Você está na página 1de 33

MHEC : LOSS CONTROL

WORKSHOP

Electric Power Quality

1
Our Roadmap
for this PQ Session
• To arm you with some useful power
quality design recommendations
and ideas
• Illustrate Power Quality solutions using
case studies
• Industry Trends
• Questions and Answers

2
What is Power Quality?
• “The concept of powering and grounding
sensitive equipment in a manner that is
suitable to the operation of that equipment.”1
• “Within the industry, alternate definitions or
interpretations of power quality have been
used, reflecting different points of view.”2
• The definition of Power Quality cannot be
limited to the characteristics of the supply
power. The definition must also include the
requirements of the load. 11IEEE 1100-1992
22 IEEE 1159-1995

3
Power Quality Paradigms

Key Services/Technologies
in the “Power Quality” Industry
4
Industry Trends
Demand for Clean Power Fueled
by 225% Growth in Microprocessors
• Increased sensitivity to disturbances
and poor grounding
• Effects of harmonics on distribution
systems
• Increased problems from natural
phenomenon

5
Industry Trends
Growth in Electronics =
Growth in PQ Solutions
Power Quality Solutions/Electronic Loads
Surge Suppressors
Power-Conditioning Equipment
Electronic Ballasts
Variable Speed Drives
Energy Efficient Motors
Solid-State Motor Controls
Programmable Logic Controls
Voice/Data Cable System
Power-Monitoring System
00 10
10 20
20 30
30 40
40 50
50 60
60 70
70
EC&M Reader Survey (1995)
6
Power Quality
Solution Strategy

Good
Grounding
Practices
Harmonic Surge
Solutions Solutions
Voltage
Variation Solutions

7
Power Quality Design and
Application Considerations
• Ensure grounding system integrity
• Limit creation of power quality
problems
• Attenuate power quality problems
• Withstand poor power quality

8
Grounding
Equipment Grounding
• Foundation of a • Related to Over Half
reliable electrical of All Power Quality
distribution system Problems
• Proliferation of
communication Good
Grounding
and computer Practices
network Harmonic
Solutions
Surge
Solutions
systems Voltage
Variation Solutions

9
Grounding
Equipment Grounding
• Reasons for grounding
• Personnel safety
• Equipment protection
• Power quality

10
Grounding
Equipment Grounding
and Power Quality
• National Electrical Code Article 250
also provides the baseline require-
ments to ensure proper operation
of sensitive equipment
• FIPS 94 provides additional methods
that are typically needed to ensure
reliable operation of electronic
equipment
11
Grounding
Equipment Grounding
National Electrical Code Article 250 provides require-
ments for personnel safety and equipment protection
“Who omitted the
safety equipment
ground?”

L
N
Improper omission
of safety
equipment ground
conductor

12
Grounding
Equipment Grounding
and Power Quality
Separate the inherent noise from
communication signals
• Avoid creating ground loops in the
conductors that connect the frames
of functional components
• Minimize the influence or radiation
of radio frequency noise
• Provide a low impedance path
to ground for noise
13
Grounding
Electronic Equipment
Grounding Tip
Desktop Computer GND
N
• A ground loop 120

creates noise
because
unwanted Communications
Cable
current flows in
the conductors Server
of a communi-
cations cable

14
Grounding
Electronic Equipment
Grounding Tip Desktop
Computer
Balun
Balun GND
Desktop Computer N
120
• A balun is
a coiled
extension cord Communications

that creates an Cable

impedance in Server
the ground Server

loop, reducing
loop current
15
Harmonic Distortion
• Harmonic problems
are becoming more
apparent because
more equipment
that produce
harmonics Good
Grounding
are being Practices
applied Harmonic Surge
to power Solutions
Voltage
Solutions

systems Variation Solutions

16
Harmonics
Harmonic Distortion
Harmonics
Harmonics are
are multiples
multiples of
of the
the fundamental
fundamental frequency
frequency

