Seesaw Analogy../"+"*#...15 The Main Dial...12 Diopter Adjustment..43 Using Aperture-Priority (Av) Mode......

/01$2)3)+$/++......155 C...135 2) !"#$%"#&$"'$()*)+.123 Using Slow Sync Flash..97 Electronic Lens Mount..130 Special Bulbs...145 Camera settings.101 Zoom Lenses...163 Resetting Camera Settings.127 Studio Lighting.....126 Using Flash in Close-ups.128 Backgrounds...167 Protecting when Traveling.160 Adjusting Monitor Brightness.....108 Tilt-Shift Lenses.128 Lighting.......149 Adjusting Picture Styles..112 CHAPTER 7 OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS...165 Cleaning the Camera and Lens..141 Silent Shooting......136 Continuous Photography......161 Formatting CF Cards..150 Registering Your Own Settings.......153 C............118 Flash Function Settings...96 Canon Lenses..160 Turning the Beep On and Off.121 Positioning the Flash and Subjects.140 Live View/Movie Function Settings.159 Changing the Review Time..156 Using My Menu.Fn IV: Operation Others...115 Controlling Flash Exposures..161 Setting the Auto Power Off Time..110 Lens Accessories..114 Using a Canon Speedlite.147 Using a TV As the Monitor......149 Registering a Picture Style.168 Storing a Camera.141 Grid Display....162 Firmware Version...Fn I: Exposure...140 Live View Function Settings........151 Using Custom Functions.....-$.159 Shooting Without a CF Card..128 Candidates for Studio Lighting..164 Caring for Your Camera....158 Changing Other Settings......141 Metering Timer.163 Battery Info..147 Playing Movies..144 Shooting Movies in Live View.120 Portraits with Flash.168 Caring for Yourself....130 Portrait and Product Photography— Introduction.132 The Fill Light...161 Turning Auto Rotate On and Off......119 Wireless Remote Flash....106 Macro Lenses and Accessories..... Fn II: Image.98 Information on a Canon Lens..Fn III: Auto focus/Drive.....97 Focusing Technology.117 External Speedlite Control.137 Remote Control Photography.134 The Rim Light.124 Using Available Light......99 Lens Peripheral Illumination Correction......130 Risers..104 Telephoto Lenses.145 Basic Movie Tips.................118 Custom Functions...154 C....165 Cleaning the Image Sensor.146 Exposure Tips.149 Selecting Picture Styles...........116 What’s E-TTL II?..../"+"*#..131 The Main Light..45566673/"#+8"9#3&378"% .116 Flash Exposure Compensation....119 High-speed Sync (FP).142 General Tips in Live View.....168 CHAPTER 6 USING FLASH AND STUDIO LIGHTING..159 Setting the Date and Time....143 Magnified View for Focusing..111 Perspective in a Photograph...140 Screen Settings Type.138 Shooting Still Images in Live View..103 Wide-Angle Lenses...100 Focal Length.139 Manual Focusing.161 Traveling Options—Language and Video Settings.113 How Flash Works.159 Reset File Numbers.133 The Background Light.118 Flash Exposure Bracketing (FEB).144 Live View Exposure Tips....120 Stroboscopic Flash.147 Things to Avoid....162 Creating and Selecting Folders...8"'+&'+3 CHAPTER 5 UNDERSTANDING LENSES.122 Using Fill Flash..98 Image Stabilization...167 Protecting your Camera from the Elements..142 AF Mode.121 Red-eye.148 Using Picture Styles.......102 Normal Lenses.116 Flash Exposure (FE) Lock.97 Ultrasonic Motors..152 C.143 Live View Focusing Tips..

” Your automatic exposure and focusing systems are having a profound affect on your images. manage your images and control image quality. the same basic principles are at work “under the hood. we’ll explore in greater depth how you take control of these settings. or at least take advantage of the effects these systems have on your images. However. you can indirectly control. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY Chapter 1 Camera Controls and Creativity CONTENTS • The 5D Mark II Camera • Jump Start: Using Full Auto Mode • Good Things to Know • Using the Viewfinder • Anatomy of the Camera • Changing Settings with Buttons and Dials • Changing Settings with the Quick Control Screen • Changing Settings with Menus • Playing Back & Managing Your Images • Using the Playback Menu • Giving Slide Shows • Selecting Image Quality and Size erious digital cameras give you creative control over your images. we’ll first explore your camera and how you use it in Full Auto mode. In this chapter.CHAPTER 1. Even with your camera set to Full Auto. In the chapters that follow. VISIT HTTP://WWW. some allow you to make minor adjustments that affect your images. They do so by allowing you to control the light and motion in photographs as well as what’s sharp and what isn’t. external flash connections. regardless of what controls your camera has. and others. and a wide range of controls— more than you’d find on a 35mm SLR. to get the effects you want. S FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. We’ll also see how you use menus and buttons to operate the camera. The best ones such as the Canon 5D Mark II offer interchangeable lenses.SHORTCOURSES. Although most consumer digital cameras are fully automatic.COM 7 .

stereo video cable (STV-250N). You also how an SLR works when have access to more than 60 Canon EF lenses from ultra-wide-angle and fishyou compose an image eye to macro and supertelephoto.CHAPTER 1. respectively. the camera has customization features including 25 Custom Functions. The 5D Mark II camera body comes with an eyecup and body cap. You can select either a full-sized RAW image format. Its 35-zone metering sensor and evaluative metering are linked to all AF points. or remove it if it does. or later in playback mode.photocourse.9 frames-per-second (on a UDMA Compact Flash card) making it ideal for photographing wildlife. magnifying parts of the scene up to 10x for the precise manII is a single-lens ual focus required in macro photography. Live View also has silent modes reflex (SLR) camera so when you look in that avoid startling people and wildlife. The camera has E-TTL II autoflash and 7 shooting modes. The focusing system uses nine AF points from which you or the camera can select the one used to focus. VISIT HTTP://WWW. When you don’t plan on editing your images on a computer. EOS Digital Solutions Disk.com/itext/SLR/ clips at 1920 x 1080 resolution and 30 frames per second. Using Live View. picture styles you can edit or define from scratch. snow or other white subjects. Also available are centerweighted average metering. particularly for wireless flash operations.1 megapixels that can capture still images up to 5616 x 3744 in size–large enough for 28 x 18 inch prints.5 percent of the viewfinder at center. battery charger (LC-E6 or LC-E6E. battery pack (LP-E6). Camera settings Click this button to play you make to adjust image sharpness. color saturation and white an animation that shows balance. Picture Styles let you adjust them for printing right from the camera as you capture them.SHORTCOURSES. ISO settings range from 100–6400 but you can expand the ISO up to 25.COM 8 . Highlight Tone Priority is perfect for wedding and nature photographers trying to capture details in wedding dresses. clouds. and manuals. on the screen to change camera settings. Live View also makes it possible for the camera to capture full 16:9 HD video http://www. you can also use this monitor to The Canon 5D Mark compose them. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.600. The camera’s integrated sensor cleaning offers a number of ways to prevent dust from affecting your images. The camera has a top shutter speed of 1/8000 sec and a 1/200 maximum flash sync shutter speed setting. and the ability to create your own menu listing only those settings you use most frequently. you can use a computer screen as the are seeing the scene viewfinder to compose and focus images. strap (EWEOS5DMKII) interface cable (IFC-200U). CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY THE 5D MARK II CAMERA Canon’s EOS 5D Mark II digital SLR camera features a full-frame (24 x 36mm) image sensor with 21. and press the shutter button. Using Live View. partial metering and spot metering—the last two covering approximately 8 percent or 3. you can adjust the flash settings of the Canon Speedlite 580EX II and 430EX II directly from the camera. contrast. also apply to movies so you have extensive creative control. Using an optional wireless transmitter you can even eliminate the cable and work wirelessly over short distances. As an added convenience. Finally. The camera’s 14-bit Analog-to-Digital (A/D) conversion process captures images with finer and more accurate gradations of tones and colors. or one of two smaller and more manageable sRAW formats that are identical to full-size RAW images except for their pixel dimensions and file sizes. The camera has a large three-inch 920.000-pixel LCD monitor on which you can review your images. using menu commands displayed through the lens. The camera captures images in the JPEG format but also offers the higherquality RAW format. Its high-speed continuous mode captures up to 78 Large/Fine JPEGs or 13 RAW images at 3. sports and other action subjects. plus three custom modes you can use to store your own settings. along with software the viewfinder you and a cable supplied with the camera.

The camera adjusts white balance so white objects in the scene look white in the photo (page 82). The nine small rectangles displayed in the viewfinder are AF points used for focusing. or press INFO to change the display. set the Mode Dial to Full Auto (the green rectangle icon). Press the shutter button halfway down and pause so the camera can automatically set focus and exposure. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Compose the image in the viewfinder. All you have to do is frame the image and push the shutter button. the round green focus confirmation light in the viewfinder glows. • If you don’t use any controls for 60 seconds. you may need to clear previous settings as described on page 164. the camera enters auto power off mode (page 161). TIPS • If the camera doesn’t work as described here. You can take another photo at any time. and the red access lamp on the back of the camera glows while the image is being saved. When finished. and the camera beeps. the AF point(s) being used to set focus momentarily flashes red. The shutter speed and aperture that will be used to take the picture are displayed in the viewfinder when the display is activated by pressing the shutter button halfway down (page 12). • Automatic white balance.JUMP START—USING FULL AUTO MODE JUMP START—USING FULL AUTO MODE The 5D Mark II’s Full Auto mode sets everything for you. VISIT HTTP://WWW. This icon is displayed when you turn the camera on and off to indicate the sensor is being cleaned. This is a good mode to use in most situations because it lets you focus on the subject rather than on the camera. buSY may be briefly displayed in the viewfinder. The viewfinder shows about 98% of the scene you are going to capture. When it’s done so. ! The shutter sounds. it beeps. 2. How close you can get to a subject depends on the minimum focus distance of the lens you are using. If the image in the viewfinder is fuzzy. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture. Set the focus mode switch on the lens to AF (page 72). and the AF point(s) being used to set focus briefly flashes red. With the Power Switch on the back of the camera set to ON or the white line above it. The Power Switch set to the white line above ON. The Mode Dial with the green Full Auto icon. Evaluative metering divides the scene in the viewfinder into 35 zones and separately meters each of them to determine the best exposure for the scene (page 46). To wake it up. 3.SHORTCOURSES. • Autofocus. the round focus confirmation light in the lowerright corner of the viewfinder glows green. the camera focuses on the closest part of the scene covered by one or more of these points (page 72). turn the Power Switch to OFF. press Erase to delete it. • Framing the image.COM 9 . • If you have attached a dedicated Speedlite flash. its AF-assist beam may light to assist focus in dim light (page 118). 5. making sure the area that you want sharpest is covered by one of the nine AF points. turn the diopter adjustment knob at the upper right corner of the viewfinder to adjust it (page 12). press the shutter button halfway down and release it. ! The image is displayed on the monitor for 2 seconds so you can review it. Turn the Power Switch on the back of the camera to ON and set the Mode Dial to Full Auto (the green rectangle icon). The color cast in a photograph is affected by the color of the light illuminating the scene. • Selecting the mode. • Autoexposure. 4. When the focus switch on the lens is set to AF. When you press the shutter button halfway down. TAKING A PICTURE IN AUTO MODE 1.

• If the camera can’t focus. • To take pictures. you press it the rest of the way to take the picture. Tv. it doesn’t beep when you press the shutter button halfway down. Press the shutter on the right side of the button slowly and smoothly as you hold your breath after breathing in deeply camera as seen from and exhaling. The battery compartment cover is on the bottom of the camera and accepts LP-E6 lithium battery packs. here are some of the things you may want to know right off. and insert a CompactFlash (CF) card on which to store your images. Pressing the shutter button halfway down locks focus and exposure and pressing it all the way down takes the picture. select a language (if necessary) and enter the current date and time (page 159) so your images are accurately dated. Images are even displayed on the monitor so you think you are capturing them. the shooting position. When you press it halfway down and briefly pause. • In P. Brace the camera against your face as you look through The CF card slot cover is the viewfinder and brace your elbows against your body. • Should you inadvertently open the compact flash card door while the camera is writing to the card. then close the cover. but they are not saved. When the green confirmation light comes on in the viewfinder and the camera beeps. To ensure you don’t take unsaved pictures. • The power switch has two positions. • If you turn off the camera while an image is being saved. To simplify your getting started. insert a charged battery pack. and there may be no lens as part of the package.%/"-0"%):. but the image is saved without interruption as long as you don’t remove the card. hold the camera in your right hand while supporting the lens with your left. The only difference is that when set to the white line the Quick Control Dial works (page 15).'#12 Click to view a PDF document on camera straps and cases.-.%):. The last two blink to draw your attention when the battery is almost dead.-')(. Insert the CF card with its front label facing the rear of the camera and the small holes facing inward. VISIT HTTP://WWW. turn off the camera. turn off the Shoot w/o card setting on the Shooting 1 menu tab (page 159).CHAPTER 1. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. Press the card down until the gray eject button pops out. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY GOOD THINGS TO KNOW When you first start taking photos with a new camera. • If your camera is right out of the box. you need to mount a lens (page 97) and set it to AF (autofocus). • To insert a CF card. and you can’t take a picture. • The shutter button has two stages. If you press the shutter button all of the way down without pausing halfway. M and B modes pressing the AF-ON button does the same thing as pressing the shutter button halfway down. the camera sets focus and exposure.COM . Sections in the battery icon on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder are deleted as the battery charge falls. To remove a card. 10 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.-. and swing it open. slide the CF card slot cover on the right side of the camera toward the back. No CF card is included with the camera. it sometimes seems that there is too much to learn all at once. For help on focusing see page 72. the camera pauses to focus before taking the picture. open the CF card slot cover and press the gray eject button to pop up the card so you can grasp it and pull it out. ON and the white line above it. • One of the camera’s default settings lets you shoot pictures without a CF card in the camera. • The first time you use the camera. the message Recording is displayed and the power remains on until all images are saved. the round green focus confirmation light in the viewfinder blinks. Av. a warning is displayed on the monitor and an open door “alarm” sounds.SHORTCOURSES.

it is displayed on the monitor for two seconds but you can adjust this review time (page 159). Sometimes ensuring that the lens is locked into place also helps. you can use the optional AC Adapter Kit ACK-E6 to power the camera instead of the battery pack. the Shooting Functions screen reflects setting changes as you or the camera make them. This is useful if you make changes and can’t remember how to undo them. Instructions on how to attach the adapter are included with it. If the focus confirmation light in the viewfinder blinks when you press the shutter button halfway down. • If you encounter an error message you can’t resolve. • You can reset all camera settings to their factory defaults (page 164). While it’s displayed. Like the LCD panel. You can adjust the monitor’s brightness to match the light you’re viewing it in (page 160). It turns off after 6 seconds of inactivity. reinserting the battery and turning it back on. • When you charge batteries with the LC-E6 or LC-E6E charger the orange charge lamp blinks more rapidly the more charged the battery is. the camera is having trouble focusing (page 72). • You can use the camera’s monitor to review images you’ve taken (page 20). • While watching the monitor. focus and capture them. or INFO to change the display mode. and Live View. or if the camera controls “freeze. the grid-like Shooting Functions screen (page 15). you’ll see the settings for each shooting mode. Fully charging a depleted battery takes about 2. or using the camera to give a slide show. Turning the Mode Dial or pressing any shooting related button extends it. Align it in the other direction on a battery that needs charging. you can press the Erase button (page 20) to delete it. the camera shuts down in two stages. and reactivate the displays and buttons. TIPS • If you press the INFO button once or twice to display the Shooting Functions screen on the monitor (it’s gridlike) and then turn the Mode Dial. VISIT HTTP://WWW. After one minute auto power off takes effect and the LCD panel and monitor turn off. press the INFO button to cycle through the list-like Camera Settings screen.COM 11 . twice per second up to 75%. • The battery pack cover can be attached in two directions. the monitor. removing the battery for a few seconds. • When you take a picture. • When photographing in a studio-like setting. To turn on metering. and many buttons including the three above the LCD panel. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. and in Live View (page 139) use it to compose.” you might “reboot” it by turning it off. as do the viewfinder display and the aperture and/or shutter speed readouts on the LCD panel. Pressing the LCD Panel Illumination button lights the LCD panel so it’s readable in the dark.GOOD THINGS TO KNOW • When you don’t use controls for a specified period. When the number in brackets gets to zero you can’t take any more photos unless you delete some or change memory cards. and turning off the monitor. Align it so the blue seal shows through the battery shaped opening to indicate a battery is fully charged.SHORTCOURSES. • See the Battery info command on page 163. The Mode Dial with seven shooting modes and 3 custom modes. It blinks once per second up to 50%. • Recharge batteries immediately before using them because they gradually loose their charge over time. After 4 seconds metering turns off. • You can illuminate the LCD panel by pressing the button marked with the light bulb icon on top of the camera. Those that are grayed out can’t be changed in the current shooting mode. press the shutter button halfway down. • A fully charged battery should capture around 800 pictures depending on the temperature and how often you use flash. At this point dials.5 hours. • Routinely check the shots remaining displayed on the LCD panel and Shooting Functions screen. won’t work. three times per second after 75% and glows green when fully charged.

the ISO.8.CHAPTER 1. • The Eg-A focus screen comes with your camera. The circle in the center of the viewfinder indicates the spot metering area (page 48). the viewfinder displays the current shutter speed and aperture. The Eg-D optional focus screen. Should you switch them. the focusing point or points being used to set focus flash red. When you press the shutter button halfway down. and the focus confirmation indicator. The viewfinder display stays on for 4 seconds after you press the shutter button halfway down. AF POINTS The viewfinder displays nine small rectangles called AF points (AF stands for autofocus). remove the lens cap and look through the viewfinder at an evenly lit surface or fairly bright light source (not the sun!). In P. To do so. If this doesn’t work. Av. It displays a bright view of the scene and makes it easy to manually focus. M and B modes it also displays an exposure level indicator that’s used for setting exposure compensation (page 55) and Manual (M) exposure (page 45). • The Eg-S is a super-precision matte screen designed for lenses with a maximum aperture of f/2. DIOPTER ADJUSTMENT You can adjust the viewfinder display so you can read it without glasses. press the shutter button halfway down. Tv. This screen makes manual focusing easier and more precise than the Eg-A. the camera also displays focus and exposure information to guide you. you normally compose them in the viewfinder. These lenses slip into the viewfinder’s eyepiece holder.8 or larger. try to bring the AF points into focus by turning the dioptric adjustment knob at the upperright corner of the viewfinder. INFORMATION DISPLAY When you press the shutter button halfway down. When the focus switch on the lens is set to AF (page 72). Since this is your center of interest. the camera also accepts the accessory E-series Dioptric Adjustment Lenses in 10 types ranging from -4 to +3 diopters. the viewfinder image is darker. FOCUS SCREENS The camera accepts three interchangeable focus screens.SHORTCOURSES. A number of other indicators are also displayed during various procedures. If the viewfinder display isn’t sharp.COM . The diopter adjustment knob. 12 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY USING THE VIEWFINDER When taking photos with the 5D Mark II. the shots remaining in continuous mode. VISIT HTTP://WWW. • The Eg-D is the same as Eg-A but displays grid lines that are great for studio and architectural photography where accurately aligning vertical and horizontal lines is important. The one being used to set focus can be selected manually or automatically (page 73). When focus is achieved the AF point or points being used to set focus flash red and the green confirmation light glows steady in the viewfinder. but when used with a lens slower than f/2. the camera focuses on the closest part of the scene covered by one or more of these AF points. you have to set Custom Function IV-5 Focusing screen (page 152) to tell the camera which one you have installed. TIP • To turn on metering and display exposure information on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder.

7. TOP VIEW 1. turning the Main Dial changes the first setting and turning the Quick Control Dial changes the second. the viewfinder. and sets flash exposure compensation (page 116) in conjunction with the Quick Control Dial. 3. AF-DRIVE button specifies autofocus modes (page 72) in conjunction with the Main Dial and cycles the camera among the drive modes single-shot. and LCD panel displays when pressed halfway down. Mode Dial selects any of the camera’s shooting modes (page 40). The shutter button (top) and Main Dial (bottom). • You can quickly reset all camera settings to their original factory defaults (page 164). TIP • Blue icons indicate the function of buttons in Playback mode. ISO/Flash Exposure Compensation button. Metering/WB button selects the metering mode (page 48) in conjunction with the Main Dial and sets white balance (page 82) in conjunction with the Quick Control Dial. and self-timer (page 64) in conjunction with the Quick Control Dial. • You can connect the camera to a computer and use Live View (page 139) so you and others can immediately see photos as you take them. and takes the photo when pressed all the way.COM 13 . turning the dial jumps you through pictures you’ve taken (page 20). In playback mode.SHORTCOURSES. 5. 2. 4. This is a great way to take portraits and close-ups. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. After pressing a button that has two functions. VISIT HTTP://WWW. 6. LCD Panel Illumination button lights the LCD panel. continuous (page 137). Shutter button sets exposure and focus and turns on metering. in conjunction with the Main Dial changes the ISO (page 65). Main Dial is used by itself and with buttons to change camera settings in shooting modes (page 15).ANATOMY OF THE CAMERA ANATOMY TIPS OF THE CAMERA The 5D Mark II has a number of buttons and dials that quickly change important settings without the time-consuming need to work your way through menus.

a small joy stick. Playback button displays the last image you captured (page 20). Power switch turns the camera on and off. In Playback and Live View modes it zooms images up to 10x (page 20). M and B modes (page 72). turns on Live View when it’s enabled. makes white balance corrections (page 85) and scrolls around an enlarged image in playback mode (page 20). 14 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 10. in conjunction with the Main or Quick Control Dial. in many cases you can also turn the Main Dial. • In P. 6. 3. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY TIPS • Throughout this book when we tell you to turn the Quick Control Dial. INFO button cycles you through information about camera settings in shooting mode (page 15). 8. M and B modes (page 40). Tv. It selects AF points (page 73). correct the white balance. moves in 8 directions plus straight down. REAR VIEW • You can quickly reset camera settings to their original factory defaults (page 164). You use it to select the AF point. activates the Quick Control Dial in shooting modes. 13. 12. SET button in the middle of the Quick Control Dial confirms settings and starts and stops movie recording (page 145). and highlight and select menu options except Erase images on the Playback 1 menu and Format on the Set up 1 menu where you have to press SET instead. Multi-controller. 5. Quick Control Dial adjusts exposure by itself. Av. operate the Quick Control screen. it unzooms a zoomed image and switches to index view (page 20). Picture Style selection button changes picture styles (page 149). scroll the playback image during magnified view. manually selects which AF point is used to set focus (page 73). TIP • You can press the Multi-controller straight down and in eight sideways directions. and in menu mode it highlights menu commands.COM . AF point selection/Magnify button. Erase button deletes the image displayed on the monitor (page 20). 11. In playback mode. AE/FE lock/Index/Reduce button (*) locks exposure (page 55) and flash exposure (page 117). it lets you print or transfer images when connected to a printer or computer. In playback mode. and when set to the white line. or images in playback mode (page 20).SHORTCOURSES. 9. Tv. 7. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Live View/Print/Share button. pressing the AF-ON button performs the same function as pressing the shutter button halfway down. MENU button displays and hides the menu on the monitor (page 17). In playback mode it scrolls through images. AF-ON button autofocuses in P. 2. Av.CHAPTER 1. and works in conjunction with buttons to change settings in shooting mode (page 15). 4. when pressed in shooting mode. 1.

COM . drive mode. THE INFO BUTTON When the camera is ready to shoot. Tv. and in playback mode to scroll through images. press the shutter button halfway down and release it. Each time you press a button to initiate a procedure. flash exposure compensation or AF point selection. To wake up the camera. THE MAIN DIAL The Main Dial is used to change settings in shooting modes. You can use the Set up 3 menu’s INFO button setting to specify which screens are displayed. • When changing the white balance. you can press the INFO button to cycle through the list-like Camera Settings. • After pressing MENU. The Quick Control Dial only adjusts exposure settings when the Power Switch is set to the white line above ON. • When changing shutter speeds and apertures in P. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. you only have about 6 seconds to turn the dial or the displays become inactive. AF mode. Pressing a button initiates a procedure by activating metering and the exposure displays. THE QUICK CONTROL DIAL The Quick Control Dial works in shooting modes to change settings. When you press many buttons. you first press and release a button to select a setting before you turn the dial. their function remains active for only 6 seconds. It has the advantage of larger type and better illumination. • If you turn the camera off while the Shooting Functions screen is displayed. M and B modes you turn the dial without first pressing a button (pages 41–45). turning the Main Dial changes the setting listed first (AF) and turning the Quick Control Dial changes the one listed second (DRIVE). • Many buttons. VISIT HTTP://WWW. This only works when the Power Switch is set past ON to the white line pointing to the Quick Control Dial • After pressing MENU turn the dial to move the highlight up and down the menu. just press the button again for another 6 seconds. 15 TIPS • Many buttons won’t work when auto power off is in effect so press the shutter button halfway down and release it to activate metering and the camera’s LCD panel displays. highlight menu tabs in menu mode (page 17). you turn the dial by itself. If you are slow.CHANGING SETTINGS WITH BUTTONS AND DIALS CHANGING SETTINGS WITH BUTTONS AND DIALS Buttons and dials are often used together. press the INFO button to display a different screen before turning off the camera. • After pressing buttons that have two functions. To avoid this. in menu mode to highlight menu commands. in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel and monitor. • When changing exposure compensation (page 55) or selecting an aperture in Manual (M) mode (page 45). Av.SHORTCOURSES. including the three above the LCD panel. won’t work when auto power off is in effect (page 161). Setting it to ON prevents inadvertent shifts in exposure by turning the dial. you can use it instead of the LCD panel as a guide when changing settings. you first press and release a button to select a setting before you turn the dial. such as AF-DRIVE. and turning off the monitor. and jump through pictures in playback mode (page 21). When the Shooting Functions screen is displayed. turn the dial to select menu tabs listing commands (page 17). the grid-like Shooting Functions screens. the screen will be displayed again the next time you turn on the camera. and then turning a dial highlights one of the available options. ISO or selecting an AF point. You can also press the Multi-controller straight down to activate it and change it into the Quick Control screen. • When changing metering.

TIPS • You can’t display the Quick Control screen when the camera is in auto power off mode. • Turning the Quick Control Dial changes the lower setting. 16 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY CHANGING SETTINGS ON THE QUICK CONTROL SCREEN In addition to using menus to change or confirm settings. When the Shooting Functions or Quick Control screen is displayed. where it’s hard to read the LCD panel on top of the camera. This screen is almost identical to the Shooting Functions screen (page 15). • Turning the Main Dial changes the upper setting. The Quick Control screen (top) and a settings screen (bottom). Press SET to display a settings screen (this is optional). Press the shutter button halfway down and release it to wake up the camera. This is very convenient when you’re shooting from a tripod or monopod. In fact if you display the Shooting Functions screen and then press the Multi-controller straight down. then turn the Main or Quick Control Dial to scroll through choices for the selected setting. you can’t display the Quick Control screen. 3. USING THE QUICK CONTROL SCREEN 1.CHAPTER 1. The currently selected setting is highlighted in green and remains highlighted for only 10 seconds if you don’t use any camera controls. Press the joystick-like Multi-controller straight down to activate the Quick Control screen displaying the current camera settings on the monitor. 2. Press the Multi-controller straight down to reselect it.SHORTCOURSES. press SET after selecting your choice to return to the Quick Control screen. DUAL FUNCTION BUTTON SCREENS The three buttons above the LCD panel each have two functions. The three buttons above the LCD panel each have two settings you change with the Main and Quick Control Dials. it changes into the Quick Control screen. Press the Multi-controller in any direction to highlight the setting you want to change and its function is indicated at the bottom of the screen. • When Custom Function III-3: AF point selection method is set to 1: Multi-controller direct.COM . • Settings remain selected for 10 seconds if you don’t use any controls. If you displayed a setting screen. VISIT HTTP://WWW. you can press one of these buttons to display a two-part setting screen on the monitor. THE QUICK CONTROL SCREEN You can use the Quick Control screen and Multi-controller to change settings on the monitor. with the camera at eye level. you can also use the Quick Control screen and the three dual function buttons above the LCD panel.

• To display the menu. In these cases the tab numbers (1.SHORTCOURSES. you press the MENU button to display a series of menu tabs coded with colors. • You can place up to six frequently used menu commands on your own “My Menu” and even have that menu displayed first when you press the MENU button (page 158). Set up. press the SET button in the center of the Quick Control Dial. • To hide the menu. • To select a tab.COM 17 . then press SET to confirm the change. • The last menu you viewed is displayed the next time you press MENU. icons and dots. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight it. and icons help you identify which menu tab is displayed. Colors. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. you can press the shutter button halfway down at any time to instantly return to shooting mode. To do so. Icons. USING MENUS Once you press MENU. the Main Dial. • To display the options or settings screen for a highlighted command. To charge settings from these menus you use the Main Dial. press the MENU or shutter button. • To select a listed option (not all commands list options). press MENU or the shutter button before pressing SET. • To backup without changing a setting. press the MENU button. Playback. • To move the colored selection frame up and down the menu to highlight settings. VISIT HTTP://WWW. the Quick Control Dial (above) and the SET button in its center are all you need to change settings. • All of the camera’s menu commands and the pages on which they are discussed in this book are listed in tables on pages 18–19. • Some menus are spread across two or three tabs. turn the Quick Control Dial. • You can use the Multi-controller as well as the Main and Quick Control Dials to change menu settings. shaded menu items are not available in Full or Creative Auto modes (pages 9 and 41). 2.) • When menus are displayed on the monitor. (To reduce the possibility of mistakes. colors and dots indicate (from top down) Shooting. turn the Main Dial. dots. Custom Functions and My Menu tabs. the Quick Control Dial and the SET button. 3) are indicated on the tabs with dots. you can’t use the Multi-controller to select Erase images on the Playback 1 menu or Format on the Set up 1 menu.CHANGING SETTINGS WITH MENUS CHANGING SETTINGS WITH MENUS To change many settings. The Shooting 1 menu. On those tables. you press it sideways to highlight menu items and press it straight down to select them.

compression and format Turns camera beep Off/On Specifies if the camera takes pictures without a card inserted Specifies how long an image is displayed immediately after capture Turns on and off for the selected lens.CHAPTER 1. CAMERA CONTROLS In the tables on this page shaded commands are not available in Full Auto and Creative auto modes. Print order Transfer order External media backup Settings Protects images from being erased Rotates images shot in portrait mode Erases images from the memory card Specifies images to be printed Selects images to be sent to PC Used with WFT-E4/E4A wireless transmitter to save images Page 22 22 22 — — — PLAYBACK 2 (BLUE) Command Highlight alert AF point disp. Settings Sets image size. Page 55.COM . AND CREATIVITY SHOOTING 1 (RED) Command Quality Beep Shoot w/o card Review time Peripheral illumin. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Histogram Slide show Image jump Settings Highlights overexposed areas in images Specifies if AF points used to focus are displayed in review or playback modes Selects type of histogram displayed Plays back images automatically Specifies how you jump in playback mode. correct. 57 82 83 85 84 149 166 PLAYBACK 1 (BLUE) Command Protect images Rotate Erase images Some settings are only displayed when you are using an optional WFT-E4/E4A wireless transmitter./AEB White balance Custom WB WB SHIFT/BKT Color space Picture Style Dust Delete Data Settings Exposure compensation and autoexposure bracketing Prevents color casts Sets white balance in unique lighting situations Adjusts and brackets white balance Specifies the color space used to capture images Lets you select predefined image settings. or create your own Locates dust on the sensor so its effects can be removed from images using software. Page 27 160 159 159 100 SHOOTING 2 (RED) Command Expo.comp.SHORTCOURSES. Page 59 74 59 23 21 18 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

CHANGING SETTINGS
In the tables on this page shaded commands are not available in Full Auto and Creative auto modes. SET 1 (YELLOW) Settings Specifies when camera turns off Rotates images shot in portrait mode Prepares card to store images Specifies image file numbers Create and select folders for images Used with WFT-E4/E4A wireless transmitter Used with WFT-E4/E4A wireless transmitter

WITH

MENUS

UP

Command Auto power off Auto rotate Format File numbering Select folder WFT settings Recording function+media select SET
UP

Page 161 162 161 160 162 — —

2 (YELLOW) Settings Adjusts monitor brightness Sets camera date and time Specifies language used for menus and messages Specifies PAL or NTSC video Cleans dust from the sensor Customizes the Live View display Page 161 159 161 161 165 139

Command LCD brightness Date/Time Language Video system Sensor cleaning Live View/Movie func. set.

SET

UP

3 (YELLOW) Settings Manage your battery packs Specifies which INFO screens are displayed Sets an external flash Stores your own settings to C1, C2 and C3 on the Mode Dial Resets many camera settings to their factory defaults Updates the camera’s firmware Page 163 15 118 151 164 163

Command Battery info. INFO. button External Speedlite control Camera user setting Clear settings Firmware ver. CUSTOM FUNCTIONS (ORANGE) Command C.Fn I: Exposure C.Fn II: Image C.Fn III: Autofocus/Drive C.Fn IV: Operation/Others Clear all Custom Func. (C.Fn)

Settings Exposure, ISO, bracketing, flash sync Noise reduction, highlight tone and auto lighting optimizer Autofocus and mirror lockup Shutter button, AF-ON, SET dials, focusing screen and Live View Resets Custom Functions to their defaults

Page 153 154 155 156 152

MY MENU (GREEN) Command My Menu settings Settings Stores frequently used commands Page 158

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CHAPTER 1. CAMERA CONTROLS

AND

CREATIVITY

PLAYING BACK & MANAGING YOUR IMAGES
TIPS
• After zooming an image or displaying information about it, you can turn the Main or Quick Control Dials to scroll through other images using the same settings. • To immediately return to shooting mode, press the shutter button halfway down.

When taking photos, there are many times when you want to review the images you’ve taken, ideally before leaving the scene. IMAGE REVIEW When you take a photo, it’s displayed for 2 seconds (counting from when you release the shutter button) although you can change this with the Review time command (page 159) on the Shooting 1 menu tab. With an image displayed, press the Erase button to delete it, or the INFO button to change the information display. Pressing either button also keeps the image on the screen until you press the shutter button halfway down to take another photo or auto power off takes effect. IMAGE PLAYBACK To review some or all of the images you have taken, press the Playback button to display the last photo you took. You can then scroll through images, display small thumbnails so you can quickly locate a specific image, erase the image, or zoom in to examine details. In playback mode, you can press the shutter button halfway down at any time to instantly return to shooting mode. You may not be able to playback photos on the card taken with another camera. INFO DISPLAY To display or hide information about images in review or playback modes, repeatedly press the INFO button to cycle through single image display, single image display with recording quality, histogram display, and shooting information display. On two of the screens a small thumbnail and one or more histograms are displayed (page 59). Once information is displayed for one image in playback (but not review) mode, you can turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll through other images with the same information displayed. MANAGING IMAGES—USING BUTTONS 1. Press the Playback button and use any of the following procedures: ! To display one image after another, turn the Quick Control Dial. ! To display 4 or 9 small thumbnails in index view, press the Index button once or twice. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll the blue frame to select a specific image. To return to single-image view, press the Magnify button.

Pressing INFO in playback mode displays information about the image.

The Playback icon.

The Index/Reduce icons.

The Magnify icon.

! To jump by the specified method (page 21), turn the Main Dial. ! To magnify an image up to 10x, display it in single-image view and press or hold down the Magnify button. When an image is magnified, a small square on the screen indicates which part of the image you are viewing as you press the Multi-controller to scroll around. To reduce the image and return to single-image view, press or hold down the Index/Reduce button or press the Playback button. CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE ...

The Erase icon.

20

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PLAYING BACK & MANAGING YOUR IMAGES

TIP
• One way to delete all images on a card (and all folders but the current one), is to format the card (page 161).

MANAGING IMAGES—USING BUTTONS, CON’T. ! To erase the image displayed in single-image view or the one highlighted in index view, press the Erase button (marked with a trash can icon). To confirm the erasure, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Erase and press SET. ! To change the information displayed, press INFO. 2. To resume shooting, press the Playback button or press the shutter button halfway down.

The Playback icon.

JUMPING IN PLAYBACK In playback mode, it takes time to navigate through images when there are many of them on a card. To speed things up you can turn the Main Dial to jump in single-image, magnified, and index modes. The jump methods from which you can choose include the following: • 1 image displays all of the images and movies in the order they were captured. • 10 images (the default) jumps you forward and back 10 images at a time. • 100 images jumps you forward and back 100 images at a time. • Screen, designed for use in index mode, jumps you forward and back a screen, or page of thumbnails, at a time. • Date jumps you forward or back to the first picture taken on the next or previous date. • Folder jumps folder by folder. • Movies jumps you to the first movie and then to other movies. • Stills jumps you to the first still image, then through other stills. In all modes other than 1 image, as you turn the Main Dial to jump, a position bar on the screen indicates where the currently displayed images fall within the total collection of images on the card. Also turning the Quick Control Dial continues to scroll through images one at a time. SELECTING A JUMP METHOD 1. Press MENU and display the Playback 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Image jump, and press SET to display a list jump methods. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, and press SET to select it. 4. When finished, press MENU and turn the Main Dial in playback mode to jump by the specified method. The current jump method and location are displayed in the lowerright corner of the monitor.

IMAGE RECOVERY SOFTWARE
• If you delete images by mistake, don’t despair. There is software that will let you recover them provided you don’t first save other photos on the same card. One such program is PhotoRescue at (http://www.datarescue.com/photorescue/) but you can find others by Googling “digital image recovery.”

