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BUS 152

___________________________________________________________________________

SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS

Problem 1 (7.1)

SOLUTIONS:

a) P( X < 95) = P(Z < – 2.50) = 0.0062

b) P(95 < X < 97.5) = P(– 2.50 < Z < – 1.25) = 0.1056 – 0.0062 = 0.0994

c) P( X > 102.2) = P(Z > 1.10) = 1.0 – 0.8643 = 0.1357

10

d) P( X > A) = P(Z > – 0.39) = 0.65 X = 100 – 0.39( ) = 99.22

25

Problem 2 (7.4)

SOLUTIONS:

Sample Number Outcomes Sample Means Xi

1 1, 3 X1 = 2

2 1, 6 X 2 = 3.5

3 1, 7 X3 = 4

4 1, 9 X4 = 5

5 1, 10 X 5 = 5.5

6 3, 6 X 6 = 4.5

7 3, 7 X7 = 5

8 3, 9 X8 = 6

9 3, 10 X 9 = 6.5

10 6, 7 X 10 = 6.5

11 6, 9 X 11 = 7.5

12 6, 10 X 12 = 8

13 7, 9 X 13 = 8

14 7, 10 X 14 = 8.5

15 9, 10 X 15 = 9.5

90 1 + 3 + 6 + 7 + 9 + 10

µX = =6 µ= =6

15 6

b) Sampling Distribution of the Mean for n = 3 (without replacement)

1 1, 3, 6 X 1 = 3 1/3

2 1, 3, 7 X 2 = 3 2/3

3 1, 3, 9 X 3 = 4 1/3

4 1, 3, 10 X 4 = 4 2/3

5 1, 6, 7 X 5 = 4 2/3

6 1, 6, 9 X 6 = 5 1/3

7 1, 6, 10 X 7 = 5 2/3

8 3, 6, 7 X 8 = 5 1/3

9 3, 6, 9 X9 = 6

10 3, 6, 10 X 10 = 6 1/3

11 6, 7, 9 X 11 = 7 1/3

12 6, 7, 10 X 12 = 7 2/3

13 6, 9, 10 X 13 = 8 1/3

14 7, 9, 10 X 14 = 8 2/3

15 1, 7, 9 X 15 = 5 2/3

16 1, 7, 10 X 16 = 6

17 1, 9, 10 X 17 = 6 2/3

18 3, 7, 9 X 18 = 6 1/3

19 3, 7, 10 X 19 = 6 2/3

20 3, 9, 10 X 20 = 7 1/3

120

µX = =6 This is equal to µ , the population mean.

20

c) The distribution for n = 3 has less variability. The larger sample size has resulted in sample

means being closer to µ .

1 1, 1 X1 = 1

2 1, 3 X2 = 2

3 1, 6 X 3 = 3.5

4 1, 7 X4 = 4

5 1, 9 X5 = 5

6 1, 10 X 6 = 5.5

7 3, 1 X7 = 2

8 3, 3 X8 = 3

9 3, 6 X 9 = 4.5

10 3, 7 X 10 = 5

11 3, 9 X 11 = 6

12 3, 10 X 12 = 6.5

13 6, 1 X 13 = 3.5

14 6, 3 X 14 = 4.5

15 6, 6 X 15 = 6

16 6, 7 X 16 = 6.5

17 6, 9 X 17 = 7.5

18 6, 10 X 18 = 8

19 7, 1 X 19 = 4

20 7, 3 X 20 = 5

21 7, 6 X 21 = 6.5

22 7, 7 X 22 = 7

23 7, 9 X 23 = 8

24 7, 10 X 24 = 8.5

25 9, 1 X 25 = 5

26 9, 3 X 26 = 6

27 9, 6 X 27 = 7.5

28 9, 7 X 28 = 8

29 9, 9 X 29 = 9

30 9, 10 X 30 = 9.5

31 10, 1 X 31 = 5.5

32 10, 3 X 32 = 6.5

33 10, 6 X 33 = 8

34 10, 7 X 34 = 8.5

35 10, 9 X 35 = 9.5

36 10, 10 X 36 = 10

Sample Means: Population Elements:

216 1+ 3 + 6 + 7 + 7 + 12

µX = =6 µ= =6

36 6

Both means are equal to 6. This property is called unbiasedness.

(b) Repeat the same process for the sampling distribution of the mean for n = 3

(with replacement). There will be 63 = 216 different samples.