++ ==

sin(5x)
f(x) = sin(x) f(x) =
5 sin(5x)
f(x) = sin(x) +
5
When
When added
added
together
together result
result
in
in aa distorted
distorted
waveform
waveform
17
Harmonics
Harmonic Frequencies
• Harmonics are low frequency waveform distortions
(< 1kHz)
• Transients are higher frequency events
(between 1 kHz and 1 MHz)
• Above 1MHz, the wires become transmitters
and radiate the noise at this frequency
Surges
Surges and
and
Noise Transmitted
Transmitted Radio
Radio
Harmonic
Harmonic Noise Frequency
Disturbance
Disturbance Frequency

Frequency
Frequency
50/60Hz 11 kHz
50/60Hz kHz 11 MHz
MHz 100
100 MHz
MHz
Source:
Source: Dranetz
Dranetz Handbook
Handbook for
for Power
Power Quality
Quality Analysis
Analysis
18
Harmonics
Sources of Harmonics
• Harmonics are produced by the
operation of nonlinear loads
• General categories and common
types of nonlinear loads are
– Power electronic equipment
– Arcing devices
– Iron saturating devices
– Rotating machines
19
Harmonics
Sources of Harmonics
Variable Frequency Drive Amps Fluorescent Lighting
Amps
480V

THD = 15%
480V - 3-Phase Switch Mode - PCs
277V - 1-Phase
480V Circuit #1 Amps
Amps
480V Secondary
THD = 104%
Amps
THD = 9%

THD = 7% Neutral
480V Primary 120V - 1-Phase
120V Current
Amps
Amps
120V - Neutral

THD = 30%
Source: IEEE 1100-
1100-1992

20
Harmonics
Common Symptoms of Harmonics
Harmonic voltage and current
distortion cause:
• Heating caused by higher frequency
current components
• Insulation stress caused by higher
frequency voltage components
• Circuit malfunction caused
by voltage distortion
21
Harmonics
Common Symptoms of Harmonics
Specific symptoms include:
• Transformer heating
• Motor and generator heating and vibrations
• Neutral heating
• Nuisance fuse operations
• Insulation deterioration
• Electronic control malfunctioning
• Inconsistent meter readings
• Voltage regulator misoperations
22
Harmonics
Harmonic Distortion Standards
Harmonic Voltage Distortion Limits
IEEE Standard 519 – 1992

Maximum Voltage Distortion in % at PCC*


Below 69kV 69-138kV >138kV
Maximum
for Individual
Harmonic 3.0 1.5 1.0
Total Harmonic
Distortion (THD) 5.0 1.5 1.5
* % of Nominal Fundamental Frequency Voltage
23
Harmonics
Harmonic Distortion Standards
Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion
IEEE Standard 519 – 1992

Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics)


Isc /I
sc LL
<11 11<h<17 17<h<23 23<h<35 35<h %THD
<20* 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
20-50 7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0
50-100 10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0
100-1000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
>1000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
In Percent of Fundamental
24
Harmonics
Corrective Actions
• Passive harmonic filters
• Active harmonic filters
• Zero-sequence traps
• Commutation reactors
• 200% neutral conductors
• K-Factor rated transformers
• Harmonic cancellation
• Isolation transformers
25
Harmonics
Design Solutions
• Low harmonic producing loads
such as
– Low harmonic drives
– MG sets
– 10% distortion lighting ballasts

• Phase shifting transformers

26
Harmonics
Harmonic Design Tip
• Harmonic cancellation
makes use of
transformer
connections
and phase Y
Y
shifting
to cancel
harmonics
generated from
various sources

27
Multi-Cycle Voltage Variations
• Sags are responsible for a majority of
upsets and nuisance trips of sensitive
electrical equipment

Good
Grounding
Practices

Harmonic Surge
Solutions Solutions
Voltage
Voltage
Variation
Variation Solutions
Solutions

28
Voltage
Voltage Variations
• Sag – a decrease in RMS voltage lasting
from a half-cycle to a few seconds

29
Voltage
Voltage Variations
• Interruption – complete loss of voltage

30
Voltage
Voltage Variations
• Overvoltage – an RMS increase in voltage
lasting more than a few seconds

31
Voltage
Voltage Variation Symptoms
• Sag
– Substandard product
– Process interruption
• Interruption
– Complete loss of power
• Overvoltage
– Equipment damage
32
Voltage
Voltage Variation Sources
• Supply side variations
• Short circuits
• Capacitor switching
• Load switching
• Regulator malfunction
• Load side variations
• Motor starting
33