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and Erase images from the Playback 1 menu tab are discussed here. (Press Index and Magnify to toggle between 1 or 3 images.SHORTCOURSES. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Select and erase images and press SET. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Erase images and press SET. VISIT HTTP://WWW. then turn it again to select OK and press SET. • When deleting 100% of the images. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Erase images and press SET. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Erase images and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight All images in folder. and press SET to display a list of folders. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight All images on card. press MENU. • You can rotate images automatically with the Set up 1 menu’s Auto rotate command (page 162). • When deleting less than 50%. Although only Protect images. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll through images and press SET to protect or unprotect selected images. Rotate.) When finished selecting images. The protect icon. • When deleting more than 50%.COM . use the Select and erase images choice. the protect icon is displayed at the top of the screen. ! To erase all images on the card. protect. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll through images and press SET to check those to be deleted. Turn the Quick Control Dial again to select a folder and press SET. and then use the All images on card choice to delete the rest. it’s often faster if you press the Index/Reduce button to switch to index display. use the All images on card choice. and press SET. press the Erase button to delete them and select OK when asked to confirm.) ! To rotate selected images. or to unprotect previously protected images. TIP The best way to delete images depends on how many you are deleting. ! To erase all images in a folder. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY USING TIPS THE PLAYBACK MENU The Playback menu tabs list a variety of commands. When finished.CHAPTER 1. Press MENU and display the Playback 1 menu tab. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll through your images and press SET one or more times to rotate an image. (When you select a protected image. and press SET. ! To erase selected images. then turn it again to select OK and press SET. or rotate. 22 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 2. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Rotate. MANAGING YOUR IMAGES—USING MENUS 1. the other playback commands are discussed elsewhere in this book (page 18). ! To protect selected images so they won’t be inadvertently erased. • Transfer Order is used to select which photos are transferred to your computer. • When looking for pictures to erase. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Protect images and press SET. protect the images you want to save. • Print order is used to specify which images are to be printed.

just movies or still images. • To show your images on a High Definition HD TV connect the camera and TV using the camera’s built-in HDMI OUT terminal and an optional HDMI Cable HTC-100. the white to the audio left channel. 4. turn both the TV and the camera off while you connect the supplied video cable (don’t use any other) to the A/V OUT terminal on the camera. GIVING SLIDE SHOWS TIPS • Canon’s optional AC adapter kit (ACKE6) lets you give slide shows without draining your battery pack. before pressing SET press INFO to display a list of folders or dates from which to choose. Turn it again to select All images. Use the Quick Control Dial and SET to select a setting and press MENU to return to the slide show screen. press INFO. When paused. 3. If you select Folder or Date. ! To manually scroll through images. press SET. parts may be cut off. turn the Main or Quick Control Dial. ! To specify what information is displayed. a pause icon is displayed in the upper left corner of the monitor. Date. The optional HDMI Cable HTC-100 used to display images on HD TVs. If you are traveling and need to switch between NTSC and PAL video systems see page 161. On the TV connect the red plug to the audio right channel. When paused. Do one of the following: ! Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight All images and press SET. or specific photos selected by their date or folder. Use the Quick Control Dial and SET to select a folder or date and press MENU to return to the slide show screen. • When giving a slide show. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Start and press SET to begin the show. Turn it again to select Play time or Repeat and press SET. Once the camera and TV are connected. Folder. Auto power off does not operate in slide show mode so you have to remember to turn it off. 5. ! Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Set up and press SET. Turn on the TV and set it for video input.GIVING SLIDE SHOWS GIVING SLIDE SHOWS You can display your images as a slide show on the camera’s monitor or on a connected TV. press the MENU or shutter button. Press MENU and select the Playback 2 menu tab. due to differences in the aspect ratio of the screen and image. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. The camera’s HDMI terminal. • To show your images on a non-HD TV. To stop the show at any point. 2. or if they do. a pause icon is displayed in the upper left corner of the monitor. ! To pause and restart the show.COM 23 . For added convenience you can control the playback rate (from one to five seconds per image) and set the show to end or loop when finished. and press SET to display the slide show settings screen. 1. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Slide show. images may not fill the screen. VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES. turn on the camera and set it to Slide show as described below. • You can’t use the camera’s A/V OUT and HDMI OUT terminals at the same time. Movies or Stills and press SET. Output resolution is automatically set to match the model of HDTV you are using and photos are displayed in their original 3:2 aspect ratio. Shows can include all of the still images and movies on the memory card. and the yellow to video in.

not image size. This is not unlike traditional silver-based prints where grain begins to show when prints are enlarged past a certain point. the computer divides the screen or printed page into a grid of pixels. It then uses the values stored in the digital photograph to specify the brightness and color of each pixel in this grid—a form of painting by number.photocourse.photocourse. Click to see the effects Click to explore the original meaning of “resolution”. 24 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.com/itext/resolution/ The quality of a digital image depends in part on the number of pixels used to create the image (sometimes referred to as resolution). Originally it referred to the ability of a camera system to resolve pairs of fine lines such as those found on a test chart. Any image that looks sharp and has smooth transitions in tones (top) is actually made up of millions of individual square pixels (bottom).photocourse. However. Each pixel is a solid. of pixelization as an image is enlarged. VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES. To do so. NUMBER OF PIXELS http://www. At a given size. ements—or just pixels. there are always size limits. your computer and printer can use these tiny pixels to display or print photographs. In this usage it’s an indicator of sharpness. TIP • The term “resolution” has two meanings in photography. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY SELECTING IMAGE QUALITY AND SIZE Digital photographs are made up of millions of tiny squares called picture elhttp://www. When you enlarge any digital image enough. more pixels add detail and sharpen edges.com/itext/pixelzoom/ effect called pixelization. With the introduction of digital cameras it began being used to indicate the number of pixels a camera could capture.CHAPTER 1. the pixels begin to show—an http://www.COM . Like the impressionists who painted wonderful scenes with small dabs of paint.com/itext/dots/ Click to see how dots are used in printing. uniform color.

SELECTING IMAGE QUALITY AND SIZE When a digital image is displayed or printed at the correct size for the number of pixels it contains. or to contain a little over 21 million pixels or megapixels (5616 multiplied by 3744). The size of a photograph is specified in one of two ways—by its dimensions http://www. Each pixel is a small square made up of a single color. Image sizes are expressed as dimensions in pixels (5616 ! 3744) or by the total number of pixels (21 megapixels). 5D MARK II IMAGE SIZES • The 5D Mark II gives you a choice of three image sizes: 5616 ! 3744 (large). VISIT HTTP://WWW. and 2353 ! 1856 (small) plus small RAW images.xls in Click for Excel work sheet on image sizes.SHORTCOURSES.photocourse.photocourse.COM 25 . the same image can be said to have 5616 " 3744 pixels (where “"” is pronounced “by” as in “5616 by 3744”). its square pixels begin to show. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.photocourse. http://www. 4080 x 2720 (medium). When enlarged too much (as is the eye here). http://www. For example.com/itext/imagesize/ Click to see how the output device determines image sizes.com/itext/excel/math-imagesize. it looks like a normal photograph. pixels or by the total number of pixels it contains.com/itext/pixelresolution/ Click to explore how more pixels give sharper images.

SHORTCOURSES. THE EXPOSURE When you press the shutter button of a digital camera. An image sensor against a background enlargement of its square pixels. • When you change image quality. and color tone settings using Picture Styles (page 149). or pixels. On the surface of this full-frame silicon chip is a grid containing over 21 million photosensitive diodes called photosites. The big difference between traditional film cameras and digital cameras is how they capture the image. the higher the charge it records. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY HOW AN IMAGE IS CAPTURED Digital cameras are very much like the rapidly disappearing 35mm film cameras. image sensors work much the same way. This series of numbers is then used to reconstruct the image by setting the color and brightness of matching pixels on the screen or printed page. sharpness. Those capturing light from shadows will have low charges. When photography was first invented. He had the photographer Thomas Sutton photograph a tartan ribbon three times. the LCD panel always indicates the number of new shots that will fit on the current CF card. One major breakthrough was James Clerk Maxwell’s 1860 discovery that color photographs could be created using black and white film and red. When the shutter closes to end the exposure. TIPS • You can change contrast. and a shutter. each time with a different color filter over the lens. blue. not color. VISIT HTTP://WWW. In the 5D Mark II. When the shutter opens briefly. saturation. each capable of capturing one pixel in the final image.COM . it could only record black and white images. the three images formed a full-color photograph. Pixels capturing light from highlights in the scene will have high charges. digital cameras use a solidstate device called an image sensor. The more light that hits a pixel.CHAPTER 1. The lens brings light from the scene into focus inside the camera so it can expose an image. They record only the gray scale—a series of 256 increasingly darker tones ranging from pure white to pure black. Both types contain a lens. The gray scale contains a range of tones from pure white to pure black. Instead of film. Over a century later. The three black and white images were then projected onto a screen with three different projectors. IT’S ALL BLACK AND WHITE AFTER ALL It may be surprising. each pixel on the image sensor records the brightness of the light that falls on it by accumulating an electrical charge. How the camera creates a color image from the brightness recorded by each pixel is an interesting story. The shutter is a device that can be opened or closed to control the length of time the light is allowed to enter. The aperture is a hole that can be made smaller or larger to control the amount of light entering the camera. photoelements. an exposure system measures the light coming through the lens and sets the aperture and shutter speed for the correct exposure. an aperture. and a lot of hand coloring went on in the interim (causing one photographer to comment “so you have to know how to paint after all!”). each equipped with the same color filter used to take the image being projected. When brought into alignment. the image sensor is a CMOS chip. the charge from each pixel is measured and converted into a digital number. but pixels on an image sensor can only capture brightness. Each photosite captures a single pixel in the photograph to be. and green filters. 26 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. The search for color was a long and arduous process.

8+6. This is a 27 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. M.com/itext/RAW/ (IN MB) Click here to explore the differences between JPEG and RAW formats. A change in any of these modes changes all of them.1 MENU FILE SIZE IMAGE SIZE (IN PIXELS) 5616 x 3744 5616 x 3744 4080 x 2720 4080 x 2720 2784 x 1856 2784 x 1856 5616 x 3744 5616 x 3744 3861 x 2574 3861 x 2574 2784 x 1856 2784 x 1856 # ON 2GB CARD 310 610 510 990 910 1680 72 57 120 89 170 110 Since good prints can be made using 200 pixels per inch you can calculate that a 5616 x 3744 pixel image will make a good 28 x 19 inch (71 x 48 cm) print.) Click to explore how three colors are used to create full-color prints. Tv.1 3. and the number Gigabyte memory card. large image sizes also let you crop more while preserving image quality. The 5D Mark II lets you select any of the combinations listed in the table below that describes each setting’s http://www.9 2.8 10.SHORTCOURSES.8 14. and blue (RGB).1 1. The 5D Mark II allows you to have up to four image size/quality/format settings in use at the same time. Fast cards are needed for the large image sizes and movies the camera generates. RGB uses additive colors. placing red. Large/Fine Large/Normal Medium/Fine Medium/Normal Small/Fine Small/Normal RAW RAW+Large/Fine sRAW1 sRAW1+Large/Fine sRAW2 sRAW2+Large/Fine A high capacity UDMA CF card lets you store the largest possible images without worrying as much about running out of storage space.photocourse.1 10. and B (page 40) are treated as a group. pixel dimensions. How well it does this is affected in part by the image size.6 1.” This file format not only compresses images.com/itext/compression/ that will fit on a 2 approximate file size.1 14.8 25. 6. • Full auto. subject matter and camera settings you use.0 3. quality (the amount of compression).8+6.0 25. http://www. Creative auto (CA). quality and format you select. and blue filters over individual pixels on the image sensor can create color images just as they did for Maxwell in 1860. green.8+6. This is called the additive color system because when the three colors are combined or added in equal quantities.COM . the Joint Photographic Experts Group and pronounced “jay-peg.photocourse. and format (JPEG or RAW). and blue light. Using a process called interpolation. Since daylight is made up of red. This RGB system is used whenever light is projected to form colors as it is on the display monitor (or in your eye). they form white.-)+0$. Although you may not want to make many prints this large. and so on.photocourse. Av.'($3)A& Colors in a photographic image are usually based on the three primary colors red.*&$@9. http://www.3&-&8+)'*$)%. (Your file sizes will vary somewhat depending on the Click here to see the effects of compression. VISIT HTTP://WWW. • Camera user settings C1 through C3 (page 151) can each be set independently to it’s own image quality. When red and green overlap they form yellow.com/itext/CMYK/ http://www. the camera computes the full color of each pixel by combining the color it captured directly with the other two colors captured by the pixels around it. CHOOSING IMAGE SIZE AND QUALITY The size of an image file and the quality of the picture it contains depends in part on the image’s size (the number of pixels). When all three are mixed in equal amounts they form white.com/itext/RGB/ Click to explore how three colors are used to create full-color images on the screen. • JPEG images are stored in a format named after its developer. Courtesy of SanDisk.photocourse. P. green. it also allows you to specify how much they are compressed—Fine mode uses less compression than Normal mode. green.

RAW images can be captured by themselves or with a companion JPEG image of any size. • You can’t print RAW images directly from the camera or add them to a digital print order form.CHAPTER 1. and converted to other formats using most photo-editing software such as Photoshop or Lightroom or Canon’s own Digital Photo Professional program included on a CD that comes with the camera. CAMERA CONTROLS AND CREATIVITY useful feature because there is a trade-off between compression and image quality.JPG. • RAW images can be processed again at a later date when new and improved applications become available. The two images have the same name but different extensions—. sRAW2 captures 5. M. edited. settings such as Picture Styles. the only camera settings that affect a RAW image are the shutter speed. Full-sized RAW images are 5616 x 3744 pixels in size and can be viewed. ISO and Custom Function II-2: High ISO speed noise reduction. the camera permanently adjusts the image to remove the yellow-green tint. Using a photo-editing program. • RAW lets you decide on most camera settings after you’ve taken the picture. white balance and so on affect the JPEG images and the thumbnail and preview for the RAW image. medium. you’ll find there are a number of advantages to using the RAW format: • RAW images used to require an extra processing step but since the latest programs such as Aperture and Lightroom were designed from the ground up after RAW formats were introduced they handle them as easily as they handle JPEGs. 28 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. when you shoot a JPEG image under fluorescent lights. sRAW1 captures 10 megapixel images (3861 x 2574) with a file size that is about 40% of a standard 21 megapixel RAW image. Any changes you make later are on top of this initial change. • You can generate alternate versions of the same RAW image. If you shoot the image in RAW format. you can adjust highlight and shadow areas and save these versions separately.COM . and S (large. unlike JPEGs which are processed in the camera with some of their data being permanently discarded. each with its own white balance. Admittedly.2 megapixel images (2784 x 1856) with a file size of only 20% of a standard RAW image. not before. the camera just captures it as is and you decide later what white balance setting to use. When you want to capture high-quality RAW images but don’t need as many pixels or want large file sizes the 5D Mark II offers two smaller RAW formats. but on your more powerful desktop computer. Image sizes are indicated by letters L. TIP • When you capture a RAW image plus a JPEG. Less compression gives you better images so you can make larger prints. you can then combine the two images as layers and by selectively erasing parts of the top image layer let areas of the lower image layer show through so all areas have a perfect exposure.CR2 and . Fine mode has a smooth edge and Normal mode has a rough stair-step edge. aperture. and small). • RAW images are often better than JPEGs because they are not processed in the camera. The only downside is that you can’t store as many images because file sizes are larger. focus. Their big advantage is that RAW files contain every bit of the captured image data. Your original image isn’t permanently altered by today’s generation of photo-editing applications. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Compression modes are indicated with pie-slicelike icons. You can even create different versions of an image. there are drawbacks to using RAW images. For example.SHORTCOURSES. When choosing between JPEG and RAW formats. For example. Highlight tone priority. In fact. This gives you a high quality RAW file and an identical but more easily distributable file. They do not affect the actual RAW image.

” SELECTING IMAGE SIZE & QUALITY 1. ! Turn the Main Dial to select a RAW format or select – if you don’t want to capture RAW images. With the Mode Dial set to any mode. • Because you can’t add pixels later without reducing image quality. Press SET to confirm your setting and return to the Shooting 1 menu. many operating systems and even photo-editing programs are unable to recognize some or all of these files. TIP The image quality setting screen. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Sometimes when there is no storage space left. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. or remove the effects of compression after the fact. dimensions in pixels. you can switch to a smaller size and lower quality to squeeze a few more images onto the card. and computer processing times may be slightly longer. • Since RAW images aren’t converted to a viewable format in the camera. ! Turn the Quick Control Dial to select a JPEG size and quality or select – if you don’t want to capture JPEG images. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.*&$@9. Since each camera company has defined its own proprietary RAW format.SHORTCOURSES. If you shoot images with lower quality setting.COM 29 . 3. it’s usually best to use the RAW format or at least the largest available JPEG size (L) with the highest quality (Fine). you have to process them on the computer and export them in a usable format when you want to e-mail them.-)+0$. The buffer gets filled more quickly and the camera is tied up longer processing the images you take. • You can’t shoot as many images in a continuous burst. and in brackets.'($3)A& • RAW files are quite large. print them. there is still work to do. sharper prints if you want them. and the number that will fit on the current card are displayed. the image’s size in megapixels. pixel dimensions. you can never really improve them much or get larger. and moving them from the buffer to the memory card. its file size. you can do so with a photo-editing program. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Quality and press SET to display a list of quality choices. 2. • RAW images can only be viewed and edited on a computer using a program such as Adobe’s Photoshop or Lightroom that supports the format. press MENU and display the Shooting 1 menu tab. Unfortunately it’s a one-way street and you can’t go the other way—enlarging a small file—without a loss of quality. post them on a Web site. TIP • As you highlight an image quality. perhaps to e-mail it or post it on the Web. When you are done shooting for the day. 4. The only problem with this approach is that higher quality images have larger file sizes so you’re not able to store as many images on your memory card.3&-&8+)'*$)%. If you have to reduce the size of an image later. the number of shots that will fit on the card—999 means “999 or more. If you use this format a great deal you will need more storage space in the camera and on the computer. or import them into another program to create a slide show or publication. This ensures your photos will have the highest quality the camera can produce. For this reason camera manufacturers always supply a program to process RAW images along with their cameras—in the case of the 5D Mark II it’s the Digital Photo Professional program. As you select a format.

VISIT HTTP://WWW. you’ve lost image information in the shadows or highlights that can’t be recovered. or a dark forest. however. into the sun. a colorful sunset.COM . CONTROLLING EXPOSURE Chapter 2 Controlling Exposure CONTENTS • Understanding Exposure • Choosing Shooting Modes • Using Creative Auto (CA) mode • Using Program AE and Program Shift • Using Shutter-Priority (Tv) Mode • Using Aperture Priority (Av) Mode • Using Manual (M) Mode • How Your Exposure System Works • When Automatic Exposure Works Well • When to Override Automatic Exposure • How Overriding Auto-exposure Works • How to Override Automatic Exposure • Using Histograms A utomatic exposure control is one of the most useful features of your camera. For example. At times the lighting can fool any automatic exposure system into producing an underexposed (too dark) or overexposed (too light) image. Using the camera’s histogram feature discussed in this chapter is the surest route to perfect exposures. always leave the exposure to the automatic system. You will find it better in some situations to override the automatic exposure system at the time you take the picture. It’s great to have the camera automatically deal with the exposure while you concentrate on the image. a dark subject against a light background. Although you can make adjustments to a poorly exposed image in a photo-editing program.SHORTCOURSES. a snow-covered landscape. you need to take control when photographing a variety of scenes including a light subject against a dark background. Typical situations in which you might want to override automatic exposure include scenes with interesting and unusual lighting. This is especially helpful when photographing action scenes where there isn’t time to evaluate the situation and set the controls manually. 30 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. You shouldn’t.CHAPTER 2.

%/"-0"%-0#(. and aperture settings.-')(. Photo by Ake Borgstrom at www. The size of • The aperture is the Click here to watch a focal plane shutter expose an image. In the early days of photography. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. Both affect the exposure. This old wooden camera is surrounded by a number of waterhouse stops (apertures) and a lens cap (the shutter) leans against it. were inserted into a slot in the lens to control the amount of light entering the camera.UNDERSTANDING EXPOSURE UNDERSTANDING EXPOSURE The most creative controls you have with any camera are the shutter speed !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+.COM 31 .nu. The shutter speed setting specifies how long the shutter is open and the image sensor is exposed to light.SHORTCOURSES.:<-% hole through which light enters the camera. When you press the shutter button. plates called waterhouse stops.#. A lens cap was removed from the lens to begin the exposure and replaced to end it—a primitive version of a shutter. These stops had holes of various sizes drilled in them and they acted just like the adjustable iris apertures used today. a metering cell measures the light coming through the lens and sets the aperture and shutter speed for the correct exposure. the total amount of light reaching the image sensor. and thus control how light or dark a picture is.*+-% Click here to explore how changes in the exposure make pictures lighter or darker.-')(. VISIT HTTP://WWW. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. • The shutter opens to begin an exposure and closes to end it. the hole can be changed to control the brightness of the light that enters.photographica.%/"-0"%2():. At shutter speeds faster than 1/200 the two curtains form a slit traveling across the image sensor. The 5D Mark II’s focal plane shutter uses two curtains—one opens to begin the exposure and the second closes to end it.

In respect to just exposure.CHAPTER 2.% Click to explore the various types of shutters used in digital cameras. As the shutter speed gets slower. the camera changes the aperture to keep the exposure constant.COM 32 . The reason you don’t usually see this effect in your images is because when you or the camera change the shutter speed.%/"-0"%=>.SHORTCOURSES. Although you normally want to avoid blur in your images there are times when you may want to use it creatively.!*""-+. In addition to controlling exposure.-')(. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. when it opens to let light strike the image sensor. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.% Click to explore the effect of shutter speed on exposure. the more a moving subject will be blurred in the picture Also. Slower speeds let in more so it’s lighter.-')(. the image gets lighter. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. faster shutter speeds let less strike the image sensor so the image is darker. The longer the shutter is open. VISIT HTTP://WWW.%/"-0"%. the shutter speed is the most important control you have over how motion is captured in a photograph.-+/-. Katie turned a little just as the shutter opened causing unwanted blur in the image. the longer it’s open the more likely you are to cause blur by moving the camera slightly.#--1. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE THE SHUTTER CONTROLS LIGHT AND MOTION The shutter keeps light out of the camera except during an exposure.

has changed considerably over the years. using imaging materials that might take minutes to be properly exposed. As the blade moved past the lens opening. The camera adds two stops between each of the traditional ones— shown in the table without boldfacing. are arranged in a sequence so that each setting lets in half as much light as the next slowest setting and twice as much as the next fastest.SHORTCOURSES. increase the ISO (page 65). This allows you to adjust exposure in one-third stop increments for finer exposure control.COM 33 . These shutter speed settings. 2 seconds is displayed as 2”. used to control the amount of time that light exposes the image Click to explore how the shutter speed affects the capture of moving subjects. A slow speed (right) can allow moving objects to move sufficiently to blur their image on the image sensor. However. use a neutral density filter (page 111). FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 1/4000 is shown as 4000. there are a series of settings that have traditionally been used when you set it yourself (which you can’t do in many shooting modes). One kind used a swinging plate while another design used a guillotine-like blade.!*""-+. The 5D Mark II’s shutter speeds are listed in the table to the left.#--1% • The shutter. At shutter speeds of 1/4 second and faster. On the monitor they are displayed as fractions. SHUTTER 1/8000 1/6400 1/5000 1/4000 1/3200 1/2500 1/2000 1/1600 1/1250 1/1000 1/800 1/640 1/500 1/400 1/320 1/250 1/200 1/160 1/125 1/100 1/80 1/60 1/50 1/40 1/30 1/25 1/20 1/15 1/13 1/10 1/8 1/6 1/5 1/4 0”3 0”4 0”5 0”6 0”8 1” 1”3 1”6 2” 2”5 3”2 4” 5” 6” 8” 10” 13” 15” 20” 25” 30” Although digital cameras can select any fraction of a second for an exposure. a hole in the blade allowed light to briefly reach the film. no quote marks are used.THE SHUTTER CONTROLS LIGHT A fast shutter speed (left) opens and closes the shutter so quickly a moving subject doesn’t move very far during the exposure. • Speeds of 1 second or slower are whole seconds and are shown on the monitor and in the viewfinder as numbers with quotation marks (“). faster shutters were needed. • Speeds of 1/4 of a second and faster are fractions of a second. came with a lens cap that the photographer removed to begin the exposure and then replaced to end it. For example 1/3 second is displayed as 0”3. AND MOTION TIP • To get faster shutter speeds. sensor. the LCD panel and viewfinder display only the denominator. VISIT HTTP://WWW. For example. sometimes with a quotation mark (”) indicating a decimal point.%/"-0"%. shown in bold to the left. For example. As film became more sensitive to light and exposure times became shorter. To get slower shutter speeds. THE WAY IT WAS: EARLY SHUTTER DESIGNS !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. The earliest cameras.-')(.

from f/8 to f/5.SHORTCOURSES. The reason you don’t usually see this effect in your images is because when you or the camera change the aperture.COM 34 . For some pictures—for example. Smaller apertures increase depth of field while larger ones decrease it. VISIT HTTP://WWW. The aperture is a series of overlapping leaves located between the glass elements in the lens. But perhaps in a portrait you will want a larger aperture to decrease the depth of field so your subject is sharp but the background is soft and out of focus. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. Larger apertures let in more so it’s lighter. the camera changes the shutter speed to keep the exposure constant. the depth in a scene from foreground to background that will be sharp in a photograph. but in a different way. The aperture can be opened up to let in more light or closed (stopped down) to let in less.CHAPTER 2. Changing the aperture changes the depth of field. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE THE APERTURE CONTROLS LIGHT AND DEPTH OF FIELD The aperture adjusts the size of the opening through which light passes to the image sensor.-')(. smaller apertures let less light strike the image sensor so the image is darker. As the aperture number gets smaller (for example.% Click here to explore the standard series of apertures and the aperture’s effects on exposure. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.%/"-0"%=>:#-+"*+-.6) the aperture opening gets larger and the image gets lighter. a landscape—you may want a smaller aperture for maximum depth of field so that everything from near foreground to distant background is sharp. In respect to just exposure. the aperture also affects the sharpness of your picture. As with the shutter speed.

The term “fast lens” applies to lenses that can be opened to a wide maximum aperture. than a lens with a maximum aperture of f/5. a lens with a maximum aperture of f/2. It will be larger when zoomed out to a wide angle.2 f/2. the f/stops have traditionally been those shown in boldface to the left but the range of stops varies from lens to lens.4 f/1. With most.8 f/2.0 f/5.0 f/2.8 f/3.2 f/3. F/STOPS f/1.COM 35 .1 f/8 f/9 f/10 f/11 f/13 f/14 f/16 f/18 f/20 f/22 Aperture settings are called f/stops and indicate the size of the aperture opening.-')(. use a neutral density filter (page 111).6.5 f/5. This allows you to adjust exposure in one-third stop increments for finer exposure control. Faster lenses are better when photographing in dim light or photographing fast moving subjects.6.6 f/6.3 f/7. • To get smaller apertures.6 f/4.8 opens wider. For example. the aperture size gets smaller. Notice that as the f/stop number gets larger (f/4 to f/5. Each of these bold f/stops lets in half as much light as the next larger opening and twice as much light as the next smaller opening.6 f/1. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. This may be easier to remember if you think of the f/number as a fraction: 1/8 is less than 1/4.0 f/4. and is faster. To get larger apertures. just as the size of the f/8 lens opening is smaller that the size of the f/4 opening. The EF 85mm f/1. How wide you can open the aperture depends on the len’s maximum aperture—its widest opening.SHORTCOURSES. Many highend digital cameras like the 5D Mark II add two stops between each of the traditional ones. From the largest possible opening to increasingly smaller ones. but not all. and smaller when zoomed in to enlarge a subject. VISIT HTTP://WWW. increase the ISO (page 65). for example).%/"-0"%4?5% Click here to explore how the aperture affects depth of field. other than manual. zoom lenses the maximum aperture changes as you zoom the lens. TIP • As you change the aperture you don’t see the image get lighter and darker because in all modes. the camera offsets the change by selecting a new shutter speed to keep the exposure constant. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.2 L II USM lens is currently one of Canon’s fastest lenses.THE APERTURE CONTROLS LIGHT AND DEPTH OF FIELD A small aperture increases depth of field so foreground and background are sharp (top) and a large aperture decreases depth of field so the background is soft (bottom).6 f/2.

Speaking of exposure only. In this book and the animations apertures are represented by these realistic icons with a small aperture (left) and a large one (right). As you’ve seen. In this book and the animations. Whether you know it or not. or the one that gives you the depth of field you need. VISIT HTTP://WWW. In low light you may have to pick a larger aperture. the exposure doesn’t change. with the entire scene sharp from near to far. Your choice determines if you control the aperture or shutter speed. you’re always balancing camera or subject movement against depth of field because a change in one causes a change in the other. faster shutter speed or lower ISO. If your shooting mode lets you select them. The effects of those changes on blur and depth of field would be very noticeable. or a fraction of a second indicating how long the shutter is open.CHAPTER 2. The same principle works when you want the smallest possible aperture. but a 3 or 4 stop change can be dramatic. the slower shutter speed increases the possibility of blur from camera or subject movement and the smaller aperture increases depth of field slightly. • For maximum depth of field. and it is just this difference that gives you creative opportunities. The camera will then always select the smallest possible aperture.SHORTCOURSES. A shutter speed of 1/60 second lets in half the light that 1/30 second does. and twice the light of 1/125 second. For example with a three stop change the shutter speed might drop from 1/125 to 1/15 and the aperture might stop-down from f/2. If the aperture or shutter speed are blinking. each stop is a second or more. However. use aperture-priority mode and select the largest aperture. Use shutter-priority mode and select the slowest shutter speed you need for sharpness. and the direction in which it’s moving also affect how motion is portrayed).COM . it does. and twice the light of f/8. slower shutter speed. and an aperture 1 full stop smaller (letting in 1 stop less light). • With shutter speeds. shutter speeds are represented by these symbolic icons with a fast shutter speed (left) and a slow one (right). 36 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. one of the first decisions you make is which shooting mode to use. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE USING SHUTTER SPEED AND APERTURE TOGETHER When taking photos.6 lets in half the light that f/4 does. When you press the shutter button halfway down. you may have to use a smaller aperture. or a slow one such as 1/15 to seriously blur it (although the focal length of the lens you are using. When photographing landscapes and portraits aperture-priority (Av) mode (page 44) is favored because it gives you direct control over the aperture and depth of field. shutter speeds and apertures each have a standard series of settings called “stops. If you make the shutter speed 1 stop slower (letting in 1 stop more light). A one-stop change like this has only a small effect. higher ISO or use flash. The camera will then always select the fastest matching shutter speed. An aperture of f/5. Let’s see why. it doesn’t make any difference which combination you use. although the exposure is the same. In bright light. To be sure you are using the fastest possible shutter speed in changing light. you can pair a fast shutter speed (to let in light for a short time) with a large aperture (to let in bright light) or a slow shutter speed (long time) with a small aperture (dim light). • For fast-moving subjects you need a fast shutter speed such as 1/500 to freeze the action. But in other ways. the closeness of the subject. you have exceeded the camera’s ability to get a good exposure. check the readouts in the viewfinder. When photographing moving subjects shutter-priority (Tv) mode (page 43) is favored because it gives you direct control over the shutter speed. • With apertures they are f/stops indicating the size of the opening through which light enters.” The stops are arranged so that a change of 1 stop lets in half or twice the light of the next setting. you need a small aperture. and for shallow depth of field you need a large one (although the focal length of the lens and the distance to the subject also affects depth of field—page 70). The cut out “pie slice” indicates how far an imaginary second hand would sweep.8 to f/11.

With wheel stops. VISIT HTTP://WWW. To change apertures the photographer chose the appropriate plate and slid it into a slot in the lens barrel. the bucket is filled the same amount. 2. For smaller apertures or faster shutter speeds. This change decreases depth of field slightly and freezes action better. 3. water trickles out and so it takes a much longer time to fill a bucket. Waterhouse stops. EXPOSURE—FAUCETS & BUCKETS ANALOGY One way to think of how apertures and shutter speeds relate is to use the analogy of a faucet for the aperture and a timer for the shutter speed. 1.USING SHUTTER SPEED AND APERTURE TOGETHER TIPS • To be sure you are always using the fastest possible shutter speed. We start with the aperture set to f/16 and the shutter speed to 1/30. The camera then always selects the largest possible aperture. For larger apertures or slower shutter speeds.COM 37 . one of the inventors of photography. was used as early as the 1820s by Joseph Nicephore Niepce. • To be sure you are always using the largest possible aperture. • When you open a faucet all the way. water gushes out so you fill a bucket in a very short time. A form of the iris diaphragm. When you open the aperture one stop to f/11 the shutter speed has to decrease to 1/60 to keep the exposure the same. used in today’s cameras. • When you open a faucet just a little. This is the same as pairing a large aperture and fast shutter speed to let in bright light for a short time.SHORTCOURSES. When you open the aperture another stop to f/8 the shutter speed has to decrease another stop to 1/125. The photographer changed the size of the aperture by rotating the plate to align the desired opening with the lens. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. an image in a camera can be exposed the same amount by various aperture and shutter speed combinations while also controlling motion and depth of field. Likewise. This change decreases depth of field even more and freezes action even better. ISO SPEEDS 6400 1250 640 320 150 3200 1000 500 250 125 1600 800 400 200 100 THE WAY IT WAS: EARLY APERTURES • A variety of designs in the past century and a half have enabled photographers to change the size of the lens opening. No matter which combination you choose. you can use a screw on neutral density filter that cuts the light entering the lens (page 111). The camera then always selects the fastest possible shutter speed. different size apertures were cut into a revolving plate. you can increase the ISO (page 65). set the camera to shutter-priority (Tv) mode and pick the shutter speed you need to freeze or blur motion. This is the same as pairing a small aperture and slow shutter speed to let in dim light for a longer time. used in the 1850s were a series of blackened metal plates with holes of different sizes cut in them. set the camera to aperture-priority (Av) mode and select the aperture you need for depth of field.

SHORTCOURSES. 38 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. VISIT HTTP://WWW.--.6 the shutter speed has to decrease one stop to 1/60 to keep the exposure the same.COM . the other falls by the same amount but their average distance from the ground is always the same. the exposure stays constant but depth of field changes slightly and subjects are more or less likely to be frozen. As these offsetting changes are made. you or the camera must also change the other setting in the opposite direction to keep the exposure constant. If you reduce the aperture one stop to f/5. The illustrations below show how a change in the aperture setting must be matched by a change in the shutter speed and vice versa.-')(. Another way to think of exposure is as a seesaw. In photography.%/"-0"%. As one child rises a given distance. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE EXPOSURE—SEESAW !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. 3. If you reduce the aperture one more stop to f/8 the shutter speed has to decrease one more stop to 1/30 to keep the exposure the same. 2. when you or the camera changes the aperture or shutter speed to let in more or less light. Here the aperture is f/4 and the shutter speed is 1/125. 1.:&% ANALOGY Click to explore the relationship between the aperture and shutter speed.CHAPTER 2.

In this scene there are details in all of the whites that give them texture and form. To do this with film he developed the Zone System that guided him in adjusting exposure and development times for the best results. When a scene has both very light and very dark areas. photography. One of the things that makes an Ansel Adams print so stunning was his ability to hold details in both the brightest and darkest parts of a scene. VISIT HTTP://WWW.%/"-0"%-0#(. getting the perfect exposure is a lot like parking a large car in a small garage—there isn’t a great deal of room for error. The small black square has been added to give you a reference to what pure black would look like.-')(. Today the adjustments are made with Photoshop.RETAINING HIGHLIGHT AND SHADOW DETAILS RETAINING HIGHLIGHT AND SHADOW DETAILS Knowing how to control exposure is one of the most important aspects of !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. The small white square has been added to give you a reference to what pure white would look like.SHORTCOURSES. In this scene there are details in the darkest shadows.COM 39 . FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. The goal is to hold details in both the darkest and lightest areas so pure white is used only for spectral highlights such as reflections and pure black is used only for small areas of the scene that are black with no details.*+-% Click here to explore how changes in the exposure make pictures lighter or darker.

read the sections that follow. • M (manual) lets you choose both the shutter speed and aperture so you can get just the setting you want. • Check the shutter speed and aperture in the viewfinder when you press the shutter button halfway down. M or B modes using Custom Function II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer (page 152). as in a landscape. called time value by Canon. or the white line above it. • Set the Power Switch to ON. You select this mode when the portrayal of motion is most important. we’ll look at them in depth in the pages that follow. You use this mode to capture light trails at night or multiple flashes from fireworks (page 92). • Full Auto. • B (Bulb) keeps the shutter open as long as you continue to hold down the shutter button. use exposure compensation (page 55). • P (Program AE) is like Full Auto.SHORTCOURSES. your pictures can be too light or too dark in any shooting mode. Even when on. but you can easily select different pairs of aperture/shutter speed settings that give you the same exposure but let you control how depth of field or motion is captured (page 42). Av. To be sure everything is sharp. lets you change only a few settings so you are less likely to make mistakes. If either is blinking. You select this mode whenever depth of field is most important. lets you choose the !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. lets you select the aperture (lens opening) while the camera automatically sets the shutter speed to give you a good exposure. • Camera user settings C1. select a large aperture (page 44). To darken or lighten them.CHAPTER 2. CHANGING SHOOTING MODES TIPS • In some situations.%/"-0"%. The Mode Dial lists icons for seven shooting and three custom modes. You can also turn it on and off (the default) in P. Most photographers select this mode only when other modes won’t give them the results they want (page 45). • In automatic modes. select a small aperture. 40 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. C2 and C3 are used to store your own personal combinations of settings (page 151). These modes. • Tv (shutter-priority AE). Knowing how to use these various modes gives you amazing creative control over your images.(1-1/:. while Click to see why you change exposure modes.-')(. VISIT HTTP://WWW. To throw the background out of focus so a main subject such as a portrait stands out more. called aperture value by Canon. the Auto Lighting Optimizer automatically adjusts an image’s brightness and contrast. • Av (aperture-priority AE). the camera doesn’t have the right exposure setting. it doesn’t work in Manual (M) mode or with the RAW image format. and three custom modes are selected by turning the Mode Dial.% the camera automatically sets the aperture to give you shutter speed. Because these are the most important controls in your creative arsenal. and turn the Mode Dial to any shooting mode so it aligns with the small silver marker. a good exposure. • Creative Auto (page 41) is like Full Auto but let’s you change settings using the Creative Auto setting screen (page 42). which we’ve already discussed (page 9). To see how to adjust it. Tv.COM . It lets you set your shutter speed fast enough to freeze the action or slow enough to blur it (page 43). each of which has unique advantages in specific situations. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE CHOOSING SHOOTING MODES The Mode Dial lists seven shooting modes.

take photos with the changed settings. Move it to the right. For example you can select and adjust sliders that display descriptions such as “blur the background” or “lighten or darken the image. • In some situations. Press SET again when finished.) 4. and the background will be sharper. • Check the shutter speed and aperture in the viewfinder when you press the shutter button halfway down. continuous (page 137). This setting can’t be adjusted when an external flash is attached. your pictures can be too light or too dark in any shooting mode. 3. • Exposure:Darker<->Lighter activates a slider you use to adjust exposure or image brightness (page 55). (More styles are available in other modes—page 149. However. quality and format (page 27).” The settings you can change on this screen include the following: • Background: Blurred<->Sharp activates a slider you use to adjust depth of field (page 70). Turn the Main or Quick Control Dials to change the selected setting. To see how to adjust it. in fact the default settings are the same. press the INFO button one or more times. When you change the shooting mode or turn off the camera. and self-timer (page 64) settings let you change the drive mode. use exposure compensation (page 55). Creative Auto (CA) mode offers automatic exposure and focus just as Full Auto does. To darken or lighten them. the camera doesn’t have the right exposure setting. Move it toward the right to make the picture lighter.USING CREATIVE AUTO (CA) MODE USING CREATIVE AUTO (CA) MODE TIPS • In CA mode you can use program shift (page 42). the Creative Auto settings revert to their defaults although image quality. read the sections that follow. (If the setting screen isn’t displayed. Other settings you can adjust in Creative Auto mode are listed on the menus.COM 41 . the Creative Auto settings screen is displayed on the monitor so you can make adjustments based on simple descriptions without having to fully understand technical terms such as aperture and shutter speed. With the Mode Dial set to Creative Auto (CA) press the Multi-controller straight down to activate the settings screen with the selected setting highlighted in green. 2. When you set the Mode Dial to this mode. When finished. self-timer/ remote control settings are retained. press SET first to display a settings screen. • Single. Move the index mark toward the left to make the picture darker. Auto modes include Full Auto (left) and Creative Auto (right). When you highlight this setting you can optionally press SET to display a settings screen where turning the Main and Quick Control Dials change different aspects of the setting (page 15). • Picture Style lets you select one of four Picture Styles. If either is blinking.SHORTCOURSES. (If selecting image quality. Press the Multi-controller in any direction to highlight any setting in green and display a description of the setting at the bottom of the monitor. If you press a button that doesn’t work in this mode the message “This function is not selectable in the current shooting mode” is displayed on the monitor USING CREATIVE AUTO (CA) MODE 1. Move the index mark toward the left and the background will look more blurred. CA mode let’s you change some settings for creative control—somewhat of a cross between the Full Auto and Program modes.) The Creative Auto settings screen. VISIT HTTP://WWW.) • Image quality lets you specify image size. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

Av. USING PROGRAM AE (P) MODE ! With the Power Switch to ON or the white line above it. By choosing the right combination you can choose to emphasize depth of field (page 70) or motion capture (page 68). • If 8000 is blinking in the viewfinder. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the photo. No shutter speed that’s fast enough No shutter speed that’s slow enough No aperture that’s small enough No aperture that’s large enough Result Overexposure Underexposure Overexposure Underexposure 42 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. M and B modes. Although aperture-priority and shutter-priority modes warn you when this happens (page 43–44). One feature of Program AE mode (and Creative Auto).. With the Mode Dial set to P or CA. You can also hold the shutter button halfway down to keep the shifted setting from changing. and then release it to activate metering and the exposure readouts in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. Large aperture Small aperture Slow shutter speed Fast shutter speed There may be. Following are some of the situations you avoid when using programmed mode: When you select a.. In shutter-priority (Tv) and aperture-priority (Av) mode it’s possible to select a setting that can’t be matched. press the shutter button halfway down. When ready. your camera is automatically set to produce the best possible exposure. TIPS • If the 30” shutter speed is blinking in the viewfinder. 2. but only the aperture and shutter speed are set automatically. The shifted program setting is cancelled automatically if you pause a few seconds after the picture is taken before taking another one. Turn the Main Dial to scroll through pairs of aperture/shutter speed settings and select the pair you want to use. Program AE mode is so flexible it gives you the control you need for creative images. You can change other settings including all of those you can change in Tv. the image will be too light. the image will be too dark.. Use flash or a higher ISO (page 65). If you take another picture before metering turns off. One reason to use program shift mode is that it prevents you from choosing settings that exceed your camera’s exposure limits. 3. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Program AE (P) mode is also fully automatic.SHORTCOURSES. 4. When using flash. called program shift. you cannot shift the program.COM . you may pick an aperture that’s so large the camera doesn’t have a shutter speed that’s fast enough to prevent overexposure. the shifted settings are used. Set the Power Switch to the white line above ON and turn off the flash if one is attached. let’s you cycle through pairs of aperture/shutter speed settings that offer identical exposures. set the Mode Dial to P (for Program AE). CONTROLLING EXPOSURE USING PROGRAM AE (P) & PROGRAM SHIFT In Full and Creative Auto modes (page 41). press it all the way down to take the picture. For example. you may not notice the warning. Decrease the ISO or use a neutral density filter (page 111).CHAPTER 2. USING PROGRAM SHIFT 1..