µX = 6 This is equal to µ , the population mean.

(c) The distribution for n = 3 has less variability. The larger sample size has

resulted in more sample means being close to µ .

Problem 3 (7.5)

SOLUTIONS:

a) Because the population diameter of Ping-Pong balls is approximately normally

distributed, the sampling distribution of samples of 16 will also be approximately

normal.

b) P( X < 1.28) = P(Z < – 2.00) = 0.0228

c) P(1.31 < X < 1.33) = P(1.00 < Z < 3.00) = 0.99865 – 0.8413 = 0.1574

d) P(A < X < B) = P( -0.84 < Z < 0.84) = 0.60

Lower bound: X = 1.30 – 0.84(0.01) = 1.2916

Upper bound: X = 1.30 + 0.84(0.01) = 1.3084

Problem 4 (7.7)

Time spent using e-mail per session is normally distributed with µ = 8 minutes and σ = 2 minutes. If

you select a random sample of 25 sessions,

a. what is the probability that the sample mean is between 7.8 and 8.2 minutes?

b. what is the probability that the sample mean is between 7.5 and 8 minutes?

c. if you select a random sample of 100 sessions, what is the probability that the sample mean is

between 7.8 and 8.2?

d. explain the difference in the results of (a) and (c).

SOLUTIONS:

σ 2

a) σX = = = 0.4

n 25

P(7.8 < X < 8.2) = P(– 0.50 < Z < 0.50) = 0.6915 – 0.3085 = 0.3830

b) P(7.5 < X < 8.0) = P(– 1.25 < Z < 0) = 0.5 – 0.1056 = 0.3944

c) P(7.8 < X < 8.2) = P(– 1.00 < Z < 1.00) = 0.8413 – 0.1587 = 0.6826

d) With the sample size increasing from n = 25 to n = 100, more sample means will

be closer to the distribution mean. The standard error of the sampling

distribution of size 100 is much smaller than that of size 25, so the likelihood

that the sample mean will fall within 0.2 minutes of the mean is much higher for

samples of size 100 (probability = 0.6826) than for samples of size 25

(probability = 0. 3830).

_________________________________________________________________________________

7.4 Types of Survey Sampling

Problem 5 (7.26)

SOLUTION

A simple random sample would be less practical for personal interviews because of travel

costs (unless interviewees are paid to attend a central interviewing location).

Problem 6 (7.27)

SOLUTION

This is a random sample because the selection is based on chance. It is not a simple

random sample because A is more likely to be selected than B or C.

Problem 7 (7.28)

SOLUTION

Here all members of the population are equally likely to be selected and the sample

selection mechanism is based on chance. But not every sample of size 2 has the same

chance of being selected. For example the sample “B and C” is impossible.

Problem 8 (7.29)

SOLUTION

(a) Since a complete roster of full-time students exists, a simple random sample of

200 students could be taken. If student satisfaction with the quality of campus

life randomly fluctuates across the student body, a systematic 1-in-20 sample

could also be taken from the population frame. If student satisfaction with the

quality of life may differ by gender and by experience/class level, a stratified

sample using eight strata, female freshmen through female seniors and male

freshmen through male seniors, could be selected. If student satisfaction with

the quality of life is thought to fluctuate as much within clusters as between

them, a cluster sample could be taken.

(b) A simple random sample is one of the simplest to select. The population frame is

the registrar’s file of 4,000 student names.

(c) A systematic sample is easier to select by hand from the registrar’s records than

a simple random sample, since an initial person at random is selected and then

every 20th person thereafter would be sampled. The systematic sample would

have the additional benefit that the alphabetic distribution of sampled students’

names would be more comparable to the alphabetic distribution of student names

in the campus population.

(d) If rosters by gender and class designations are readily available, a stratified

sample

should be taken. Since student satisfaction with the quality of life may indeed

differ by gender and class level, the use of a stratified sampling design will not

only ensure all strata are represented in the sample, it will also generate a more

representative sample and produce estimates of the population parameter that

have greater precision.

(e) If all 4,000 full-time students reside in one of 20 on-campus residence halls

which fully integrate students by gender and by class, a cluster sample should be

taken. A cluster could be defined as an entire residence hall, and the students of

a single randomly selected residence hall could be sampled. Since the dormitories

are fully integrated by floor, a cluster could alternatively be defined as one floor

of one of the 20 dormitories. Four floors could be randomly sampled to produce

the required 200 student sample. Selection of an entire dormitory may make

distribution and collection of the survey easier to accomplish. In contrast, if

there is some variable other than gender or class that differs across

dormitories, sampling by floor may produce a more representative sample.

