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Virendra Patil

PROCESS DESCRIPTION : COLD CYCLONE CFBC

The quantity of fuel corresponding to the respective boiler output enters the

fluidized bed combustor without expensive fuel preparation through bunker

discharge systems by means of the siphon system.

The fuel and hot cyclone ash are premixed in the siphon before entering

the combustion chamber. The larger grain fractions of the mixed fuel are

burned in the fluidized bed at a temperature of about 800 - 900 °C. On

account of the average gas velocity of about 4.0 – 4.5 m/s a larger portion

of the fine grained fuel of the fluidized bed is discharged from the bed. In

the free board above the fluidized bed the discharged fuel particles are

afterburned at a temperature of about 900 - 950 °C upto the inlet into the

convection heating surfaces. The relatively long retention time of the

particles carried up from the bed is also important in order to obtain good

combustion efficiency.

The dust loaded flue gases pass the convection heating surfaces, dissipate

part of their energy to the water/ steam circulation and enter the cyclones

at temperatures of about 400 - 450 °C. The gases are deducted before

their entry into 2 nd pass.


nd
In the 2 pass the deducted gases dissipate their heat in plain tube

economizer and tubular air heater until they are cooled to a safe

temperature of about 150oC. The average gas velocities in 2 nd pass are

about 10 m/sec to provide optimum heating surface and draft loss.

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Virendra Patil

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The fly ash separated in the cyclones is returned to the fluidized bed by

means of the ash siphons ensuring the pressure seal between fluidized

bed and cyclones. In the fluidized bed the recirculated fly ash absorbs the

important portion between the released fuel heat and the heat absorbed in

the zone in the bed of membrane walls. The bed temperature is maintained

at between 800 - 900 °C. The quantity of the ash to be extracted from

cyclones substantially depends on the bed temperature.

With the staged combustion control approx. 50 - 60 % of the total combustion air enters
the fluidized bed as primary air through the nozzle plate, while the residual combustion
air is blown in as secondary air and tertiary air through the cross section of the freeboard

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