If you can’t get a slow enough one. • Custom Function I-1 Exposure level increments (page 152) changes exposure increments from 1/3rd to 1/2 stops. However. ! If the lens’ largest aperture (smallest f/number) blinks. Shooting down from an upper level at the Guggenheim Museum. the image may be underexposed and too dark. you use shutter-priority. 2. • The range of selectable shutter speeds is from a slow 30 seconds to a fast 1/8000 in one-third stop increments. • If you can’t get a fast enough shutter speed. use a neutral density filter (page 111). increase the camera’s ISO (page 65). USING SHUTTER-PRIORITY (Tv) MODE 1. • When metering is on. and blurred those who were walking. With the Mode Dial set to Tv (time value) press the shutter button halfway down and then release it to activate metering and the exposure readouts in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. • If the light changes suddenly. here are some things to be aware of: • Pressing the shutter button halfway down activates metering which then remains activated as long as you are changing the shutter speed. ! If the lens’ smallest aperture value (largest f/number) blinks. both the shutter speed and aperture are displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel and monitor. what Canon calls time-value (Tv) mode. the fastest shutter speed you can select is 1/200 (page 115). the image may be overexposed and too light so turn the Main Dial to select a faster shutter speed. Although digital cameras can select any fraction of a second for an exposure. a very slow shutter speed froze the people standing. • In Bulb (B) mode the shutter remains open as long as you hold down the shutter button (page 92). the camera automatically overrides your settings in Tv and Av modes for a good exposure if you enable Custom Function I-6 Safety shift (page 152). the exposure is OK. Turn the Main Dial to select a shutter speed and if the aperture value isn’t blinking. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.COM 43 . The 5D Mark II has two additional shutter speeds between each pair of traditional ones so you can change the shutter speed in one-third stops. • When using an external flash. so you can set the shutter speed directly. This will help you avoid blur caused by camera or subject movement. A slow speed (bottom) can allow moving objects to move sufficiently to blur in the image.SHORTCOURSES. the matching aperture also changes on the displays. there are a series of settings that have traditionally been used when you set it yourself (shown boldfaced in the table on page 33). and for four seconds after you stop. VISIT HTTP://WWW. A fast shutter speed (top) opens and closes the shutter so quickly a moving subject doesn’t move very far during the exposure. When you change the shutter speed.USING SHUTTER-PRIORITY (TV) MODE USING SHUTTER-PRIORITY (TV) MODE When controlling motion is the most important goal. so turn the Main Dial to select a slower shutter speed. When choosing a shutter speed. 3. you can set Custom Function I-7 Flash sync speed in Av mode (page 152) to fix the shutter speed at 1/200 and prevent a slow shutter speed when photographing in dim light. TIP • When using flash in Av mode. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.

or you are photographing fast moving subjects because they let you use faster shutter speeds. depends on the lens you are using. If you can’t get a large enough one. the camera automatically overrides your settings in Av and Tv modes for a good exposure if you enable Custom Function I-6 Safety shift (page 152).2 L II USM lens has a maximum aperture of f/1. USING APERTURE-PRIORITY (Av) MODE 1. the exposure is OK. Av. use a neutral density filter (page 111). Their only disadvantages are that they are generally heavier and cost more than slower lenses. ! If the 30” shutter speed blinks. press the shutter button halfway down and then release it to activate metering and the exposure readouts in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. A shallow depth of field can make part of an image stand out sharply against a softer background. Tv. This emphasizes the sharpest part of the image. However. M or B mode. the image may be overexposed and too light so turn the Main Dial to select a smaller aperture. which Canon calls aperture value. • If the light changes suddenly. and for four seconds after you stop.5 As the aperture number gets smaller. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE USING APERTURE-PRIORITY (AV) MODE When controlling depth of field is the most important goal. The EF 85mm f/1.2. The camera has two additional apertures between the traditional f/stops so you can adjust exposure in one-third stops. including the maximum aperture (the widest opening). f/2 f/3. • When metering is on. each full stop lets in half as much light as the next larger opening and twice as much light as the next smaller opening. increase the ISO (page 65). Great depth of field keeps everything sharp from the foreground to the background. both the aperture and shutter speed are displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel and monitor. When you change the aperture the matching shutter speed also changes on the displays.CHAPTER 2. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture. Turn the Main Dial to select an aperture and if the shutter speed isn’t blinking. VISIT HTTP://WWW. called f/stops. • To check depth-of-field in the viewfinder when using P. 44 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. ! If the 8000 shutter speed blinks.COM . • If you can’t get a small enough aperture. • Custom Function I-1 Exposure level increments (page 152) changes exposure increments from 1/3rd to 1/2 stops. here are some things to be aware of: • Pressing the shutter button halfway down activates metering which then remains activated as long as you are changing the aperture. Lenses with large maximum apertures are better when the light is dim. mode so you can set the aperture directly. The range of apertures you have to choose from. press the depth-of-field preview button (page 71). Aperture settings. indicate the size of the aperture opening inside the lens. you use aperturepriority (Av). 3. With the Mode Dial set to Av (aperture value).SHORTCOURSES. the image may be underexposed and too dark so turn the Main Dial to select a larger aperture. 2. In the traditional series of f/stops (shown boldfaced in the table on page 35). When choosing an aperture. the lens opening gets larger.

you’re set to the exposure recommended by the camera. TIP • You can also use the Quick Control screen to select and change the shutter speed and aperture in Manual (M) mode. ! If the bar below the exposure level indicator is centered (0).SHORTCOURSES. For example. ! If the bar below the exposure level indicator is on the plus side (+) you may be overexposing and lightening the image. If the bar under the indicator flashes at the -2 or +2 end of the scale it means you are off by more than two stops. select a slower shutter speed or larger aperture. LCD panel or monitor. press and release the shutter button. 1. USING MANUAL (M) MODE The exposure level indicator. select a faster shutter speed or smaller aperture. ! If the bar below the exposure level indicator is on the minus (-) side of the scale. • In M (Manual mode. Just change the shutter speed or aperture to increase or decrease the exposure from that recommended by the camera. Since automatic exposure combined with exposure compensation (page 55) is so easy to use. 3. you can switch to manual (M) shooting mode. With the Power Switch set to the white line above ON. • You can’t use exposure compensation in M mode. With the Mode Dial set to M (Manual). you may be underexposing and darkening the image. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. When you press the shutter button halfway down. the Auto Lighting Optimizer (page 152) doesn’t work. To darken it. most photographer’s only resort to manual mode in those rare situations where other modes can’t give them the results they want. and don’t need to. 2.COM 45 . Manual mode is often used when doing studiolike shots where you know the right exposure for the main subject but want to try variations on the background lighting. When you want total and absolute control over exposures.USING MANUAL (M) MODE USING MANUAL (M) MODE TIPS • The exposure level indicator doesn’t indicate how far under or over the recommended exposure you are unless metering is on. turn the Main Dial to select a shutter speed and the Quick Control Dial to select an aperture as you watch the viewfinder. an exposure level indicator shows you how much you are under (-) or over (+) exposed. press the shutter button halfway down and then release it to activate the exposure level indicator that shows how much you are over or under the recommended exposure. In this mode. you may use this mode when photographing a series of images for a panorama or animated GIF where you don’t want the exposure to change at all from one shot to the next. To lighten it. you manually select both the shutter speed and aperture setting. To turn it on. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.

CONTROLLING EXPOSURE HOW YOUR EXPOSURE SYSTEM WORKS All exposure systems.CHAPTER 2. Where you see a checkerboard-like pattern (top). the amount of electricity flowing through the photocell’s circuits changes. It doesn’t see details. Its view is much like yours would be if you were looking through a piece of frosted glass. A light-sensitive photocell regulates the amount of electricity flowing in the exposure system. just averages. It then sets the aperture and the shutter speed needed to render this average level of brightness as “middle gray” in the photograph. Your camera’s meter measures light reflecting from the part of the scene shown in the viewfinder. But some scenes and situations don’t and that’s when autoexposure will lead you astray. Every scene you photograph contains a range of tones like the scene (top left). So what is middle gray? FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Suppose you move close or zoom in and see in your viewfinder only a detail in the scene. including the one built into your 5D Mark II. Portions of it are pure black. the system just measures the overall brightness—how light or dark it is. and every possible tone in between. operate on the same general principles. These changes are then used by the autoexposure system to calculate and set the shutter speed and aperture. color. The coverage of the meter (the amount of the scene that it includes in its reading) changes. Your meter sees scenes as if it were looking at them through a piece of frosted glass.COM 46 . brightness. pure white. when you change your distance relative to the scene or when you change the focal length of the lens. Most of the time this works very well because most scenes have an overall reflectance that averages out to middle gray. The exposure system in your camera can’t think about the scene or make decisions about it. Regardless of the scene’s subject matter. your camera sees only an average gray (bottom). VISIT HTTP://WWW. or composition. METER AVERAGING AND MIDDLE GRAY Your exposure meter doesn’t “see” a scene the same way you see it.SHORTCOURSES. one that is darker or lighter than other objects nearby. The suggested aperture and shutter speed settings will be different for the detail than they are for the overall scene. As the intensity of the light reflected from the subject changes. just as your viewfinder image changes.

When shooting JPEGs there are 256 tones in the scale (28) and when shooting RAW images there are 16. your camera will indicate the best exposure regardless of how light or dark the scene is. your camera’s autoexposure system sets an exposure so that the subject appears in the final image as middle gray regardless of its actual brightness.384 (214). and a black card..%continuous spectrum of tones.SHORTCOURSES.-')(. When you fill the screen with a gray card and press the shutter button halfway down."-16. at one end to pure white at the other. and black cards (top) will all photograph as gray cards (bottom). they will be middle gray in the final image and therefore look too light or dark. a gray card. The gray scale captured in an image is a range of tones from pure black to pure white. and each completely fills the viewfinder when the exposure is calculated. The tone in the middle of these ranges is middle gray and reflects exactly 18% of the light falling on it.COM 47 . White. each of the cards will be middle gray in the captured image.%/"-0"%2+(. ranging from pure black Click to see how your exposure system sees a scene. gray. In a photograph an approximation of this continuous scale is made up of a series of discrete tones—the gray scale. When you photograph subjects that have an overall tone lighter or darker than middle gray. if you photograph a white card.HOW YOUR EXPOSURE SYSTEM WORKS Most scenes contain a !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. When you photograph a subject.:. For example. VISIT HTTP://WWW.

CONTROLLING EXPOSURE To make scenes that don’t average out to middle gray appear in an image the way they appear in real life. This mode differs from the three that follow in one other respect. AE Lock (page 55) and autoexposure bracketing (page 57). M or B. Tv. When using AI Servo AF.CHAPTER 2. • Partial metering meters the part of the scene falling within the circle of AF points in the center of the viewfinder. Any other combination of metering (page 48) and focus modes (page 72) locks just focus. You can also meter any part of the scene and use AE Lock (page 55) to use that reading for the overall photo. top to bottom) evaluative. P. • Spot metering meters 3. press the Metering button on top of the camera and then turn the Main Dial to cycle from evaluative (the default) through center-weighted. VISIT HTTP://WWW. partial.SHORTCOURSES. Av. Metering can cause problems if the camera isn’t metering the main subject or when the main subject is very dark or light.COM . When used with manual focus (page 75). • Center-weighted average metering meters the entire scene but assigns the most importance to the center of the frame where the most important subjects are usually located. This mode is ideal when photographing a subject against a very dark or very light background. This is the only mode available in auto modes. M and B modes offer various metering methods. This mode is the default in all shooting modes because it’s ideal for general shooting conditions and backlit scenes. For this reason. In a landscape. spot. Each of the 35 zones is the same size and they are laid out in a 7 x 5 matrix. each of which is linked to the AF points. ! With the Mode Dial set to P. and center-weighted. Tv. center weighted. These occasions are uncommon. partial and spot. metering is based on the center AF point. 48 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. the metering system gives special emphasis to the subject you’re focused on at the active AF point (page 73). partial. When using autofocus. The areas metered (from top to bottom) include evaluative. neither is locked and both are set when you take the picture. spot. for instance. CHANGING THE METERING MODE Metering mode icons displayed on the LCD panel include (left to right. For instance. and back to evaluative metering. • Evaluative metering divides the scene as seen through the viewfinder into 35 zones. a dark object located off center against a very light background may not be exposed properly if it is not located in the area the meter is emphasizing. but when they occur you can ensure accurate exposures using exposure compensation (page 55). pressing the shutter button halfway down locks both exposure and focus. This mode is similar to partial metering but is better when you want to base your exposure on an even smaller part of the scene. This zone covers only 8% of viewfinder area so you can meter just a specific part of the scene instead of relying on an overall reading. the exposure of the foreground is usually more important than the exposure of the sky. you have to use exposure compensation (page 55) or some other form of exposure control to lighten or darken the picture. When using evaluative metering with One-Shot AF (the default). Av.5% of the viewfinder area—the area within the viewfinder’s spot metering circle. TYPES OF METERING All parts of a scene are usually not equally important when determining the best exposure to use.

WHEN AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE WORKS WELL

WHEN AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE WORKS WELL
Most scenes that you photograph have an overall brightness of middle gray. Some areas of the scene may reflect 90% of the light and other parts may reflect 5%, but overall the average amount of light reflecting from the scene is 18%, the amount reflected by a middle gray subject. Whenever you photograph a normal scene with this average brightness, your automatic exposure system exposes it correctly. Typical middle gray scenes include the following: • Scenes in bright sunlight where the subject is front-lit by a sun that is behind you when you face the scene. • Scenes on overcast days or under diffused light, such as in the shade or in evenly-lit scenes indoors.
This image has detail in the lightest (highlight) and darkest (shadow) areas. If just a little darker or a little lighter, details would be lost in the shadows or highlights.

Portraits in indirect light generally have the tones needed to get a good image without additional exposure adjustment.

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CHAPTER 2. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE

WHEN

TO

OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE
Let’s take a look at some of the most common situations where your automatic exposure system will have problems. It’s in these situations where you’ll need to override the suggested exposure settings. SCENES LIGHTER THAN MIDDLE GRAY Scenes lighter than middle gray, such as beach scenes, or bright sand or snow covered landscapes, reflect more than 18% of the light falling on them. The autoexposure system doesn’t know the scene should look bright so it calculates an exposure that produces an image that is too dark. To lighten the image so it matches the original scene, you must override the camera’s automatic exposure system to add exposure.

The snow scene here is typical of scenes that are lighter than middle gray. Most of the important tones in the scene are at the lighter end of the gray scale. The overall “average” tone would be about one stop brighter than middle gray. For a good picture you have to increase the exposure by one stop (+1) to lighten it. If you didn’t do this, the snow in the scene would appear too gray (bottom).

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WHEN

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SCENES DARKER THAN MIDDLE GRAY Scenes that are darker than middle gray, such as deep shadows, dark foliage, and black cloth, reflect less than 18% of the light falling on them. If you photograph such scenes using automatic exposure, they will appear too light. The meter cannot tell if the scene is dark or just an ordinary scene with less light falling on it. In either case it increases the exposure to make a photograph of the scene lighter. To photograph a scene that has an overall tone darker than middle gray, you need to override the autoexposure system to decrease the exposure to make the picture darker.
The black cat is between one and two stops darker than middle gray. To darken the scene so the cat’s not middle gray, exposure must be decreased by one (-1) or two (-2) stops.

SUBJECT AGAINST A VERY LIGHT BACKGROUND Subjects against a very light background such as a portrait against a bright sky or light sand or snow, can confuse an automatic exposure system, particularly if the subject occupies a relatively small part of the scene. The brightness of the background is so predominant that the automatic exposure system reduces the exposure to render the overall brightness as a middle gray. The result is an underexposed and too-dark main subject.

Here the scenes were underexposed to silhouette the people in the foreground. To show detail in the people, exposure would have had to have been increased two stops (+2).

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The archway was in the shadows and dark while the cathedral was brightly lit by the sun. Both couldn’t be exposed properly. SCENES WITH HIGH CONTRAST Many scenes. In this case use fill flash (page 123) or a white reflector card to fill and lighten the shadows. If the exposure hadn’t been reduced by two stops (-2). the background would be too light and the white boat would have been burned out and too white. lit from the back or side is often more effective and interesting than one lit from the front. 52 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.CHAPTER 2. for example. the other side may be in dark shadow. use AE Lock (page 55) or exposure compensation (page 55) to adjust the exposure. especially those with brightly lit highlights and deep shadows.COM . you can decrease contrast at the time you take the picture (page 149). But when the light falls directly on one side of a subject. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE SUBJECT AGAINST A VERY DARK BACKGROUND When a small bright subject appears against a large dark background. your autoexposure system increases the exposure to produce a middle gray tone. A portrait. then set the exposure so that area is shown accurately in the final picture. The result is an overexposed and too light main subject. When confronted with such scenes.SHORTCOURSES. Another way to deal with high contrast is to lighten the shadows. have a brightness range that cannot be completely captured by an image sensor. you have to decide whether the highlight or shadow area is most important. In high contrast situations such as these. VISIT HTTP://WWW. The rising sun illuminated only one boat in this harbor scene. TIP • When photographing high contrast scenes. so the archway was left as a solid black. A scene like this is a great place to use partial or spot metering (page 48).

and many similar situations are all difficult and sometimes impossible to meter. exposure compensation (page 55). Neon street signs. A relatively small subject against a wide expanse of sky will almost always be underexposed unless you use exposure compensation.WHEN HARD METER SCENES TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE TO Occasionally it’s not convenient or even possible to meter a scene. fireworks. This scene has a bright sky and one brightly illuminated fisherman against a dark background.SHORTCOURSES.COM 53 . TIP • When photographing a TV or computer monitor. VISIT HTTP://WWW. use a shutter speed of 1/30 second or slower. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. it’s easiest simply to experiment using spot metering (page 48). spotlit circus acts. moonlit scenes. A scene such as this is hard to meter because of the variety of lighting. In these cases. or autoexposure bracketing (page 57) so you have more than one exposure to select from.

2. Here are some typical settings where you’d make these changes.COM . as when an extremely dark background occupies a very large part of the image and you want to retain detail in the brighter parts of the scene. • +2 is used when the light is extremely contrasty and important shadow areas are much darker than brightly lit areas. 3. Increasing the exposure for the white card and decreasing it for the black card captures them as they really appear. The camera’s exposure system makes all three cards appear gray in the photographs. • -2 is for scenes of unusual contrast. such as a portrait in front of a very dark wall. This lighthouse in the fog on Cape Cod would have looked too dark if exposure compensation hadn’t been used to lighten it. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE HOW OVERRIDING AUTOEXPOSURE WORKS When a scene is lighter or darker than middle gray you need to change the exposure to capture it the way it looks or it will be too light or dark. Only the middle gray card in the center is exposed correctly. +2 0 -2 54 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.CHAPTER 2. Only the middle gray card in the center doesn’t need the exposure adjusted manually. such as black china on a black tablecloth.SHORTCOURSES. beach or snow scenes. VISIT HTTP://WWW. To lighten or darken an image many cameras let you increase or decrease exposure by two stops or more. or very light objects. such as a white china on a white tablecloth. • -1 is for scenes where the background is much darker than the subject. sunsets and other scenes that include a bright light source. Here are three cards that you photograph with each filling the screen at the time you take the picture. • 0 (the default) is best for scenes that are evenly lit and when important shadow areas are not too much darker than brightly lit areas. Also good for very dark objects. • +1 is best for sidelit or backlit scenes. 1.

Tv. or the commands on the Shooting 2 menu. Here you see the results as the indicator flashes at it’s adjusted from +2 (left) to -2 (right).%/"-0"%-0#)(. USING EXPOSURE COMPENSATION Click to explore exposure compensation. It’s easy to use exposure compensation because you can immediately see the effects when you review or playback an image. move the marker toward the minus (-) end of the scale. When you use the command. • When the autofocus mode is set to One-Shot AF (the default). including the 5D Mark II. scale it means you are off by more than two stops. to darken one. When you adjust exposure compensation you can do so in full stops and even finer An exposure level one-third stop increments. VISIT HTTP://WWW. The !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. press the shutter button halfway down to activate the readout. P. you specify +1 to open the aperture or slow down the shutter speed. exposure compensation and auto exposure bracketing may not work as expected. 2. and the Mode Dial set to CA. ! To lighten the image. The amount you increase or decrease the exposure is specified in “stops. As you much you are under (-) adjust the exposure toward the plus (+) side of the scale the image gets lighter. it’s as easy as pressing the shutter button halfway down to lock exposure and focus. 1. you decrease the exposure. M and B modes. the Quick Control screen (page 16). and then turn the Quick Control Dial to move the marker on the exposure level indicator displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. Tv and Av modes lets you lighten or darken the photograph that the camera would produce if autoexposure were used. If you adjust it toward the minus (-) side it gets darker. move the marker toward the plus (+) end of the scale. provide one or more ways to override the automatic exposure system to get the exposure you want. you can do so in P. an exposure compensation indicator shows you how scale is displayed.-')(.SHORTCOURSES. reset exposure compensation to 0 otherwise it will be remembered even when you turn off the camera. As or over (+) exposed. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. TIP • When Custom Function II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer is enabled (the default—page 152). • You can specify exposure compensation in one-half stop increments with Custom Function I-1 Exposure level increments (page 152). Av. you increase the exposure. AUTOEXPOSURE (AE) LOCK When you want to base your exposure on a specific part of a scene. • You can also set exposure compensation using CA mode’s Exposure:Darker<>Brighter setting (page 41). With the Power Switch set to the white line above ON. ! To darken the image.COM 55 . To lighten a picture. When done.HOW OVERRIDING AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE WORKS HOW TIPS TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE Most digital cameras. Tv or Av. to increase the exposure 1 stop. EXPOSURE COMPENSATION Exposure compensation in P.#% “0” indicates the exposure suggested by the camera.” For example. The effect of the changes on the image are the -2 or +2 ends of the dramatic.

COM .SHORTCOURSES. if the lens focus switch is set to M or MF the center point is used. • AE Lock works best when you use spot or partial metering and lock it on the part of the scene that’s most important for the exposure. After locking focus recompose the image and take the picture. exposure is based on the automatically or manually selected AF point (page 73).%/"-0"%-0#. VISIT HTTP://WWW. focus the camera and press the AE/FE Lock button (marked with an asterisk) to lock exposure but not focus. • When using evaluative metering with One-Shot AF. Release the shutter button. it would be too dark because the background influenced the exposure. 56 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE • In any autofocus mode.CHAPTER 2. the AE/FE Lock button acts as a FE Lock button (page 117). • When using an external Speedlight. partial or spot metering. However. exposure is based on the central AF point.-')(. Press the shutter button halfway down to lock exposure and press the AE/FE Lock button. When using AI Servo AF neither is locked. • When used with evaluative metering (page 48). Pressing the shutter button halfway down locks exposure and pressing it all the way down takes the picture. pressing the shutter button halfway down to lock exposure also locks focus. • When used with center-weighted. Point the camera so you are metering the area on which you want to base the exposure (top left). If you took the picture without first locking exposure. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+.()@% Click to explore exposure lock. Any other combination of metering (page 48) and focus (page 72) modes locks just focus. This allows you to lock exposure and then move closer to or farther from the subject. or when manually focusing. compose the image the way you want it (bottom right) and press the shutter button to lock focus and take the photo.

the camera remains set to this mode so subsequent pictures are captured at different exposure levels. all three photos are taken automatically. Press the shutter button halfway down to refocus and take your photo. • If you use the selftimer in AEB mode. The difference from one shot to the next can be set at up to 2 stops in 1/3rd stop increments. underexposed. VISIT HTTP://WWW. ! To cancel AE lock without taking a picture. • You can use exposure compensation with AEB to shift all three exposures up or down the exposure level indicator. With the flash closed. the series of three shots is taken when you hold down the shutter button. exposure is locked and the same AE/FE Lock icon flashes in the viewfinder. Release the shutter button and recompose the scene. • AEB may not work as expected when Custom Function II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer is enabled (page 152). • AEB stays in effect until you reset it to 0. or turn on the flash.SHORTCOURSES. If a flash is attached and ready to fire. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. or continue holding down the AE/FE Lock button. • You can’t use flash or B (Bulb) mode (page 92) with AEB. then press the AE/FE Lock button. If you don’t do one of these things. each at a slightly different exposure—correctly exposed. select the AF point you want to use (page 73) and focus on the part of the scene on which you want to lock exposure. 3. release the shutter button and wait a few seconds for the * icon to disappear. TIPS • If you use the continuous mode (page 137) for autoexposure bracketing. and overexposed. change lenses.HOW TO OVERRIDE AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE USING AUTOEXPOSURE (AE) LOCK When you press the AE/ FE Lock button with this icon. TIP • After locking exposure in P. the Mode Dial set to P. you can use autoexposure bracketing (AEB) to run off a series of three images. An asterisk to the left of the shutter speed in the viewfinder indicates that exposure is locked as long as metering is on.COM 57 . Tv or Av and metering set to partial or spot (page 48). Press the shutter button halfway down to lock exposure and focus. turn the camera off. 2. AUTOEXPOSURE BRACKETING (AEB) Instead of using exposure compensation. ! To keep it locked for other photos keep the shutter button pressed halfway down. you can turn the Main Dial to use program shift (page 42). or until you release the shutter or AE/FE Lock button. Tv. or in conjunction with it. AEB is cancelled. and Av modes. 1. AE lock turns off automatically.

comp/AEB setting on the Shooting 2 menu.COM . When the series is complete. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. and -1 (right).%/"-0"%ABC% Click to explore autoexposure bracketing. When finished. Take each of the three photos just as you normally would. • You can also set AEB using the Expo. Tv. The AEB icon. 4. ! While AEB is in effect. 2. Three small markers under the indicator indicate what the exposure will be for each of the three shots. TIPS • While turning the Main Dial to set AEB. 0 (center). With the Mode Dial set to P. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE USING AUTOEXPOSURE BRACKETING (AEB) 1. Av or M. Here the sequence is +1 (left). 3. The exposure level indicator used to specify the exposure increment between shots.SHORTCOURSES. Autoexposure bracketing captures a series of three shots at different exposures. When you press the shutter button halfway down. Press the Multi-controller to select the exposure level indicator then turn the Main Dial to expand or contract the exposure increment between shots (you can optionally press SET at this point). Here the dots indicate it’s one stop. 58 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.-')(. you can also turn the Quick Control Dial to set exposure compensation—shifting the three photos up and down the exposure level indicator. the AEB icon is displayed on the LCD panel and the three markers are displayed on the exposure level indicator in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. repeat Steps 1–2 to reset AEB to 0.CHAPTER 2. ! After you take the first shot. press the Multi-controller straight down to display the Quick Control screen. the flashing stops. the marker on the exposure level indicator indicates which of the three images is being captured. the markers under the indicator and the AE/FE lock icon in the viewfinder flash as do the markers and AEB icon on the LCD panel. The middle bar is at the exposure recommended by the camera (or shifted with exposure compensation— page 55) and the left and right markers indicate by how many stops the other images will be underexposed (-) and overexposed (+). VISIT HTTP://WWW.

you can use minus (-) exposure compensation. 2. 3. DISPLAYING HISTOGRAMS You can check histograms in playback mode or while reviewing an image you have just taken. Once displayed in playback mode.% higher the line coming up from the horizontal axis. or when reviewing an image you just shot.COM . VISIT HTTP://WWW. The horizontal axis of a histogram represents the range of brightness from 0 (shadows) on the left to 255 (highlights) on the right. SELECTING THE HISTOGRAM AND HIGHLIGHTS Histograms are displayed when you press INFO. The vertical axis represents the number of pixels that have each of the 256 more pixels there are at that level of brightness. If you set the Playback 2 menu’s Highlight alert setting to Enable (the default is Disable). Lightroom and Photoshop Elements let you use a histogram as a guide when editing your images. press the INFO button until the desired histogram for the current image is displayed./6!"% Click to explore how overexposed highlights blink.-')(. any overexposed areas in the image without details blink. the horizontal line also represents the camera’s maximum potential tonal range or contrast. To darken these areas in subsequent images. Since these are the only values that can be captured by the camera. green and blue. the brightness values. one after the other— Brightness graphs the overall brightness of the composite image and RGB displays the levels of brightness of each color—red. You can use the Playback 2 menu’s Histogram command to change the order in which they are displayed. Here are some things to look for.-')(. you can scroll through other images to see their histograms. Pressing INFO repeatedly displays two histograms. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. EVALUATING HISTOGRAMS !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. To read the histogram. Just press the INFO button until the histogram and a small thumbnail of the selected image are displayed. since most image corrections can be diagnosed by looking at a histogram.USING HISTOGRAMS USING HISTOGRAMS TIPS • If you enable Highlight alert on the Playback 2 menu. Also. It’s for this reason that an image’s histogram can be displayed on the 5D Mark II’s monitor. so is a small thumbnail of the current image. 1. each pixel in an image can be set to any of 256 levels of brightness from pure black (0) to pure white (255) and a histogram graphs the number of pixels at each level of brightness. when a histogram is displayed areas in the small image next to it that are overexposed blink. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Histogram or Highlight alert and press SET to display the choices Brightness and RGB or Enable and Disable.%/"-0"%!/. Most serious photo-editing programs such as Photoshop. 59 !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. With the Mode Dial set to any mode. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. you look at the distribution of pixels. As you’ve seen. The Click to explore histograms. when the histogram is displayed.%/"-0"%!/6!. it helps to look at it while still in a position to reshoot the image. Select one and press SET. • In Live View (page 139) you can display a live histogram on the monitor to guide you when setting exposure before taking a photo. press MENU and select the Playback 2 menu tab. DISPLAYING HISTOGRAMS ! In playback mode with an image displayed in single image view. However.SHORTCOURSES."(6+:. Think of it as a line with 256 spaces on which to stack pixels of the same brightness.

• In most images. the colors may be too saturated and lack details. ! If the histogram shows most pixels toward the right (lighter) side of the graph. 60 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. use exposure compensation to add exposure (page 55). • Many photos look best when there are some pixels at every position because these images are using the entire tonal range. You can see the change in both the image and in the histogram. The original image (top) is flat and its histogram indicates only part of the tonal range is being used. and highlight areas independently without affecting the other areas of the image.COM . Photoshop’s Levels command was then used to expand the tonal range (bottom). pixels are grouped together and occupy only a part of the available tonal range. However. These controls allow you to adjust the shadow.SHORTCOURSES. These images lack contrast because the difference between the brightest and darkest areas isn’t as great as it could be. this can be fixed in a photo-editing program using commands that spread the pixels over the entire available tonal range. This lets you lighten or darken selected areas of your images without loosing detail. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE EVALUATING HISTOGRAMS ! If the histogram shows most pixels toward the left (darker) side of the graph. use exposure compensation to reduce exposure (page 55).CHAPTER 2. VISIT HTTP://WWW. The only pixels that can’t be fixed in this way are those that have been “clipped” to pure white or black (page 61). midtone. If there are too many to the right. too many pixels to the left indicate that colors may be weak. • In a color RGB histogram.

USING HISTOGRAMS CLIPPED PIXELS When a histogram shows pixels at the extreme ends of the range, in the 0 and 255 positions, it means details in those tones are being lost or “clipped” in your image. These extremes should be reserved for specular highlights (reflections) and small dark shadows. When large areas lack detail an image suffers.

In the top image you can tell from the histogram that some of the highlight pixels are pure white and hence clipped. There is nothing you can do later to display details in the area of these pixels. However, if you reshoot the scene at a different exposure you can shift the pixels to the left and avoid the clipping (bottom).

TIP
• If highlights are being clipped in wedding dresses, clouds, snow and other bright subjects, you can enable Custom Function II-3 Highlight tone priority gives priority to highlights (page 152). This preserves details in these bright areas of the image and prevents them from being clipped.

To avoid clipping and better place the tonal values in subsequent shots, you use exposure compensation (page 55). Increasing exposure shifts pixels to the highlight, or right end of the histogram. Decreasing exposure shifts them the other way. Unless you are deliberately trying to get pure whites or pure blacks, you should shift the pixels if any are being clipped. This then gives you a chance to correct the image in a photo-editing program.

This series of photos was taken one stop apart using exposure compensation. As the exposure increased pixels on the histogram shifted right. You can tell from the way the fan blades blur that the shutter speed was changed to change the exposure. In the image where it was faster, the image is darker and the blades are frozen. As slower speeds were used to increase the exposure, the images get lighter and the blades more blurred.

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CHAPTER 2. CONTROLLING EXPOSURE SAMPLE HISTOGRAMS The way a histogram looks depends on the scene you’re shooting and how you expose it. There’s no such thing as a good or bad histogram. Whether a particular histogram is good or bad depends on what you are trying to accomplish. If fact, you may prefer to trust your visual reaction to the image more than the very numeric image data provided by a histogram. However, even if you never use a histogram, you can learn about digital images by understanding what a histogram can show about an image. Following are some histograms from good images along with a brief summary of what the histogram reveals.
In this well exposed portrait there is a fairly even distribution of values in both the shadow and highlight areas of the image. There are no pure blacks in the image as shown by the gap at the far left end of the scale.

This brown moth on a gray card has most of its values in the midrange. That’s why there are a number of high vertical lines grouped in the middle of the horizontal axis.

This high-key fog scene has most of its values toward the highlight end of the scale. There are no really dark values in the image. The image uses only a little more than half the camera’s dynamic range.

The distinct vertical line to the left of middle gray shows how many pixels there are in the uniformly gray frame border added in Photoshop.

This low-key scene has the majority of its values in the shadow area with another large grouping around middle gray. There are wide levels of brightness that have only a few pixels.

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CHAPTER 3. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS

!"#$%&'()( !*+%'*,,-+.(/"#'$+&00

CONTENTS
• Getting Sharper Pictures • Sharpness Isn’t Everything • How to Photograph Motion Sharply • Focus and Depth of Field • Focusing Techniques • Controlling Depth of Field • Using Deep Depth Of Field • Using Shallow Depth of Field • Conveying the Feeling of Motion

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ne of the first things you notice about a photograph is whether or not it is sharp. Extremely sharp photographs reveal a richness of detail, even more than you would normally notice in the original scene. If the entire image isn’t sharp, your eye is immediately drawn to the part that is. When learning to control sharpness, the first goal is to get pictures sharp when you want them sharp. If your photos aren’t as sharp as you want them to be, you can analyze them to see what went wrong. • Focus. If nothing in your image is sharp or if your central subject is not sharp but other parts of the photograph are, your camera was improperly focused. • Depth of Field. If your central subject is sharp but the background or foreground is less so, you may not have used a small enough aperture to get the depth of field you wanted. • Camera Movement. If the image is blurred all over, with no part sharp, the camera moved during the exposure. Some dots appear as lines and edges are blurred because the image was “painted” onto the moving image sensor. • Subject Movement. When some of the picture is sharp but a moving subject appears blurred, your shutter speed was too slow.

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When using the timer to photograph yourself. The rule of thumb is never to hand-hold the camera at a shutter speed lower than the reciprocal of your lens’ focal length. Don’t stand in front of the camera when you press the shutter button to start the timer. you need to support it. If you do so. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS GETTING SHARPER PICTURES TIP • When using a tripod or other support.-')(. such as those you get in dim light. Placing the eyepiece cover over the viewfinder blocks light from entering and affecting the exposure when using the selftimer or remote. you need a camera support. One way to do this is to lean against a wall or tree and brace yourself with your elbows tight to your body. USING THE SELF-TIMER/REMOTE SWITCH The 5D Mark II has a self-timer that gives you a delay of 2 seconds (in P. You can reduce this problem in bright light and when using flash simply by holding the camera steady and depressing the shutter button smoothly. brace the camera against your face and brace your elbows against your sides. and use the timer to take the picture without any camera shake. SUPPORTING THE CAMERA As the focal length of your lens changes. you can use a remote control device (page 138) to trigger the shutter so you don’t move the camera when you press the shutter button. • Canon makes image stabilization (IS) lenses that get you sharper pictures when you handhold the camera (page 98). particularly with a long focal length lens.COM 64 . Just before taking a shot. You can also find a branch or railing to rest the camera on. Although often used to give you time to get into a picture. Tv.SHORTCOURSES. The camera was steady for the left picture and moved for the right one. focus it on something at the same distance at which you will be positioned. VISIT HTTP://WWW. • Custom Function III-6 Mirror lockup (page 152) lets you lock up the mirror so it doesn’t introduce vibrations when you take a picture.) To hand hold the camera as steady as possible. anywhere. anytime.%/"-0"%"+/#(1. At slow shutter speeds. then exhale and hold your breath while smoothly depressing the shutter button. For example. The 2-second timer is especially useful when using a tripod in macro photography since it takes pictures without camera shake caused by pressing the shutter button. the self-timer is also a great way to reduce blur caused by camera movement. so does the minimum shutter speed at which you can hand-hold the camera without getting blur from camera shake. For real stability. (The camera displays the current shutter speed on the LCD panel. you’ll prevent the camera from focusing correctly. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. and in the viewfinder when you press the shutter button halfway down. you need a tripod or an even easier to carry monopod. When the shutter speed is too slow to handhold the camera. • In critical situations you can use continuous mode to run off a series of photos and select the sharpest later.%"+/#(1.CHAPTER 3. Just place the camera on a stable surface. Unwanted camera movement when the shutter is open is one of the major causes of unsharp photographs.'#12 Click to view a PDF document on tripods. a 100mm lens can be handheld at a shutter speed of 1/100 or faster. compose the image. inhale deeply. Av. When holding the camera for both horizontal and vertical photographs use your right finger to press the shutter button and your left hand to support the camera. M and B modes) or 10 seconds (in all modes) between the time you press the shutter button and the picture is taken.

but has the greatest effect on those shot at high ISOs. you can set the ISO to Auto (the default). USING THE SELF-TIMER 1.) Settings of 50 (L).) 3. the frame rate drops dramatically in continuous shooting (page 137) and white balance bracketing (page 85) is disabled. then all the way down to take the picture. 12800 (H1) and 25600 (H2) are available if you turn on Custom Function I-3 ISO expansion (page 152). Av. press the AF-DRIVE button. The only down side to increasing the ISO is that it adds noise to images. press the shutter button halfway down to set focus. VISIT HTTP://WWW. When ISO is set to Auto in P. The noise then appears in the image as image. Av. press and release the AF-DRIVE button and turn the Quick Control Dial until one of the self-timer icons is displayed on the LCD panel.SHORTCOURSES. When on.%/"-0"%DE?% reduction (page 152). or to P.GETTING SHARPER PICTURES The 5D Mark II has an N3 type remote control socket into which you can plug a remote switch that works much like a shutter button (page 138). or add range to your flash.%/"-0"%<(/. M and B modes. Increasing sensitivity is also a good way to get pictures without using flash in places such as concerts and museums where flash is prohibited. if this will cause overexposure it will be set as low as 100.-')(. and with long exposures times.COM 65 . images may have irregular !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+.-% colors and horizontal stripes may appear as noise. repeat Step 1 to return to single-frame mode. and the LCD panel displays a countdown timer. although the 5D Mark II is exceptionally good at keeping it to a minimum. or manually set it between 100–6400 in one-third stop increments. the camera beeps. When finished. • When Auto ISO is used with flash in any shooting mode. the higher the ISO the more noise you’ll get. randomly distributed colored pixels. The actual ISO speed to be used is displayed when you press the shutter button halfway down. Generally. low ISOs. This lets you use a faster shutter speed to reduce blur caused by camera or subject movement. Tv. To reduce noise you can turn on Custom Function II-2 High !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. • In P. noise reduction is performed ISO speed noise at all ISO settings. The self-timer lamp on the front of the camera flashes. L represents 50 and the H1 and H2 icons represent ISOs of 12800 and 25600. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. At Click to see the effects of increasing ISO. the ISO is set to Auto and varies between 100–3200. Av. the lamp glows steady and the beep rate increases. and pointed at the subject you want to focus on.-')(. but also amplifies the backClick here to explore the effect of noise in an ground noise captured along with it. • In auto modes. 2. noise in shadow areas is reduced. (The ISO to be used is displayed when you press the shutter button halfway down. With the Mode Dial set to any mode for the 10-second timer. Two seconds before the picture is taken. use a smaller aperture for more depth of field. Tv. Noise occurs because increasing sensitivity amplifies the captured signal. The 10 second (left) and 2 second (right) selftimer icons. However. (To cancel the timer. L H1 H2 When changing ISO. When the ISO is set to Auto this icon is displayed on the LCD panel. it is normally set to 400. At high ISO settings. ADJUSTING THE ISO Increasing the camera’s ISO means less light is need to expose a picture. M and B modes it varies between 100–3200 with the exception of Manual (M) and Bulb (B) modes where it’s fixed at 400. Tv. With the camera on a stable surface or tripod. M or B mode for the 2 second timer. When on.