Problem 9 (7.31)

SOLUTION

(a) A stratified sample should be taken so that each of the four strata will be

proportionately represented.

(b) Since the stratum may differ in the invoice amount, it may be more important to

sample a larger percentage of invoices in stratum 1 and stratum 2, and smaller

percentages in stratum 3 and stratum 4. For example, 50/5000 = 1% so 1% of

500 = 5 invoices should be selected from stratum 1; similarly 10% = 50 should be

selected from stratum 2, 20% = 100 from stratum 3, and 69% = 345 from

stratum 4.

(c) It is not simple random sampling because, unlike the simple random sampling, it

ensures proportionate representation across the entire population.

_________________________________________________________________________________

Problem 10 (7.32)

SOLUTION

Before accepting the results of a survey of college students, you might want to know, for

example:

Who funded the survey? Why was it conducted?

What was the population from which the sample was selected?

What sampling design was used?

What mode of response was used: a personal interview, a telephone interview, or a

mail survey? Were interviewers trained? Were survey questions field-tested?

What questions were asked? Were they clear, accurate, unbiased, valid?

What operational definition of “vast majority” was used?

What was the response rate?

What was the sample size?

Problem 11 (7.33)

SOLUTION

(a) Possible coverage error: Only employees in a specific division of the company were

sampled.

(b) Possible nonresponse error: No attempt is made to contact nonrespondents to urge

them to complete the evaluation of job satisfaction.

(c) Possible sampling error: The sample statistics obtained from the sample will not be

equal to the parameters of interest in the population.

(d) Possible measurement error: Ambiguous wording in questions asked on the

questionnaire.

Problem 12 (7.34)

SOLUTION

Before accepting the results of the survey on AOL subscribers, you might want to know, for

example:

Who funded the study? Why was it conducted?

What was the population from which the sample was selected?

What sampling design was used?

What mode of response was used: a personal interview, a telephone interview, or a

mail survey? Were interviewers trained? Were survey questions field-tested?

What other questions were asked? Were they clear, accurate, unbiased, and valid?

What was the response rate?

Problem 13 (7.35)

SOLUTION

Before accepting the results of the survey conducted by Forrester Research Inc., you

might want to know, for example:

Who funded the study? Why was it conducted?

What was the population from which the sample was selected?

What was the sample size?

What sampling design was used?

What mode of response was used: a personal interview, a telephone interview, or a

mail survey? Were interviewers trained? Were survey questions field-tested?

What other questions were asked? Were they clear, accurate, unbiased, and valid?

What was the response rate?

Problem 14 (7.36)

SOLUTION

Before accepting the results of the Maritz poll, you might want to know, for example:

Who funded the study? Why was it conducted?

What was the population from which the sample was selected?

What sampling design was used?

What mode of response was used: a personal interview, a telephone interview, or a

mail survey? Were interviewers trained? Were survey questions field-tested?

What operational definitions of "often or sometimes eating or drinking while

driving" and “talking on cellphone” were used?

What other questions were asked? Were they clear, accurate, unbiased, and valid?

What was the response rate?

Problem 15 (7.37)

SOLUTION

Before accepting the results of the survey conducted by MessageOne, you might want to

know, for example:

Who funded the study? Why was it conducted?

What was the population from which the sample was selected?

What was the sample size?

What sampling design was used?

What mode of response was used: a personal interview, a telephone interview, or a

mail survey? Were interviewers trained? Were survey questions field-tested?

What operational definitions of "can’t live without it", “important”, “not essential”,

“don’t use” and “not important” were used?

What other questions were asked? Were they clear, accurate, unbiased, and valid?

What was the response rate?

Problem 16 (7.38)

SOLUTION

Before accepting the results of the survey conducted by Caravan, you might want to know,

for example:

Who funded the study? Why was it conducted?

What was the population from which the sample was selected?

What was the sample size?

What sampling design was used?

What mode of response was used: a personal interview, a telephone interview, or a

mail survey? Were interviewers trained? Were survey questions field-tested?

What operational definitions of "great food", “reasonable prices”, “atmosphere”,

“quick service” and “don’t know” were used?

What other questions were asked? Were they clear, accurate, unbiased, and valid?

What was the response rate?

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