M or B mode. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS The situations in which various ISO settings are best include those in the following table. • Using Custom Function III-6 Mirror lockup (page 152) to lock up the mirror while using a two second self-timer delay is the perfect combination to eliminate blur caused by camera movement. H1. H2 Good For Bright daylight outdoors Dark overcast.SHORTCOURSES.CHAPTER 3.COM . CHANGING THE ISO ! With the Mode Dial set to P. Long exposures can also cause irregular colors in the image. • You can turn off the self-timer beep if it’s distracting (page 160). dawn and dusk Night or dark indoors. • If you enable Custom Function II-3 Highlight tone priority (page 152). use focus lock (page 74) to focus on something at the same distance as where you’ll be. 66 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Av. Noise appears in images as random color pixels especially when you use long shutter speeds or high ISO settings. the ISO range is 200–6400. fast action TIPS • When using the self-timer to photograph yourself. VISIT HTTP://WWW. • Using a high ISO speed or shooting in high-temperature conditions can cause noisy images. press and release the ISO button on top of the camera and then turn the Main Dial to scroll through the available ISO settings displayed on the LCD panel and monitor and in the viewfinder. Tv. ISO Setting L. 100–200 400–800 1600–6400.

FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. including lens aperture. Another kind of sharpness concerns depth of field. These include your shutter speed. Your pictures can be sharp or unsharp in different ways. The first way concerns motion. Several factors affect depth of field. Several factors affect the way motion is captured in images. VISIT HTTP://WWW. a shallow depth of field can be used to make a busy background less distracting by having it out of focus in the picture. it’s better to have part of the scene sharper than the rest. and subject distance. direction. Blur can be used creatively to evoke a feeling of motion as in this shot of a waterfall in Yosemite National Park. and distance.SHARPNESS ISN’T EVERYTHING SHARPNESS ISN’T EVERYTHING Your photos don’t have to be sharp to be effective. Even if you are photographing a static scene. lens focal length. In many cases. lens focal length.SHORTCOURSES. how much of the scene will be sharp in the image from foreground to background. your picture may not be sharp if you do not have enough depth of field.COM 67 . Motion in a scene can be frozen or blurred depending on the shutter speed and other factors. Shallow depth of field can focus attention on a foreground subject by making the background less sharp. However. and subject speed.

the shutter needs to open and close before the image on the sensor moves a significant amount. SPEED OF SUBJECT The faster a subject is moving. This is why you can use a slower shutter speed to sharply photograph a subject moving toward. This depends not just on the subject’s actual speed. and the focal length of the lens. The shutter speed froze the central dancer but was slow enough to blur the others.COM . Because several variables are involved. But just how fast is fast enough? The answer depends on several factors. Just be aware that sharpness and blur are hard to evaluate on the camera’s monitor. Blur in an image is caused when all or part of a subject focused onto the image sensor moves when the shutter is open. • To capture action. or away from you. Hold the button down until the action happens and you’ll be able to get a shot off a lot faster. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS HOW TIP TO PHOTOGRAPH MOTION SHARPLY The sharpness of different parts of an image helps direct the viewer who tends to look first at the most sharply focused part of the picture. VISIT HTTP://WWW. To show a moving subject sharply. you need to use a fast shutter speed. but also on the direction of its movement. it’s not the speed of the subject in the real world that determines blur. Try shooting from a different angle or perhaps wait for a pause in the action. In addition. you can’t always predict how motion will be portrayed in the final photograph. However. The immobility of a frozen figure can be made more apparent by blurring people moving in other parts of the scene. This makes the central dancer the most important person in the photograph. point the camera toward where you expect the action to occur and press the shutter button halfway down to set and lock focus and exposure.SHORTCOURSES. the faster the shutter speed you need for a sharp image. DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT When the shutter is open. It’s how far the subject moves on the image sensor while the exposure is being made. You are much more likely to get a good shot if you have several to choose from.CHAPTER 3. a subject moving parallel to the image sensor crosses more of the pixels on the sensor and is more blurred than a subject moving directly toward or away from the camera. 68 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. and not the same subject moving from one side of the scene to the other. its distance from the camera. sharpness itself can be part of the message of the photograph. So use different settings and take more than one shot if possible. In other words.

Since all parts of the train are moving at the same speed. The longer the focal length Click to explore how of the lens. INCREASING THE SHARPNESS OF MOVING OBJECTS ! Photograph fast-moving subjects heading toward or away from you and not from side to side. A subject—or part of one—far from the camera can move a considerable distance before its image on the image sensor moves very much.-')(. this shows how distance affects blur.COM . sharpness. DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT AMOUNT OF ZOOM AND DISTANCE TO SUBJECT TIP • To visualize the effects of distance on blur. The shutter speed needed to control the sharpness of a moving object is determined by the subject’s speed.HOW TO PHOTOGRAPH MOTION SHARPLY DISTANCE TO SUBJECT !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. The objects in the foreground seem to fly by while those on the horizon don’t seem to move at all. look out the side window of a speeding car (but not when you’re driving).#--1% lens—for example. zooming in on a subject—has the same effect as moving closer to your subject. VISIT HTTP://WWW. ! Increase the ISO so you can use a faster shutter speed although this adds some noise to the image (page 65). the less a subject has to move for its image to move on the image shutter speed affects sensor and become blurred. 69 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. SHUTTER SPEED NEEDED FASTER SLOWER SPEED OF SUBJECT On this speeding train.-')(.%/"-0"%. Increasing the focal length of your !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. the part closest to the camera looks the most blurred while the farthest part looks sharper. ! Switch to Tv (shutter-priority) mode (page 43) or use program shift (page 42) and select a fast shutter speed such as 1/500.!*""-+. ! Move farther away from the subject or use a shorter focal length lens.SHORTCOURSES. Click to explore how camera-subject distance affects shutter speeds.%/"-0"%1/.":<)-% AND FOCAL LENGTH OF LENS If a subject is close to the camera. even slight movement is enough to cause blur. The focal length of the lens can also affect the apparent distance to the subject. direction of movement. and distance.

The plane of critical focus in your image will be the area that falls on the active AF point in the viewfinder—the one that flashes red. You move this plane toward and way from the camera as you focus.% Click to explore how focusing shifts the plane of critical focus. This plane of critical focus is a very shallow band and includes only those parts of the scene located at identical distances from the camera. TIP • To control depth of field.SHORTCOURSES.%/"-0"%)+/"/):. the chair across the room.CHAPTER 3. When pressed halfway down. Often it doesn’t matter so much exactly what you are focused on. the camera locks focus and establishes the plane of critical focus. or a large aperture for shallow depth of field (page 78). you can see a considerable area of the scene from near to far that appears sharp. switch to Av (aperture-priority) mode and select a small aperture for great depth of field.2()*. you have to understand focus and depth of field. Eventually they become so out of focus that they no longer appear sharp. the plane of critical focus moves closer to or farther away from the camera. This area in which everything looks acceptably sharp is called depth of field.COM . What does matter is whether or not all of the objects you want to be sharp are within the 70 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS FOCUS AND DEPTH OF FIELD If you look around you—the book in your hand. That is because your eyes refocus every time you look at an object at a different distance. Objects within the depth of field become less and less sharp the farther they are from the plane of critical focus. Subjects falling on this plane will be the sharpest part of the picture. Even though theoretically only one narrow plane is critically sharp. A The shutter button has two stages. DEPTH OF FIELD If you look at photographs. This part of the scene falls on what is called the plane of critical focus. FOCUS A lens can only bring one part of a scene into the sharpest possible focus. VISIT HTTP://WWW. But the sharpness you see when you glance at a scene is not always what you get in a photograph of that scene. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. other parts of the scene in front of and behind the most sharply focused plane appear acceptably sharp. objects at different distances from the camera come into or go out of critical focus. As the plane moves. so that the plane is parallel to the back of the camera or the image sensor.-')(. the far wall—everything seems to be sharp. As you point an autofocus camera at objects nearer or farther away in the scene. To understand why not. the sharpest part of your picture. Objects falling exactly on this imaginary plane will be in critical focus. Imagine the part of the scene on which you focus as a flat plane (much like a pane of glass) superimposed from one side to the other of a scene.

the depth of field becomes more evenly divided. as it often is in dim light. One trick is to hold down the depth-of-field preview button as you turn the Main Dial to scroll through a range of aperture. In the right image a small aperture was use to give great depth of field. you can significantly increase or decrease the depth of field simply by shifting the point on which you are focused or by changing the aperture setting. where it remains bright. B A C This photo of a book page shows how shallow depth of field can be when you get close to a subject. Nor can you usually find the plane of critical focus by looking at a picture. you can increase the depth of field. Actually. about one-third of the depth of field is in front of the plane of critical focus (toward the camera).SHORTCOURSES. they are usually not visible as exactly defined boundaries.COM 71 . When the maximum aperture is selected. parallel to the plane of critical focus (A). FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. To check depth-offield in the viewfinder press the depth-of-field preview button. you’ll see no change at all. sharp areas imperceptibly merge into unsharp ones. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Pressing this button locks exposure and closes the lens aperture down to the f/stop you’ve selected so the viewfinder gives you an idea of what’s sharp and what isn’t. The near and far limits of depth of field are shown here as two planes (B and C). CHECKING DEPTH OF FIELD To check depth-of-field in the viewfinder in P. and two-thirds is behind it (away from the camera).FOCUS AND DEPTH OF FIELD depth of field so they appear sharp. You can decrease it if you want less of the scene sharp. press the depth-of-field preview button on the lower left side of the lens mount. when using small apertures. When the camera is focused very close to an object. Instead. In most situations depth of field is not evenly divided. In some scenes. M and B modes. At normal shooting distances. or on the monitor while using Live View (page 139). However. Av. In both of these images the plane of critical focus has been placed on the middle face. except in Live View (page 139). the viewfinder image is very dark. In the left image a large aperture was used to give shallow depth of field. If you want a large part of the scene to be sharp. Tv.

you can turn it off using Custom Function III-5 AF-assist beam firing (page 152). • AI Servo AF mode continually adjusts the focus (and exposure) as long as you hold the shutter button halfway down. • Subjects such as a blank wall or clear blue sky or other subjects with very low contrast and evenly lit expanses of a single color. • Subjects in low light or very dark settings. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS FOCUSING TECHNIQUES The 5D Mark II’s autofocus system uses contrast to set the focus. One-Shot AF is selectable in P. Tv. In dim light. This mode is one of your choices in P. The AF point or points used to set focus briefly flash red when you press the shutter button halfway down and focus is achieved.SHORTCOURSES. If the assist beam is drawing attention. In these situations you might want to try selecting the AF point manually (the center point is the most accurate). (You can turn this off with Custom Function III-4 Superimposed display—page 152.COM 72 . When using evaluative metering (the default) when focus locks in this mode. but first. Focus remains locked as long as you continue to hold down the button. the focus confirmation lights green and the active AF point flashes red in the viewfinder.6 or smaller. In these situations the focus confirmation light in the viewfinder flashes instead of glowing a steady green. and drive mode are set automatically. As good as the autofocus system is. you’ll see them pop into focus. M and B modes you can choose any of the three modes depending on whether a subject is moving or not. the camera won’t take a picture until focus is locked and the focus confirmation glows a steady green. focus locks on the part of the scene closest to the camera covered by one of the AF points. Tv.) In auto modes. there are times when it has trouble focusing. the camera specifies one of these modes for you and you can’t change it. an attached flash may strobe an AF-assist beam when you press the shutter button halfway down. • Zoom before focusing since zooming can through off focus. (AI stands for artificial intelligence. TIPS • When using an USM (Ultrasonic Motor) lens with a distance scale in One-Shot AF mode. • One of the main reasons the camera won’t focus is because you are too close. To change focus once it’s locked. As you point the camera at various subjects and press the shutter button halfway down. Av. • In auto modes the AF mode. VISIT HTTP://WWW. you can turn the focusing ring on the lens to fine tune focus after focus is achieved (called fulltime manual focusing). • Subjects that are backlit or have reflective surfaces. Av. When autofocus is locked. In this mode when you press the shutter button halfway down. M and B modes. let’s look at the autofocus modes you have to choose from. This happens with: Lens focus switch set to autofocus (AF). AF point selection. and a third—AI Focus AF—that automatically switches between the first two. or manually focus the lens. so does exposure. • Overlapping subjects at different distances or with repetitive patterns. you must release the shutter button and then press it halfway down again. In this mode. Let’s see how these techniques work. M and B modes. If the subject moves FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. use focus lock. AUTOFOCUS MODES The 5D Mark II has two autofocus modes—One-Shot AF and AI Servo AF. but in P. Tv. you can’t use autofocus. • When using an extender on a lens with a maximum aperture of f/5. or any other situations where you are photographing moving subjects.) The plane of critical focus in your image will be the area that falls on the active AF point in the viewfinder—the one that flashes red. Av. • One-Shot AF mode works best for still subjects including portraits and landscapes.CHAPTER 3. It’s designed to help you keep a moving subject in focus and is great for sports and nature photography.

but if the subject’s distance from the camera changes. M and B modes. if you have selected a specific AF point (see below). or AI SERVO on the LCD panel. • AI Focus AF mode initially focuses on the subject using One-Shot AF mode. that point flashes red when focus is achieved. Tv. M and B modes you can easily switch from automatic to manual selection. When focus is achieved in this mode neither it or exposure is locked and the focus confirmation light doesn’t glow a steady green. press and release the AF-DRIVE button. called the active AF point. • Auto AF point selection is the only setting available in Full and Creative Auto modes. repeatedly pressing it in the same direction toggles between selecting one AF point and selecting them all. If the subject then moves away from this point. press the shutter button halfway down.%/"-0"%. Click to explore the effects of servo focus. Tv. Turn the Main Dial to cycle through ONE SHOT.FOCUSING TECHNIQUES after you have focused !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. • When using the Multi-controller to select a AF point.%/"-0"%2()*. The selected AF point briefly flashes red in the viewfinder. VISIT HTTP://WWW. the focus confirmation light doesn’t light.-+F(2()*.% While focusing on a moving subject the camera beeps softly. • In P. When used with AI Servo AF the camera first uses the center AF point and then uses other points if the subject moves. When all nine AF points are displayed. When used with One-shot AF the camera focuses on that part of the scene closest to the camera and covered by one of the AF points. to see which flashes red. the camera automatically switches to AI Servo AF mode so it can keep it in focus. Tv. SELECTING AN AUTOFOCUS MODE 1. AI Focus AF mode is automatically selected for you in Full and Creative Auto modes and is one of the three you can select in P. focus tracking continues as long as it is covered by one of the other AF points. M or B mode and the focus switch on the lens set to AF. and the beeper beeps softly. Av. However. The selected AF point is displayed on the LCD panel. Av. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. Av. of the nine AF points although the one being used doesn’t flash red. or anytime you press the shutter button halfway down. If focus is achieved in this mode using AI Servo AF.COM 73 . With the camera in P. is indicated on the LCD panel and is shown in red in the viewfinder immediately after selecting it. The AF-Drive button. or press the AF point selector button. • If you have selected the AF point manually. 2. but is selectable in other modes.-')(. the camera uses that point to track focus until the subject moves so it’s covered by another AF point. • When the AF point is being selected automatically the camera initially uses the center AF point to focus. the camera selects the one to use. SELECTABLE FOCUSING POINTS The 5D Mark II has nine AF points and the one being used to set focus can be selected automatically or manually. To see which AF point is being used to set focus. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. TIPS • Custom Function III-3 AF point selection method lets you change the way you manually select AF points (page 152). When manually selecting an AF point the one currently being used.G(<-% on it. it remains in focus as long as it’s covered by one Click to explore the way focus zones work.-')(.SHORTCOURSES. Manually selecting an AF point lets you choose which part of the scene is used to focus the camera and also lets you get shots off more quickly since the camera doesn’t have to take time calculating where to focus. AI FOCUS.

DISPLAYING AF POINTS 1. USING FOCUS LOCK To change the position of the plane of critical focus in One-Shot AF mode (page 72). you can display the AF point or points used to set focus. Tv. the camera is in auto mode and will pick the AF point for you. This lets you confirm that the camera focused where you wanted it to. the setting remains in affect even when you turn the camera off. with a fast lens from f/1. the camera sets focus. there are shortcuts. Also. • Repeatedly pressing it in the same direction toggles between selecting one AF point and selecting them all. repeat Steps 1 and 2 to reset AF point selection to auto (all nine AF points). Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice and press SET.) When using the Multi-controller to select AF points. • When using evaluative metering with One-Shot AF (the default). If you don’t release the shutter button. When the focus confirmation light in the viewfinder glows a steady green. If you don’t do so. When finished taking photos. high-precision focusing is based on the center AF point. TIPS • You can use AE Lock (page 55) to lock exposure on one part of a scene and use focus lock to lock focus on another. Av. and also exposure if you are using evaluative metering (page 48). M and B modes. 3.0 to f/2. With the Mode Dial set to any mode. This lets you set the focus at any distance from the camera to control both focus and depth of field. Tv.CHAPTER 3. DISPLAYING AF POINTS IN PLAYBACK When you play back images or view them in review mode. press the AF point selector button (five dot icon) on the back of the camera to display the active AF point(s) in red in the viewfinder and the AF point indicator on the LCD panel. When you press it halfway down. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight AF point disp. • Pressing it straight down once selects the center AF point and pressing it again selects all of them. Av. 3. The 5D Mark II has a two-stage shutter button.SHORTCOURSES. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS SELECTING AN AF POINT 1. pressing AF-ON or pressing the shutter button halfway down locks exposure and focus. • When using AI Servo AF in P. these readings are locked in. • Any other combination of metering (page 48) and focus (page 72) modes locks just focus. • AI Servo AF and automatic AF point selection is a great combination to use with moving subjects. 74 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. You can then take the picture. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in P. press MENU and select the Playback 2 menu tab. you can then point the camera anywhere else and the settings remain unchanged. M or B mode. (When all nine points are selected. and press SET to display the choices Enable and Disable (the default). VISIT HTTP://WWW. neither focus nor exposure is locked and both are set when you take the picture. you can use focus lock. or even recompose the scene first. • The center AF point is the best AF point to use because it’s more sensitive and accurate. • Custom Function IV-1 Shutter button/ AF-ON button (page 152) lets you change the way you lock focus and exposure. 2. Turn the Main or Quick Control Dial to select an AF point or press the Multi-controller to select a point directly. .8.COM The AF point selector button icon. 2.

Manual focus is extremely useful when autofocus has problems. TIP • In Live View you can enlarge part of the image up to 10x for very precise manual focusing (page 140).. Press the shutter button halfway down and hold it there to lock in focus. you can recompose the scene at will without focus changing or having to use focus lock. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.6 lenses. all within the spot metering circle. The green focus confirmation light lights up and the AF point being used to set focus briefly flashes red in the viewfinder. (It works best if you use the more accurate center AF point. there are 6 others you can’t see. The other two are verticalline sensitive with f/2. The lens focus switch. If you are using an USM (Ultrasonic Motor) lens that has a distance scale in One-Shot AF mode. Position one of the active AF points over the part of the scene you want critically sharp. the AF point used to set focus flashes red and the focus confirmation light glows a steady green. When the subject covered by the active AF point comes into focus. or when you want to focus on a very specific spot such as the wing of a butterfly. you can turn the focusing ring on the lens to fine tune focus after focus is achieved (called full-time manual focusing). With autofocus set to One-Shot AF (page 72).8 and f/5. compose the image so the subject you want to lock focus on is covered by one of the AF points in the viewfinder. when you want to quickly focus on an off-center subject or a subject that is in a busy setting where the camera has trouble isolating the subject you want. Hold the shutter button halfway down and turn the focus ring on the lens.-')(. 1. 3.()@% USING FOCUS LOCK Click to explore focus lock. Set the focus switch on the lens to M or MF.6 lenses.SHORTCOURSES.COM 75 . When focus is achieved. set the lens’ focus switch to M or MF (for Manual) and turn the lens’ focus ring. recompose the scene and press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.) 2. 3.FOCUSING TECHNIQUES !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+.%/"-0"%2()*. Manual focus is useful when the main subject doesn’t fall on one of the AF points. After focusing. or when you want focus fixed no matter how the subject moves. the AF point flashes red and the focus confirmation light glows a steady green. USING MANUAL FOCUS 1. MANUAL FOCUS To manually focus. Hold the shutter button halfway down as you manually focus. Those on the corners are horizontal-line sensitive with f/5. Without releasing the shutter button. In addition to the 9 visible AF points. 2. VISIT HTTP://WWW.

but even more so in combination. you want only the person to be sharply focused. on the other hand. you will feel much more confident when you want to make sure something is—or isn’t—sharp.COM . As you move closer. often you will want everything sharp from close-up rock to far away mountain. you decrease it. The larger the aperture.-')(. As you move father from the subject you are focused on. • Aperture size. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS CONTROLLING DEPTH OF FIELD Sharpness—or the lack of it—is immediately noticeable when you look at a photograph. You can get the shallowest depth of field with a lens zoomed in on a nearby subject using a large aperture. To control depth of field.CHAPTER 3. Parts of the image closer to the camera and further away become increasingly less sharp. but not a distracting background. If you are making a portrait. EFFECT ON DEPTH OF FIELD DEEPER SHALLOWER APERTURE SIZE !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. The smaller the aperture. you have three factors to work with. 76 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Each of these three factors affects depth of field by itself.SHORTCOURSES.%/"-0"%4?5% Click to explore how the aperture affects depth of field. A shorter focal length lens increases depth of field and a longer one decreases it. Here the camera’s depth of field was just deep enough to keep the bird in focus. CAMERA TO SUBJECT DISTANCE AMOUNT AND DIRECTION OF ZOOM To check depth-offield in the viewfinder press the depth-of-field preview button (page 71). VISIT HTTP://WWW. the greater the depth of field. • Camera-to-subject distance. Once you understand how to control depth of field. with a wide-angle lens. You get the greatest depth of field when you are far from a subject. • Lens focal length. using a small aperture. you increase depth of field. the shallower the depth of field. In a landscape.

the most distant part of the scene remains in focus but the near point of depth of field moves closer to the camera. but whenever you want to shift depth of field toward and away from the camera. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. you bring forward the point on which you are focused and increase the depth of field in the foreground of your picture. Maximum depth of field seems particularly important for photographs of landscapes and other scenes where a distant horizon is a part of the picture. When you are focused on that distant point. all available depth of field to the right of that point is wasted. everything beyond it will be sharp. You can use this procedure not just for landscapes. When a subject extends to the far distance. here it’s the mountains. you are wasting two-thirds of your depth of field.COM 77 . When you focus on the most distant part of the scene. But since one-third of the available depth of field falls in front of the point on which you are focused and two-thirds behind it. if you focus on some object one-third of the way between you and the horizon. By focusing on the hyperfocal distance.SHORTCOURSES.USING DEEP DEPTH OF FIELD USING DEEP DEPTH OF FIELD Often you will want to get as much depth of field as possible because important parts of a scene that you want sharp are both near to and far from the camera. the middle and foreground are not sharp because they don’t fall within the range of available depth of field. As a result. The entire scene is sharp. Instead of focusing on infinity. That may mean that some other part of the scene in the foreground will not be included in the one-third remaining depth of field and consequently will not be sharp. This new point of focus is called the hyperfocal distance. Zooming out and using a small aperture keeps everything in the foreground and background in focus. many photographers unthinkingly focus on that part of the scene. VISIT HTTP://WWW.

but sharp enough that you can see the expression. Only the bubble gum blower is sharp while figures in the foreground and background aren’t. ! Zoom the lens in or move closer to enlarge the subject.8. ! Use aperture-priority mode or program shift to select a large aperture such as f/2.% distracting foreground or background. is a great way to thing in a picture is equally sharp.-')(. Here attention is drawn to the sharp monarch butterfly caterpillar and the boy’s face is soft and less distracting. 78 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. When everyisolate a subject from a Click to explore selective focus.-)"2()*. DECREASING DEPTH OF FIELD ! Use a neutral density filter for a larger aperture. sometimes called selective focus.COM .%/"-0"%.SHORTCOURSES. But if some parts of an image are sharp and others are not. You can selectively focus the camera and your viewer’s attention on the most important part of the scene by limiting depth of field so the significant elements are sharp while the foreground and background are less so.-.CHAPTER 3. Shallow depth of field. CONTROLLING SHARPNESS USING SHALLOW DEPTH OF FIELD !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. the viewer gives equal attention to all parts of the scene. the viewer is drawn to the sharpest part. VISIT HTTP://WWW.

! Use shutter-priority mode program shift to select a slow shutter speed. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. ! When panning with a moving subject. so begin to pan the camera before the subject enters your viewfinder. VISIT HTTP://WWW. it isn’t the only one. The shutter speed can be selected to blur some or all of an image. Panning takes practice so take as many images as you can. Your movement should be smooth and controlled to get a good pan. Here a fast shutter speed froze everything but the ball. In bright light. Many times you don’t do anything but benefit from a happy accident. Panning with this barred owl blurred the background and created an impressionistic image. Follow through as you would in golf or tennis. Your only limitation is getting a slow enough shutter speed in bright light.SHORTCOURSES. use AI Servo AF mode (page 72) to keep the image focused as long as you hold the shutter button halfway down. the shutter will open and close too fast. CONVEYING MOTION ! Try blurring images in lowlight situations.CONVEYING THE FELLING OF MOTION CONVEYING THE FEELING OF MOTION Although sharpness is a laudable goal. Results are quite unpredictable because your body motion adds yet another variable to the final picture. The creative use of blur can lead to some interesting photos—especially when conveying the feeling of motion. Panning the camera in the same direction as a moving subject produces an image where the subject is relatively sharp against a blurred background. keeping it in the same position in the viewfinder. Anything that moves day or night is a candidate for creative blurring. Smoothly depress the shutter button as you follow the motion of the subject.COM 79 . ! Use a neutral density filter to get a slower shutter speed.

80 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. The “film” in the form of an image sensor is built into your camera.COM . they are the characteristics you have to live with until you buy another camera. CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR Chapter 4 Capturing Light & Color CONTENTS • Where Does Color Come From? • White Balance and Color • Using White Balance Correction & Bracketing • Color and Time of Day • Sunsets and Sunrises • Weather • Photographing at Night • The Direction of Light • The Quality of Light I mage sensors in digital cameras are designed to produce colors that match those in the original scene. photographers usually explored a wide variety of films before settling on the one or two they liked best.CHAPTER 4. Whatever its characteristics are. in part. or slightly colder.SHORTCOURSES. These subtle variations among films were what made photographers gravitate to one or the other. on the accuracy with which you expose the image and how the camera handles colors. With film cameras. there is a lot of variation among sensors and among the circuits and software that process raw images into final photographs. you don’t have the same choice offered by film cameras. However. we explore the world of light and color and how you manage it in your photos. In some the grain was small. The results you get depend. With digital cameras. A film may have had colors that were warmer than other films. This is because each film type had it’s own unique characteristics. in others it was larger. VISIT HTTP://WWW. In this chapter.

absorbing relatively few.” it actually contains a range of colors similar to a rainbow. we see white.SHORTCOURSES.photocourse. It appears simply to be “white” light. when all of them are absorbed.WHERE DOES COLOR COME FROM? WHERE DOES COLOR COME FROM? Why do we see colors? Light from http://www. On the other hand.com/itext/color/ the sun or from a lamp seems to have no Click here to explore color and prisms. the leaf reflects only the green wavelengths of light and absorbs the others. the same effect that occurs when water droplets in the atmosphere separate light into a rainbow. A white object such as a white flower appears white because it reflects most of the wavelengths that strike it. and none reflected. “White” light actually contains light of different colors. we see black. Other colors in the light are absorbed by the leaf. you can see that it actually contains all colors. VISIT HTTP://WWW. You can see these colors using a prism to separate them out. However. Ink dyes or pigments in color prints also selectively absorb and reflect certain wavelengths of light and so produce the effect of color. White objects reflect most of the wavelengths of light that strike them. A green object such as a leaf reflects only those wavelengths that create the visual effect of green. Although light from the sun appears colorless or “white. A colorful object such as a leaf appears green because when white light strikes it. if you pass the light through a prism. particular color of its own. When all of these wavelengths are combined.COM 81 . FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. The overall color cast of the light changes as the proportions of the colors change.

orange. (3000–7000 K) • Daylight is best when photographing outdoors in sunlight. The numbers in parentheses following each mode below indicate the setting’s approximate color temperature in degrees Kelvin. add a red or yellow cast. flash. Select another mode if this mode doesn’t give you the results you want. Tv. AND COLOR Although light from the sun or from a light bulb looks white to us. One way to describe the color of a light source is by its color temperature. M or B mode you can select Auto. To adjust colors so photos have no color cast and look like they were shot outdoors at midday. • Auto (AWB) automatically selects the white balance to match the current light source. yellow.CHAPTER 4. One problem is that these colors are affected by the color of the light source. • If you capture images in the RAW format (page 28). This is similar to a thermometer that calibrates heat temperatures in degrees centigrade. daylight. white. In P. we use a system built into the camera called white balance. The color temperature scale ranges from the lower color temperatures of reddish light to the higher color temperatures of bluish light. and Kelvin icons. in twilight or at sunset.com/itext/whitebalance/ USING PRESET WHITE BALANCE SETTINGS Click here to explore how the white balance setting affects the way images are captured. florescent. cloudy. (6000 K) • Custom (page 83) is best when other settings don’t give you the results you want. Those with a higher color temperature. Light from the midday sun. CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR WHITE BALANCE TIPS • Color temperature ranges from high temperature blues to low temperature reds. or use the Custom or Kelvin settings for even greater control. (6000 K) • Tungsten is best when photographing indoors under incandescent lights. you may want to adjust white balance for subsequent shots taken under the same light source.000–5. (2500– 10000 K) FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. specified in degrees Kelvin. such as incandescent or fluorescent. such as open shade. Light sources with a lower color temperature. (2000–10000 K) • Kelvin (page 84) is best when setting a specific color temperature. As color temperature increases it moves through the colors red. for example.SHORTCOURSES. auto (AWB). The 5D Mark II offers a variety of white balance settings. (5200 K) • Shade is best when photographing in open shade. VISIT HTTP://WWW. it contains these colors in varying proportions. If so. it not only contains a mixture of all colors. tungsten. Daylight has a color temperature of about 5. each for a different lighting situation. add a blue cast.photocourse. you may notice that white areas in particular have some color cast to them. To produce what appears to us to be normal or accurate color balance.500 K and adds no color cast to pictures. (7000 K) • Cloudy is best when photographing outdoors in cloudy or overcast conditions. shade. is much bluer than light from a sunrise or a tungsten lamp. you can adjust white balance on your computer instead of having the camera do it.COM 82 . (4000 K) Clockwise from top. the image we capture must contain the colors in the original scene. one of the six presets. • Flash is best photographing with an external flash. Av. In auto modes Auto white balance (AWB) is automatically selected. custom. and blue white in that order. You can check white balance by looking at a captured image on the camera’s monitor. (3200 K) • White Fluorescent is best when photographing indoors under white fluorescent lights. http://www. If you examine it closely.

select the Shooting 2 menu tab. and press SET to display the image you took in Step 1. • You can save three user defined Picture Styles for color saturation and tone and then select any one of them for a specific situation (page 149). To do so. you may want to use manual focus to ensure it’s in focus. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. A gray card. M or B mode. you can select one at any time with the Custom WB menu command. Once saved you can access the custom setting at any time by selecting the custom white balance icon just as you select any other white balance setting. repeat Step 1 to reset white balance to AWB (Auto) or the mode will be remembered even when you turn off the camera. 3. It’s like having a library of custom white balance settings to choose from. Press the MENU or shutter button to exit the menu. 2. Av. Av. SELECTING A WHITE BALANCE MODE 1. or turn the Main or Quick Control Dial to display another picture first and then press SET.WHITE BALANCE AND COLOR TIPS • If you like the warm glow of incandescent lights. 4. 2. • A gray card requires no exposure adjustment and gives you a more accurate white balance. You then use the captured image to set and save a custom white balance. you can capture it by setting white balance to daylight. SETTING A CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE 1. Press SET to use the image to set white balance. • If you take pictures of a standard white paper or gray card under the lighting you frequently photograph in. M or B modes. When reminded to set white balance to Custom. Press MENU. select OK and press SET. CREATING AND USING A CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE SETTING If none of the preset white balance settings give you the results you want. • You can also use the White balance command on the Shooting 2 menu tab to set white balance. photograph a white subject or gray card while it fills the spot metering circle in the viewfinder. 5. With the Mode Dial set to P. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Custom WB. and white balance set to any setting. You can also select the widegamut Adobe RGB color space to attach to your images (page 84). With the Mode Dial set to P. Tv. • If you photograph a white paper. you may want to try using +1 or +2 exposure compensation to lighten the image. press the WB button and then turn the Quick Control Dial to select a white balance icon displayed on the LCD panel and monitor (AWB is the default).COM 83 . The spot metering circle in the viewfinder. you first photograph a sheet of plain white paper or a commercially available 18% gray card under the same light you’ll be photographing in. • If you take a photo with Picture Style set to Monochrome (page 149). When finished. Take photos using the changed setting. Press the WB button and turn the Quick Control Dial to select the icon for custom white balance on the LCD panel and monitor. • When photographing a white or gray card. Tv. 3. When asked to confirm using the image to set white balance. press SET. and keep the images on your CF card. VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES. The custom white balance icon. it cannot be used to set white balance. you can create your own.

is the color space used in auto modes and is suitable for images that will be displayed on a monitor. 2. 1. you can always use a program such as Photoshop or Lightroom to convert images from Adobe RGB to sRGB without any loss in quality. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Lower color temperatures will make the image bluer and higher ones will make it redder. if you plan on editing your images and making highquality prints. 84 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.COM . 4. press MENU and select the Shooting 2 menu tab. the wider gamut Adobe RGB is a better choice. one way to describe the color of a light source is by its color temperature in degrees Kelvin. SELECTING A COLOR SPACE You can switch between the default sRGB and the wider gamut (range of colors) Adobe RGB color space. 3. Tv. high ISOs. which has a narrower gamut. Av. If you know the color temperature of your lights or have a color meter to measure them you can set the camera to an exact match. Tv. With the Mode Dial set to P. With the Mode Dial set to P. The Color temp icon. SETTING COLOR TEMPERATURE IN KELVINS The effects of color balance are most obvious in the early morning and late evening when the sunrise or sunset often changes the color of everything you see. The only drawback is that Adobe RGB images look subdued on a sRGB personal computer monitor and when printed on a printer that’s not compatible with Design rule for Camera File System 2. 3. Av. reset white balance to AWB (Auto) as described on page 82 or the selected color temperature will be used even when you turn the camera off and back on. sRGB. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight White balance and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Color space and press SET to display the choices sRGB and Adobe RGB. you should take test shots and use white balance correction to ensure the best possible results.com/itext/colorspace/ SPACE SELECTING A COLOR Click to explore how sRGB and Adobe RGB color spaces compare when it comes to the range of colors they can capture.0 (Exif 2. • High temperatures.CHAPTER 4. and white balance is set to Kelvin with the letter “K” displayed on the LCD panel.SHORTCOURSES. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight K which is displaying the current color temperature setting. M or B mode. 2. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. press MENU and select the Shooting 2 menu tab. M or B mode. • When using color temperature under artificial light. 5. • If you use a color temperature meter to determine the color temperature of the light.photocourse. However. http://www. When finished. However. 4. Press MENU to exit the menu. Turn the Main Dial to change the setting to any temperature between 2500–10000K in 100K increments (5200 K is the default) and press SET to select it. TIPS • All image filenames begin with IMG_ except for those shot using the Adobe RGB color space which begin with _MG_. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice and press SET. and long shutter speeds can all have adverse affects on the colors in your images. 1.21). • In Adobe RGB an ICC profile is not attached to image files. you may need to use white balance correction to adjust magenta or green bias (page 85). CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR USING A SPECIFIC COLOR TEMPERATURE As you’ve seen.

G (green). Press SET to return to the menu and then press the MENU or shutter button to exit the menu. ! To set the bracketing direction and level turn the Quick Control Dial. • You can correct the color temperature used for white balance much as you would on film cameras with color filters. Av. The first version is processed at the set white balance and the other two are made more blue/amber or magenta/green. When the shift is 0. • You can bracket white balance by having a single image processed into three pictures with different color adjustments using the Main Dial to specify the degree of change between images.) 3. ! If you have set bracketing. highlight WB SHIFT/BKT and press SET to display the WB correction/WB bracketing screen.SHORTCOURSES. a WB +/.0 there is no correction. (Pressing INFO undoes all changes. This expands the single dot to three dots that indicate what the white balance will be for each of the three shots. ! If you have made color corrections. With the Mode Dial set to P. Take your photos and when finished. • Custom Functions I-4 and I-5 specify when bracketing is cancelled and the order of the bracket sequence (page 152). USING WHITE BALANCE CORRECTION/ BRACKETING 1. M or B mode. If you don’t every shot you take will be corrected or bracketed. The BKT indicator to the right of the grid shows the bracketing direction and level. but there is no need to do so because you can change white balance later on your computer. When you want to fine-tune white balance you can do so by correcting or bracketing it. Tv. • Each level of blue/ amber is equivalent to 5 mireds of a color conversion filter. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Do one or both of the following: ! To make color corrections use the Multi-controller to move the dot towards B (blue). 2. The image is bracketed with up to + or – 3 levels of a blue/amber (B/A) bias.COM . or magenta/green (M/G) bias. but you will get 9 images in each series. To do so. Turning the dial clockwise sets B/A bracketing and counterclockwise sets M/G bracketing.icon is displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel.USING WHITE BALANCE CORRECTION & BRACKETING USING WHITE BALANCE CORRECTION & BRACKETING TIPS • When white balance bracketing is in effect the current white balance icon on the LCD panel blinks and the remaining pictures readout shows only one-third the number of images it would normally show. select the Shooting 2 menu tab. A (amber). • Much of what you do to adjust white balance at the time of shooting is done more easily after taking pictures when you use the RAW format (page 28). press MENU. You can combine white balance bracketing with autoexposure bracketing (page 57). repeat Steps 1–3 to reset BKT and SHIFT to 0. the current white balance icon on the LCD panel flashes. The middle dot is at the white balance recommended by the camera and the left and right dots indicate how much white balance is decreased (bluish) and increased (reddish). In the upperright corner of the screen SHIFT shows the bias direction and correction amount. 85 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. While an image is being processed into a series you cannot take another picture so continuous mode (page 137) slows down. 4. selecting any one of nine levels. The WB correction/ WB bracketing screen showing white balance bracketing in the Blue/ Amber (B/A) direction. The white balance correction (left) and bracketing (right) icons are displayed on the monitor when they are in effect. You cannot bracket white balance when using the RAW format. and M (magenta). you move a dot around the WB correction/WB bracketing screen with the Multi-controller.

colors often appear muted or monochromatic. light from the sun is modified by the extra distance it travels through the Earth’s atmosphere. colors appear clear. you often have to use an extralong exposure time. there is a color of light called “daylight” that occurs between 10 A.CHAPTER 4. Early morning and late afternoon light produce a more reddish color balance than you get at midday.COM . This is because before and after midday. 86 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. bright. the light also changes. During these hours. This is easily seen very early or late in the day when the light is often quite red-orange in tone. When clouds cover the sky. Midday light on a sunny day will produce colors that appear natural and accurately rendered. During these hours when light is relatively dim. CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR COLOR AND TIME OF DAY In photography.M.M on a clear day. the light can change from a warm red at sunrise to a warm red or orange at sunset. The change in color has a significant affect on your pictures. Just before dawn and at dusk. VISIT HTTP://WWW. leaving the light with a more reddish cast than at midday. and accurately rendered in a photo. but this reddish cast is a wonderful light to photograph in. this time to a more bluish light. Before and after this period. and 2 P.SHORTCOURSES. Some of the blue light is filtered out. much like that found in open shade.

red glow illuminates the foreground. when the sun is below the horizon and not in the image exposure problems are reduced. It’s objects in the foreground. The colors in the sky are often richest in the half hour before the sun rises and the half hour after it sets. Sunrises and sunsets by themselves aren’t very interesting. such as a skyline. For one thing. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. clouds in the sky often light up dramatically and in some cases. or unusual atmospheric effects such as this dark cloud that give them some punch. WARNING! • Never look at the bright sun through the viewfinder.SHORTCOURSES. the colors will simply be a bit richer and darker. You can seriously damage your eyes.SUNSETS AND SUNRISES SUNSETS AND SUNRISES Sunsets and sunrises are relatively easy to photograph because the exposure is not as critical as it is with some other scenes.COM 87 . The sun often takes on a flattened appearance as it rises above the horizon. its warm. Slight overexposure will make the same scene slightly lighter. It pays to be patient as you watch the sky change during these periods. Add 1 or 2 stops of exposure to a sunset or sunrise that includes the disk of the sun. If you underexpose the scene slightly. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Also. reflect the light to other clouds until you find yourself under a wonderful canopy of reflected color. When partially obscured and softened by a haze. With the bright disk of the sun included in a sunset or sunrise. your picture may come out somewhat underexposed and darker than you expect it to be.

CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR Every sunrise and sunset is unique and the variations can be truly amazing. This is a magic time to capture images that will really stand out. Here the camera was positioned so the rising sun was behind one of the grain elevators where it wouldn’t burn out the image with its glare.” If you want the sun in the photo.mil).S. VISIT HTTP://WWW.usno. It’s certainly not true that “if you’ve seen one sunrise or sunset. Instead of shooting into the sun at sunrise or sunset. warm light changes the colors of everything it hits.CHAPTER 4. soft glow that can’t be found at any other time of the day.navy. A long-focal-length lens enlarges the disk of the sun so that it becomes a more important part of the picture. Naval Observatory (http://www. warm colors of scenes bathed in the sun’s light. can also add interest.SHORTCOURSES. find another subject or turn around and photograph the scene it’s illuminating. Foreground objects silhouetted against the bright sky.COM . shoot with it behind you to capture rich. it’s best if it is softened and partly obscured by a mist or haze. If it rises as a hot white or yellow ball. ANTICIPATING THE SUN AND MOON When planning to integrate the sun or moon into an image it helps to know when it rises or sets and what phase the moon is. 88 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. you’ve seen them all. This information is available in almanacs and on the Web at the U. Colors take on a warm. The rich.

with foreground objects brighter than normal because they are seen against a muted background. You 89 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. The problem is. when you want them. In fact. you rarely find them where you want them. TIP • Canon L series lenses are sealed and weather resistant as are the 580EX II Speedlight and the 5D Mark II. you should know how they form so you can anticipate them.SHORTCOURSES. Rainbows always make good pictures. it would appear as a white dot against a very dark background.COM . A light fog subdues colors and softens objects in the background. Objects at a distance often appear diffused and gray in such weather.WEATHER WEATHER There’s no need to leave your camera home just because the sun hasn’t come out. You’ll usually find the combination of rain and sun at the leading or trailing edge of a summer storm. fog. If it weren’t partially obscured by the fog. To get better at capturing them. snow. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Remember to take a little extra care in bad weather to protect your camera against excessive exposure to dampness. rain. Snow covered scenes are not only beautiful to look at. A very light mist can dim the sun enough to include it in a photograph. Rainbows are formed when sunlight is refracted by raindrops. and mist can add interest to your pictures. they make great photographs.

(If there is a secondary rainbow. imagine a line from the sun passing through your eye. At some points.) Because these angles determine the position of the rainbow in the sky. If you stand with your back to the sun while looking at a rainbow. 90 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. batteries run down a lot faster. will be below the horizon where you can’t see it.CHAPTER 4. To the right of the brighter primary rainbow is a dimmer secondary one. A line drawn from your eye to the top of the rainbow forms a 42-degree angle with the imaginary line from the sun through your eye. From a plane you can sometimes see all 360degrees of a rainbow.SHORTCOURSES. To understand why. and out into space. it forms an angle of 51-degrees. Here a rainbow dramatically appears in a New England seascape. the entire rainbow. (This is called the antisolar point. keep the camera or battery under your coat or in an inside pocket so the battery stays warmer. visualize the way the rainbow works. That’s why you’ll never see a summer rainbow at midday when the sun is directly overhead. VISIT HTTP://WWW. not just the bottom half.COM . CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR CAMERA CARE • In the cold. through the Earth. however from ground level part of it is always below the horizon. can’t see rainbows at all times of the day. it will sink as the sun rises and rise as the sun sinks.) The rainbow forms a complete circle around this imaginary line. Here you see a section of one shot through an airliner window. To prevent this.

This scene of Faneuil Hall in Boston was shot at night with just illumination from street lights. You might also explore using Program AE and program shift to get the slowest possible shutter speed (page 42). The moon. especially when full. If you are upwind. but are difficult to capture. A tripod or solid surface will support your camera during long exposures and prevent blur caused by camera motion during the time the shutter is open. To capture interesting images of fireworks. neon signs. Try a series of exposures of different bursts because there is a certain amount of luck involved. If there are foreground figures you might try fill flash (page 123). You need to experiment and a digital camera is perfect for that because you can instantly review your results. or fires) or brightly lit areas (illuminated buildings or areas under street lights) will dominate pictures at night because they stand out strongly against darker backgrounds. the smoke will become part of the image. adds a lot to an image.SHORTCOURSES. VISIT HTTP://WWW. use exposure compensation. TIP • If the camera has trouble focusing. switch to manual focus.COM 91 . you might switch to Bulb (B) mode (page 92) and select a small aperture so you can keep the shutter open long enough to capture multiple bursts. put people or water in the foreground.8 at 1/30 second. Finally. so don’t put your camera away just because the sun is gone for the day. You can try increasing the ISO. or attach an EX-series flash so it can strobe to assist focus. it looks much larger than when it’s higher in the sky. and try different combinations of aperture and shutter speed.PHOTOGRAPHING AT NIGHT PHOTOGRAPHING AT NIGHT You can photograph many different things outdoors at night. Plan to use these bright areas as the dominant part of your picture. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Get upwind from the show since fireworks generate a lot of smoke that can become a problem if you are downwind. It also helps if there are identifiable objects in the image such as an illuminated building or monument to give the viewer a sense of place. Because it is close to foreground objects at that time. illuminated by the fireworks. Fireworks can be dramatic. for really interesting effects. The best time to capture the moon is when it’s near the horizon. Light sources (street lights. automobile lights. Set your exposure for fireworks by switching to Av (aperture-priority) or Tv (shutter-priority) mode and try for a setting of f/2.

CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR Keep in mind that the moon is relatively dim and usually requires long exposures. you can’t see through the viewfinder while the exposure is being made. and mirror lockup. Also long exposures add noise to an image but you can turn on Custom Function II-1 Long exposure noise reduction (page 152) to reduce it. To avoid blur from camera shake. (It bends around the Earth’s curvature due to refraction in the atmosphere. Turn the Quick Control Dial to select an aperture.) Try using flash when photographing people at twilight. or dawn. giving it a slightly oblong shape. This is especially good for outdoor shots with foreground subjects in front of an illuminated background such as a cityscape.COM . It turns off after 6 seconds of inactivity. It can be tiring to hold the shutter button down. When in this mode. 2. VISIT HTTP://WWW. To check depth-offield in the viewfinder press the depth-of-field preview button (page 71). shoot just before sunrise or just after sunset when there is still some light in the atmosphere from the recently set sun. or use the Bulb (B) mode (page 92). the timer goes to 999 seconds (over 16 minutes) as long as you hold down the shutter button and moving lights paint lines in the image. Keep in mind that when using Bulb (B) mode. At night you can use the Bulb (B) mode to capture light trails from moving cars and star trails as the Earth rotates under a canopy of stars.CHAPTER 4. Since it’s moving relative to the Earth. TIPS • You might want to switch to Tv (shutter-priority) mode so you can use shutter speeds as slow as 30 seconds (page 44). Set the Mode Dial to B (Bulb) and the Power Switch to the white line above ON. It is much easier to use a remote control to lock the shutter open for long exposures (page 138). there will be a shutter-release sound but no picture is taken. To reduce the chances of this happening. night. If you release it before the timer ends. A timer is displayed on the LCD panel to guide you and counts up to 999 seconds. the self-timer. • Turn on Custom Function II-1 to reduce the effects of noise on long exposures (page 151). • If you combine Bulb (B) mode. hold down the shutter button during the entire self-timer delay time and bulb exposure time). and hard to keep from moving the camera. longer exposures can actually blur it. 92 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.SHORTCOURSES. It illuminates foreground subjects and a slow shutter speed lightens the background. Since a slow shutter speed may work best in this mode. Turning the Mode Dial or pressing any shooting related button extends it. you must use a tripod or other secure support. 3. you may need to support the camera (page 65). Pressing the LCD Panel Illumination button lights the LCD panel so it’s readable in the dark. Press and hold down the shutter button for as long as you wish. USING BULB EXPOSURES 1.

for example. if you want a silhouette. It can also affect your exposure. Landscape photographers often prefer to work early in the morning or late in the day because the low sun sidelights scenes and adds interesting surface textures. backlighting. Backlighting. Side-lighting. side-lighting. can have your subject silhouetted against a background so bright that your automatic exposure system will underexpose the scene and make the subject even darker. Notice the position of the shadows in these photographs and how they affect the subjects. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. If you don’t.COM 93 . increases the sense of texture and volume because it casts shadows visible from the camera’s position. you should use exposure compensation to lighten the image. and top-lighting.THE DIRECTION OF LIGHT THE DIRECTION OF LIGHT The direction that light comes from relative to your camera’s position is important because it determines where shadows will be visible in your picture. Four main types of lighting are illustrated here: front-lighting. VISIT HTTP://WWW.SHORTCOURSES. Front-lighting decreases visible shadows and minimizes surface details as well as the apparent depth or volume of the subject. This is fine.

VISIT HTTP://WWW. Top-lighting.CHAPTER 4. Top-lighting can occur outdoors at midday or indoors where ceiling lights predominate.COM . To avoid this effect. especially those parts that are in shade. such as that found at midday. such as this flag in the man’s back pocket. If you are photographing a person. you will notice that top-lighting tends to cast shadows in eyesockets and illuminate the top of the nose brightly. You can add exposure to lighten the picture. Automatic exposure tends to make backlit scenes too dark. 94 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. you might try moving the person into the shade.SHORTCOURSES. can selectively illuminate things. CAPTURING LIGHT & COLOR Backlighting puts the side of the subject that is facing the camera in shade. that would be in shadow with light coming from a lower angle.

illumination comes from the entire dome of the sky. It produces dark. and other visual characteristics. affects the brilliance of colors.COM 95 .THE QUALITY OF LIGHT THE QUALITY OF LIGHT Light not only has direction. lowering contrast. In diffused light. not from the brighter. but smaller. hardedged shadows that crisply outline details. sun. Direct light that comes mainly from one direction produces relatively high contrast between bright highlights and dark shadows.SHORTCOURSES. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Direct light comes from a point source. in turn. the amount of visible texture and detail. On a hazy or overcast day. Contrast. Indoors. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. If this creates a problem because both highlights and shadowed areas are important. Here the light and shadows almost form an abstraction. In direct light you may have to choose whether you want highlights or shadows to be correctly rendered because image sensors can accurately record only a limited range of contrast between light and dark areas. light bounced into an umbrella reflector or onto a wall or ceiling creates a broad source of light that wraps around the subject. Diffused light bounces onto the subject from several directions. colors tend to be softer than in direct light and textures are also softened because shadow edges are indistinct. it can be direct or diffused. you can sometimes add fill light to lighten shadows and decrease contrast or adjust the camera’s contrast setting (page 149). such as the sun on a clear day. Diffused light comes from a light source that is so large relative to the subject that it illuminates from several directions.

and even soft focus lenses for misty. Zoom out and you can capture a wide-angle view of a large group. 96 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. a roomy interior. A favorite lens of many photographers is a high quality zoom lens that lets you quickly zoom in or out to meet different photographic opportunities. The ability to change your angle of view as you frame your image is one of your most powerful creative controls. UNDERSTANDING LENSES Chapter 5 Understanding Lenses CONTENTS • Canon Lenses • Lens Peripheral Illumination Correction • Focal Length • Zoom Lenses • Normal Lenses • Wide-Angle Lenses • Telephoto Lenses • Macro Lenses and Accessories • Tilt-Shift Lenses • Lens Accessories • Perspective in a Photograph T he 5D Mark II is one of the latest affordable digital cameras that lets you draw from a vast array of interchangeable lenses. They include macro lenses. But there are many more lenses to choose from. Zoom in on a subject and you can capture distant action at sporting events or in the field. These range from fish-eye lenses for extreme wide-angle shots. you’ll be amazed at the difference high-quality interchangeable lenses can make.SHORTCOURSES.CHAPTER 5. VISIT HTTP://WWW. tilt-shift lenses.COM . or of an expansive landscape. to lenses that will capture an athlete’s expression across the width of a football field. romantic portraits and landscapes. If you’re new to photography.

Don’t change lenses or remove the body cap in a dusty or windy environment. Set the focus switch to AF or MF (M on some lenses). Until recently all Canon’s lenses were designed to work with all EOS film and digital cameras. In a dust and wind free environment. Canon has the lens. Gently try to turn the lens in the other direction to ensure that it’s securely locked in place. These connections provide the power needed by a small motor in the lens that controls autofocus and the electromagnetic diaphragm (EMD) that controls aperture settings. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. When you change lenses. 4. see page 165. 3. This electronic system is much more accurate. Let’s take a look at some of the things that Canon lenses have in common. and a rear rubber ring that prevents any damage should you mistakenly try to mount the EF-S lens on a camera it’s not designed for. press the lens release button and turn the lens counterclockwise so the red or white index mark is at the top. all communications between the lens and the camera pass through electrical contacts. twist the rear lens cap counterclockwise until it stops. If you notice this in your images. In fact. When set to M or MF you focus by turning the focus ring on the lens.CANON LENSES CANON LENSES One of the best things about the 5D Mark II is that it can use any one of the 60 or so lenses from the Canon line. you can turn 97 If you have the money. and flexible than older mechanical linkages. They won’t work with cameras such as the 5D Mark II using full-frame sensors. if you have a 35mm EOS camera you can switch your lenses between film and digital cameras. Align the red dot on the lens. Even better. Should foreign matter find its way onto the image sensor it will show up as dark specks or blotches in your photographs. Insert the lens into the mount and turn it clockwise (as you face the lens) until it clicks into place. FOCUSING TECHNOLOGY Canon EF lenses have a focus switch that let’s you select autofocus (AF) or manual focus (M on older lenses and MF on newer ones). When using an USM (Ultrasonic Motor) lens with a distance scale in One-Shot AF mode. To remove the lens. They can’t be used with cameras such as the 5D Mark II because their smaller image circle (page 101) isn’t large enough to cover a larger full frame sensor and they use a different mount. These lenses are designed for use with EOS digital camera models that use a smaller APS-C sensor. These lenses work only with EOS digital cameras having an APS-C sized image sensor such as the 50D. ELECTRONIC LENS MOUNT The Canon family of EF (Electronic Focus) lenses was introduced with the first EOS camera in 1987. Remove any body cap from the camera the same way. be careful that dust or other debris doesn’t enter the camera through the lens opening.COM . TIP • The mount on an EF-S lens doesn’t work with the 5D Mark II. reliable. Instead of mechanical linkages. With the introduction of EF-S lenses (the “S” stands for short back focus). with the red dot on the camera body’s lens mount. then remove it. The lens release button. this has changed. The lens focus switch. 2. keep this opening covered with a lens or the body cap as much as possible. VISIT HTTP://WWW. keep the opening pointed down. and when you do remove the cap or lens. then lift it up to remove it. MOUNTING AND UNMOUNTING A LENS 1.SHORTCOURSES. These lenses have a white index mark in addition to the traditional red marking.

When set to LIMIT. This is ideal in sports and nature photography where you are monitoring action at a specific point such as a nest or goal. • Front group extension where only the front-most lens group moves forward or backward. Canon has another way. Click for a PDF listing Canon lenses. 98 . • Rear focusing when only the lens group behind the aperture diaphragm is moved. you know how easy it is to get blur in your images from camera shake. Unlike traditional motors that use a magnetic field to rotate an armature. To turn it off you set the switch to the “o”. As electricity is applied to piezoelectric ceramic elements on the fixed ring. Some lenses have a focus preset feature so you can store the desired focusing distance in memory and later instantly focus the lens at that distance.com/itext/canonlenses/canoneflenses. but where you also want to capture other action. Full-time manual focus comes in two versions. A few lenses have an AF stop feature that prevents focus from shifting when something passes between you and the subject you’re focused on.SHORTCOURSES. setting the Distance Limiter Switch to FULL lets the lens try to focus over it’s entire range.CHAPTER 5. you set the switch to the vertical line. one that is fixed and one that rotates. These lenses break the old FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.COM To turn image stabilization on. This lets you focus elsewhere and then instantly return to the preset focus distance if necessary. • Inner focusing where only the lens group between the front lens http://www. image stabilization (IS). the ring generates ultrasonic vibrations that rotate the movable ring with significant force. where the frontmost lens group rotates as it moves forward or backward. reliable. UNDERSTANDING LENSES the focusing ring on the lens to fine tune focus after focus is achieved (called full-time manual focusing). these motors use ultrasonic vibrational forces to rotate a ring. Mechanical manual focusing adjusts the focus manually as you turn the focus ring.pdfand the aperture diaphragm is moved. • Front group rotation extension. or tried to hand-hold a long telephoto lens. we resort to tripods or other camera supports. The motor contains two rings. Since electronically coupled lenses need to move lens groups to focus the image. Lenses with this feature contain gyro sensors that sense movement of the lens and micro-motors that instantly shift a special image stabilization lens group to compensate for the motion and keep the image steady on the sensor. IMAGE STABILIZATION If you’ve ever photographed in dim light. You turn this feature on by pressing an AF Stop button on the lens. it will only try a specific range of distances.photocourse. used only in zoom lenses. accurate and almost silent. On some zoom lenses. Canon developed small. As the lens focuses. However. it uses one of five different focusing methods that include the following: • Overall extension where the entire optical system moves forward or backward. This let’s you override the autofocus system to “fine-tune” the focus without having to look up from the viewfinder to find the focus switch to change modes. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Electronic manual focusing detects how much you’ve turned the focus ring and then uses the focusing motor to focus the lens by the same amount. and powerful motors that fit inside the lens.com/itext/antishake/ Click to explore how image stabilization reduces but doesn’t eliminate blur caused by camera movement. ULTRASONIC MOTORS http://www. One of their most impressive is the Ultrasonic Motor (USM). In most cases.photocourse. The result is a motor that is fast. You can control the effect with Custom Function III-2 Lens AF stop button function (page 152). light.

when using a 100mm lens. you should turn off image stabilization to save power. • DO—Diffractive Optical Element technology makes the lens smaller and lighter than it would otherwise be. or read about them. • Macro—The lens is designed for close-up photography. Advanced Photo System EOS SLR. you normally shouldn’t use a shutter speed slower that 1/100. and any camcorder with a VL mount. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. correction of camera shake might not be so effective. Lenses with larger maximum apertures let you use faster shutter speeds and are often called “faster” lenses. • The Image Stabilizer is not effective for moving subjects or when there is excessive shaking such as on a rocking boat.2L II USM lens. this provides a much better balance point for the combined weight of the camera body and lens.4 or 1:3. VISIT HTTP://WWW. to a tripod. • TE-S—The lens is a tilt-shift lens used for perspective and depth of field control. INFORMATION ON A CANON LENS When you look at Canon lenses. like the 50D. Canon makes a series of f/4L lenses that don’t change the aperture as you zoom the lens. • EF-S—These lenses work only with Canon digital cameras. Here is what each of the terms or abbreviations refers to. • If you use the EF24-105mm f/4L IS USM lens for panned shots. two maximum apertures are given because the aperture changes as you zoom the lens in and out. With longer lenses in particular.CANON LENSES rule that you should never hand hold a lens using a shutter speed slower than the reciprocal of the lens focal length (page 101). Some Canon lenses have two IS modes. On many lenses it’s listed on the lens as a ratio such as 1:2. IS Mode-1 works for normal shooting and IS Mode-2 stabilizes the image as you pan the camera to follow a moving subject.8—The maximum aperture that you can use with the lens. • USM—The lens features an ultrasonic motor and the lens is marked ULTRASONIC. • II—The Roman numeral indicates that the lens has been revised or improved upon from an earlier version. you may be confused at first by all of the information cryptically provided. The Canon Tripod Collar B supplied with some lenses provides a tripod mount so you can mount the lens. Image stabilized lenses let you add two or three stops to that calculation so you can handhold an image stabilized version of the same lens at 1/30 of a second shutter speed.COM 99 . • EF—The lens is one of the EF (electronic focus) family of lenses that works with the 5D Mark II and with any EOS SLR. Note that when using an image stabilized lens on a tripod. For example. This lets you set exposure and zoom all the way through the lens’s zoom range without the aperture or shutter speed varying. • 28–105mm—The lens’s focal length or zoom range in millimeters. The EF 85mm f/1. The Canon EF 400mm f/4 DO uses the technology called MultiLayer Diffractive Optical Element that makes it smaller and lighter than it would otherwise be. On zoom lenses. • L—An indication that the quality of the lens is especially high (or Luxury).SHORTCOURSES. • IS—The lens has image stabilization built in.6. • The Image Stabilizer can operate with the focus mode switch set to either AF or MF and when the camera is mounted on a monopod. using a smaller APS-C sized image sensor. rather than the camera.5–5. • f/2.

correction data for 25 lenses is registered in the camera. 100 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. •If the correction data for the attached lens is not registered to the camera. If correction data is available. press MENU and select the Shooting 1 menu tab. the degree of correction is lower. see the Software Instruction Manual (CD-ROM) for the EOS Utility. With the Mode Dial set to any mode. and register data for unregistered lenses that you use.CHAPTER 5. This effect is called vignetting and is caused by light fall-off. • In auto modes. less correction is used. the lens projecting less light as the distance from the center of the image increases. • When using a non-Canon lens. UNDERSTANDING LENSES LENS PERIPHERAL ILLUMINATION CORRECTION TIPS • Since fall-off is most obvious in photos taken at large apertures. and press SET to display a description of the attached lens and a notice that correction data is or isn’t available. Using the EOS Utility (included software). When photographing evenly toned subjects such as a blue sky. M or B modes peripheral illumination correction is enabled by default. This correction can be applied automatically in the camera as you capture JPEG images. • If the lens does not have distance information. • Light fall-off increases when the lens is focused at infinity. Since light fall-off varies from one lens type to another. • At higher ISO speeds. set correction to Disable even if Correction data available is displayed. • Correction might not be noticeable when using a lens with minimal light falloff in the corners and edges. It decreases when focused at closer distances because the lens projects a larger image circle so the corners and edges of the captured image are not at the edges of the circle. Lens peripheral illumination correction evens out this fall-off of light so brightness is even across the image. 4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Peripheral illumin. TURNING LENS PERIPHERAL ILLUMINATION CORRECTION ON AND OFF 1.SHORTCOURSES. • The amount of in-camera correction is somewhat less than what’s obtainable with Digital Photo Professional.COM . Take the picture and it will be displayed with the corrected peripheral light. you can check which lenses have their correction data registered. the result is the same as when the correction is set to Disable. lenses often capture the image with darker corners and sometime dark edges. Tv. VISIT HTTP://WWW. •Lens peripheral light correction is applied when a lens extender is attached. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Enable or Disable and press SET. 3. For details. Av. but you can disable it should you choose to do so. peripheral illumination correction is automatically applied to JPEG images and can’t be disabled. and on the computer using Digital Photo Professional (included software) when using the RAW format. • In P. 2. you can select a smaller aperture that uses the center portion of the lens. • Noise might affect the corners and edges of some corrected images. correct.

This multiple works across the entire range of focal lengths. A lens projects a circle of light and the size of the image sensor determines how large an area of the circle is captured. The 50D (smaller frame) captures a smaller area than the 5D Mark II (larger frame). a lens determines its angle of view.com/itext/focallength/ lens. also called a wide-angle.photocourse. captures a wide expanse of a scene. making wide-angle lens less so on the digital SLR than on a film or full-frame digital SLR. A zoom lens lets you http://www. on one of these cameras a 35 mm lens is equivalent to 56mm. so it’s an absolute value.6 times compared to the indicated focal length of the lens. including many from Canon. making objects in that area appear Click here to explore how the focal length of larger. change focal lengths by changing or zooming lenses. has a single focal length. the same size as a frame of 35 mm film.photocourse. A longer focal length narrows the field of view so you can isolate small portions of the scene without moving closer to the subject.FOCAL LENGTH FOCAL LENGTH http://www. On a camera with a smaller image sensor. A short focal • Angle of view refers to how much of a Click to explore how the size of an image sensor determines the focal length of a lens. the effective focal length increases by a factor of 1. captures a smaller area of the scene. As a result.COM 101 . with its narrower angle of to fit into the image. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. the narrower its angle of view. A longer focal length view. The 5D Mark II uses a full frame sensor. A fixed focal length lens.com/itext/sensor/ range the lens is designed for. use sensors that are smaller so they essentially capture only the central area of the image circle projected by the lens. However. a given focal length lens may have a different “effective” focal length on different cameras. all of the objects in the scene are reduced http://www. But most SLRs. VISIT HTTP://WWW. This is because the effective focal length depends on the size of the image sensor the camera uses. When you choose any focal length within the Click to explore sensor sizes.com/itext/imagecircle/scene the lens covers. length lens. The longer a lens’ focal length. Since a wide-angle lens includes a wide sweep of the scene. Canon has a wide variety of zoom lenses covering various focal length ranges between 10mm and 600mm.photocourse. and making telephoto lenses more so.SHORTCOURSES. two important effects are immediately obvious in the lens’ angle of view and its magnifying power. • Magnification is related to the lens’ angle of view. The focal length of a lens is based on its physical attributes. For example. a given focal length lens appears to magnify more because it’s capturing a smaller area of the image circle.

VISIT HTTP://WWW. turn the zoom ring on the lens one way to zoom in and the other way to zoom out. 102 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Zooming a lens is like walking toward or away from the scene but without changing the perspective (page 112).CHAPTER 5. The zoom indicator on a lens. Here.COM . TIP • Zoom before focusing since zooming can throw off focus. The lens was zoomed during a long exposure.SHORTCOURSES. The images vary from wideangle to telephoto. ZOOMING A LENS ! To zoom a Canon EF lens. UNDERSTANDING LENSES ZOOM LENSES A zoom lens lets you choose any focal length within the range the lens is designed for. a lighthouse in Maine is photographed a number of times from the same spot.

A longer focal length makes distant cars appear right on top of you. sports and nature photographers often prefer a lens with a longer focal length. you can demonstrate for yourself why a specific focal length is normal for your camera. everything looks farther away. Portrait. When a passenger in a car.COM 103 .0L USM lens. too close. With the lens zoomed all the way out things appear closer than they actually are. Canon’s EF 50mm f/1. event. However. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. try zooming the lens or change focal lengths as you watch the traffic ahead through the viewfinder. However. When you zoom your lens to this focal length and look at the image on the screen. You’ll discover you are at the correct distance for viewing the prints. A shorter focal length makes cars look far ahead. With a longer focal-length you would feel too far away.SHORTCOURSES. and with a shorter one. Look at them one at a time through the viewfinder with the lens zoomed to a normal focal-length. objects in an image taken with a normal lens look normal in their spatial relationships. the scene looks about the same as it does to the unaided eye. has a maximum aperture of f/1. Many urban or street photographers prefer the wider angle of view and greater depth of field provided by a shorter focal length. A normal-focal-length zoom isn’t necessarily the one photographers normally use. A normal focal-length makes the cars appear in the same distance relationship as you perceive them ordinarily. VISIT HTTP://WWW.0–extremely fast! Another demonstration is to take two photographs of greatly different size and tape them to a wall. SEE FOR YOURSELF • A lens is called normal because it captures a scene just as the human eye does even though the eye’s angle of view is much wider than any normal lens. even when relatively close. although not made anymore. Move close enough so each fills the monitor.NORMAL LENSES NORMAL LENSES A “normal lens” for a 35mm camera usually refers to a lens with a 50 mm focal length (35 mm equivalent). With it zoomed out to a wide-angle. It’s hard to look at a photo and tell what focal-length lens was used to take it.

A wide-angle lens also has great depth of field that makes it ideal for street or action photographs. VISIT HTTP://WWW. a wide-angle lens is good for indoor portraits where including the setting is important. This wide angle of view is ideal for use in tight spaces. UNDERSTANDING LENSES WIDE-ANGLE LENSES Wide-angle (short focal length) lenses capture a wide expanse of a scene. 104 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.COM . when photographing landscapes. and in small rooms where you can’t position the camera a great distance from the subject. It also makes focusing less critical so you can capture those fleeting moments you might otherwise miss. you’ll have maximum depth of field when you respond quickly to a photo opportunity.photocourse. When out to capture quickly unfolding scenes.SHORTCOURSES. If you don’t get too close to your subjects.CHAPTER 5. http://www. Wide-angle lenses are ideal when you need great depth of field because part of the scene is close to the camera and part farther away.com/itext/panorama/ Click to see how extreme wide-angle lenses can be used to create 360 degree interactive panoramas. TIP • Avoid using small apertures with wide angle lenses. They can create diffraction patterns that degrade image sharpness.

Canon’s 15mm fisheye lens gives a circular “fisheye” look to images. Here one was used to shoot through a toy space station and make Quinlan look like a giant. and the effect this can have on the perspective in your images can be dramatic. This distortion in the apparent size of objects can deliberately give emphasis and when carried to an extreme will give an unrealistic appearance to a scene.WIDE-ANGLE LENSES Short lenses also let you focus very close to your subject.SHORTCOURSES. Wide-angle lenses have tremendous depth of field.COM 105 . FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Objects very close to the camera loom much larger than those farther away. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Canon’s 14mm wide-angle lens is a rectilinear lens so its images don’t have the distorted look of some fisheye lenses.

depth of field gets shallower so you must focus more carefully. a long lens visually compresses space. Here a long lens has been used to “compress” a street scene at the foot of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. This is actually due to the distance from the subject.COM . Zooming in makes distant objects appear compressed. whenever getting close to a subject might disturb or distort it. These lenses are ideal for wildlife. A long lens makes the sun look larger in relation to foreground objects.SHORTCOURSES. The primary drawback of longer lenses is that they often have smaller maximum apertures that require longer shutter speeds. UNDERSTANDING LENSES TELEPHOTO LENSES A telephoto (long focal length) lens acts somewhat like a telescope: It magnifies the image of your subject. making objects in the scene appear closer together than they actually are. and candid photography. 106 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.CHAPTER 5. Also. Also. just as it magnifies the subject. Telephoto lenses come in fixed focal lengths and as zooms. This is especially useful when you can’t get close to your subject—or don’t want to. As the focal length increases. you may have to support the camera better to get maximum sharpness. This is a 10x 35–350mm zoom. portrait. but the effect is easy to get with a long lens. When the lineup of cement trucks (bottom) is shot head-on with a long lens (top) they appear much closer together then they really are. VISIT HTTP://WWW. since a long lens magnifies movement. not the focal length of the lens.

4x extenders. You can extend the focal length of a fixed focal length lens (without affecting the minimum focus distance) using an extender. If a lens’ maximum aperture is smaller than f/4 for the 1. 107 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Keeping at a distance eliminates the exaggerated perspective caused by working very close to a subject with a shorter focal length lens. http://www. It lets you keep your distance and still fill the viewfinder frame with the subject.4x and 2. as many people do. the image is probably more interesting to others than to the subject. Perhaps not as flattering as it might be.com/itext/distortion/ Click here to explore how a wide angle lens can distort a subject. A long lens lets you get portraits without crowding in on the subject. you can use both 1.4x extender requires you to open up one stop and the 2x requires 2 stops. VISIT HTTP://WWW.TELEPHOTO LENSES A telephoto lens is an excellent portrait lens. It also helps relax your subjects if they get uneasy.COM .photocourse. The 1. This let’s you capture more natural expressions. you have to use manual focus.4x extender or f/2. With the 5D Mark II. especially for head-and-shoulders portraits. when a camera comes close.SHORTCOURSES.8 for the 2x. The II series works with both EF and EF-S lenses. an optical device that mounts between the lens and camera body. Using a wide-angle lens close to the subject adds some distortion to the portrait but it still works as an image.4x or 2x. Extenders fit between the lens and camera body to increase focal lengths by 1.

UNDERSTANDING LENSES MACRO LENSES AND ACCESSORIES The camera body has a symbol that indicates the position of the image plane should you ever need to know where it is. VISIT HTTP://WWW. you can always crop out the unwanted areas later. making smaller subjects much larger in the final image. If you can’t get close enough to an object to fill the image area. providing enough room for a flash or other light source to illuminate the subject. depth of field is 0.24 inches (6mm). This small. zoom all the way in. • The EF 50mm f/2. and turn the focus ring to the minimum focus distance.1 inches and f/11. 108 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Canon offers a wide range of macro lenses that are compatible with Canon’s extension tubes and macro flash units (page 127). The 180mm macro lens gives you plenty of working distance when doing close-up photography. • The EF 100mm f/2.SHORTCOURSES. More likely you’d like a photo showing a large coin surrounded by a small background. TIP • For maximum magnification. your lens’ focal length and minimum focusing distance affect how small objects are captured in photos. However.8 Macro USM lens focuses over the full range from infinity down to life size (1:1 reproduction ratio). However. The 50mm macro lens. When shooting at life size (1x) magnification. For many pictures. For example.48m). • The EF 180mm f/3. the minimum working distance between the lens and the subject is approximately 6 inches (152mm). When photographing small objects from coins to insects. you probably don’t want it to appear as a tiny coin surrounded by a large background. if you’re photographing a small coin.5ft (0. set the lens focus mode to M or MF (manual). The lens has full-time mechanical manual focusing and focuses as close as 1.COM . just zooming your lens in on the subject will suffice.CHAPTER 5.5 Compact Macro focuses up to 9.5L Macro USM Telephoto Lens shoots throughout the focusing distance range from 1x to infinity. Look through the viewfinder as you focus the subject by moving in and out. At 9. The lens allows full-time manual focusing so you can override autofocus to fine tune it. macro lenses allows you to get closer to the subject.1 inches (231mm) for 1:2 (half life-size) magnification. the smaller the image becomes. but very colorful Tussock moth caterpillar was captured with a macro lens. the more you crop. The EF Life Size Converter for the lens extends its range to between 1:4 and 1:1 magnification and also compensates for spherical aberrations.

! Don’t get any closer to the subject than you have to. a built-in adjustable diopter. Working distances (from the front of the lens to the subject) range from 4 inches at 1x (life size) to 1.8 1–5x Macro lens. Older extension tubes work only with EF lenses. giving increased magnification. The Canon MP-E65mm f2. and a roof prism that keeps the image correctly oriented. The viewfinder has switchable magnification (1.photocourse.) photograph from a low angle without kneeling or lying down.5x setting provides a magnified view of the center of the image area—excellent for critical focusing with macro lenses and other specialty optics. INCREASING DEPTH OF FIELD IN CLOSE-UPS The Canon Life-size Converter EF is an extension tube. the greater the increase in magnification. • Canon’s Angle Finder C attaches to the http://www. ! Use aperture-priority (Av) or program shift to select a small aperture (pages 44 and 42).25x or 2. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. A monarch butterfly captured with a macro lens.5x).com/itext/macromag/ viewfinder eyepiece so you can Click here to explore macro lens enlargement factors. • Extension tubes EF 12 II and EF 25 II fit between the lens and the camera body and allow the lens to focus much closer than normal. Angle Finder C.25x setting shows the entire frame including exposure data outside the picture area.MACRO LENSES AND ACCESSORIES • The manual focus MP-E65mm f/2. ! Increase the illumination of the subject to stop down the aperture. depth of field is half in front and half behind the plane of critical focus. The 1.SHORTCOURSES.8 Macro Photo Lens extends the capabilities of conventional macro lenses and is designed exclusively for highmagnification close-ups from 1x to 5x. It features a rubber eyecup. It’s also great when doing copy work and macro photography.COM 109 . while the 2. The larger the amount of extension and the shorter the focal length of the lens used. ! Focus on the most important part of the subject keeping in mind that in close-ups. (The newer series II extension tubes work with both EF and EF-S lenses.6 inches at 5x. VISIT HTTP://WWW. The lens is equipped with a detachable tripod collar.

!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. Until Canon developed these kinds of lenses. the glass elements in a lens are parallel to the image sensor.!/2"%"/. To change the depth of field for a given subject and camera position you have to open or close the aperture. buildings. • Shifting the lens helps you correct for converging vertical lines that occur when you tilt the camera to capture trees. On the 24 mm lens. The tilt controls depth of field and the shift controls the way vertical lines appear in the image. such as a field with flowers blowing in the wind. The larger aperture allows faster shutter speeds so you can capture scenes you might have missed before. This is the Bl2 from Kaiden. some of the shift and tilt ranges are marked in red because images may be vignetted if shifted or tilted into these zones on a 35mm or full frame digital camera. These lines converge in the image whenever the camera is tilted and the image sensor is no longer parallel to the subject. Vignetting occurs because the lens focuses a circle of light on the image plane and as you tilt and shift. or other tall subjects. and then shifting the lens to center the subject in the picture area.CHAPTER 5. This makes it possible to use a large aperture and still get great depth of field. Using the lens’ shift function. their effects could only be achieved on a large format camera. 110 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Canon has three Tilt-Shift (TS-E) lens in different focal lengths. All three can rotate 90 degrees. With a lens that tilts from side to side or top to bottom. • You can create panoramic images. UNDERSTANDING LENSES TILT-SHIFT LENSES Tilt-shift lenses serve two very important purposes. tilted +/-8 degrees.-')(. A Canon TS-E lens. The same technique can be used to eliminate unwanted subjects in the foreground. A bubble level that slips into the hot shoe assures you that the camera is perfectly level when using the camera’s shift control. has converging vertical lines and looks tilted.". the plane of critical focus can be tilted one way to dramatically increase depth of field or the other way to dramatically decrease it. • Tilting the lens allows you to control depth of field in an image without changing the aperture.%/"-0"%"/. • When photographing reflective subjects. the house looks rectangular and all vertical lines are parallel. and shifted +/-11 mm. shot by pointing the camera up to get in the entire house. the image sensor captures different parts of the circle. you can eliminate your reflection by moving the camera to a position where the reflection doesn’t show. The house on the left.COM .SHORTCOURSES. The lenses charge a small penalty for all of their flexibility. They can cause metering errors and require you to focus manually and open up one or two stops. by taking two photos with the lens shifted in opposite directions.!/2"'6/2 Click to see these images animated. the lens can be shifted upward to eliminate the foreground while keeping the image sensor parallel to the subject. or even stereo pairs. In the photo on the right taken with the lens shifted. VISIT HTTP://WWW.". Normally.

keep in mind that many of the effects created by traditional screw on filters can now be done with software filters in programs such as Adobe Photoshop. Applying the effects after capturing an image not only lets you experiment with effects and see what they do in real-time. However. • Neutral density filters cut the light entering the camera so you can use slower shutter speeds or wider apertures in bright light. and other reflective surfaces. • Close-up lenses magnify the subject without affecting aperture settings. there are a number of software filters built into the camera (page 149). it also allows you to have an unaffected version of the image. • Skylight filters reduce the blue casts you often get when photographing subjects in the shade on sunny days. • Color conversion filters let you fine-tune the way you capture colors. • Soft focus filters soften the focus to make portraits more flattering and to make hazy. romantic landscapes. If you use a linear polarizing filter.COM . A shot without a filter is shown at the bottom. you can use a screw on neutral density filter that cuts the light entering the lens. and improve color saturation. • Caps protect the front and rear of the lens when it’s not in use. • Circular polarizing filters remove reflections from glass. water.LENS ACCESSORIES LENS ACCESSORIES TIP • If you use more than one filter at a time you may get vignetting (dark corners in your images). VISIT HTTP://WWW. All but the largest Canon lenses have threads into which you can screw filters and other accessories. darken blue skies. Courtesy of Kenesis.SHORTCOURSES. • UV filters absorb ultraviolet light and cut the haze when photographing landscapes or from airplanes. • Protect filters keep the front element of your lens from getting scratched or dirty. Lens hoods protect the front element and reduce lens flare. if you are using the Picture Styles Monochrome setting. If you do want to use lens attachments. A polarizing filter (top) darkens the sky and removes reflections from foliage so it has more color. 111 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. • Lens hoods protect the front element from bumps and keep stray light from striking the front of the lens and causing flare or ghost images. Also. you can’t use autofocus. here are some to consider. Cases protect lenses from shocks and other abuse. For larger apertures or slower shutter speeds. A body cap prevents dust from entering the camera when no lens is attached.

com/itext/perspective/ Click to explore perspective. As you move closer and select a focal length that keeps the subject the same size. UNDERSTANDING LENSES PERSPECTIVE IN A PHOTOGRAPH A photograph can appear to compress space so that objects appear closer together than you expect. 112 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. http://www.SHORTCOURSES. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Another photograph of the same scene can seem to expand space so that objects appear farther apart than normal. This changing relationship between the size of objects in the foreground and background creates the difference in perspective. the background diminishes in size relative to the foreground. When you move back and zoom in.CHAPTER 5.photocourse. These apparent distortions in perspective—the appearance of depth in a photograph—are often attributed to the focal length of the lens being used but are actually caused by your distance from the subject.COM . the background looms over the foreground subject (bottom). the angle of view widens and the background diminishes in size. As the camera is moved closer to the foreground subject and zoomed out to keep it the same size (top).

sharing. This lets you get softer light on the subject so contrast is reduced and hard shadows are minimized. Other flash units are designed for macro photography so you can capture stunning close-ups in bad light and even in windy conditions. In the process you’ll learn what makes lighting more effective and when. In this chapter we explore all of these forms of lighting including an external flash and studio lighting. Regardless of which flash you choose..+&#$B7$93)'*$!-. With an external EX-series Speedlite attached. and how to use and control it.3/$.SHORTCOURSES.COM 113 . it isn’t your only source of controlled lighting.'($3+9()"$-)*/+)'* Chapter 6 Using Flash and Studio Lighting CONTENTS • How Flash Works • Using an External Flash • External Speedlite Control • Controlling Flash Exposures • Portraits with Flash • Using Fill Flash • Using Slow Sync Flash • Using Available Light • Using Flash in Close-ups • Studio Lighting • Portrait and Product Lighting—Introduction • The Main Light • The Fill Light • The Background Light • The Rim Light A utomatic electronic flash is so convenient and easy to use that you are usually unaware it even fires. Speedlites let you swivel or rotate the flash head so you can bounce light off walls and ceilings. or even selling on eBay. VISIT HTTP://WWW. it can be set to operate automatically or you can make a number of manual settings. As important as flash is. or photographing smaller items for your records. insurance. it’s always ready when your autoexposure system decides it’s needed. perhaps taking formal portraits.8/. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. You can also use the camera in a home studio setting. where.

VISIT HTTP://WWW. burst of flash. you set the shutter speed to 1/200 or slower. Objects near the flash will be lighter in a picture than objects farther away. The further the subject is from the flash. at night you can isolate a main subject against a dark background. for example. As a result. then the second curtain closes to end it (page 31). Auto (the default) correctly exposes the main subject but prevents shutter speed slow enough to lighten the background when photographing in dim light. the less light will reach it and so the less light will be reflected from the subject back toward the camera. The rate at which the light falls off is described by the inverse square law. the beam of light expands as it moves father from the camera so the light becomes weaker the farther it travels.%/"-0"%. When the flash fires. As the distance doubles. 114 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Using Custom Function I-7 Flash sync.7<)% second curtain starts to close before the first curtain is fully open. Conversely. or slower.SHORTCOURSES. Every flash has a maximum useful range—indicated by its guide number. If you select a !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+.-% faster shutter speed directly or indirectly. speed in Av mode (page 135) you can set the shutter speed to vary automatically or remain fixed at 1/200 when using flash in Av mode. the more powerful the flash and the greater its range. and on the 5D Mark II this is 1/120 second. The rest of the sensor is blocked by one or both curtains. You can use this to advantage. you select a shutter speed of 1/200 second or slower. • In Bulb (B) mode you select the aperture and the shutter stays open as long as you hold down the shutter button. When you take a flash photo. • In Tv (shutter-priority) mode.-')(. • In M (manual) mode.-')(. four times as much light falls on a given area. the amount of light illuminating the subject is only one-quarter of the original amount. At shutter speeds above 1/200 the !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. and select a matching aperture. when the distance is halved. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH HOW FLASH WORKS The 5D Mark II has a hot shoe into which you can slip any Canon EX-series Speedlite. The exposure of the main subject is determined by the flash and the exposure of the background is determined by the shutter speed. • In Av (aperture-priority) you set the aperture and the shutter speed is automatically set to 1/200 seconds (the fastest shutter speed you can use with flash. Click to explore the inverse square law. the first shutter curtain opens to begin the exposure. The higher the number. Subjects located farther from the flash will be increasingly darker the farther they are from the flash.CHAPTER 6. How bright the light from a flash is when it reaches a subject depends on the flash’s power and on how far the light has to travel. The fastest shutter speed at which the image sensor is fully uncovered at some point is called the flash sync speed. only one quarter the amount of light will reach the subject because the same amount of light is spread over four times the area. and the camera selects the aperture.%/"-0"%/<F-+. If the distance between the flash and subject is doubled. The exposure of the main subject is determined by the flash and the exposure of the background is determined by the aperture and shutter speed settings. Flash light falls off (becomes dimmer) the farther it travels. a “slit” formed by the two curtains moves across the image Click here to explore the sensor and normally only a part of the image can be captured by the brief flash sync speed. the camera will override you and lower it. the flash exposure will only be correct for those at one distance—normally those closest to the camera or in the middle of the area metered by the autoexposure system. When subjects in an image are located at different distances from the camera.COM .

you also increase or decrease the guide number. At the time this book was written these were the only Canon Speedlites that were fully compatible with the 5D Mark II. The 580EX II is compatible with all digital EOS cameras as well as G-series and other cameras in the Canon line. designed to work with the 5D Mark II (and a few other Canon cameras). When using a 105mm lens and with the ISO set to 100. One of the biggest advantages of these Speedlites is that you can tilt and swivel the flash head to bounce light off ceilings and walls. you need a Canon EX-series Speedlite such as the 580EX II or 430EX II mounted on the camera’s hot shoe or attached by a hot shoe cord (OC-E3) for off-camera use. the 580EX II has a maximum Guide Number of 58 (in meters) and 190 (in feet). Also. This illuminates the subject with softer light that reduces contrast and opens up shadow areas to reveal details. For example. Both Speedlites are !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. on the 580EX II you can set flash exposure compensation from either the camera of flash. The power and range of a flash is specified by it’s Guide Number and both of these Speedlites are quite powerful. a swiveling flash head that turns a full 180 You can connect the degrees in both directions.%/"-0"%"/. The Guide Number is not fixed. There is also an optional Click here to explore how a flash head can pivot up and down and rotate for bounce flash. Both the 580EX II and 430EX II are dedicated flash units. When used with the EOS 5D Mark II. resulting in consistently accurate color for every shot. Canon off camera shoe cord.-')(.SHORTCOURSES. Compact Battery Pack (CP-E4) that reduces recycling time and increases the number of flashes per charge. The PC terminal under the cover is also marked with the same icon. To access the terminal you open the rubber cover on the left side of the camera marked with a lightening bolt icon. The flash normally covers wide-angle lenses down to 24mm a hot shoe cord instead but it has a wide-angle diffuser you can use to cover focal lengths as short as of directly mounting it on the hot shoe. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. When using this terminal don’t connect any flash unit to it that requires 250 volts or more.-')(. these Speedlites also communicate with the camera to adjust auto white balance based on the charge level of the batteries and the duration of each flash burst.%/"-0"%-0)-. When you take a picture.USING A CANON SPEEDLITE USING A CANON SPEEDLITE Since the 5D Mark II has no built-in flash. The flash also features a new catchlight reflector for optimal lighting quality during bounce-flash photography. By the time you read this there may be others. This means they are fully integrated and can be set from either the camera or the flash (page 118). or you can select from a list of focal lengths between 24–105mm. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.4 lens at ISO 100. but is directly related to the lens focal length and ISO.4 feet with a 50mm f/1.%6*/1-<*. the 430EX II is slightly less powerful.6–10m). This maximizes the efficiency of light distribution and produces more flashes from a set of batteries. you can’t use the hot shoe and PC terminal at the same time. and FE lock is set only on the camera. The 5D Mark II has a PC (Prontor-Compur) terminal so you can use cables to connect the camera to a studio flash. while a single release lock controls tilt and swivel flash to the camera with adjustments. while flash bracketing is set only on the flash.. Click here for an Excel worksheet you can use to explore Guide Numbers.H-+. a signal is sent from the camera along the cable to fire the studio flash. 14mm. with a maximum Guide Number of 43 (in meters) and 141 (in feet). VISIT HTTP://WWW. As you increase or decrease either of these. Under the same conditions.8 feet (0. These Speedlites zoom the flash head automatically to match the focal length of the attached lens. It’s range is 98."!-:1% powered by four AA batteries.COM 115 . Both Speedlites have a built-in AF-assist beam that assists focusing in dim light up to 2–32.'0.

This is a powerful combination of exposure controls that let’s you capture images just the way you want them. you can get odd results like this gross overexposure of the foreground subject.CHAPTER 6. is detected in any of these metering zones. Change the setting to Disable for best effects. or photographic composition. . As you’ve seen. Doing so lets you use regular exposure compensation to lighten or darken the background that’s illuminated by natural light. (If you set flash exposure compensation on both the camera and the external flash.SHORTCOURSES. flash exposure compensation may not work as expected. E-TTL II balances the light so well that it isn’t even obvious that flash was used. The 5D Mark II’s flash exposure compensation function lets you vary flash exposures plus or minus 2 stops in one-third stop increments for any attached EX-series Speedlite. not the camera. E-TTL II flash works by firing a preflash in the brief instant after you press the shutter button and before the camera’s reflex mirror goes up. while maintaining a subtle balance between flash and natural lighting. • The exposure of the main subject to be illuminated by the flash is determined by evaluative metering based on all AF points with special emphasis given to the one that’s active and used to set focus. In these situations. If an object with an unusually strong reflection. so exposures are better regardless of the subject’s size. This is an ideal way to balance flash and natural light when using fill flash and to correctly expose scenes or subjects that are darker or lighter than normal (middle-gray). • The exposure of the background illuminated by available light is also determined using evaluative metering. exposure lock and autoexposure bracketing to control daylight exposures (pages 55). The camera uses the preflash to set focus and exposure. when used for fill flash outdoors. • Speedlite is Canon’s name for their flash units. The flash output determines the exposure of the main subject and the camera’s aperture and shutter speed determine the exposure of the background. and both terms have the same pronunciation. the reading from that zone is factored out or adjusted to prevent an incorrect exposure. E-TTL II uses subject distance and other information to automatically modify flash power. These two readings are used to calculate and set the flash output for the best possible exposure of the main subject. Nikon uses the term Speedlight. reflectance. You have access to similar controls when using flash—although flash bracketing (page 119) is only available on the flash. through the lens) that gives outstanding natural-looking flash pictures. WHAT’S E-TTL II? The 5D Mark II features an E-TTL II autoflash (evaluative. such as a mirror or window.) You can use flash exposure compensation in conjunction with regular exposure compensation. and use flash exposure compensation to lighten or darken the main subject illuminated by the flash. For example. TIP • When Custom Function II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer is enabled (the default—page 152). the external flash setting takes precedence. you can adjust the flash power to lighten or darken the part of the scene illuminated by the flash. you can use exposure compensation. 116 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. VISIT HTTP://WWW. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH CONTROLLING FLASH EXPOSURES When using flash there are times when the main subject is too dark or light.COM Flash usually gives you very good exposures but if you block a sensor. FLASH EXPOSURE COMPENSATION Flash exposure compensation lets you manually adjust the output of the flash and hence the exposure of the main subject without changing the camera’s aperture or shutter speed.

3. VISIT HTTP://WWW. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Press the shutter button halfway down and hold it there to focus on the subject on which you want to lock flash exposure. Tv. This captured reading is stored for about 16 seconds so you flash exposure have time to recompose the scene or make exposure or focus adjustments becompensation. FE Lock is cancelled.COM 117 .CONTROLLING FLASH EXPOSURES USING FLASH EXPOSURE COMPENSATION 1.-')(.) FE lock is extremely useful when you wish to place the main subject in a part of the picture area TIP that is not covered by one of the AF points. ! To underexpose and darken the flash illuminated part of the image. 3. Release the shutter button. When you use this feature. move the marker toward the minus (-) end of the scale. which you when an external flash can’t do in Live View (page 139). move the marker toward the plus (+) end of the scale. With a supported flash attached and on. Tv. • You can also set flash exposure compensation from the Flash function settings menu (page 118). 2. Av. 2.!)(. continue to hold the shutter button halfway down or hold down the AE/FE Lock button. then press the AE/FE Lock button (marked with an asterisk icon). Press and release the Flash Exposure Compensation button and then turn the Quick Control Dial to move the marker on the flash exposure level indicator displayed on the LCD panel and monitor and in the viewfinder.SHORTCOURSES. ! To keep flash exposure locked. The flash exposure compensation icon marks the Flash Exposure Compensation button and is displayed on the LCD panel and monitor and in the viewfinder when flash compensation is set to anything but 0. ! To cancel FE Lock.%/"-0"%12. (If the flash icon in the viewfinder blinks.#% is attached. A preflash fires. and on the LCD panel and monitor. The AE/FE Lock icon marks the flash exposure lock button and is displayed in the viewfinder when flash exposure is locked. FLASH EXPOSURE (FE) LOCK Flash exposure lock (FE Lock) acts much like AE Lock (page 55). and when finished reset flash exposure compensation to 0 otherwise it will be remembered even when you turn off the camera. With a supported flash attached and on. M or B. FEL is displayed briefly in the viewfinder. An exposure level indicator shows you how much you have adjusted flash output in stops. set the Mode Dial set to P. but is used !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. and the AE/FE Lock icon is displayed in the viewfinder to indicate flash exposure is locked. a preflash is fired so the camera can calcuClick here to explore late the exposure. USING FLASH EXPOSURE (FE) LOCK 1. fore taking the picture without losing your flash exposure information. Take your picture. the flash exposure compensation icon is displayed in the viewfinder. (If you don’t do anything for 16 seconds. Av. release the shutter button and wait for the * icon to disappear or close the flash. you are too far away so move closer and repeat this step or the image will be underexposed. ! To overexpose and lighten it. set the Mode Dial set to P. When flash exposure compensation is set to anything but 0. M or B. recompose the scene and press the shutter button halfway down to set focus before taking the picture.

EXTERNAL SPEEDLITE CONTROL 1. 28.Fn’s resets all Custom Functions on the flash to their defaults.Fn-07: Test firing with autoflash C. 3.COM . 2nd curtain. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight External Speedlite control and press SET to display a submenu. comp E-TTL II Zoom Wireless set.ExtFlash 1st curtain (default). TTL. 50. 120 124 119 116 116 115 – – CUSTOM FUNCTIONS Flash C. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH EXTERNAL SPEEDLITE CONTROL When you attach the 580EX II or 430EX II you can change their settings from the camera using External Speedlite settings listed on the Set up 3 menu’s tab. 118 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. From this menu you can control the flash settings listed in the table that follows. Setting Flash mode Shutter sync.Fn-13: Flash exposure meter set. E-TTL II.Fn-03: FEB auto cancel C.Fn-11: Slave auto power off cancel C. 80 and 105 Wireless settings submenu Enable. 35.CHAPTER 6. Hi-speed Scale from -3 to +3 Scale from -2 and +2 Evaluative (default).Fn settings. Av.Fn-09: Auto zoom for sensor size C. and Flash firing. FEB Flash exp. The 430 has one function the 580 doesn’t have—C.Fn-12: Flash recycle w/exter.Fn-04: FEB sequence C. • Flash function settings displays the settings listed and described in the section that follows. Man.Fn-01: Auto power off C. 70. The Custom Functions on the 580EX II include those shown in the box to the left. Manual flash. VISIT HTTP://WWW. comp.Fn-0 to 13) from the camera. One big advantage of being able to change flash settings from the camera is that you can set the flash when it’s connected to the camera wirelessly. M or B modes. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the following settings and press SET.Fn-08: AF-assist beam firing C. Tv.Fn-02: Modeling flash C. available only when an 580EX II or 430EX II Speedlite is attached. lets you set the Speedlite’s Custom Function settings (C.Fn-00: Distance indicator display C. FLASH FUNCTION SETTINGS When you select Flash function settings. Disable Page 116. • Clear all Speedlite C. Press INFO to return all of these settings to their defaults. power C. MULTI flash. Average Auto (default).Fn settings displays a screen you use to select and set flash functions on the attached flash unit (see box to left). CUSTOM FUNCTIONS C. a submenu is displayed.Fn-06: Quickflash w/continuous shot C. Those functions also available on the 430EX II are shown in bold.fn-14: Flash range/aperture info. • Flash C. 2. press MENU and select the Set up 3 menu tab. Flash firing Choices E-TTL II (default).Fn-05: Flash Metering mode C. When you use an EX Speedlite that’s not settable from the camera you can still set Flash exp. various focal lengths—24. AutoExtFlash.Fn-10: Slave auto power off timer C. With a supported flash attached and on and the Mode Dial set to P.SHORTCOURSES.

Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Flash function settings and press SET.%/"-0"%3#12. you can use a fast shutter speed to freeze action. repeat Steps 1–5 but select 1st curtain. not available on the 430EX II. Press MENU or the shutter button to hide the menu and take your photos. When finished using hi-speed sync.!% HIGH-SPEED SYNC (FP) Click to explore high speed sync. • If you have trouble focusing.COM 119 . FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight External Speedlite control and press SET. There are at least three situations where you might find this technique useful: • When using fill flash out of doors. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Hi-speed (page 119) and press SET. or a wide aperture to throw the foreground or background out of focus. The only drawback is that the flash power is reduced so you can’t be positioned as far from a subject. faster shutter speeds are possible when using a flash that supports high-speed sync flash (also called FP or focal plane sync). takes three consecutive pictures exposed at slightly different settings. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Shutter sync and press SET. M or B modes. One is taken at the exposure recommended by the camera and the other two at up to three stops above or below that exposure. High speed sync icon displayed on flash’s LCD panel when it’s enabled. Although the camera’s flash sync speed (page 114) is only 1/200. Av. With a supported flash attached and on. 4. • When doing a portrait and want catchlights in the subject’s eyes.EXTERNAL SPEEDLITE CONTROL FLASH EXPOSURE BRACKETING (FEB) Flash exposure bracketing (FEB). TIP • You can press INFO to return the and external flash settings to their defaults. The higher the shutter speed you use.-')(. High-speed sync can capture a fully exposed image at shutter speeds faster than 1/200 because the flash fires repeatedly as the “slit” formed by the shutter curtains moves across the image sensor during the exposure. TIPS • When using an external flash in dim light. VISIT HTTP://WWW. press MENU and select the Set up 3 menu tab. and the Mode Dial set to P. try using the center AF point. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. the closer you have to be. The flash output changes with each image while the background exposure level controlled by the aperture and shutter speed remains the same.Fn-08 AF-Assist beam firing (page 118). its AF-assist beam may strobe before the exposure to assist focusing. 6. USING HIGH-SPEED SYNC 1. • When using fill flash outdoors to lighten shadows.SHORTCOURSES. You can turn this beam on and off with the flash’s Custom Function C. 5. Tv.

called MULTI flash on the Flash mode menu. the modeling light uses the flash ratios you have chosen. This allows you to get lighting effects you couldn’t possibly get with a single flash unit. The wireless transmitter ST-E2 fits in the camera’s hot shoe and triggers other flash units. you have the following settings: Flash output 1/128. you can use a modeling light that illuminates the subject for a full second so you can preview flash effects such as shadows and light balance before taking a picture.CHAPTER 6. You’ve probably seen examples of this mode in sports photography where it can be used to demonstrate or analyze a swing of a bat or club. When using a master flash you can set it to flash or not as it transmits signals to the remote units. (You can’t use the modeling light in Live View. Sets flash power for each burst Specifies how often the flash fires Specifies the number of flashes Can be set to Auto or a variety of focal lengths Displays a submenu for wireless flash Enables or Disables the flash.SHORTCOURSES. When you select MULTIflash on the menu. STROBOSCOPIC FLASH Stroboscopic flash. fires the flash a number of times at high speed to capture multiple images of the same subject in the same photograph. When using wireless remote flash. The on-camera flash or transmitter (the master unit) transmits wireless signals to the units (the slaves) telling them when to fire. 120 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.1/64.. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH WIRELESS REMOTE FLASH Wireless flash lets you mount a master flash such as the 580EX II. VISIT HTTP://WWW.1/32 Frequency Flash count Zoom Wireless set. Flash firing A dipping bird exposed four times in the same picture using stroboscopic flash. or a transmitter (ST-E2) on the camera’s hot shoe and trigger other remote flash units.COM .) If you are using more than one flash..

SHORTCOURSES. For the same reason you don’t have to be quite as careful about camera motion blurring the image. each is given the same importance when lined up parallel to the camera because each receives the same amount of flash illumination. POSITIONING THE FLASH AND SUBJECTS You may want to choose carefully the position of the flash. ceiling. Direct light from a flash often produces less attractive results than if you tilt or rotate the flash head to bounce the light onto the subject off a wall. or umbrella reflector. This is a good way to make one subject more visually dominant than others in the image. particularly of children. there will almost always be a distracting shadow in the image cast by the light from the flash. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. When a subject is placed close to a wall. By moving the subject away from a wall. these shadows disappear. If subjects are at different distances from the flash. VISIT HTTP://WWW. they will be illuminated differently. When photographing more than one subject. you can hand-hold the camera and shoot as rapidly as the flash will recharge. The light from the flash is so fast that you rarely have to worry about your subject moving during the exposure and blurring the picture.COM 121 .PORTRAITS WITH FLASH PORTRAITS WITH FLASH Flash is a good source of light when you want to make portraits.

but it’s a lot easier to avoid it to begin with. the angle between the lens and flash decreases.SHORTCOURSES. When photographing people.%/"-0"%+-1-7-% Click here to explore red-eye. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH RED-EYE !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. There is no way to illustrate red-eye in a book that’s printed in black and white. Since the retina is full of thin blood vessels. Red-eye is not much of a problem when using an external flash because the flash is positioned farther away from the axis of the camera lens and you can also bounce flash off a wall or ceiling.COM . If you do experience red-eye. the eyes take on a red color. reflected off the back of the eye (the retina). and bounced back out to the camera.CHAPTER 6. This is because as the flashsubject distance increases. such as photographing someone on stage from a seat in the audience. you’ll often see images with what’s called “red eye.-')(. for your entertainment. redeye can look eerie. In black & white. 122 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. you can use a flash shoe cord to hold or mount the camera farther from the lens axis. Eric shows one way it can be avoided. In color it’s even more so.” The light from a flash has entered through the subject’s pupil. You can remove red-eye with photo-editing software. You are most likely to encounter red-eye when using a long lens to photograph people at a distance. VISIT HTTP://WWW. However.

the subject is properly exposed.SHORTCOURSES.COM 123 . Using fill flash is also a good way to get accurate color balance under unusual lighting. When photographing people or other subjects in bright sun. VISIT HTTP://WWW. With no fill flash (left) the bright background has caused the main subject to be underexposed. With the 5D Mark II. you do so by turning on an attached flash so it fires even when there is enough available light to take the picture.%/"-0"%45512. shadow areas cover a large part of the subject.-')(.!% image that they show little or no detail. Using fill flash (right). as they do when it’s backlit. Photo courtesy of Tim Connor. If the shadows can be so dark in the Click here to explore fill flash. You can lighten such shadows by using flash to “fill” the shadows to lighten them. One reason to use fill flash outdoors is to add catch lights to eyes—hot spots that make the eyes sparkle. the effect can be distracting and unattractive. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.USING FILL FLASH USING FILL FLASH !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+.

and the long shutter speed lets moving objects blur and moving lights appear as streaks. VISIT HTTP://WWW. long exposure times may create unwanted blur in the image.SHORTCOURSES. When too far away the flash and ambient light are more balanced so the subject isn’t frozen as much by the flash. in P. the closer you get to the main subject illuminated by the flash. To avoid blur from camera shake. as you slow shutter speeds. such as automobile head or tail lights. (The shutter opens to capture the light trails in the image as the car moves forward. then the flash fires to freeze the car with the trails behind it. when you combine a slow shutter speed with flash. the more pronounced the effect. Or use this effect creatively. the flash fires just before the second shutter curtain closes rather than just after the first has fully opened. Av. Tv.CHAPTER 6. At times like this. the effects of first curtain and second curtain sync are often identical and not much different from those taken with slow sync off.) • Second curtain sync captures the streaks flowing behind the car. TIPS • When using slow sync flash. the slow shutter speed used in this mode allows blur from camera shake or moving subjects to appear as blur in images. If the scene you are photographing contains bright lights that are moving. The differences between first and second curtain sync can be quite significant. These can be interesting elements and used creatively. set the Mode Dial to Tv mode and control the amount of blur by varying the shutter speed. To give you even more creative control. flash pictures often show a well exposed foreground subject against a black or almost black background. You’ll find that you have to experiment to find what works with subjects at different distances and moving at different speeds. • When using a high ISO with slow sync the chances of overexposure increase as you get closer to the subject. ! To better control slow sync effects. 124 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.COM . the effects get more pronounced. A short flash burst combined with a long shutter speed gives interesting effects. they’ll create streaks in your image. Combining flash with a slow shutter speed can give you unusual effects in dim light.) When using a fast shutter speed. However. the flash fires at the very beginning of the exposure when the first shutter curtain is fully open and the second hasn’t started to close. In many cases. The slow sync mode is designed to minimize this problem by leaving the shutter open longer than usual to lighten the background. Normally. In a fairly dim room try 1/20 or so to start. In general. as when using flash to photograph a moving car or other moving lights at night: • First curtain sync captures the car with the streaks from the head or tail lights streaming out in front of the car. making the car appear to be moving backward. This is known as 1st curtain sync. attach a flash and set the Mode Dial to Av. Show sync flash was used to create this photo showing both sharpness and blur. M or B modes you can also use 2nd curtain sync. use a tripod and photograph static subjects. The flash freezes nearby objects sharply. (The flash fires to freeze the car. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH USING SLOW SYNC FLASH In very dim light. but the car then continues to move forward with it’s lights painting trails in the image in front of the car until the shutter closes. you may want to use a camera support (page 64). There are a number of ways to use slow sync: USING SLOW SYNC FLASH ! To use slow sync automatically. In this mode.

93)'*$3-"6$30'8$!-. press MENU and select the Set up 3 menu tab. 6. TIP • When using 2ndcurtain flash. 4. 1st curtain sync (top) fires the flash at the beginning of the exposure. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight 2nd curtain and press SET. VISIT HTTP://WWW. 5. light streaks from the moving subject appear in front of it. after the ambient light has been recorded so the streaks trail behind the subject. M or B modes. then records ambient light.SHORTCOURSES. Press MENU or the shutter button to hide the menu and take your photos. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight External Speedlite control and press SET. The main flash fires just before the shutter closes. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Flash function settings and press SET. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. When finished using 2nd Curtain sync. As a result. 3. 2. repeat Steps 1–5 but select 1st curtain. a preflash is fired for flash metering as soon as you press the shutter button. Av.COM 125 . Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Shutter sync and press SET. With the Mode Dial set to P. 2nd curtain sync (bottom) fires the flash at the end of the exposure. USING 2ND CURTAIN SYNC 1.3/ Click here to explore first and second curtain sync. Show sync flash lets you use blur creatively as shown here with the streaked lights highlighting the champaign glass. Tv.

When photographing in dim light there are things you can do to get better results without using the flash. PREVENTING THE FLASH FROM FIRING ! Detach the flash from the camera or turn it off. TIP • You can also use slow sync flash to lighten the background (page 124).CHAPTER 6. If the flash fires.COM . Try the following procedures described on pages 64–66: • Increase the camera’s ISO although it will add noise to the image.SHORTCOURSES. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH USING AVAILABLE LIGHT There are times when the light is dim but you want to capture the unique colors of the available light. In these circumstances you need to prevent the built-in flash from firing and support the camera for a long exposure. • Support the camera or use a tripod and a remote control. or you want to photograph in places where flash isn’t allowed. however if you don’t support the camera you will likely have blur from camera movement. foreground subjects will appear as if photographed in daylight and the background is likely to be very dark. 126 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Using available light will often even out the lighting. VISIT HTTP://WWW. • Use the camera’s self-timer to trigger the shutter so you don’t introduce camera motion when pressing it with your finger. Available light can add beautiful colors to a photograph.

FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. When photographed without flash. The flash has two flash tubes that can be used together or independently. VISIT HTTP://WWW. The MR-14EX requires 4 AA-size batteries and is equipped with a socket for optional external power supplies such as the Canon Compact Battery Pack CP-E4 to reduce recycling time and increase the number of flashes per set of batteries. rather than the flat light characteristic of the ring flash. Using electronic flash with predictable results takes a little effort and you may need to practice and experiment. direct on-camera flash doesn’t give a picture the feeling of texture and depth that you can get from side-lighting. you can bounce the flash off a reflector. Photographed with flash and using exposure compensation to darken the background. Canon’s Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX provides you with full E-TTL II flash capability when used with the 5D Mark II. or one side of the ring can be fired with more intensity than the other so the flash casts shadows that show surface modeling in the subject.COM 127 . and even removed from their holder and mounted off-camera. dental. These units fit around the lens and fire a circle of light on the subject.” It also provides easy ratio control of each flash head’s output.3/$)'$8-"3&C9. the unit can be set to fire just one side of the ring. They are ideal for shadowless close-up photography such as that used in medical. including digital SLRs. If you use an external flash. Because ring flash is so flat (shadowless). over a six-stop range. The Macro Twin Lite.3 USING FLASH IN CLOSE-UPS There are two important reasons to use flash in close-up or tabletop photography. Flash was used to freeze the katydid and stinkbug. and macro photography. The Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX (top) and the Macro Twin Lite MT-24X (bottom) are designed for close-up photography. The Macro Ring Lite is also equipped with twin focusing lamps and a set of 7 Custom Functions that allow you to modify flash operation for specific shooting conditions. For example. and even allows Wireless E-TTL II flash control with one or more EX-series “slave units. gives a directional quality of light. the background can be light and distracting (left).93)'*$!-.). With flash. It offers flash exposure lock. the new Macro Twin Lite MT-24EX is fully E-TTL II compatible with all EOS bodies. FP high-speed sync.SHORTCOURSES. or use an off-camera flash cord to illuminate the subject from an angle for a better lighting effect. A special kind of flash is the ring flash.3 stops. and extremely short bursts of light at close distances prevent camera or subject movement from causing blur. lighting ratios between the two tubes can be set in one-half stop increments up to +/. nature. and a number of other features. and nature photography. can be aimed separately. sets off the main subject (right). When used together. Like the MR-14EX. the MR-14EX mounts directly to Canon macro lenses. designed for serious close-up. you can use smaller apertures for greater depth of field. With a Guide Number of 46 (ISO 100/ft. Two separate flash heads can be swiveled around the lens.

A translucent or transparent object needs to be backlit to bring out colors. A subject placed in the light tent is surrounded by a translucent material which is lit from the outside. The result is a very even lighting of the subject. First. prints.com 128 . (This is called curvilinear distortion.ezcube. LIGHTING For good portraits or product shots. you can use a plastic gallon milk bottle with the bottom cut out and the top enlarged for the camera lens. you can better control the illumination of the subject. When positioned over the subject and illuminated by a pair of floodlights. an object with low relief. most lenses will curve otherwise straight lines at the periphery of the image because they are not designed for copying and are not perfectly rectilinear. • Small three-dimensional objects need to be illuminated properly to bring out shapes. It’s the more formal ones that give you the time needed to arrange lighting. the light inside the bottle is diffused by the translucent sides of the bottle. When you use an external flash. Candid portraits are usually captured during the flow of action. such as a coin needs to be cross-lit to bring out surface details. One suggestion is to use a small aperture that increases depth of field and uses the center portion of the lens where aberrations are least likely to affect the image. For example.SHORTCOURSES. Lights courtesy of tabletop studios— http://www. and translucent subjects such as glassware.— http://www. many of these subjects photograph better with the diffuse lighting provided by a light tent. placing highlights and shadows to reduce or emphasize modeling.” Even then. The quality of the stands and reflectors is also FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. To do this you need two lights set at 45 degree angles so there are no hot spots or reflections. you’ll find that direct on-camera flash creates hard shadows and doesn’t give a picture the feeling of texture and depth that you can get from side-lighting. even light over their surface and the camera’s image sensor must be exactly parallel to the subject to prevent “keystoning. VISIT HTTP://WWW. stamps. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH STUDIO LIGHTING There are two important reasons to use artificial lighting in studio photography. Second.com When lighting flat objects you want the light even over the entire surface.ezcube. You can light a subject in several ways. or pages from books require soft. The best of these are daylight fluorescents because they don’t give off any heat and last a very long time. • Portraits can be either candid or more formal. • Flat copy such as posters. increasing the level of light lets you use smaller apertures for greater depth of field. try using an off-camera flash cord so you can handhold it to the side to light the subject from an angle.COM 5000k compact fluorescent bulb highly recommended for product photography. Light tent with red goblet— http://www. even lighting and are particularly useful for complex subjects such as bouquets.com • Light tents bathe a subject in soft. highly reflective subjects such as jewelry.ezcube. Keep in mind that the color of the light you use to illuminate an object affects the colors in the final image.CHAPTER 6. For best results you need bulbs that are daylight balanced. As you’ll see. depending on your objectives. CANDIDATES FOR STUDIO LIGHTING There are a number of subjects that lend themselves to being photographed under controlled lighting. and faster shutter speeds to reduce blur from camera or subject movement. If the subject is small enough. details and colors. • Studio lights use reflectors mounted on adjustable stands.) There are other lens aberrations that make it difficult to keep the entire image in focus at the same time. Here are just some of them.

you can lighten the shadows by arranging reflectors around the subject to bounce part of the light back onto the shadowed area.com • Flash.COM 129 .ezcube. http://www. you will be able to observe its effects on the shadows. Use a neutral-toned reflector so the color of the reflector doesn’t add a color cast to the image. The soft diffuse light reached every part allowing it to be captured without dark shadows and burned out highlights. VISIT HTTP://WWW.com This very complex subject was shot in a lite tent.ezcube. by tipping a panel on its side. it can be used as a background or like any other light source.com • Light panels are an ideal source of light because they have so many uses. Finally. flat reflective object. A small lamp is used to side light the coin to bring out its relief.SHORTCOURSES. cloth. the area surrounding the object is captured as pure white. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. a glass placed on the hole appears to glow from within as light streams through the hole and through the glass. or aluminum foil (crumpling the foil to wrinkle it. As you adjust the angle of the reflector. It doesn’t hurt to see what results you get from an external flash. A light tent can make an amazing difference in table-top photos— http://www.ezcube. You can use almost any relatively large. There is definitely a role for on camera flash in studio photography. When the light illuminating a small subject casts hard.STUDIO LIGHTING important because they should be easy to work with and lock in position. If you cut a hole in a sheet of background paper and arrange it as a sweep above the panel. • Reflectors. then opening it out again works best). You might even want to try the Macro Twin Lite MT-24X because you can rotate the two flash heads to bounce light off reflectors or off the walls of a light tent. http://www. A medallion placed on a light panel and shot from above has a pure white background. dark shadows. When you place an object on the illuminated panel and shoot from above. Position the reflector so that it points toward the shadowed side of the subject. including cardboard.

provides a soft reflection of the subject placed on top. black. This helps the background “disappear. Other options include black.ezcube. and not overwhelm it. Courtesy of tabletop studios— http://www. It can be lit so it disappears in the photo or so it provides a smooth gradation of light behind the subject. The Diamond Dazzler light brings out the brilliance of diamonds. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH BACKGROUNDS Some thought should be given to the background you use. black velvet has no reflections at all while black poster board might show them. A riser creates attractive reflections and softens the background. colored or graduated backgrounds. The elevation of the platform on a clear riser also eliminates any shadow beneath the subject because raising it throws the background out of focus. For example. There are times when you don’t want a background in a photo so the subject is silhouetted against a pure white background.SHORTCOURSES. Here a crystal glass was shot in a light cube against a black background to set it off. It’s safe. VISIT HTTP://WWW. The glass was then placed over the hole and looks like it’s illuminated from within. RISERS A white. and these should be selected to support and not clash with the colors in the subject.ezcube. You’ll often see this technique used in catalog photos but it’s also a great way to make it easy to select an object in a photo-editing program so you can cut it out and paste it into another image. you can then crop out the edges with a photo-editing program so the subject seems to float in space. It should be one that makes your subject jump out. In the case of small objects. 130 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. To get this effect you need to overexpose the background. In some cases this is as easy as pointing lights at it. The safest background is a white or neutral curved sweep like the one that comes with an EZcube light tent. A hole was cut in a piece of black paper and placed on a light panel.CHAPTER 6. called a riser. because most things photograph well against it. SPECIAL BULBS You can experiment with different kinds of lights.COM . The texture of the background is also a consideration. com. Courtesy of tabletop studios— http://www. colored or clear high gloss acrylic platform.com introduced their Diamond Dazzler bulb with 18 daylight color LEDs to bring out the brilliance in faceted gemstones. a light panel makes it very easy. For example.” If you position the subject in the middle of the riser. TabletopStudio.

and bulbs.COM 131 . In fact. By moving a light farther away. ing on it. you also reduce the light it illuminates the subject with.%/"-0"%. Parts of the setup located farther from the light source will be increasingly darker the farther away they are. • A rim light is placed quite high and behind the subject to highlight edges and separate the subject from the background.PORTRAIT AND PRODUCT PHOTOGRAPHY—INTRODUCTION PORTRAIT AND PRODUCT PHOTOGRAPHY—INTRODUCTION In the studio./6!"I*:. You can have one light illuminate the subject with more intensity than another light. On strobes. or slave flash units–or even fill cards. The part of the subject closest to the light source will receive more light. • A background light is used to control the lighting on the background behind the main subject. reflectors. background and rim lights is a classic studio lighting setup for portraits that can be adapted to other subjects. fill. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. • A fill light is placed opposite the main light. while moving it closer softens it. Because there is less light you may have to use a larger aperture which gives less depth of field. The lights can be hot lights./"7% Click to explore hard and soft light. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Sometimes you can get away with only one or two lights but the use of main. The difference between the two lights is called the lighting ratio. • Positioning the light at an angle to the subject will make the light uneven over the subject. you do it by adjusting the light’s intensity.SHORTCOURSES. but more nearly at the subject’s level. The exposure will only be correct at one distance—normally the part metered by the autoexposure system.-')(. you usually use more than one light to illuminate a portrait or product. On continuous lights you can do the same with a dimmer switch. • As you move a light farther away from the subject you reduce the light fall!""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. • Moving a light back hardens its light. you can often get along with just the main light by replacing the fill light with reflectors to bounce light into the shadows. • The main light is positioned somewhat to one side of the subject and somewhat above it. strobes. The goal is often to create light that looks like that found outdoors. Most photographers without studios use continuous lights that usually have three parts—stands. The way you position a light relative to the subject is very important. For most purposes you can get by with just the main light and a fill light.

as are the shadows it creates.%/"-0"%. In the studio.SHORTCOURSES.-')(. the main light is often positioned above and slightly to the side of the subject.CHAPTER 6. VISIT HTTP://WWW. and right of the subject. Here the main light is set to the left. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH THE MAIN LIGHT Outdoors the brightest source of light is usually the sun. 132 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.:/<% Click to explore the main light. Like the sun it’s the brightest source of light and casts the darkest shadows. the sun’s role is filled by the main light. Like the sun. Placing the light above the subject creates light on the subject that is familiar. above. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+.COM .

The closer it is. the more it lightens shadows created by the main light.THE FILL LIGHT THE FILL LIGHT A fill light represents the light that falls on an outdoor subject from the broad expanse of an open sky.-')(. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. in fact about half as bright.SHORTCOURSES. For example. you can add a diffuser. opens shadows by lighting the dark side of the subject facing away from the main light. or reflecting from surfaces in the landscape. VISIT HTTP://WWW.%/"-0"%455% Click to explore the fill light. The fill light on the right of the subject is moved from close to the subject (left) to farther away (middle and right).COM 133 . placed opposite the main light. The fill light is almost always less bright than the main light. it can be placed farther away from the subject. or you can use a less powerful light. Its relative brightness can be controlled in a number of ways. The fill light.

The background light can be varied for different effects.%/"-0"%H:)@6+(*<1% Click to explore the background light. When not illuminated at all (second from left) it’s black. The background light is off to the side and lights the background behind the subject without lighting the subject itself. A lighter or darker background can help visually separate the subject from the background. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. In fact.SHORTCOURSES.CHAPTER 6. When illuminated with a bright light it is burned out to pure white (far right).COM . When the background is lit by a spot it is graduated (second from right). if made bright enough. 134 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. VISIT HTTP://WWW.-')(. USING AUTOMATIC FLASH THE BACKGROUND LIGHT A background light controls how light or dark the background behind the subject is. It can also lighten shadows cast on the background by other lights. it can silhouette the subject. When only spillover light illuminates the background (far left) it’s a uniform gray.

If not you may get lens flare and lowered contrast. One way to block the light is to position a piece of cardboard (called a gobo) between the light and subject.COM 135 . VISIT HTTP://WWW. The final image is beautifully lit and well separated from the background. !""#$%%&&&'#!("()(*+. It’s a visually interesting image.-')(.%/"-0"%+/. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. In portrait photography a rim light is often used to back light the hair. Because this light is facing the camera.SHORTCOURSES.THE RIM LIGHT THE RIM LIGHT A rim light positioned behind the subject and facing toward the camera illuminates the edges of the subject from behind so they glow and are visually separated from the darker background.% Click to explore the rim light. The rim light is often set up behind the subject and slightly higher than the other lights. it’s important that it be completely blocked by the subject or out of the field of view.

VISIT HTTP://WWW. In this chapter we discuss those features not covered elsewhere in the book. the 5D Mark II has many settings that control how your camera operates. focus and capture still images and movies in Live View.CHAPTER 7. You should find a great deal of information here that you’ll be glad to know. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS Chapter 7 Other Features and Commands CONTENTS • Continuous Photography • Remote Control Photography • Shooting Still Images in Live View • Shooting Movies in Live View • Using Picture Styles • Registering Your Own Settings • Using Custom Functions • Using My Menu • Changing Other Settings • Caring for Your Camera A s you’ve seen by now. shoot remotely. use the monitor to compose.SHORTCOURSES. and make many other useful settings. save your own settings and menus.9 images per second in continuous mode. use and customize picture styles. You’ll see how to shoot up to 3. 136 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. set Custom Functions. Finally you’ll see how to care for your camera and remove the dust that tends to accumulate on the surface of the image sensor.COM .

you can use continuous mode to capture up to 3. When you release the shutter button. VISIT HTTP://WWW. buSY is displayed in the viewfinder and the camera starts capturing images much more slowly as it frees up room in the buffer by moving more images to the CF card. After an image is moved and room is again available in the buffer. a low battery. Av. the shots remaining count is displayed at the bottom of the viewfinder next to the focus confirmation indicator. 2. the camera captures another image. With the Mode Dial set to CA. When viewed with a Web browser. In AI Servo AF it does.SHORTCOURSES.com/itext/continuous/ tinuous mode icon is displayed on the LCD panel and monitor. The buffer can store and process up to 310 Large/Fine JPEGs when you’re using an UDMA CF card. In One-Shot AF. To capture more images in a single burst.CONTINUOUS PHOTOGRAPHY CONTINUOUS PHOTOGRAPHY To be sure you catch those fleeting moments so common in people.photocourse. basically internal memory. When the viewfinder display is active. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. For example.COM 137 . so when 99 is displayed it means you can capture 99 or more. When Custom Function II-2 High ISO speed noise reduction is set to Strong. repeat Step 1 but select a different drive mode. M or B mode. the images are quickly displayed one after the other like frames in a movie. because this can be done faster than storing them to a CF card. a readout to the left of the focus indicator shows how many more images will fit in the buffer. 78 when using a non-UDMA card. The readout doesn’t go above 99. a slow shutter speed. When the buffer becomes full. quality or format (page 27). or using flash or AI Servo AF. focus doesn’t change after the first picture. they are first stored in a buffer. When finished. the maximum continuous rate falls dramatically. 3. Click to see how continuous mode can be used creatively. To run off photos. Some other settings may slow down the capture rate. takes photos more slowly as does taking repeated short bursts instead of one long one. However. The low speed continuous (left) and high speed continuous (right) icons. P. or 13 or 14 RAW images when using either kind of card. SELECTING A CONTINUOUS MODE Continuous mode can capture a series of positions in sports photography. Once you capture a sequence of pictures you can then choose the best image from the sequence or use all of them to create an animation on your computer as an animated GIF or Flash movie. The last photo in the burst is briefly displayed on the monitor. As you use these modes to capture images. Obviously there isn’t much of an advantage for RAW shooters. 1. Tv. sports and wildlife photography.9 images per second as long as you hold down the shutter button. hold down the shutter button until you or the camera decides enough is enough. reduce the image size. you can also use these faster cards for capturing high definition movies (page 145). press the AFDRIVE button and then turn the Quick Control Dial until the conhttp://www. especially given the higher cost of UDMA cards.

light can leak in through the viewfinder and affect the exposure. 138 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Using either you can trigger the shutter from to about 5 meters/16. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS REMOTE CONTROL PHOTOGRAPHY To get the sharpest possible images. and even lock it down for long bulb exposures (page 92). VISIT HTTP://WWW.CHAPTER 7. The RS-80N3 (top) and TC-80N3 (bottom). remove the eyecup from the viewfinder and slip the eyepiece cover. To prevent this.6 foot (80 cm) cable releases that connect to the camera’s N-3 type remote control connector. To make settings easier you use a dial to quickly enter numeric settings and the device’s LCD panel can also be illuminated. The 5D Mark II includes EOS Utility software you can use to remotely operate the camera while viewing the computer screen instead of the camera’s viewfinder.COM . taking close-ups. and RC-5 has a 2-second delay. You can press the shutter button halfway down. Slipping the eyepiece cover over the viewfinder blocks light from entering and affecting the exposure. 59 min. and exposure-count setting feature. The EOS Utility program.SHORTCOURSES. you can use one of the 2. Using this program you can change camera settings and specify a start time and interval time for a series of photos. RC-1 lets you shoot immediately or with a 2-second delay. the camera has to be perfectly still and free from even slight vibrations created when you press the shutter button or the mirror swings up. This lets you set up the camera and get pictures like the one of the squirrel below. long-exposure timer.. using mirror lockup or Bulb (B) mode. To reduce or eliminate vibrations when you take a picture. all the way down. especially when using a long lens. To remove the eyecup cover. You can set the timer anywhere from 1 second to 99 hours. • The Remote Switch RS-80N3 replicates all of the functions of the camera’s shutter button.4 feet from the camera. • Canon makes two wireless controllers that communicate with the camera using its remote control sensor. • The Timer Remote Controller TC-80N3 has a remote shutter button but also has additional features including a self-timer. 59 sec. interval timer. carried on the camera strap. over the eyepiece. When taking pictures with a remote control. grasp both sides and slide it up and away from the camera.

3. 7. The difference is that in Live View the camera lifts the mirror up and out of the way (the viewfinder blacks out) and opens the shutter so the image sensor can capture the scene in real time and display it on the monitor. 6. In this respect it is much like mirror lockup (page 152). 5. M or B mode. (You can do stills in auto modes. Av.SHOOTING STILL IMAGES IN LIVE VIEW SHOOTING STILL IMAGES TIPS • A side benefit of Live View is that it reduces vibration by lifting the reflex mirror out of the way long before the exposure takes place. The Live View button on the back of the camera. When done using Live View for the moment. Take the picture and after image review ends. Using an optional wireless transmitter WFT-E4/WFT-E4A you can make the camera/ computer connection wirelessly at distances up to almost 500 feet (150m).COM 139 . using the Stills+movie setting discussed in the next section. turn the Quick Control Dial. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Live View/Movie func set. 10x and back to full view. to compose and focus still images—a procedure called Live View. which is like switching it to standby mode. VISIT HTTP://WWW. You’ll find this mode especially useful when using a tripod and macro lens to capture close-ups requiring very precise manual focusing. or press AF-ON to focus it automatically using the current AF mode (page 142). you can use the monitor. • To magnify the image on the monitor for very precise manual focusing. You begin by enabling it. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight LV func. Press the Live View button to raise the mirror and open the shutter so the scene is displayed on the monitor and the viewfinder blacks out. select Stills+movie (page 145) 4. there’s no reason you shouldn’t give it a try. Tv. press the Magnify button repeatedly to cycle through 5x. or even a connected computer. Although Live View is not designed specifically for hand-held photography or moving subjects. When finished. When finished. IN LIVE VIEW In any shooting mode other than Full or Creative Auto. When it’s enabled and you want to actually use it. You can even download captured images directly to the computer’s hard drive. you disable it. Live View has two levels of on and off.) In most ways using Live View is just like using the viewfinder. It’s also useful in a studio setting because the EOS Utility software and the USB cable supplied with the camera let you use a computer’s screen to compose. • To capture movies and stills. setting and press SET to display the Live View function settings screen with three choices: • To turn off Live View select Disable. press MENU and select the Set up 2 menu tab. USING LIVE VIEW FOR STILLS ONLY 1. • To capture still images with Live View select Stills only then select Stills display or Exposure simulation (page 141) and press SET.SHORTCOURSES. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Manually focus the image by turning the focus ring on the lens. press the Live View button. With the camera in P. repeat Steps 1–3 but select Disable. the camera automatically returns to Live View shooting. check the software instruction manual covering EOS Utility. you just press the Live View button to turn it on and off. focus and capture images. and press SET. 2. set the lens focus mode switch to MF or AF. and if necessary: • To adjust exposure. • For more on using Live View with your computer.

turn the focus ring on the lens to focus the subject before taking the picture. MANUAL FOCUSING Manual focus is much more accurate than autofocus. You can even capture stills during a movie. Clicking this button on EOS Utility displays the scene the camera sees on your computer screen. LIVE VIEW FUNCTION SETTINGS • Disable turns off Live View. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. All choices are discussed on the pages that follow. Those grayed out are not available in Full or Creative Auto modes. Grid display Silent shoot. You can then remotely adjust white balance and focus. Turns Live View mode on and off and lets you set the Live View function settings and Screen settings type. Metering time AF mode Movie rec.COM 140 . COMMAND Movie recording DESCRIPTION Enables movie recording in Full and Creative (CA) auto modes. and take pictures. 3. LIVE VIEW/MOVIE FUNCTION SETTINGS The Live View/Movie func set command on the Set up 2 menu displays a submenu with the choices in the following table.SHORTCOURSES. press the Multi-controller to move the rectangular focusing frame over an important area of the scene (press it straight down to center the frame). • Stills+movie enables the capture of stills and movies (page 145). 2. or Live face. and press the Magnify button to enlarge the area within the frame. • Stills only enables the capture of still images. size Sound recording 141 141 142 142 145 145 The Live View function settings menu. Turns on and off a grid on the monitor. When magnified. To begin. 4. If you continue shooting. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Live. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Live View/Movie func set. Live View may discontinue automatically and not resume until the camera’s temperature falls. especially when you press the Magnify button to enlarge the area within the magnify frame (except in Live Face View). Specifies movie frame size Turns sound recording with movie on or off PAGE 145 139 In this table movie recording is only displayed in Full and Creative Auto modes and grayed out settings are not available in those modes. With the camera in any shooting mode press MENU and select the Set up 2 menu tab. although during playback the movie will briefly pause at the place you took them and you’ll hear the shutter in the movie sound track. LV func. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS In direct sunlight. and press SET. Press MENU twice to hide the menu. Specifies one of three autofocus modes— Quick.CHAPTER 7. Selects one of three modes to make Live View camera operation quieter. Specifies how long metering stays on and AF Lock measurements are retained. USING LIVE VIEW FUNCTION SETTINGS 1. Each time you press it you cycle through Full view > 5x > 10x and then back to Full view. or other situations that might heat the camera. check histograms and depth of field. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice and press SET to display options. For tips on focusing see page 143. setting. the high temperature icon (above) may be displayed to indicate that image quality may be degraded by noise or irregular colors. and press SET again. Highlight your choice.

the lighting is too dim or bright and the Live View image doesn’t accurately reflect image brightness on the monitor. In continuous mode you can shoot up to 3 images per second with only the sound of the second shutter closing once for each picture.SHORTCOURSES. At shutter speeds faster than 1/200 this combination of an electronic first curtain and mechanical second curtain creates a slit moving across the sensor. and if you use a remote controller this mode operates just like Mode 1. • When blinking. The Exp. (The semi-transparent mask framing the image area is not included in the recorded movie. If you use flash or Bulb (B) mode (page 92) the histogram is grayed out but still works. the second shutter curtain closes. and ISO speed are set automatically.SHOOTING STILL IMAGES IN LIVE VIEW SCREEN SETTINGS TYPE • Stills display displays stills at the standard brightness to make them easy to see. since the first curtain is an electronic shutter in this mode the release time is infinitesimal so you can capture instantaneous actions. select Disable since the flash won’t fire if Mode 1 or Mode 2 is selected.SIM icon on the monitor indicates the following: • Displayed in white. When enabled. • When gray. when you press the shutter button to take a picture in Live View. displays the Exp. and the image sensor is cleared. aperture. Normally. the camera leaves the second curtain open and simulates its opening by activating the sensor one row of pixels at a time just as if the curtain were sliding over it to uncover the rows. SILENT SHOOTING You can set Silent shoot to Mode 1. However. • Movie display displays still images at the standard brightness and the aspect ratio is based on the movie recording size you’ve selected (page 145). In silent modes. Mode 2. When you release the shutter button back to the halfway position the camera sounds softly as the shutter cocks.) In this mode you can take still photos by pressing the shutter button. pressing INFO displays a histogram to guide you in getting the best possible exposure (page 59). The second curtain then closes to end the exposure. • Mode 1 (the default) is quieter than normal camera operation. and the second closes again to end it. the camera operates as if it were set to Disable. Delaying the shooting sound can minimize the disturbance in some situations.SIM icon and the brightness of the image on the monitor adjusts to roughly match the brightness of the image you will capture. • Mode 2 takes a shot and then suspends camera operations if you continue to hold the shutter button down. When disabled (the default). When you release the shutter button in this mode it sounds as if two pictures are taken although only one is. the image is displayed normally to make it easier to compose the shot. Also. The first shutter curtain then opens to begin the exposure. it’s easier to align horizontals and verticals in an image.COM . TIP • When Silent shoot is set to Mode 1 or 2 and flash is used. 141 Screen settings type icons include Stills display (left) Exposure simulation (middle) and Movie display (right). GRID DISPLAY Grid display turns coarse or fine grid lines off (the default) and on. VISIT HTTP://WWW. • Disable is used for more accurate exposures when making vertical shifts with a TS-E tilt-shift lens (page 110). • When using a non-Canon flash unit. • Exposure simulation. although it may not be accurate. when enabled. or Disable to avoid alarming people or wildlife. The histogram is also grayed out and may not be properly displayed in low light or bright light conditions. the Live View image’s brightness is close to what the captured image will look like. an external flash is on or the Mode Dial is set to B (Bulb). the captured image will reflect the exposure setting. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Disable takes effect even when you have selected Mode 1 or Mode 2. The shutter speed. In continuous mode you can only take single shots. • If you use flash. When on. extension tubes (page 108) and nonCanon external flash units.

the camera beeps and the mirror goes back up so the Live View image reappears with the AF point or points used to focus briefly flash red. if focus is achieved the AF point turns green and the camera beeps. the large AF point turns red. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS TIPS • In Live View you can’t initiate autofocus using the shutter release button on the Remote Switch RS-80N3 or Timer Remote Controller TC-80N3. The default is 16 seconds and the available range is 4 seconds to 30 minutes. When you press AF-ON. You can also use the Multi-controller by itself to move the magnifying frame. METERING TIMER You can change Metering timer to specify how long the metered exposure setting and AE lock setting is retained. the reflex mirror lowers and the monitor goes black while focus is performed by the camera’s dedicated AF sensor in One-Shot AF mode just as though you were using the viewfinder. When focus is achieved. move it with the Multi-controller to any part of the scene. press the Multi-controller straight down to return to face focus.) When finished. Canon recommends that you position the focusing frame at the center and select the center AF point for autofocusing. autofocus ends when the camera returns to the Live View image display.SHORTCOURSES. To select a different AF point. At this point. and magnify the area it frames with the Magnify button. If only one is found it is indicated with frame corners. When you then press and hold down the AF-ON button. so release the AF-ON button and try focusing on another part of the scene. the camera focuses on the area within the frame without lowering the mirror. if at all. AF MODE Although not as precise as magnified manual focus. • During autofocusing no AF points are displayed on the screen but they are still operational. the AF point turns red. press the AF-DRIVE button and use the Multi-controller. so you can’t keep a moving subject in focus. one has sideway pointing arrowheads. Although you can set the autofocus mode to AI Servo AF or AI Focus AF (page 72). When you press AF-ON and hold it down to focus. VISIT HTTP://WWW. When focus is achieved. and then press the Magnify button to enlarge the area within the frame. the camera beeps and the large AF point turns green. You can move it anywhere but near the frame edges with the Multi-controller. Focus frames when there is more than on face (left) and the most important face (right) The camera indicates which face it thinks is most important by adding a pair of arrow heads to it. the small AF point or points that will be used to set focus and a larger magnifying frame are displayed on the monitor. (You can’t use it to magnify in this mode. • You can select an AF mode by pressing AF-DRIVE and turning the Main Dial. you can press the Multi-controller straight down to switch to Live mode and display a focus frame in the center of the scene. AF mode icons. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 2: Live mode uses the image sensor to focus and is less likely to achieve focus quickly.CHAPTER 7. 1: Quick mode (the default) is the fastest way to autofocus in Live View but the screen briefly goes black. you can autofocus by switching the lens focus switch to AF and pressing the AF-ON button. The camera then focuses using the AF mode you have selected. At this point you can refocus or press the shutter button to take the picture. In this mode. and press AF-ON to focus on the selected area. release the AF-ON button and use the shutter button to take the picture. 3: Live Face mode can locate and frame forward facing faces in a scene. If more than one is framed. In this mode a large AF point that looks just like the magnifying frame in Quick mode is displayed in the center of the monitor. • If a face isn’t detected. When these are displayed you can accept the selected face or use the Multi-selector or Quick Control Dial to select another. If focus can’t be achieved. Its only advantage is that the screen doesn’t go black as the camera autofocuses.COM 142 . If focus is not achieved.

or Clear settings or Firmware Ver (Set up 3 menu).COM The face detect icon. The focusing frame might cover only part of a face.SHORTCOURSES. • Live View shooting disables some Custom Function settings (page 152). • When you press the AF-DRIVE or ISO-Flash Exposure Compensation button. Objects that aren’t faces are sometimes detected by mistake. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Sensor cleaning (Set up 2 menu). • Live View ends automatically at the specified Auto power off time (page 161) . somewhat less when it’s cold. When Auto power off is set to Off. GENERAL TIPS IN LIVE VIEW • The monitor displays 100% of the area that will be captured in the photo. • You use buttons and menus to change settings and playback images in Live View just as you do when using the viewfinder. TIPS • Face detection takes a great deal of control out of your hands but the selected face isn’t used just to set focus but also exposure and white balance. or partially hidden are not detected. Check that the flickering has stopped. or partially hidden. the Live View shooting stops automatically after 30 minutes although the camera’s power remains on. and press the Live View button again to resume Live View.SHOOTING STILL IMAGES IN LIVE VIEW • If a face is detected near the edge of the frame where autofocus won’t work. too bright or too dark. • Faces may not be detected when too small. • Focus detect isn’t perfect. press the depth of field preview button (page 71). • Movie Recording Size and Sound Recording are discussed in the next section. adjust the lighting. Continuous Live View shooting is possible for up to 2 hours. and as few as 180 when the temperature falls toward freezing. To check depth-offield in the viewfinder press the depth-of-field preview button (page 71). too large. You can’t do this with Screen setting set to Movie display (page 141). • When the scene is way out of focus faces aren’t detected so turn the focusing ring on the lens to focus. a setting screen appears on the monitor so you can change the settings. switch to Quick mode or use manual focusing. The brightness of the display is close to the captured image even at small apertures. • If the image flickers to the extent it makes focusing difficult. then autofocus. Faces that are very small or large in the picture. • Using the supplied video cable or an optional HDMI cable you can display the Live View screen on a TV set. When you then press the AF-ON. Autofocus reduces the number of shots you can take. • Don’t point the camera at the sun or you can damage the image sensor. titled horizontally or diagonally. If you encounter problems. press the Live View button to suspend Live View. the focus frame is grayed out. • You can’t use the focus preset feature on super telephoto lenses. • Live View consumes more power than normal operation. 143 . • The image brightness may change during and after autofocusing. even approximately and try again. the center AF point is used for focus. • When autofocusing the AF-assist beam on an external flash is not emitted. • There are many things that affect the camera’s ability to autofocus in Live View. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. too bright or dark. You can shoot up to 200 pictures in a warm setting. • Live View is cancelled if you select Dust Delete Data (Shooting 2 menu). • The camera may sometimes misidentify objects as faces. LIVE VIEW FOCUSING TIPS • To check depth of field. tilted.

• If you can’t achieve autofocus in magnified view.COM . The magnifying frame can be moved about the screen. LIVE VIEW EXPOSURE TIPS • Press the INFO button to change the information displayed including a live histogram and exposure level indicator. To remind you of this the shutter speed and aperture are displayed in red. • When an image is magnified the shutter speed and aperture settings are displayed in orange on the monitor. Wait until it readjusts or your photo’s exposure may be off. • If you recompose the scene. • Before taking a long exposure. If this happens press the Live View button once to suspend Live View shooting. the exposure might not come out as desired. return to full view and try again. • When the scene is magnified on the monitor. • If a light source within the scene varies. metering is set to evaluative regardless of the menu setting. adjust the lighting and then press the Live View button again to continue. such as the sun. and when it fires the mirror drops down briefly so the camera can measure the preflash used to set the flash exposure. • The speed of autofocusing may be different during the full view and magnified view. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS MAGNIFIED VIEW FOR FOCUSING • You can’t magnify the image in Live Face mode. focus may be off. • Under low light or bright light conditions. • When Custom Function II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer (page 152) is set to any setting other than Disabled. or test flash in Live View. stop Live View shooting temporarily and wait several minutes before shooting.CHAPTER 7. • If you autofocus in Live mode’s full view and then magnify the image. This is to prevent image degradation. you may see chrominance noise in the Live View image on the monitor but it won’t be captured in the image. There are two shutter sounds but only one photo is taken. might be black on the screen but will be captured correctly. • During continuous shooting (page 137) exposure is locked in with the first image. • Extremely bright sources in the scene. the image on the monitor looks bright even when you select a minus (-) exposure compensation. • You can use flash.SHORTCOURSES. 144 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. the image on the screen may flicker. VISIT HTTP://WWW. the camera enhances image sharpness from what it will on the captured image to help you better evaluate focus and sharpness on the screen. • If you set the LCD brightness to a bright setting (page 161). • Pressing the AE lock button won’t lock exposure when the image is magnified. the Live View image on the monitor might not reflect the brightness of the captured image. • During Live View shooting. • While the image is magnified. modeling flash. You can’t use FE lock. the brightness of the image on the monitor may briefly change.

Just by pressing the SET button in Live View you can capture HD movies at 1920 x 1080 pixels or standard 4:3 TV quality (SD) movies at 640 x 480 pixels—both formats at 30 frames per second (fps). You can also use any of 60 or more Canon EF lenses from ultra-wide-angle and fish-eye to macro and super telephoto. the indicator will either not appear or the level will not increase much. When you run out of room on the card. highlight Live View/Movie func. 5. • If you use a card having a slow writing speed. Before using a card for movies.SHORTCOURSES. 3. press SET and while it’s being recorded. • A 4GB card will store about 12 minutes of 1920 x 1080 video and 24 minutes of 640 x 480. set. a five-level indicator on the right side of the monitor may appear during movie shooting. To reduce or eliminate these noises you need an external microphone. You can shoot movies in all shooting modes including Full and Creative Auto. To set the movie recording size select Movie rec.SHOOTING MOVIES IN LIVE VIEW SHOOTING MOVIES IN LIVE VIEW When shooting movies at the 1920 x 1080 size (Full HD quality). • A fully charged battery pack will capture about 90 minutes of video at 23°C/73°F and about 80 minutes total at 0°C/32°F. setting. a recording indicator (a red dot) is displayed on the upper right of the screen. The built-in microphone records in monaural but external stereo microphones equipped TIP You can use Custom Function IV-3 Assign SET button to use the SET button to turn on Live View and start and stop movie recording with a single button. size and set the size to 1920x1080 (Full High-Definition) quality or 640x480 (standard quality). 4. press MENU. To check a card’s read/write speed. BASIC MOVIE TIPS • Movies can range up to 4GB or 30 minutes. • The camera’s built-in microphone records sounds the camera makes. record a few test movies to see if the card can write fast enough. • In P. VISIT HTTP://WWW. display the Set up 2 menu. the movie recording size and remaining shooting time are displayed in red on the monitor. refer to the card manufacturer’s Web site. With the Mode Dial set to any shooting mode. the faster the indicator will climb upward. movie shooting will stop automatically. press SET and then do one of the following: • In auto modes highlight Movie recording and set it to Enable. select Stills+movie. To begin recording the movie. Av. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. To display the Live View image press the Live View button. use a large-capacity card having an actual reading/writing speed of at least 8 MB/sec. The slower the card.COM 145 . If the indicator becomes full. Picture Styles (page 149) and other settings you make to adjust image characteristics apply to movies so you have a significant amount of creative control over the quality of your movies. Recording and playing back from slower cards may not work as expected. While doing so you can press the shutter button to interrupt the movie and capture a still image. 6. If the card has a fast writing speed. Focus the subject using AF or manual focus (page 142). To stop recording the movie press SET again. 2. M or B mode select LV func. whichever comes first. then select Movie display (page 141). Tv. USING LIVE VIEW FOR STILLS+MOVIES 1. It indicates how much data has not yet been written to the card (remaining capacity of the internal buffer memory).

They are recorded in the sRGB-equivalent color space optimized for movies. • When Screen settings (page 141) is set to Movie display. you can still shoot movies by pressing SET even if Screen settings has been set to Stills display or Exposure simulation. then press the transmit button. it’s stored separately but also displayed for one second during movie playback and then the movie resumes. The movie is recorded much as it is displayed. the Live View image might not accurately reflect the brightness of the captured image. • External flash won’t fire for still photos taken during movie shooting.5mm diameter) can be plugged into the camera’s external microphone IN terminal. the image may look bright even if a decreased exposure compensation has been set.SHORTCOURSES. the depth-of-field preview button doesn’t work. • When you take a still image while recording a movie. • Since movie aspect ratios are different from still images. If the switch is set to immediate shooting. the ISO speed is set automatically. • Movies are recorded in the MOV format using an MPEG-4 video compression and sound is recorded in PCM2 format without compression. With RC-1. set the timing switch to 2 (2-sec. M and B modes. ISO 100 is set as standard.CHAPTER 7. • Under low light. LENSES AND FOCUS • When the attached lens has an Image Stabilizer it operates at all times even if you do not press the shutter button halfway down. This may reduce the 146 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Tv. The shutter speed and aperture are set automatically and the ISO speed is set automatically between 100–3200. the start of a movie may momentarily record a substantial exposure change. a semi-transparent mask on the monitor indicates the captured area. still photo shooting takes effect. • You can use Remote Controller RC-1/RC-5 to start and stop the movie shooting. • Under low light or bright light conditions. single-image shooting takes effect automatically. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS with a stereo mini plug (3. setting is set to Stills+movie. • For movie shooting. or when their is a bright light source in the scene. • When Screen settings (page 141) is set to Stills display or Exposure simulation. if LV func. delay). The shutter speed and aperture displayed in the Live View screen when the shutter button is pressed halfway are for shooting still photos.COM . • When you take still photos during movie shooting with the drive mode set to the 10 second or 2 second self-timer. then it can increase up to ISO 6400 (expandable to H1: 12800) for low-light conditions. Av. Sound levels are adjusted automatically. CAMERA SETTINGS • In P. the Live View image on the monitor might show chrominance noise and in movies this noise is recorded much like it is displayed on the monitor. VISIT HTTP://WWW. • When Custom function II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer is set to anything other than 3 Disable.

This is to prevent image degradation. the exposure control is evaluative metering linked to the detected face.) • Center-weighted average metering is used for movie shooting. • Live View shooting in high temperatures and at high ISO speeds may cause noise or irregular colors. you can lock the exposure (AE lock) by pressing the AE Lock button. EXPOSURE TIPS • With Screen settings set to Movie display or during movie recording. If the AF mode is set to Face detection mode. stop Live View shooting temporarily and wait several minutes before shooting. the image on the TV is small. USING A TV AS THE MONITOR • While shooting a 1920 x 1080 movie with the camera connected to a TV using an HDMI cable. the movie itself is recorded at 1920 x 1080. To turn it off you set the switch to the “o”. To turn image stabilization on. the camera’s internal temperature may increase and it can degrade image quality.SHORTCOURSES. • Before recording a movie. • During movie shooting. (The metering timer doesn’t operate when recording movies. However. press the AF point selector button. • Autofocusing during movie shooting is not recommended since it might momentarily throw the focus way off or change the exposure. • If you shoot still photos at a high ISO speed or shoot a movie in low light. you set the switch to the vertical line. Terminate Live View shooting when not shooting images.SHOOTING MOVIES IN LIVE VIEW shooting time or number of stills. To cancel the AE lock. • While shooting a movie with the camera connected to a TV. you can adjust the image brightness (exposure compensation) by setting the power switch to the white line above ON and turning the Quick Control Dial (except in auto modes). set the IS switch on the lens to OFF. autofocus is not possible even if you press the AF-ON button during movie shooting. When using a tripod or when the Image Stabilizer isn’t necessary. VISIT HTTP://WWW. If the AF mode has been set to Quick mode. THINGS TO AVOID • When you use Live View for a long time. • The focus preset feature on super telephoto lenses cannot be used. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. the TV doesn’t output the sound although it is recorded.COM 147 . horizontal stripes may become noticeable as noise.

however once you download them to your computer you can use ZoomBrowser EX/ ImageBrowser to delete frames at the beginning or end of the movie. • If the brightness suddenly changes greatly during movie shooting. that part might look momentarily still when you playback the movie. • In single-image display. PLAYING BACK MOVIES Icon that indicates a movie in playback’s single-image view. Play. 148 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Previous Frame. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS PLAYING MOVIES You can playback movies on the camera’s monitor or a connected TV (page 23). First Frame. Movie icons on the playback panel include (from left to right) Exit. • To cancel playback. press SET to display the movie playback panel at the bottom of the monitor. Slow Motion. • Still photos embedded in a movie are displayed for about 1 second in playback. • To pause and restart the movie at any point. Press the INFO button to switch to the information display you want to use. • To adjust the sound volume on the camera turn the Main Dial. • You can’t edit movies in the camera. adjust the sound volume on the set. If the camera is connected to a TV set. the perforations on the left edge of the image indicates that it is a movie. Movies cannot be played from the index display so press the Magnify button to switch to the single-image display. a movie icon is displayed in the upper left corner of the monitor when a movie is displayed. Movie Playback volume indicator. •In index display. • Movie filenames start with MVI_ and have the extension .MOV. With the movie displayed in single-image view. Last Frame. press the Playback button or press the shutter button halfway down. VISIT HTTP://WWW. press SET. Press the Playback button and turn the Quick Control Dial to select a movie. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the Play icon on the playback panel and press SET to start the movie. 2. 3.SHORTCOURSES.COM . Next Frame. 1.CHAPTER 7.

press the Picture Style selection button to display choices on the monitor. and the color tone and saturation are set to render vivid colors. saturation and color tone.) • Standard images are sharpened to look crisp. Sharpness is set one step more than Standard so that the outlines of mountains. Sharpness is set so the image is softer and kinder to skin. SELECTING PICTURE STYLES 1. ADJUSTING PICTURE STYLES For each of the styles.COM . M or B mode.canon. Tv. (You can also select Picture Style from the Shooting 2 menu tab. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the Picture Style you want to use and press SET. affect RAW image thumbnails and previews. only more so. Toning effects add an overall tint to the image. • Using Canon’s Picture Style Editor you can design the look of your photographs by inputting your own preferred style. Take your photos and when finished repeat Steps 1–2.) 2.SHORTCOURSES. or another tone of your choice. VISIT HTTP://WWW. SELECTING PICTURE STYLES The styles from which you can choose include the following (only Standard. In Monochrome the color saturation and tone choices in the other styles are replaced by choices for filter and toning effects. Tv. • User defined 1–3 can be set to any settings you prefer (page 150). 149 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. • Yellow makes clouds crisper while leaving the blue sky unaffected. 3. • Red is like orange. TIPS • For additional pictures styles and more information visit Canon at: http://web. • Portrait images have color tone and saturation set to obtain natural skin tones. • Monochrome lets you shoot in black and white. M and B modes to better suit your own tastes. • Landscape has color tone and saturation set for deep. then highlight Standard style (the default) and press SET. • Faithful applies no sharpening and renders colors as faithfully as it can to the original subject. The Picture Styles Editor tool palette. jp/imaging/picturestyle/index. but you can change them in P. color and tone curves. The initial settings are the same as Standard. vivid blues and greens for skies and foliage. • Orange darkens a blue sky and makes sunrises and sunsets more brilliant. contrast. including monochrome. Av. you can adjust sharpness. Landscape and Monochrome are available in Creative Auto mode. • Neutral captures natural color and no sharpness is applied. select them one after another while watching the scene on the monitor in Live View. To select a style. The settings have been chosen by Canon. Av. but make no changes to the actual images.USING PICTURE STYLES USING PICTURE STYLES TIPS • Style settings. and also brightens fall foliage. This is the setting preferred by professionals who edit their images in a program such as Photoshop because it has the least effect on the images.html • To see the effects of Picture Styles. When you select this setting B/W is displayed on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder. • The Neutral and Faithful styles assume you will adjust the images using a photo-editing program. trees and buildings look crisp. These settings are not for images you will print directly from the camera or at a kiosk. This is the Full Auto mode’s setting. With the Mode Dial set to P. and filters act like the glass filters that can be attached to lenses. Portrait. Picture Styles store settings for still images and movies.

Standard. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. press the Picture Style selection button. and color tone. Initially the first three Picture Styles. Highlight Picture Style. Av. include sharpness levels 3. REGISTERING PICTURE STYLES 1. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight a setting you want to adjust. and press SET again to return to the Detail set screen. Repeat Steps 4–5 to adjust other settings or press MENU to return to the Picture Style Screen.CHAPTER 7. and press SET to return to the Detail set screen. Av. press SET. 5. REGISTERING A PICTURE STYLE You can adjust any existing Picture style. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the three User Def settings and press INFO to display the Detail set screen. and save those changes in one of the three user definitions. settings that are best for images that won’t be edited in a program such as Photoshop. Purple or Green. Yellow. press the Picture Style selection button. • Contrast can be set from -4 (low) to +4 (high) • Saturation can be set from -4 (low) to +4 (high) • Color tone can be set to -4 (reddish skin tone) to +4 (yellowish skin tone) • Filter can be set to None. There are three unspecified styles (User defined 1–3) that you can set up for your own situations. 2 and 4. This allows you to reuse the settings at some point in the future without having to readjust them. 3. 6. contrast. turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the style you want to base your user definition on. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. 7. With the Mode Dial set to P. TIP • Initially the first three Picture Styles. and press SET to activate its scale or display a list of choices. M or B mode. Portrait and Landscape. 6. the icons refer to (from left to right) sharpness. TIP • Sharpness can be set from 0 (less sharp) to +7 (sharper). Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight a setting you want to adjust. respectively. With the Mode Dial set to P. ADJUSTING PICTURE STYLES 1. Turn the Quick Control Dial to adjust the setting or select a choice from a list. Any setting for the selected style that’s been changed is displayed in blue. Red or Green. (You can also select Picture Style from the Shooting 2 menu tab. Blue. Any setting for the selected style that’s been changed is displayed in blue. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the style you want to edit and press INFO to display the Detail set screen for that style. the last two icons are replaced with ones for filter effects and color toning. When you select the Monochrome style. Sepia. Adjust other settings or press MENU to return to the Picture Style Screen. and press SET to return to the Detail set screen.) 2. On the Picture Styles screen. Tv. Portrait and Landscape. saturation. 4. (You can also select Picture Style from the Shooting 2 menu tab. 2 and 4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. respectively. • Toning effect can be set to None. Standard. M or B mode. include sharpness levels 3. VISIT HTTP://WWW. (You can return a style to it’s default values by highlighting Default set and pressing SET. 3. Orange. Turn the Quick Control Dial to adjust the setting or select a choice from the list. settings that are best for images that won’t be edited in a program such as Photoshop. 4.) 2. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS • Green improves skin tones in portraits and makes green foliage crisper and brighter.) 5.SHORTCOURSES.COM 150 . Tv. and press SET to activate its scale.

• To reset the settings to their defaults which are the same as P (Programmed) mode. communication setting. 5.SHORTCOURSES. Slide show. select the mode and press INFO. Live View/Movie function setting • Set up 3: INFO. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Auto rotate. • When revising custom settings you’ve already registered. • When the Mode Dial is set to C1–C3. To clear settings use the Clear settings command described in the QuickSteps box that follows. start with the Mode Dial set to C1–C3 so your original settings are used as the starting point. External Speedlite control • Custom Functions: All REGISTERING CAMERA SETTINGS 1. When asked to confirm. 6. 3. Select the mode you want to clear and press SET.REGISTERING YOUR OWN SETTINGS REGISTERING YOUR OWN SETTINGS TIPS • Picture Styles (page 149) provide another way to store settings for future use. 4. highlight OK and press SET. repeat Steps 1–3 but select Clear settings. Image jump • Set up 1: Auto power off. change settings and then repeat Steps 1–5 to store them in place of the current settings. Shoot w/o card. Highlight OK and press SET again. Color space. select C1.Fn. (You can’t do this if one of the changes you want to make is the shooting mode.) (page 152) commands don’t work. Peripheral illumination correction • Shooting 2: Exposure compensation/AEB. Sensor cleaning (Auto cleaning). If you use the same settings over and over again it may be worthwhile saving them for future use. the Set up 3 menu’s Clear settings (page 164) and the Custom Function menu’s Clear all Custom Func (C. and the settings you want to save already made in that mode. Storing your own settings is as simple as setting the camera the way you want it and then selecting the Set up 3 menu’s Camera user setting. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Camera user setting and press SET to display two choices. • To check the settings in any C mode. C2 or C3 and press SET. Beep. AF point display.) • You cannot register My Menu settings (page 158). With the Mode Dial set to P. turn the Mode Dial to C1. but changes won‘t be remembered from one session to the next. White balance. Review time. video output and others cannot be. C2 or C3. such as date/time. TIP The following menu settings can be registered: • Shooting 1: Quality. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. C2 or C3. • Changes you make to settings when using C1–C3 modes are reset to the registered settings when Auto power off takes effect or you turn off the camera. button. press MENU and select the Set up 3 menu tab. Do any of the following: • To use the stored settings. M or B mode. Custom WB. 2. WB SHIFT/BKT. Most settings can be registered but some. language. The 5D Mark II allows you to save three sets and then instantly access one of them at any time just by turning the Mode Dial to C1. Av. Tv. • A great thing about registering settings is that they are not affected when you clear all camera settings (page 164) or clear all Custom Functions (page 152). Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Mode Dial:C1. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Register and press SET to display a list of the custom modes. Picture Style • Playback 2: Highlight alert. File numbering • Set up 2: LCD brightness. • To change the stored settings. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.COM 151 . Histogram. C2 or C3. The default settings are the same as Program AE (P) mode.

IV-4. In these tables. and IV: Operation/ Others. Within each category are Custom Functions numbered with Arabic numbers. speed in Av mode Page 153 153 153 153 154 154 154 Page 154 154 154 155 Settings Lens drive when AF impossible Lens AF stop button function AF point selection method Superimposed display AF-assist beam firing Mirror lockup AF point area expansion AF Microadjustment Page 155 155 155 155 155 155 156 156 C. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS USING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS The 5D Mark II has twenty-five Custom Functions you can use in P. II-1. IV-1 and IV-3 partially work with Live View stills or movies C. III-4. The Custom Functions menu tab icon.COM . To identify a specific function. III-5. III-8.FN II: IMAGE Number II-1 II-2 II-3 II-4 C. we use both numbers. VISIT HTTP://WWW. III: Auto focus/Drive.FN IV: OPERATION/OTHERS Number IV-1 IV-2 The AE/FE Lock icon. I-3. II-2. IV-3 IV-4 IV-5 IV-6 Settings Shutter button/AF-ON button AF-ON/AE lock button switch Assign SET button Dial direction during Tv/Av Focusing screen Add original decision data Page 156 157 157 157 157 157 152 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. we refer to it as III-5. to identify the function AF-assist beam firing. IV-3. II-3.FN III: AUTO Number III-1 III-2 III-3 III-4 III-5 III-6 III-7 III-8 Settings Long exposure noise reduction High ISO speed noise reduction Highlight tone priority Auto Lighting Optimizer FOCUS/DRIVE Settings Exposure level increments ISO speed setting increments ISO expansion Bracketing auto cancel Bracketing sequence Safety shift Flash sync. M and B modes to control camera operations. Since there are so many Custom Functions they are grouped into four categories numbered with Roman numerals—I: exposure.CHAPTER 7. II: Image. I-4. I-7.FN I: EXPOSURE Number I-1 I-2 I-3 I-4 I-5 I-6 I-7 C.SHORTCOURSES. For example. and IV-6 work only with Live View stills • III-2. • I-1. Av. • I-2. III-1 and IV-2 all work in both still and movie Live View. II-4. the shaded Custom Functions are not available in Live View. Tv.

2. M or B mode. Av. clear camera settings. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Clear all Custom Func. AEB (page 57) and WB-BKT (page 85) are cancelled when you turn off the camera. 5. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight OK and press SET to clear the functions (except IV-5 Focusing Screen and III-8 AF Microadjustment) and return to the menu. • When On.USING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS TIP • When you clear all Custom Functions. AEB and WB-BKT settings are retained when you turn off the camera. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the Custom Function groups C. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the choices and press SET to select it and display it in blue. Tv. VISIT HTTP://WWW. • When Off. or when an external flash is ready to fire. With the Mode Dial set to P. The current setting for each function is listed below its number.SHORTCOURSES. C. 2. I-2 ISO speed setting increments selects 0: 1/3-stop or 1: 1-stop increments for ISO settings. Fn IV and press SET to display the Custom Functions in the selected group. The default settings are all 0. 4. Fn I–C. TIP • The default setting for each Custom Function is the first one listed. Turn the Quick Control Dial to select one of the Custom Functions and press SET to display the available choices. Tv. apertures. it has no effect on the setting for Custom Function IV-5 Focusing screen or Custom Function III-8 AF Microadjustment. 12800 by selecting H1 and 25600 by selecting H2 (page 65). M or B mode. exposure compensation and other exposure settings other than ISO.COM 153 . 3. Fn) and press SET. or press MENU to return to the main Custom Functions menu. I-4 Bracketing auto cancel specifies when AEB and white balance bracketing are cancelled. 4. (C. With the Mode Dial set to P. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. Select another group or press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. 6. When an external flash is ready to fire. I-3 ISO expansion can be set to 0: Off and 1: On. which is always numbered 0. press MENU and select the Custom Functions menu tab. When On you can select an ISO of 50 by selecting L. press MENU and select the Custom Functions menu tab. AEB is cancelled although the AEB amount is retained in memory. Change other functions in the group. CLEARING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS 1. Av.FN I: EXPOSURE I-1 Exposure level increments selects 0: 1/3-stop or 1: 1/2-stop increments for shutter speeds. CHANGING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS 1.

1: Low. When enabled. • 0: Off turns off noise reduction for long exposures. • Noise reduction isn’t reflected in the image displayed on the camera’s monitor. When enabled in Av or Tv modes. The dynamic range between 18% middle gray and the brightest highlights is expanded so the gradation between the grays and highlights becomes smoother. • 0: Auto allows the camera to select any shutter speed up to 1/200. At low ISO speeds. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. and 3: Disable. • 2: 1/200 sec.COM The dynamic range icon is displayed on the monitor and in the viewfinder when II-3 Highlight tone priority is set to 1: Enable. -. the maximum burst for continuous shooting will decrease. Change the setting to suit the noise level. exposure is automatically adjusted at the last possible moment if the lighting changes. and snow. and to remind you it’s on. When on. 2: Strong. The 0. TIPS • The time it takes to process an image to remove noise is the same as the exposure time. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS I-5 Bracketing sequence can be set to 0: 0. FN II: IMAGE II-1 Long exposure noise reduction sets the noise reduction mode. clouds. (Night scenes and dark backgrounds will be darker than for setting 1. • 2: On reduces noise in all images taken at exposures of 1 second or more. + or 1: -. the ISO range is 200–6400. . the noise in the shadow areas is reduced. Continuous shooting rate drops because a new photo can’t be taken until the noise reduction process for the previous one is completed. Settings other than Auto may use such fast shutter speeds that night scenes and dark backgrounds will be dark in the image. if a long exposure is made during Live View shooting. (fixed) keeps the shutter speed as high as possible to avoid camera or subject blur and is especially useful when using telephoto lenses. auto ensures that the shutter speed never falls below 1/60 so you won’t get as much camera shake. and has the greatest effect at high ISO speeds. 154 . highlight details are improved although noise in shadow areas may increase. VISIT HTTP://WWW. even in Live View. • 1: 1/200-1/60 sec. When not disabled. Also. When shooting JPEGs this is a good setting for weddings and landscapes since it captures more detail in white subjects such as wedding dresses. noise reduction is applied at all ISO speeds. • An image. II-2 High ISO speed noise reduction can be set to 0: Standard. The effects of noise reduction are not shown on the monitor.and + mean different things depending on other autoexposure and white balance bracketing settings as shown in the following table: AEB 0: Standard exposure -: Decreased exposure +: Increased exposure WB Bracketing B/A Direction 0: Standard white balance -: More blue +: More amber M/G Direction 0: Standard white balance -: More magenta +: More green I-6 Safety shift can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable (Tv/Av). 0. I-7 Flash sync speed in Av mode sets the shutter speed or range of shutter speeds used with an external flash in Av mode.SHORTCOURSES.) C. after the picture is taken the noise reduction process may take the same amount of time as the exposure. II-3 Highlight tone priority can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable. +. a D+ icon is displayed on the monitor and in the viewfinder. • 1: Auto uses noise reduction for photos taken with shutter speeds of 1 second or slower but only when noise is detected in an image.CHAPTER 7. BUSY is displayed on the monitor while noise reduction is applied. With this setting. With this setting. isn’t displayed on the monitor until noise reduction processing is complete.

Doing so can damage the shutter curtains. 2: Strong. This is a very useful feature when taking macro close-ups. Main or Quick Control Dial. When enabled. VISIT HTTP://WWW. take the picture as soon as possible. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. TIP When using mirror lockup: • Don’t leave the mirror up for long in bright light. the Speedlite’s Custom Function controlling its AF-assist beam must also be enabled. • In continuous mode. • When you raise the mirror in bright light. in Manual (M) and Bulb (B) modes it’s disabled. ! 0: Enable enables the AF-assist beam. Your setting choices include 0: Standard. 1: AF start. or the self-timer (page 64). and in P. (See the manual that came with your Speedlite. Pressing the AF Point Selection button in this mode selects all AF points for automatic AF point selection. the mirror locks up before the shutter opens so vibrations caused by its swinging up don’t soften the captured image. C. For this to work. Holding down the AF Point Selection button while turning the Main Dial sets exposure compensation. and 3: Disable. it stops trying instead of going dramatically out of focus. • 2: Quick Control Dial direct lets you turn the Quick Control Dial to select AF points without having to first press the AF Point Selection button.USING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS II-4 Auto Lighting Optimizer adjusts image brightness and contrast automatically if an image would otherwise be too dark or have contrast that’s too low. if you manually select an AF point (page 73) the selected AF point still flashes red. 1: Low. and image stabilization on super telephoto lenses with AF stop buttons. • Use a remote switch (page 138). (Depending on the shooting conditions. to avoid blur caused by camera movement as you press the shutter button. 4: ONE SHOT-AI SERVO and 5: IS start. 1: Off turns off the red flash. image noise may increase. only one picture can be taken at a time when using mirror lockup. When enabled. If you have one of these lenses refer to the manual that came with the lens and page 178 in the Canon 5D Mark II user manual. III-6 Mirror lockup lets you 0: Disable or 1: Enable mirror lockup. here is how it works: 155 Indicators in the viewfinder (top) and on the LCD panel (bottom) show which AF point is selected. 2: AE lock. TIPS • The AF-assist beam doesn’t just illuminate the subject. In this mode. or using very long lenses. III-4 Superimposed display determines how AF points in the viewfinder react when focus is achieved. The choices include 0: AF stop.COM . This setting is especially useful with macro and super telephoto lenses.FN III: AUTO FOCUS/DRIVE III-1 Lens drive when AF impossible can be set to 0: Focus search on or 1: Focus search off.SHORTCOURSES.) ! 1: Disable disables the AF-assist beam. You may want to turn it off in some circumstances since it draws attention. 3: AF point:M->Auto/Auto->Ctr. however. 0: On has the AF point(s) used to set focus flash red. exposure. AF points are not displayed on the LCD panel. if the camera can’t achieve focus.) In auto modes. Tv and Av Standard is used but you can change it or turn it off. or point the camera at the sun. Standard is used. it also projects a striped pattern on it that the camera can use for focusing. and its effects are enhanced if you use a remote switch. III-2 Lens AF stop button function has settings that control focus. • The AF-assist beam does not fire in AI Servo focus mode. III-3 AF point selection method gives you three ways to manually select an AF point (page 73): • 0: Normal works by pressing the AF Point Selection button and then using the Multi-controller. • 1: Multi-controller direct lets you press the Multi-controller to directly select an AF point without first having to press the AF Point Selection button. III-5 AF-assist beam specifies if an external flash’s AF-assist beam comes on in dim light. When Off.

is the same as pressing the shutter button halfway down to lock focus. • AF stop in OneShot autofocus mode. press and hold down the shutter button until the photo is taken. • The registered AF microadjustments will be retained even if you use the Custom Function menu’s Clear all Custom Func (C. when enabled while using AI Servo AF and the center AF point. In AI servo more it’s the same as pressing the shutter button all the way down to set focus and exposure just before the picture is taken. Whenever you attach a lens that has been adjusted. activates the six Assist AF points so seven AF points track the subject. the part before the slash refers to the function of the shutter button. • AF start in OneShot AF mode is the same as focus lock. C. 156 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. press the Erase button. select a lens whose adjustment can be overwritten or deleted. In AI servo mode its the same as pressing the shutter button halfway down to start focusing. the setting itself will be set to Disable. 1: Adjust all by same amount applies the same adjustment to all lenses. 0: Disable turns off any adjustments.COM . However. and the part after the slash refers to AF-ON (see tips box to the left for additional definitions): 0: Metering + AF start has either button start metering and autofocus. and pressing it again fires the shutter and lowers the mirror.CHAPTER 7. the adjustment is registered for the lens and Extender combination.fn) command to clear all settings (page 152). • With setting 1 or 2 highlighted. or use the same adjustment for all of your lenses. It’s normally not required and adjustments may even prevent correct focusing from being achieved. 2: Adjust by lens registers adjustments for up to 20 different lenses.adjusts forward and + adjusts backward) but the degree of adjustment made in each step depends on the maximum aperture of the lens. its point of focus is shifted accordingly. This is effective for subjects that move erratically. making it difficult for only the center AF point to track it. To be sure you get the correct adjustment. you can do so individually for up to 20 specific lenses. III-8 AF Microadjustment is used to correct a lens’s focus. pressing the shutter button all the way down raises the mirror (the viewfinder goes dark) and then the shutter opens 10 seconds or 2 seconds later. If you use a lens extender. take some test shots—preferably at the spot where you will be photographing—and readjust as necessary. VISIT HTTP://WWW. When a slash (/) is used in a setting below.SHORTCOURSES. If you don’t press the shutter button within 30 seconds. If you do adjust focus. • Metering + AF start is the same as pressing the shutter button halfway down to set exposure and focus. 2: Metering start/Meter + AF start has the shutter button start metering. ! When using the self-timer (page 64). OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS ! Pressing the shutter button all the way down raises the mirror (the viewfinder goes dark). TIP • Metering is the same as pressing the shutter button down to turn on metering and the exposure displays in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. 1: Metering + AF start/AF stop has the shutter button start metering and autofocus and the AF-ON button stop autofocus. • To cancel all the registered adjustments.FN IV: OPERATION OTHERS IV-1 Shutter button/AF-ON button specifies how the shutter button and AFON buttons work together. III-7 AF point area expansion. ! When using Bulb (B) mode and the self-timer. the mirror lowers automatically. If adjustments for 20 lenses have already been registered and you want to register an adjustment for another lens. You can adjust focus in ±20 steps (. press the INFO button to view the register screen.

When enabled.COM 157 . appends data to the image file that lets you verify if an image is original or not. while pressing the AF-ON button starts metering and autofocus. IV-3 Assign SET button specifies how the SET button functions. the functions of the AF-ON and AE lock/FE lock/Index/ Reduce button are switched. IV-6 Add original decision data. In playback mode. VISIT HTTP://WWW. IV-4 Dial direction during Tv/Av can be set to 0: Normal or 1: Reverse Direction. but the direction of the Quick Control Dial remains unchanged in Manual (M) mode when setting exposure compensation. ! 2: Picture Style selects a style (page 149) when you press SET and then turn the Quick Control Dial. ! 3: Menu display displays the menu when you press SET (page 17). 1: Eg-D (has a grid to help align horizontals and verticals).8 or more).Fn IV-6 is On. 4: Metering +AF start/Disable disables the AF-ON button. When reversed: • The effects of the Quick Control Dial and Main Dial are reversed when selecting a shutter speed and aperture in Manual (M) mode. press AF-ON to reduce a zoomed image or switch to index view. 3: AE lock/Metering + AF start lets you set focus and exposure on different parts of the scene. ! 4: Image replay switches to playback mode when you press SET (page 20). To verify if the image is an original you’ll need the Data Verification Kit OSK-E3. Your choice here is not affected by the commands used to clear Custom Functions (page 152).) ! 0: Normal (disabled) pressing SET makes choices when you highlight commands on the menu. When C. ! 1: Image quality changes image quality (page 27) when you press SET and then turn the Quick Control Dial. when turned on.USING CUSTOM FUNCTIONS and the AF-ON button start metering and autofocus. The choices include 0: Eg-A (the standard screen that comes with the camera).SHORTCOURSES. choices 1–4 are overridden. Pressing the shutter button halfway down locks exposure. IV-5 Focusing Screen is used to specify which focusing screen is installed in the camera (page 12). the verification icon is displayed. you can press AF-ON to repeatedly start and stop AI Servo AF. IV-2 AF-ON/AE lock button switch can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. (When using Live View. In AI Servo AF mode. ! 6: Record movie (Live View) starts movie recording (page 145). Instructions on changing screens are included in the package. This is used for subjects that repeatedly move and stop. ! 5: Quick Control screen (page 16) is displayed when you press SET. • In other shooting modes the Main Dial is reversed. Exposure is set at the last possible moment. When played back a padlock icon is displayed. and 2: Eg-S (best for precise manual focusing of lenses with maximum apertures of f/2.

SHORTCOURSES. When finished with any step. ! Sort changes the order of the registered items on the menu.CHAPTER 7. press the MENU or shutter button to return to Step 3. VISIT HTTP://WWW. highlight OK and press SET. 2. To hide the menu. displays My Menu first when you press MENU. when enabled. The My Menu tab’s icon. 158 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.COM . With the camera in any mode. When asked to confirm the addition. ! Display from My Menu. REGISTERING MY MENU SETTINGS 1. press the shutter or MENU button. 5. Highlight any of the following commands and press SET: ! Register let’s you turn the Quick Control Dial to select menu commands and press SET to add them. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS USING MY MENU You can store up to six frequently used menu commands or Custom Functions so you can access them more quickly. if any. if you enable Display from My Menu they are displayed first when you press MENU. 3. ! Delete and Delete all items deletes one or all of the previously listed menu items. regardless of which menu tab was last displayed. Normally the commands you add to the menu are displayed when you select the My Menu tab. However. press MENU and display the My Menu tab listing any menu settings you have already registered. 4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight My Menu settings and press SET to display a submenu.

VISIT HTTP://WWW. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. With the camera in any mode. press MENU and select the Shooting 1 menu tab. press SET. but they are not saved. you can press the Erase button to delete it or press INFO to change the display format. it is normally displayed on the monitor for two seconds so you can review it. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Date/Time and press SET to display the Date/Time screen. 3.COM 159 . SHOOTING WITHOUT A CF CARD 1. the image stays displayed on the monitor until you press the shutter button halfway down to clear it. then press SET again. SHOOTING WITHOUT A CF CARD One of the camera’s default settings lets you shoot pictures without a CF card in the camera. then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. SETTING THE DATE AND TIME 1. They are even displayed on the monitor so you think you are capturing them. 3. 2. press SET. or auto power off takes effect. You can change this setting to Off so the image isn’t displayed. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Shoot w/o card and press SET to display the choices On (the default) and Off.CHANGING OTHER SETTINGS CHANGING OTHER SETTINGS The 5D Mark II has a number of commands that change the basic settings of your camera. you need to set the date and time so your image files are correctly dated. ! To move the yellow frame to the next setting. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. With the camera in any mode. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice. While the image is displayed.SHORTCOURSES. 4. or change the review time to 2. SETTING THE DATE AND TIME When you first use the camera. turn off the Shoot w/o card setting. turn the Quick Control Dial. or 8 seconds. press MENU and select the Set up 2 menu tab. turn the Quick Control Dial. When finished. or when the batteries have been removed or run down for an extended period. If you select Hold. To ensure you don’t take unsaved pictures. 2. ! To change the setting in the yellow frame. CHANGING THE REVIEW TIME When you take a picture. or Hold. highlight OK and press SET.

press SET. 160 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. press MENU and select the Set up 1 menu tab. RESET FILE NUMBERS By default. With the camera in any mode. each photo you take is given a unique sequential number from 0001 to 9999. With the camera in any mode. TURNING THE BEEP ON AND OFF 1. then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. press SET. press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice. 3. then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. VISIT HTTP://WWW.COM . then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. The images. This can be a useful way to organize images. press MENU and select the Shooting 1 menu tab. 3.CHAPTER 7. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice. 2. • In Continuous and Auto reset modes. There are two ways to manage numbering when you change CF cards: • Continuous (the default) continues numbering in sequence so you don’t have duplicate filenames. are stored in folders numbered from 100 to 999. you can use this command each day and each day’s photos will be stored in their own folder. SPECIFYING FILE NUMBER SEQUENCES 1. • Auto reset restarts numbering at 0001 when you change cards. The only way to ensure the first image is 0001 is to format the card before using it. If you use the same card. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight File numbering and press SET to display choices. With the camera in any mode. 3. TIP • All image filenames begin with IMG_ except those taken using the Adobe RGB color space. 2. 2. Hold and Off. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS CHANGING THE REVIEW TIME 1. Those begin with _MG_. as at a wedding or when photographing wildlife. This can cause problems if you copy images into the same folder on the computer because there can be duplicate file names. You can also use the Set up menu’s Select folder command (page 162) to create and select folders. if the new card already has images on it. TURNING THE BEEP ON AND OFF You can turn off the camera’s beep in situations where it may draw attention. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Review time and press SET to display a list of times. • Manual reset does what Auto reset does. You can also use the command when you change projects or assignments to the same effect. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice. which also creates a new folder on the card. but only when you use this command.SHORTCOURSES. numbering may begin at the highest number. press MENU and select the Shooting 1 menu tab. up to 9999. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Beep and press SET to display the choices On (the default) and Off.

CHANGING OTHER SETTINGS ADJUSTING MONITOR BRIGHTNESS You can adjust the brightness level of the monitor so it better matches the lighting under which you are viewing it. ADJUSTING MONITOR BRIGHTNESS 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight LCD brightness and press SET to display a menu listing Auto and Manual. Turn the Main Dial to select one to display a thumbnail, the brightness adjustment scale and a gray scale. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial so all segments of the gray scale can be distinguished from one another and the thumbnail looks good, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. TRAVELING OPTIONS—LANGUAGE
AND

VIDEO SETTINGS

At rare times you may need to specify a different language for the menus, or change the video system (NTSC or PAL) to give a slide show on a TV. CHANGING THE LANGUAGE OR VIDEO SETTING 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU, select the Set up 2 menu tab, then do one of the following: ! To change the language, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Language and press SET to display the language choices. ! To change the video system, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Video system and press SET to display the choices NTSC and PAL. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. SETTING THE AUTO POWER OFF TIME Normally the camera will turn off if you don’t use any of the controls for a minute. You can select a longer time or even turn this feature off. When the camera does turn off, pressing the shutter button turns it back on. No matter which setting you use, the monitor turns off after 30 minutes to conserve power. ADJUSTING THE AUTO POWER OFF TIME 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Auto power off and press SET to display a list of times and Off. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. FORMATTING CF CARDS It’s always advisable to format new CF cards to work with the camera, or reformat a card if you encounter problems. Just be aware the formatting a card erases all of the files on it, including any that have been protected. 161

ALL IS NOT LOST
• This might be a good point to introduce some good news. If you ever delete files or format a memory card by mistake, you can recover your images. The first step is to stop taking pictures because new ones can overwrite the old and make them impossible to recover. Next, get a program that recovers the files. To find one Google the term “image recovery.”

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CHAPTER 7. OTHER FEATURES

AND

COMMANDS

TIP
• If you going to share or dispose of a CF card, keep in mind that formatting it does not actually delete the data stored on it.

FORMATTING A CF CARD 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Format and press SET to display the prompt Format card and the choices Cancel and OK. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button when the menu reappears. TURNING AUTO ROTATE ON AND OFF When you rotate the camera into a portrait mode (the vertical position) to take a photo and then play it back on the computer screen or TV, you have to tilt your head to see it. To avoid this, the 5D Mark II’s orientation sensor senses the position of the camera and automatically rotates pictures you take vertically so they are displayed vertically when played back. Images are not rotated in review mode and when the camera is pointed up or down the orientation sensor may be confused and not automatically rotate an image. Not all computer software supports this feature. SETTING AUTO ROTATE 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Auto rotate and press SET.

TIP
• If you turn Auto Rotate off, you can still rotate images for playback using the Rotate command in playback mode (page 22).

The Auto rotate menu choices include—both camera and computer, computer only, and off.

3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the icon for On for camera and computer (the default), On for computer only, or Off, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button when the menu reappears. CREATING AND SELECTING FOLDERS The 5D Mark II starts by creating one folder on the CF card named 100EOS5D It then creates a new folder automatically (up to 999EOS5D) when the current folder contains 9999 images. However, you can also create a folder and then select it to store your photos. CREATING AND SELECTING FOLDERS 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set up 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Select folder and press SET. ! To select a folder when there is more than one, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight it and then press SET to select it. ! To create a new folder, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Create folder and press SET to select it. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight OK and press SET to create the folder. 3. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

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CHANGING OTHER SETTINGS FIRMWARE VERSION If Canon releases updated firmware for the camera you use this command to install it. Follow the directions that come with it. If you want to see what version is currently loaded, this command lists it. CHECKING/UPDATING YOUR FIRMWARE VERSION 1. With the camera in any mode, press the MENU button and select the Set up 3 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Firmware Ver and the version number. If you download an updated version from the Canon Web site to a memory card, inserting the card and selecting this setting installs it in the camera. Follow the instructions that come with the upgrade. 3. Press MENU to hide the menu when it reappears. BATTERY INFO You can check the battery’s condition on the monitor. The Battery Pack LPE6 has a unique serial No., and you can register multiple battery packs to the camera. When you use this feature, you can check the registered battery pack’s remaining capacity and operation history. On the Set up 2 menu, select Battery info.

TIP
• You can use EOS Utility that comes with your camera to add copyright information to your photo’s Exif information as you capture them. When you then select Clear settings on the Set up 3 menu, one of the choices is Delete copyright information used to delete the copyright information. If you haven’t added copyright information, the command is grayed out on the screen.

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163

it is sometimes easy to forget what you’ve done or it’s time consuming to reset them to their original values. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Clear settings and press SET. Av. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS RESETTING CAMERA SETTINGS As you change settings. This command does not affect Custom Functions (page 152) or the Set up 3 menu’s Camera user setting (page 151) that registered settings to C1.SHORTCOURSES. the highlight Clear all camera settings and press SET. 2. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. VISIT HTTP://WWW. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight OK and press SET to clear the settings and return to the menu.CHAPTER 7. 4.COM . Tv. 3. press MENU and select the Set up 3 menu tab. In these situations you can quickly reset all of the settings to their original factory default settings as shown in the table that follows. Shooting Settings AF mode AF point selection Metering mode Drive mode Exposure comp AEB Flash exp comp Live View shooting Custom Functions One-Shot AF Automatic Evaluative Single 0 Cancelled 0 Disable No changes Image-recording Settings Quality ISO speed Picture Style Color space While balance WB correction WB-BKT Peripheral illumination correction File numbering Auto cleaning Dust delete data Shooting Settings Auto power off Beep Shoot w/o card Review time Highlight alert AF point display Histogram 1 minute On On 2 seconds Disable Disable Brightness Camera Settings Image jump Auto rotate LCD brightness Date/Time Language Video system Camera user settings My Menu settings 10 images On Auto: Standard No changes No changes No changes No changes No changes Large/Fine Auto Standard sRGB AWB Cancelled Cancelled Enable/Correction data retained Continuous Enable Erased RESETTING CAMERA SETTINGS 1. 164 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. C2 and C3 modes. M or B mode. With the Mode Dial set to P.

highlight Sensor cleaning and press SET. The 5D Mark II uses state-of-the-art technology. to automatically eliminate this problem. where any dust would accumulate. is attached to an ultrasonic vibrating unit that literally shakes the loose dust particles off of the surface. 2. If you want to manually clean the camera or disable this function. • Store the camera with a lens or the body cap attached. press MENU. ensuring that the camera will be as relatively dust free as possible. TIP • Change lenses in a dust free environment and out of the wind. • Remove. Canon treats the camera’s low pass filter with an anti-static fluorine coating to prevent static-charged dust from adhering to it. • When cleaning the sensor. Canon minimizes the dust and particles created by the camera itself. The newly liberated dust is then captured by an adhesive material that keeps the particles from becoming airborne again once the camera moves. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. (On a PC running Photoshop.) If all of the images have dark spots in the same place. or even once in a windy or dusty environment. You can take advantage of these opportunities as long as you take a few precautions to protect your camera. It has the following stages: • Reduce.CARING FOR YOUR CAMERA CARING FOR YOUR CAMERA Some of the best opportunities for interesting photographs occur during bad weather or in hostile environments. CLEANING THE IMAGE SENSOR http://www. you can do so as follows: CLEANING THE SENSOR 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode. is also divided into two components. ! To turn auto cleaning on or off. and can be activated at other times through a simple menu selection.COM 165 .SHORTCOURSES. that’s dust on the sensor. highlight Clean manually and press SET. The low-pass filter. • Remove dust from the body cap and lens mounts before attaching them. The self cleaning sensor unit’s ultrasonic anti-dust shake activates automatically for one second whenever you turn the camera on or off. display the Set up 2 menu tab. highlight OK and press SET ! To manually clean the sensor. This dust creates dark spots on the images. a front and a rear. See the next page and follow the instructions on pages 152–152 of the user guide that came with your camera. The sensor cleaning icon that is displayed on the monitor during automatic sensor cleaning.com/itext/dust/ Click to see the effects of dust on your images. don’t tip it forward or back.photocourse. For best results. VISIT HTTP://WWW. The front component. Open the images in your photo-editing program and flip through them. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. by using materials in the body cap and shutter that don’t create dust and other particles during normal wear and tear. designed to eliminate moiré patterns and give accurate color under all conditions. TIPS • During cleaning you can press the shutter button halfway down to cancel cleaning and focus for a picture. set the camera down on a flat surface. normally a single unit. is positioned far enough out from the sensor so it’s out of focus on the image and any dust is less likely to show. • Repel. highlight Auto cleaning and select Enable or Disable. One way to check if this has happened is to take a few photos of a clear sky or white card. dust can enter the camera and stick to the low-pass filter covering the image sensor. If you change lens a lot. ! To clean now. The low pass filter in front of the CMOS image sensor. zoom the pictures to the same size then Ctrl-Tab through them quickly and the dust spots jump out at you. highlight Clean now and press SET. When prompted to confirm. called the EOS Integrated Cleaning System.

At a distance of 0. To clean a sensor you use the camera’s Set up 2 menu’s Sensor cleaning command to access Clean manually. ! If successful. If so. face the front of the lens and turn it all the way counter-clockwise as viewed from the back of the camera. Av. Get ready: ! Find a solid white surface without texture or pattern. you see the message Data obtained. RAW or JPEG. For more information Google “cleaning image sensor” but proceed at your own risk.com). the dust information can be subtracted from the images simply by selecting the “apply dust delete data” option.COM . select Cancel and then repeat Step 3–4. press MENU. (If the lens has no focus scale.CHAPTER 7. One of the best Web sites I’ve found on this topic is Cleaning Digital Cameras at http://www. in a pinch. 1. or other cleaning products. the 5D Mark II will also work around it if it can’t be removed. 2. ! If unsuccessful.cleaningdigitalcameras. You can update the Dust Delete Data at any time as follows: OBTAINING DUST DELETE DATA Here are the five steps recommended by Photographic Solutions for cleaning your image sensor with their sensor swabs and Eclipse cleaning fluid. http:// www. M or B mode. highlight Dust Delete Data and press SET to display a confirmation screen.) OK is highlighted so press SET. It’s more prudent to have it done by you camera company’s service center. This is a high-risk procedure and we recommend extreme caution. (The image data is stored internally and is not saved to the CF card. removing the lens from the camera) and the camera’s Dust Delete Data function maps the size and position of the dust particles remaining on the low pass filter. In addition to removing dust. 166 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.com/howto. This locks the mirror up and out of the way and opens the shutter so you can get to the surface of the image sensor.html. that information is attached as metadata to all subsequently shot images regardless of recording format. You just photograph a white wall or sheet of paper (or. ! Set the lens focal length to 50mm or more. NEVER used compressed air. Cleaning supplies are available from B&H and Calumet.com. VISIT HTTP://WWW. on the sensor. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS In addition to the EOS Integrated Cleaning System. 3.) When the images and appended dust data map are transferred to a computer using the 5D Mark II’s Digital Photo Professional software. (It’s a good idea to periodically update this information to keep it accurate.0 feet (20–30cm) completely fill the viewfinder with the white surface and press the shutter button all the way down. 4. select the Shooting 2 menu tab. The most popular products seem to be those from Photographic Solutions (http://www. Tv. you’ll be asked if you want to try again. the 5D Mark II lets you clean the sensor with sensor swabs and cleaning fluid.photosol.SHORTCOURSES. 5. Highlight OK to display an instructional screen.photosol. Once the dust is “mapped”. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. With the Mode Dial set to P.7–1. ! Set the lens focus switch to MF and set focus to infinity.

Always protect equipment from water. When cleaning is necessary. When it’s cold out. keep the camera as warm as possible by keeping it under your coat. and a blower (an ear syringe makes a good one) to remove dust. Open the “flaps” to the memory and battery compartments occasionally and use a soft brush or blower to remove dust. The first rule is to clean the lens only when absolutely necessary. If the camera has to be exposed to the sun. Never place the camera near electric motors or other devices that have strong magnetic fields. Use a rubber band to seal the bag around the lens. (Your condensed breath on the lens also works well. These fields can corrupt the image data stored in the camera. Put a small drop of lens cleaning fluid on the end of the tissue. PROTECTING YOUR CAMERA FROM THE ELEMENTS Your camera should never be exposed to excessively high temperatures. so don’t be compulsive. Using a circular motion. avoid storage near radiators or in other places likely to get hot or humid. Remove any batteries or flash cards and leave the compartments covers open until everything dries out. and from dust. Never reuse tissues and don’t press hard when cleaning because the front element of the lens is covered with a relatively delicate lens coating. If some condensation does occur. especially if the sun is shining on the car (or if it will later in the day).CARING FOR YOUR CAMERA CLEANING THE CAMERA AND LENS Clean the outside of the camera with a slightly damp. Dark materials will only absorb the heat and possibly make things worse. lint-free cloth. A camera case helps but at the beach a plastic bag is even better.SHORTCOURSES. You can reach through the normal opening in the bag to operate the controls. Indoors. Prevent condensation when taking the camera from a cold area to a warm one by wrapping the camera in a plastic bag or newspaper until its temperature climbs to match that of its environment. especially salt water. Clean the LCD monitor by brushing or blowing off dirt and wiping with a soft cloth.) Never put cleaning fluid directly on the lens. When shooting in the mist. or rain. such as when you are at the beach. do not use the camera or take it back out in the cold with condensation still on it or it can freeze up camera operation. Use a lens cleaning cloth (or roll up a piece of photographic lens cleaning tissue and tear the end off to leave a brush like surface). fog. VISIT HTTP://WWW. If at all possible. then use the cloth or a tissue rolled and torn the same way to dry. clean the lens surface with the cloth or tissue. Those in your camera may weaken at low temperatures just as your car battery weakens in winter. use a soft brush. cover the camera with a plastic bag into which you’ve cut a hole for the lens to stick out. Cleaning kits are available at most office supply stores.COM 167 . soft. A little dust on the lens won’t affect the image. such as a sable artist’s brush. but don’t press hard and be sure there is no grit on the cloth that can scratch the surface. it might run between the lens elements. FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. Fingerprints can be very harmful to the lens coating and should be removed as soon as possible. and sand. Screwing a skylight filter over the lens allows you to wipe off spray and condensation without damaging the delicate lens surface. dirt. Always carry extra batteries. cover it with a light colored and sand free towel or piece of tinfoil to shade it from the sun. Keep the lens covered when not in use to reduce the amount of cleaning required. don’t leave the camera in a car on a hot day.

Store all small items and other accessories in cases and pack everything carefully so bangs and bumps won’t cause them to hit each other.CHAPTER 7. Digital cameras have lots of components including batteries. dry. OTHER FEATURES AND COMMANDS PROTECTING WHEN TRAVELING Use lens caps or covers to protect lenses. lens cleaners. CARING FOR YOURSELF When hiking outdoors. you can fit right in with everyone else who is taking photos. don’t wear the camera strap around your neck. chargers. It helps if you have some kind of storage container in which to keep them all together. When flying. carry-on metal detectors are less damaging than the ones used to examine checked baggage. STORING A CAMERA Store cameras in a cool. If in doubt. it can burn the eye. and remove the batteries if they are to be stored for some time. Be careful packing photographic equipment in soft luggage where it can be easily damaged. Now that you know how to use your camera. A camera bag or case makes an excellent storage container to protect them from dust. 168 FOR MORE ON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. cables. VISIT HTTP://WWW.COM . and what not. it could strangle you. well ventilated area.SHORTCOURSES. ask for hand inspection to reduce the possibility of X-ray induced damage. Don’t aim the camera directly at the sun.

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